‫ا)(‪'%‬ن ا ‪#$%‬‬

‫"!  ا ا و‬
‫(دة ا ء وا ‪+‬ء‬

‫ ا م ا  ا  ا را ‪2008/2007‬‬

‫ا ‪"#1+‬ء )‪6‬ن(‬

‫ا ‪-1-F+‬‬

‫ها ا ول  
ددات 
ا   ت ا
‪.‬‬
‫‪ 4' – A‬ا ‪:3!+‬‬
‫‪ *+‬ا )ا ا
( ' &‪ $%‬ن‪  ! ،‬ا  ر ‪ *+ -  K‬ا
‪.1 ,‬‬
‫‪ (1‬أ‪ /‬ا ‪ (1) (%‬و ‪ 89 :6‬آ‪ 7‬ر‪ 56‬آ ‪ 3‬ا ‪6‬ب
;  ا  ‬
‫)&> ‪ 0,5) .( Y2‬ن(‬
‫‪ (2‬او‪ -‬ا
; د  ا ‪ (B) , 7‬ا * ‪ ?$‬ا   ) ‪ 0,5) . u AB (t‬ن(‬

‫‪ *=6& :6 u AB‬ا
( )&> ‪ ( Y1‬و ا   ‪E‬‬

‫‪ −t ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ @$ (3‬أن ‪ ; 
A u AB (t ) = E 1 − e  RC  ‬د  ا ‪ 0,5) .(B) , 7‬ن(‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ & (4‬ذا  
‪ :$% )C 6 τ = RC‬ا
( ؟ أ‪ 59‬ا
? ‪A HE‬د &; 
ا ‪ ;& G9‬د  ا‪ ;6F‬د و‪ 0,75) . ?A‬ن(‬
‫‪  
(5‬ا ‪J (2) (%‬ات ) ‪  L6 u AB (t‬ا ‪A ،:&K‬د &) ‪ τ  
! /‬؟ )‪ 0,25‬ن(‬

‫‪ ; 3!+( <#= -B‬دارة ‪: RL‬‬
‫‪ 9‬ا ‪N/ t=0 M$‬ر‪  ! O-‬ا  ر إ ‪ G‬ا
‪ ،2 ,‬ا ‪J  
(3) (%‬ات ) ‪ *=6& :6 u AB (t‬ا
( ‪  L6‬ا ‪.:&K‬‬
‫‪ M/ & (6‬م ا ‪ 66‬ت ؟ ا‪3‬ح
ذا و ا   ) ‪ & T u AB (t‬ا ‪ 0,5) .:&K‬ن(‬
‫‪ (7‬او‪ -‬ا
; د  ا ‪ , 7‬ا * ‪ ?$‬ا   ) ‪A HE u AB (t‬د ا 
ار ا
‪NC‬ول ‪
> :9‬د ا ‪ 66‬ت‪ 0,5) .‬ن(‬
‫‪ (8‬ا! ا ‪ &U‬أن ه‪ W‬ا ارة ‪ :( 
L‬ا;
? ‪ $‬ا   ‪
، La‬ذا؟ ا!ح  ) ‪ 9 C‬ا ‪G9 &U‬‬
‫‪ 0,25) .H?(%& A‬ن(‬
‫‪ AB – C‬ا @? ا >‪.‬‬
‫ا ‪ MAL ،&U‬ا ا‪ :& 8/‬ا

(‪ :‬إ‪ ?- + ,‬ز ارة ا
‪ / X 
;C‬ا ‪ 66‬ت‪.‬‬
‫‪ (9‬ا‪3‬ح دور ها ا ? ز &‪ :‬ا  ‪ A‬ا = !؟ )‪ 0,25‬ن(‬
‫‪ Z7/ );/ (10‬ا 
د ا
‪ *+ 
;C‬ا ارة‪J & ،‬ات ) ‪  L6 u AB (t‬ا ‪ / [ ;6 :&K‬ا ‪ 66‬ت‪ 0,25) .‬ن(‬
‫‪ (11‬أ‪ ); 59‬ا ور ا  ص ‪ T0‬و ا دد ا  ص ‪ 025) . N 0‬ن(‬
‫‪ (12‬ا ارة ا 
‪ )(
6 =)& 66‬ا ‪ X‬ت ا ي ‪ $‬ل ا
‪ -‬ا (?‪ ] 6‬إ ‪  [ - & G‬ذات دد ‪ 0,25) . N 0‬ن(‬
‫أ ‪ -‬ا‪ ، N 0 `CA‬ه  ا‪ @+‬ها ا دد ا   ‪ 0,5) L= 0.1H *=;/ .La‬ن(‬
‫ب‪ & -‬ا 
آ) ا‪( a‬و‪ /‬ا * 
(‪ X$ ? 
! 5), :‬ل ‪ G9‬ا   ‪La‬؟ ‪ - 9‬ا‪ 0,25) .b6‬ن(‬
‫ج ‪ 9 L 5)d/ -‬ا  
‪ & ، 232mH‬ا   ا
 ا ‪ X‬درة ‪ :9‬ا ? ز‪ 0,5) .‬ن(‬
‫('‪ E‬ا ‪4#%‬‬

