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Universal grammar: theory of the genetic component of the language faculty.

It tries to show, with a system of rules, the knowledge which a native speaker
of a language uses in forming grammatical sentences.
All human have the same capacities for language

Base component -> which produces or generates basic syntactic structures.
Transformational component
Phonological component
Semantic component
Skill acquisition
-Skills and abilities
-Classify skills (what skills should I
-Learning skills (how do we learn skills)
-Information processing (memory)
-Storing skills (where do we hold information)
-Arousal (what makes me want to acquire skills)
Input hipotesis (input, interaction and output in SLA)
INPUT: Language which a learner hears or receives and from which he or she
can learn. The language a learner produces is by analogy sometimes called
OUTPUT.
In SLA: INTAKE: Is input which is actually helpful for the learner.
Hipotesis: for language acquisition to occur, it is necessary for the learner to
understand INPUT language, which contains linguistic items that are far from
the learner’s competence.
INTERACTION : It is necessary to get fluency,
Input alone serves a lot, but interaction brings fluency, and a better
enhancing.

children learn problem solving skills (dialectical processes) which lead to internalization. which is an application of views on how a language is best taught and learned. culture) Thinking and solving problems are tools of intellectual adaptation (adapt to survive) Through guided interactions (apprenticeships) with more experienced members of society. learning skills CALLA: Sheltered English for NNS (NON NATIVE SPEAKERS) . or an activity in the classroom. Works in projects. it contains a Syllabus Technique: a task. working with music on the background (suggespedia) Accuracy : quality Fluency : quantity Behavioral theory of learning: learning through memorization. Fluency!! Method: CALLA (Cognitive academic language learning approach) Technique: teach students content. SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING (SLT) The Nature of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Method: a way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principles and procedures. (how to do sth. Accuracy!! Mimicry: repeating a word until getting. Cognitive approach to learning: acquisition. reflection.SOCIOCULTURAL APPROACH Individual development is a cultural product (beliefs. Customs. focus on communication.

. Practice: use of games to consolidate learning. Music. How it works the brain. texts. The focus for that is communication in the class. color.MUSICAL.INTRAPERSONAL Planning lesson around M. Use the language.KINASTHATICNATURALISTIC. and content based teaching. reading the text. The teacher is a counselor.I. Suggestopedia.VISUAL –SPATIAL. the method makes use of group learning in small or large groups. a mixture of suggestion and pedagogy. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING The goal of language is communicate comprehense. pictures. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE. These groups are the “Community”. (8 INTELLIGENCES IN MANY DEGREES) LINGUISTIC – MATH-LOGICAL.COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING Application off counseling learning. Stages: Presentation: a preparatory stage of relax First concert: the material to be learnt. the method places emphasis on the learners’ personal feelings and their reactions to language learning. It doesn’t consider grammar structures but communicative competences. with classic music on the background Second concert: relaxing with music.INTER-PERSONAL. Practice the language through communication Tasks.

SILENT WAY: is based on the premise that the teacher should be as silent as possible in the classroom in order to encourage the learner to produce as much language as possible. NATURAL APPROACH NATIVE LANGUAGE MUST NOT USED IN THE CLASS VOCABULARY Observation and interpretation Not based on grammar. attitudes) student need motivation. STANDARD .Meaningful activities. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (LEARNING BY DOING) memory is enhanced through association with physical movement. The class must be comprehensible. GIVE ORDERS. meaningful communication. listening and reading. but based on communication Use of language Emphasis on exposure (input) listening PRINCIPLES. use visual aids. It becomes repitious LISTEN -> WATCH > LEARN. 1: Acquisition hypothesis ( acquisition and learning) 2: monitor hypothesis (acquisition works better than conscious of learning) 3: natural order hypothesis ( present tense before past tense and future tense) 4: input hypothesis 5: the affective filter hypothesis ( emotional state. Cuisenaire rods (small coloured blocks of varying sizes originally intended for the teaching of mathematics) ITEMS INTRODUCED ONE BY ONE. plenty of vocabulary. OR INSTRUCTIONS: OPEN THE DOOR.

C: PRODUCTION STAGE: STUDENTS USE THE NEW ITEMS MORE FREELY. . AND NEW ITEMS ARE PRACTISED.A: PRESENTATION STAGE: INTRODUCTION OF NEW ITEMS B: PRACTICE STAGE: REPETITION.