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Water Management

Water is the single most important factor in plant production. Seedlings contain over 95% water.
The production calendar in tropical countries is determined by the rainy season, rather than by
rising temperatures as it is in temperate regions. Proper irrigation and the maintenance of high
humidity in the propagation environment are prime responsibilities of a nursery manager. Various
irrigation systems have been developed locally.

Open Nursery
In open nursery on a planting are expose to outer environment which mean that it is open to the
rain phenomena. This mean that sometimes water for the plant is readily available from the rain.
Rain is phenomena that cannot be control by nursery practice. Therefore, in open nursery the
needs for water management system still are being needed. Not as in covered nursery, a fully
water management is needed and heavily depend on. The advantage of water management
system in open nursery is sometimes water is naturally provided to the plant, so artificial water
management system is does not to be heavily rely on. Whereas, the disadvantage is sometimes
the nursery is exposed to drought season and the water artificially provided to the plant is
sometimes wasted from evaporation process because it exposed to sunlight. One of the examples
of water management system use in open nursery is sprinkler water system.

Covered Nursery
In covered nursery, the planting is not exposed to the rain phenomena. So this mean that water is
not readily available. Artificially water management system is a must have system in this type of
nursery. The advantage of this type of nursery in water management scope is water supply to the
plant is fully able to be control by nursery management. The water provided to the plant is
according to its requirement and the water supplied to the plant is not wasted by evaporation. The
disadvantage is this type of nursery is fully depending on the system, the breakdown of this
system would be risky because the water provided by the rain will be not received to the plant.
The example of system is drop irrigation

Light Management
The right amount of light is critical for healthy plant development of seedlings. Too much shade,
for example in high plant densities, leads to etiolated and elongated growth of the seedlings and
makes them weak and prone to fungal diseases. Too much light leads to sun scorching and drying
out of the tender tissue.

Open Nursery
In open nursery light is naturally provided by sunlight because in open nursery the planting is
exposed to natural environment. In open nursery the light provided to the planting are fully
dependable on sunlight. But this does not mean that light management is not required because
different plant have different requirement of light intensity. The advantages of this type of
nursery is artificial light resource is not needed, usually the sunlight provide enough light
resource for the planting, the electrical bill also can be saved. Disadvantage of this nursery in
other hand is sometimes shade is needed to be providing on planting because some plant have
reverse effect on excessive light intensity. The example is the planting of cover plant or the use
of artificial shade system.

Covered Nursery
In covered nursery sometime light also provided by sunlight depend on the material used in the
building of covered nursery. Some nursery use transparent material in the building of their
nursery, the transparent material used must allow a sufficient light to the plant. Whereas some
nursery use non-transparent material, in this type of nursery the needed for artificial light
provider is heavily depend on. The advantage is light factor in this type of nursery can be control
by the management. Disadvantage in this system is the high of cost maintenance and electrical
bill is faced, the artificial light resource used must provide the sufficient amount of light

Temperature Management
The temperature range for optimal plant development is 2535C. Depending on the species and
the prevailing humidity, it can be slightly higher, but avoid air temperatures above 40. In some
locations where temperatures can drop below 20C, you might need to provide additional heating
of propagation beds during the cold months. Heating cables or mats which provide bottom heat
can easily be installed. Temperatures need to be most carefully monitored and held inside the
recommended range during seed germination, rooting of cuttings and graft union formation.

Open Nursery
In open nursery, the planting is highly exposed to the outer environment which means that it is
exposed to outer temperature. Temperature in open nursery is totally cannot be control by the
nursery management. There is only a little action that could be done in the respond to the change
in temperature. The only thing that nursery management can do is planning the type of plant to
be planted on the nursery according to temperature change. The only advantage in this condition
is a nursery can produce various type of plant according to the season. The disadvantage in this
type of nursery is big in this factor, the disability to control temperature factor can cause heavy
losses on plants.

Covered Nursery
In covered nursery, planting is not exposed to the outer environment which means that the outer
temperature does not have any effect on the plant. Temperature in covered nursery can fully
control by temperature management system. The installation of system such as insulator can be
used in managing the temperature factor. The advantage is all type of plant can be cultivated
without taking account of the temperature and season. For the example, potato plant which is a
winter crop can be cultivated on summer season. The main disadvantage is high cost, the
installation of insulator or other temperature management equipment needed high cost, high
electricity usage and high cost of maintenance.

Gas Exchange
Rooting cuttings and germinating seedlings have high respiration rates. This means that oxygen
is consumed and carbon dioxide released. The proper exchange of these gases is very important
for good root development. On the other hand, plants need to take up CO2 for assimilation
through the stomata on the leaves. Plants stressed by drought or nutrient deficiency have their

Open Nursery
In open nursery, gas exchange is mainly not a problem because it is exposed to the surrounding
gas provided by the outer environment. Usually, in open nursery gas exchange management is
not needed to be taking account. CO2 and O2 is readily available and abundant on the outer
environment. The only thing that the nursery management can do is managing the soil aeration.
The advantage is nothing had to be done in managing the gasses exchange. The disadvantage is
the surrounding gas exposed to the plant cannot be control, some of unwanted gas also contain in
the environment which can effect development of plant.