(‫ن‬4) ‫ت‬H ‫ا‬
I ‫اه‬#KL 4‫ د‬4+ I λ = 768nm 1%H( ‫از ?ل‬%( ‫د ا ن‬P‫ أ‬B (P AR ‫زر‬N ‫ز‬1H K‫ "ا‬1>T ‫ ا‬I FS'@; D >>a2 ، D>>a1 VP 4+R ‫ ا‬4( D=2,5m ;R( I  WX .a 1>a2 VP a2‫ و‬a1  ‫ا‬% ‫ا‬

.Y"‫ا‬H F ‫ء؟‬X >%R ‫ر ا‬%[‫ ( أ ا‬E>'% F‫ن أ( ه‬0,75
.Y F+ E;‫ ا ا‬F+ ‫ )أ(و)ب(ا‬4+ ‫ ا‬4" 4( ‫ د‬P ‫] ؟‬P^ ‫ة ا‬#‫ن ب( ( ه ا ]ه‬0,75

(1

.‫ آ‬، L = 20mm 1B# B >"  ‫ ا‬I ‫ ;@ه‬a1 `#KL ‫ي‬b ‫ ا‬YR " c%'‫ و‬a2 ‫وي‬R `#KL ‫ي‬b ‫ ا‬YR ‫ ا‬F (2
.2 >T ‫ ا‬d@=

. ‫ه‬#= A ‫ أ‬T ، θ ‫ف‬# (‫ ن أ‬0,5
. ‫( ب‬1 :‫ال‬fR ‫ ا‬$% 4( ‫آ‬g= T D ‫ و‬λ ، L  [ " a1 #= ‫ د‬P ، ‫ة‬#hi θ ‫ر‬% " (‫ب‬
‫ن‬1
. a1 L k%@%‫ج( ا‬
‫ن‬1
(‫ )ن‬3‫ا ء ا @و‬
. Pb ‫ص‬i# ‫  ة ا‬I ‫ إ‬Po ‫'ل  ة ا  م‬%= (1
. n%% ‫ (د  ا‬o%‫ن أ( اآ‬0,5
:K . n%% ‫ ا‬4 $=@ ‫ ا‬LK ‫ ا‬MeV :‫ ب‬T ‫ل‬$ " oRP‫ ن ب( ا‬0,5
1u = 1,66 × 10 −27 Kg ، c = 3 × 10 8 m / s ، e = 1,6 × 10 −19 C
. m( Pb) = 206,0385u ،
m(α ) = 4,00394u
. ln a = f (t )  ‫ ا ا‬oRP 210
84 Po ‫ @ ة‬a  )‫ ا @ط ا‬#h% (2
206
82

، m( Po) = 210,04824u ،

210
84

. e ln a = a : K. a #= ( ‫ د‬P (‫ ن أ‬0,5
. dRP‫ ا‬T t1 / 2 3S@ ‫ ا‬# ‫ف‬# (‫ ن ب‬0,5
. mo = 10 g :‫ ه‬t = 0 ]' ‫ @ ا‬1%%‫ آ‬210
84 Po ‫  ة ا  ن‬4( @ #% (3
t = 1h ]' ‫> @ ا‬% ‫ ا  ن ا‬%‫ آ‬oRP‫ ا‬، F%+ R@ "  )‫ن ا @ط ا‬L ‫ل‬%" (‫ ن أ‬0,5
. t = 1h ]' ‫> @ ا‬% ‫ د ا @ى ا‬k%@%‫ ن ب(ا‬0,5

‫ا ( 
ء )‪7‬ن(‪:‬‬
‫?ف ها ا  
‪ :‬إ ‪ G‬درا ‪ j
A 9 7‬ا‪ b / a‬وا‪ / &L‬ك & ا
ء و= ر >‪ j
A 5‬ا‪ b / a‬وا‪ / &F‬ك ‪*+‬‬
‫ا
ء‪.‬‬
‫ 
ا   ت ‪ H‬ا‪ /‬زه ‪ 9‬در‪ -‬ا ‪$‬ارة ‪. 25°C‬‬‫‪ 6 E‬ا ‪d
$‬‬
‫ر&‪K‬ه ‬
‫ا
‪K‬دو‪9 ! -‬ة‪j
A/‬‬
‫‪−‬‬
‫‪pK A = 4,7‬‬
‫أ ن ا‪ / a‬ات ‪ j
A/‬ا‪b / a‬‬
‫‪CH 3COOH / CH 3COO‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪pK A = 9,2‬‬
‫ا‪ / &F‬ك‪/‬أ ن ا‪ / &F‬م‬
‫‪NH 4 / NH 3‬‬
‫‪pK A = 0‬‬
‫ا
ء‪/‬أ ن ا‪F‬آ‪ / C‬م‬
‫‪H 3O + / H 2 O‬‬
‫‪pK A = 1,4‬‬
‫أ ن ا ?روآ‪/C‬ا
ء‬
‫‪H 2 O / HO −‬‬

‫‪-1‬ا ‪ $‬اء ا‪ r‬ء‪:‬‬
‫‪:1-1‬أ‪ ; 59‬ا اء ا‪ 
*/ F‬ء‪ 0,25) .‬ن(‬
‫‪A:2-1‬د ! 
‪ 8‬ا‪ :& !U=/‬ا
;= ت ا ‪ 0,25) .6 C‬ن(‬

‫‪ sP F = -2‬ا)!‪ W( Y‬ا ء‪.‬‬
‫‪ j
A d/ :1-2‬ا‪ b / a‬ا  ‪ T‬إ ‪ G‬ا
ء ‪ $& G9 X$+ ،‬ل ‪ V1 = 10ml 8 
A S1‬وآ‪WK‬‬
‫‪ 0,25) . C1 = 2.10 −2 mol / l‬ن(‬
‫;=* ! س ‪ pH‬ا
‪ $‬ل ‪. pH 1 = 3,2 : S1‬‬
‫‪ :1-2‬اآ` &; د  ‪ j
A 9 7‬ا‪ & b / a‬ا
ء‪ 0,25) .‬ن(‬
‫‪ (2-2‬ار‪ 5=& H‬ا ? 

‪K‬دو‪ -‬أ ن ا‪ / a‬ات‪ j
A/‬ا‪ b / a‬وا‪ n‬ا  ع ا
?
‪ *+ :‬ا
‪ $‬ل ‪ 0,5) . S1‬ن(‬
‫‪A (3-2‬د ا م ا ? ]* ‪ j
A 9 7 x1 f‬ا‪ & b / a‬ا
ء‪ :( 
) .‬ا‪6 / ;L‬ول ا م(‪ 0,5) .‬ن(‬
‫‪ ! (4-2‬رن ‪ x1 f‬وا م ا‪ x1 m GX!F‬إذا آ ن ا ‪ $‬ل آ ‪ 0,25) .‬ن(‬
‫‪ (5-2‬ا‪ )C/ n‬ا م ا ? ]* ‪ 0,25) .9 7‬ن(‬
‫‪ (6-2‬ه ا  & ا‪ / & +‬ا ‪NC‬ال‪2-2‬؟ ‪ - 9‬ا‪ 0,25) .b6‬ن(‬

‫‪ F = (3‬ا‪(r‬ك (‪ W‬ا ء‪:‬‬
‫‪−2‬‬

‫‪r6 d$/‬ذا‪ ' 6‬ز ا‪ / &F‬ك ‪ *+‬ا
ء &‪ V2 = 10ml 8 
A S 2 L $‬وآ‪ ! *=; . C 2 = 10 mol / l WK‬س ‪pH‬‬

‫ا
‪ $‬ل ‪ S 2‬ا  
‪. pH 2 = 10,6‬‬
‫‪ :1-3‬اآ` &; د  ‪ 9 7‬ا‪ / &F‬ك & ا
ء‪ 0,25) .‬ن(‬
‫‪ (2-3‬ار‪ 5=& H‬ا ? 