Covered Nursery
In enclosed structures, the plant is not exposed to outer environment because it is covered. So gas
exchange management is needed because the ambient level of CO2 can drop so much that its
assimilation through the stomata is slowed down. It will disturb the photosynthesis process
which can affect the growth development of plant. In this type of nursery, gasses exchange factor
can be control by the nursery management through some method such as opening the doors
briefly for ventilation at set intervals and by using related equipment such as ventilation can
system. The advantage of this type of nursery is gas exchange can be control. The presence of
unwanted gas can be avoid so that plant growth is not disturbed.

A pollinator is biotic agent that move pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female
stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by
the male gametes from the pollen grain. Most of the pollinators are insects and wind. There is
also an artificial method in pollinating plants that is implemented by human.

Open Nursery
In open nursery, natural pollinator such as bees and wind are readily available. Nursery
management can either help in the pollination process by implementing artificial pollination or
help in natural pollinator development and adding pollinator attracter such as cultivating certain
flower or cultivating the bees itself. The advantage is nursery management does not have to be
depending fully on artificial pollination. The disadvantage is sometimes the pollinator carries
disease as well.

Covered Nursery
In covered nursery, natural pollinator needed to be attracted. This type of nursery, it is depending
heavily on artificial pollination process. Plus wind is not available as pollinator agent in this type
of nursery. The conservation of beneficial insects, that includes bees, insect predators, parasitic
wasps, and butterflies, is an essential part of Integrated Pest management (IPM) programs. IPM
promotes multiple tactics to manage pests and to suppress the population size below levels that
will damage the plant. IPM tactics include cultural control, sanitation, biological control, using
insecticides friendly to beneficial insects. The advantage is pollination process is fully controlled
by the nursery management. It is more effective. The disadvantage is requiring more labor to do
artificial pollinations.

Soil Management
Soil management offers information to manage agricultural soil for optimum crop yield and at
the same time maintaining or improving the capacity of soil to provide essential ecosystem
function. Soil management concern all operation, practices, and treatments use to protect soil and
enhance its performance.

Open Nursery
In open nursery, the plant usually are cultivated in ground which means that the nursery
management only have to improve readily available soil such as tilting, improving soil texture,
soil compaction, soil erosion, organic matter in soil and permeability of soil. The management
need to improve the soil to provide a suitable condition for the plant that they cultivate. The
advantage is nursery management does not have to prepare planting medium as the planting
medium is naturally available. The disadvantage is the high cost needed in preparing the soil.

Covered Nursery
In covered nursery, the planting medium is not ready so the nursery management need to prepare
planting medium based on type of plant they want to cultivate. The planting medium need to be
prepared because the plant is the cultivate in container. The example of planting medium is peat
moss, sand and peat soil. The nutrient in the soil is fully control by the management according to
the plant requirement. The disadvantage is the cost required to prepare the planting medium is

Leaching of Nutrient
Nutrient leaching is the downward movement of dissolve nutrient in the soil profile with
percolating water. Nitrate leaching is also significance source of soil acidification. In humid
climates, some nutrient leaching occur even under natural vegetation, but agricultural activity
can greatly increase leaching looses..

Open Nursery
In open nursery, planting is exposed to the outer environment which means leaching usually
occur because sometimes the nursery will receive heavy rain. Heavy rain causes leaching on
nutrients to be increase dramatically. Management can control this by adding shade to their
plants to reduce direct drops of rainfall and by improving the soil structure. Not only that
management can also use slow release fertilizer in reducing leaching of nutrient.

Covered Nursery
In covered nursery, nutrient leaching is at minimum rate because it is not exposed to rainfall
which is to be the great factor in the leaching of nutrient. Moreover, usually in covered nursery
the nutrient provided to the plant is fully control, the nutrient give to the plant is accurately
according to the plant requirement which means there is no waste of nutrient occurs since that all
the nutrient given is fully use up by the plant. This nutrient control is usually implemented by the
using of fertigation method which a common method in covered nursery.

A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail
nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such
as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, and private nurseries which supply the needs of
institutions or private estates. Some retail and wholesale nurseries sell by mail.
Although the popular image of a nursery is that of a supplier of garden plants, the range of
nursery functions is far wider, and is of vital importance to many branches of agriculture,
forestry and conservation biology. Some nurseries specialize in one phase of the process
propagation, growing out, or retail sale or in one type of plant example groundcovers, shade
plants, or rock garden plants. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted, of
particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for orchards, or timber trees for forestry. Some
produce stock seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions where propagation
could not have been started so early, or to regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable
growing early in the season.
Nurseries can grow plants in open fields, on container fields and in tunnels or greenhouses. In
open fields nurseries grow ornamental trees, shrubs and herbaceous perennials, especially the
plants meant for the wholesale trade or for amenity plantings. On a container field nurseries grow
small trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, usually destined for sales in garden centers.
Nurseries also grow plants in greenhouses, a building of glass or in plastic tunnels, designed to
protect young plants from harsh weather (especially frost), while allowing access to light and
ventilation. Modern greenhouses allow automated control of temperature, ventilation and light
and semi-automated watering and feeding. Some also have fold-back roofs to allow "hardeningoff" of plants without the need for manual transfer to outdoor beds.


: HAZIQ BIN NOR AZAHAR (2014222236)


: AT220 2E