‪K‬دو‪ -‬ا‪ / &F‬ك‪/‬أ ن ا‪ / &F‬م ‪ .‬وا‪ n‬ا  ع ا
?
‪ *+ :‬ا
‪ $‬ل ‪ 0,5) . S 2‬ن(‬
‫‪A (3-3‬د ا م ا ? ]* ‪ j
A 9 7 x 2 f‬ا‪ & b / a‬ا
ء‪ :( 
) .‬ا‪6 / ;L‬ول ا م(‪ 0,5) .‬ن(‬

‫ه ا  & ا‪ / & +‬ا ‪NC‬ال‪2-3‬؟ ‪ - 9‬ا‪.b6‬‬

‫‪K= (4‬ر ‪ sP Au‬ا)!‪ Y‬وا‪(r‬ك ; ا ء‪:‬‬

،‫ ك‬/ &F‫ ا‬:& 10 −4 mol ‫ و‬b / a‫ ا‬j
A :& 2.10 −4 mol / l ‫ ا
ء‬G ‫ إ‬+ ,r6 V = 20ml 8 
A S L $& d$/
: ‫ ذي ا
; د‬9 7 6 [ $ ‫ ل ا‬$ ‫ 
ج ا‬/
CH 3 COOH + NH 3
( aq )

( aq )

CH 3 COO − + NH 4
( aq )

+

( aq )

(‫ ن‬0,25) .]) ‫  ا‬$ ‫* ا‬+ 9  

Qr ,i 9 7 ‫` > رج ا‬CA‫ ا‬:1- 4
(‫ ن‬0,5) ‫؟‬nC ‫& ذا‬، Qr ,eq ‫ و‬Qr ,i ‫ ! رن‬:2-4
(‫ ن‬0,5) .(‫ول ا م‬6 / ;L‫ ا‬:( 
) .9 7 x3 f *] ? ‫  ا م ا‬L6 Qr ,eq :9 )9 :3-4

:-‫دو‬K
‫ ا‬:& ( )C 6 ] ? ‫  ا‬$ ‫* ا‬+ ‫ ا
دة‬XA :& !U=/‫ ا‬:9‫ آ ؟‬9 

‫ ل ا‬$ ‫) ر‬9‫ ا‬:( 
‫ ه‬:4-4
+
S ‫ ل‬$
‫ ا‬pH >s ‫
ذا‬C+. S ‫ ل‬$
‫* ا‬+  
?
‫ اع ا ( 
] ا‬/F‫ا‬، NH 4 / NH 3 ‫ و‬CH 3COOH / CH 3COO −
(‫ ن‬0,5) . ‫ ا  ازن‬9 pH = 4,7  
‫ا‬

: > ‫ ا‬X' ‫ة ا‬# ‫( ا‬5 
=‫ ا‬6 ‫ ر‬d/ . C a = 10m.mol / l WK‫ آ‬b / a‫ ا‬j
A ‫ ل‬$& :& Va = 20ml 
A ‫س‬s‫* آ‬+ d/
‫ ل‬$
‫ ا‬pH ، & - pH =‫ ا‬6 Z/‫ و‬Cb = 20m.mol / l WK‫ د م آ‬X ‫ ا‬C‫ هروآ‬:& Vb 
A A $
.+ ,‫; آ إ‬6 89 X$
‫ا‬
(‫ ن‬0,25) .9  ‫ ا‬d
$ ‫ ز ا
; ة ا‬/L 
;C
‫ & ا ? ز ا )* ا‬:1-5
(‫ ن‬0,25) . ‫ ا
; ة‬9 7  ‫ اآ` &; د‬:2-5
(‫ ن‬0,25) .N+ ( ‫ ا‬G9 ‫ ل‬X$ 8+ ,‫ ا 
! إ‬VbE H$ ‫` ا‬CA‫ ا‬:3-5
. pH = 4,8 G9 X$/ ‫ د م‬X ‫ ا‬C‫ ل هروآ‬$& :& Vb = 5ml + ,‫ إ‬9 & - pH ‫? ز‬- ‫ ;
ل‬6 :4-5
(‫ ن‬0,5) . pKe = 14 :*=;/ . ‫ة‬9 !-j
A ‫ ا
; ة‬9 7 *] ? ‫) ا م ا‬C/ *‫ & ه‬.‫ = ا  ة‬Y b"‫ و‬WL ‫@ء ا‬v‫ إ‬FH‫ أ‬4( #$% ‫'ن ا‬%([‫ ا‬WB‫ أن !ا (ا‬b(^% ‫ة وا‬b=r‫ ا‬4( H# : ‫ اء‬
SBIRO ABDELKRIM

E-MAIL sbiabdou@yahoo.fr

msn : sbiabdou@hotmail.fr

Correction
E = 

K>@ ‫ا‬

‫ب‬$ ‫ا‬

L‫ر‬
‫ال‬fR ‫ا‬
(1

0.5

Y2

Y1
0.5

0.5

0.75

E = u AB + u R
: ‫ات‬#=% ‫; ا‬B‫ن إ‬L
dq
q
‫ و‬u AB =
، u R = R.i :‫ أن‬
i=
dt
C
du AB
1
E
+
u AB =
:(B) B% ‫إذن ا د  ا‬
dt
RC
RC
 −t 
t



du AB
E ( − RC )

=
e
‫ و‬u AB (t ) = E 1 − e  RC   @


dt
RC


du AB
(B)  ‫; ا د‬
‫ و‬u AB (t ) ‫و ض‬
dt

(2

(3

(4

‫ @ ‪ τ = RC‬و‬
‫‪(5‬‬

‫‪(6‬‬
‫‪(7‬‬

‫] ‪ C = [I ][T‬و ] ‪[U‬‬
‫] ‪[I‬‬
‫] ‪[U‬‬

‫=‪R‬‬

‫إذن ا > ار ‪ " d τ‬ز(@‪.‬‬

‫و ] ‪[I ][T ] [U ] = [T‬‬
‫] ‪[U ] [I‬‬

‫=‪τ‬‬
‫) ‪u AB (V‬‬

‫)‪t(ms‬‬
‫( ‪τ = 0.001ms : $‬‬
‫]م ا ‪"b"b‬ت ‪ d‬دوري‪.‬‬
‫@>‪ y‬و‪ W‬ا ‪"b"b‬ت "‪ oR‬و‪H‬د ا >و( ‪. R‬‬
‫‪L‬ن إ‪ ;B‬ا ‪#=%‬ات ‪u AB = u R + u L :‬‬

‫‪0.25‬‬

‫‪τ‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ا د  ا ‪: B%‬‬

‫‪(8‬‬
‫‪(9‬‬
‫‪(10‬‬

‫‪(11‬‬
‫أ‪-‬‬
‫ب‪-‬‬
‫ج‪-‬‬

‫‪d u AB R du AB u AB‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪=0‬‬
‫‪L dt‬‬
‫‪LC‬‬
‫‪dt 2‬‬

‫‪du AB‬‬
‫ا‪ 4( L^K‬ا د  ا ‪ o$ H #== I FS' + ، B%‬أن ‪+‬ن ((‪F‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪ . L ≠ 0 V'" R=0‬و" ‪z;  %‬ن ا >و( ‪ R‬ه ا ‪fR‬و  ‪u 4‬د ا ‪"b"b‬ت‪.‬‬
‫ا ‪ K"#( 4" #=%‬ا ‪S' H #v 3!+‬ل ‪#= I‬دد (‪ 4‬ا;‪ E‬ا @? ا >‪.‬‬
‫ا[‪#%L‬اح ا ‪1H : #$%‬ز ا ‪) S‬ا]‪ #‬ا رس(‬
‫دور ا ‪1$‬ز ‪ s= ; 4+‬ا ‪ LK‬ا  دة "ل ‪H‬ل ‪.‬‬

‫‪T0 = 2π LC‬‬
‫‪ N 0 = 502.8 Hz‬وه [ ا;‪#= E‬دد ا @?‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪T0‬‬

‫أي‬

‫= ‪N0‬‬

‫‪La‬‬

‫" أن )‪; N 0 = f(L ,C‬ن ا ‪#‬آ ا ‪ 1KB 4+ %‬ه ((‪ s#'= F‬ا   أو‬
‫ ا ‪.3!+‬‬
‫‪ L=232mH‬و‪ dz; N 0 =330Hz‬ا;‪ E‬ا @? ا > ‪.Mi‬‬

‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬

‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬

‫ا ‪B‬ع ا ! ; ا ء‪:‬ا ‪H‬ت‬
‫‪(1‬أ( [ ‪ ( E>'%‬أ ا[‪%‬ر ا ‪X >%R‬ء ‪r،‬ن " ا‪%H‬ز` ا ‪ #%@ YR‬ا ‪X‬ء ; ‪ WH‬ا[=‪$‬هت ;@'‪ I FS‬ا >‪0,75 W‬‬
‫ا ه ة ; ا ‪.1 %>T‬‬
‫‪........................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ب(ه‪ `b‬ا ]ه‪#‬ة =‪ : IR‬ه‪#‬ة ا 'د‪.‬‬
‫آ آن ‪ #KL‬ا ‪#hi YR‬ا آ ‪+‬ن ‪#‬ض ا > ا ‪#‬آ أآ‪.#‬‬
‫وا ‪) F+‬ب( ا;‪ E‬ا ‪ YR‬ا ‪b‬ي ‪R `#KL‬وي ‪. 0,75 a1‬‬
‫و" ‪ : %‬ا ‪ )F+‬أ( ا;‪ E‬ا ‪ YR‬ا ‪b‬ي ‪R `#KL‬وي ‪. a 2‬‬
‫‪.....................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪ (2‬أ( ‪ : θ‬ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺯﺍﻭﻱ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻭل ﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﻤﻅﻠﻤﺔ ‪.‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل‪.‬‬

‫‪λ‬‬

‫= ‪ θ‬وو‪ 1= P‬ا ‪#‬ادن ‪rad‬‬

‫و=‪#‬ه ه‪:‬‬
‫‪a1‬‬
‫‪.....................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪2λ D‬‬
‫‪λ‬‬
‫‪L/2‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫= ‪a1‬‬
‫و(@‪: d‬‬
‫= ‪ R@ " tgθ‬وا ا ‪#hS‬ة =‬
‫ب( (‪^u 4‬ل ا ‪ F+‬ا ‪: E"R‬‬
‫= ‪tgθ ≈ θ‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪2 D a1‬‬
‫‪D‬‬
‫^‪ cP‬أن ‪ #KL‬ا ‪# W( R+ o@% YR‬ض ا > ) آ آن ‪#‬ض ا > ا ‪#‬آ آ‪#‬ا آ آن ‪ #KL‬ا ‪#hi YR‬ا(‪.‬‬
‫‪ L1 > L2‬و" ‪  %‬ا ‪ )F+‬أ( ا ا;‪r E‬آ‪# #‬ض > ا;‪ E‬ا ‪ YR‬ذو أ‪ #KL #hi‬أي ‪ . a 2‬وا ‪ ) F+‬ب( ا;‪. a1 E‬‬
‫‪.......................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫‪2λD 2. × 768.10 −9‬‬
‫= ‪a1‬‬
‫=‬
‫ج( ت‪.‬ع‪× 2,5 = 192.10 − 6 m .‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪−3‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪20.10‬‬
‫‪.......................................................................................................................................................................‬‬
‫ا ‪B‬ع ا ! ‪ ; V‬ا ء‪:‬ا ء ا @و‪:‬‬

‫‪( (1‬د  ا ‪: n%%‬‬

‫‪A‬‬
‫‪Po→ 206‬‬
‫‪82 Pb + Z x‬‬

‫⇐‬
‫ @ ‪ :‬ا'ظ د ا '@‪210 = 206 + A :‬‬
‫⇐‬
‫ا‪ 7$/‬ظ ‪9‬د ا (‪84 = 82 + Z :‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫إذن ا ! ا 
); ه* د! ‪ α‬وه* ‪ /‬اة ا ? م ‪. 2 He :‬‬

‫‪0,5‬‬

‫‪210‬‬
‫‪84‬‬

‫‪A=4‬‬
‫‪Z =2‬‬

‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Po→ 206‬‬
‫&; د  ا ‪82 Pb + 2 He : u7‬‬

‫‪210‬‬
‫‪84‬‬

‫‪----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------‬‬‫‪ $ )C 6 (2‬ل‪:‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Po→ 206‬‬
‫‪82 Pb + 2 He‬‬

‫‪210‬‬
‫‪84‬‬

‫ @ ‪:‬‬

‫‪E = ∆m.c = [(m( Pb) + m( He) − m( Po)].c = [(206,0385 + 4,0039 − 210,0482)]u × c ≈ −5,8 × 10 u × c 2‬‬
‫‪−3‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪= −5,8 × 10 −3 × 1,66 × 10 −27 Kg × [3.10 8 m / s ] ≈ 8,67 × 10 −13 J‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪(3‬ﺍﳌﻨﺤﲎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﲑﺍﺕ ‪ ln a‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ‪ t‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻻ ﳝﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻟﺐ ‪).‬ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺼﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ln a = k .t + 6,9 :‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺗﻮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺻﻞ ‪.6,9‬‬

‫‪(ln a) B − (ln a) A‬‬
‫‪6,9 − 5,9‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪= −5 × 10 −3 Jours −1‬‬
‫‪tB − t A‬‬
‫‪(0 − 200) J‬‬
‫‪ln a = −5.10 −3.t + 6,9‬‬

‫"‪z‬د‪u‬ل دا  ا ‪v‬ر‪ %‬ا ‪#‬ي ‪ ;#? I‬ه‪ `b‬ا ‪R%‬و =‪: S‬‬

‫=‪k‬‬
‫)‪t +6,9‬‬

‫‪−3‬‬

‫‪e ln a = e ( −5.10‬‬

e a +b = e a × e b
a = 992 × e − 5 .10

−3

.t

:‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ‬

λ = 5.10 −3 Jours −1 : ‫ ﳒﺪ‬، ‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬

−3

t +6,9 )

a = e 6,9 × e −5.10

a = ao.e−λ.t

−3

.t

:‫ﺃﻱ‬

:‫إذن‬

: ‫( ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬4

ln 2
= s ≈ 138 Jours : ‫ م‬/ ) ‫  اة ا‬X ‫ 
ا‬9
λ
5.10 Jours −1
---------------------------------------------------------------------

t1 / 2 =

λ=

ln 2

a = e ( −5.10

: ‫ﻭﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ‬

ln 2
: ‫ ﻣﻊ‬m = mo e − λ .t
t1 / 2

=

−3

N = N O e − λ .t : ‫ ﻫﻮ‬t ]' @ >% ‫( " أن د ى ا @ ا‬5
mo
NO =
.N A : ‫ ﻫﻮ‬mo 1%%‫ د ا @ى ; @ آ‬
M
m
N=
.N A : ‫ ﻫﻮ‬m 1%%‫و د ا @ى ; @ آ‬
M
m
m
:‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺰﺍﻝ‬
.N A = o .N A .e −λ .t :I ‫و‬r‫ ا‬L^ ‫ ; ا‬s% "
M
M
:  ‫ور‬#( " >% ‫ ا @ ا‬%‫آ‬
− 

( 140 ‫ رب‬

210
84

ln 2
×t
t1 / 2

ln 2
×1
138

m = mo e
= 10 g × e
≈ 9,95 g
Po ‫ م‬/ ) X ‫ 
ا‬9 ‫ن &د‬F 50mg ‫ أي‬0,05 g ‫  ى‬:&K ‫ ا‬:& 9  ;6 u7 H 8/‫أي أ‬

:‫ء‬+ ‫ع ا‬B(
k = H 3O . HO − (1-1 (1
............ .............................................................................................................................................................. 

+
: H 2 O / HO − :H‫ دو‬R@ " (2-1
H 2 O + H 2 O → H 3 O + HO −

[

(l )

(l )

( aq )

+

][

]

( aq )

k = k A = ke = 10 −14

............ ..............................................................................................................................................................
CH 3COOH + H 2 O
CH 3 COO − + H 3O +
:1-2 (2
............ ..............................................................................................................................................................
. CH 3COOH s' ‫ ا‬41 ، PH < PK A
⇐ pK A = 4,7 ‫و‬
pH = 3,2 : @ (2-2
.............................................................................................................................................................................
: ‫> م‬% ‫ ول ا‬H (3-2

+ 
‫ا د‬
CH 3 COOH + H 2 O
CH 3 COO + H 3O
‫ة‬#;"
0
0  
‫ا '  ا‬
C1V1
‫ة‬#;"
‫'ل‬% ‫@ء ا‬T‫أ‬
C1V1 − x1
x1
x1
− PH

PH

PH
‫ة‬#;" 
1@ ‫ا '  ا‬
(C1 − 10 ).V1
10 .V1
10 .V1

x1 f = 10 − pH = 6,3.10 −6 mol
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.‫ آ‬#v ‫'ل‬% ‫ ا‬x1 < x1 max : ‫ و" أن‬x1. max = C1 .V1 = 2.10 −4 mol.
: 4-2
.............................................................................................................................................................................
x1 f
τ1 =
= 0,03 = 3% : 5-2
x1 max
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.Y!)‫ ا‬sP ‫ ه‬41 ‫ إذن ا @ع ا‬، Y!)‫ ا‬sP 4( 3% A>; n = :6-2
.............................................................................................................................................................................
(3

+

NH 3 + H 2 O
NH 4 + HO −
(1-3
.............................................................................................................................................................................
. NH 3 ‫ ا > ة‬41= ، PH > PK A
⇐ pK A = 9,2 ‫و‬
pH = 10,6 :@ :2-3
.............................................................................................................................................................................
:3-3
+
− 
‫ا د‬
NH 3 + H 2 O
NH 4 + HO

‫ة‬#;"
‫ة‬#;"
‫ة‬#;"

C 2V2
C 2V2 − x 2
Ke
(C 2 − − pH ).V2
10

0

0  

‫ا '  ا‬
‫'ل‬% ‫@ء ا‬T‫أ‬ 
1@ ‫ا '  ا‬

x2
Ke.V2
10 − pH
ke.V2
− pH
ke
τ 2 = 10
= − pH
= 0,04 = 4%
C 2 .V2 10 .C 2
.............................................................................................................................................................................
+
CH 3 COOH + NH 3
(4
NH 4 + CH 3 COO −
( aq )

x2
Ke.V2
10 − pH
x

1

( aq )

( aq )

Q r ,i

( aq )

[CH 3COOH ]i .[NH 4 + ]i
=
[CH 3COO − ].[NH 3 ]i

=0

:1-4

Qr ,i = 0 : ‫إذن‬.  ‫(م وأت ا)!ات ; ا 'ل ; ا '  ا‬r‫ ات ا‬H= [

.............................................................................................................................................................................
:2-4
K A1
.(1) ‫ أي‬# ‫ ا‬I'@ ‫  ; ا‬$ ‫ر ا‬K%= Qr , éq = K =
= 3,2.10 4 > Qr ,i
KA2
.............................................................................................................................................................................
:3-4
+
− 
‫ا د‬
CH 3 COOH + NH 3
NH 4 + CH 3COO
0
0  
‫ا '  ا‬
2.10 −4
10 −4
−4
−4
‫'ل‬% ‫@ء ا‬T‫أ‬
x3
x3
2.10 − x3
10 − x3
x

2.10

−4

− x3 f

10

−4

− x3 f

1

x3 f
Qr ,éq =

x3 f

x3 f
2

(2.10 − x3 f )(10
4 

1@ ‫ا '  ا‬

−4

− x3 f )

= 3,2.10 4

.o  #v‫ ( و‬x ≤ 10 −4 ) ‫> م‬% ‫ن ا‬+ ‫ أن‬o$ E;‫ ا ا‬F' ‫ ا‬4+ . 4P 1 ! ‫ ا‬H‫ ا ر‬4(  ‫ (د‬I FS'
. x3 f = 10 −4 mol : I FS'
.............................................................................................................................................................................
. ‫ آ‬F % ‫ ا‬τ 3 = 1 ⇐ NH 3 ‫ ا ' ه‬F % ‫ن ا‬r x3 f = 10 −4 mol = x max :4-4
‚@" ‫ ان‬H‫ا‬% Y!)‫ ا‬sP ‫ƒت‬H‫ "@ أت ا)!ات و‬.‫ آ‬#>= I%u‫ن ا[(ك ا‬r ‫(م ; ا 'ل‬r‫ أت ا‬41=
PH = pK A1 = 4,7 Y b ‫ ; ا 'ل‬+ ‫ا‬
.............................................................................................................................................................................
: > ‫ ا‬X' ‫ة ا‬# ‫( ا‬5
.‫ ا رس‬#]‫ ا‬:1-5
.............................................................................................................................................................................
:‫ة‬# ‫ ا‬F = :2-5
CH 3COOH + HO − → CH 3COO − + H 2 O
.............................................................................................................................................................................
:@ f;+% ‫ @ ا‬:3-5

VBE =

C A .V A
= 10ml
CB

C AV A = C B .V BE

.............................................................................................................................................................................
:I FS'. ‫> م‬% ‫ ول ا‬$" %[‫ ا‬4+ :4-5
ni (CH 3COOH ) = C A .V A = 10.10 −3.20.10 −3 = 2.10 −4 mol / l
n( HO − ) = C B .VB = 20.10 −3.5.10 −3 = 10 −4 mol / l
CH 3 COOH
2.10 −4
2.10 −4 − x
2.10

−4

−x

+ HO

10 −4
10 −4 − x
f

10

−4

x

− xf

CH 3COO − + H 2 O
0
x 

‫ا د‬
0
x  

‫ا '  ا‬
‫'ل‬% ‫@ء ا‬T‫أ‬

xf 

1@ ‫ا '  ا‬

. HO − ‫ ا ' ه‬F % ‫⇐ ا‬

ni ( HO − ) < ni (CH 3COOH )

1

xf

. x max = ni ( HO − ) = 10 −4 mol : % "‫و‬
10
[HO ] = [H10 O ] = 10
= [HO ].(V + V ) + x
−14

+

−14

− 4 ,8

= 6,31.10 −10 mol / l ⇐

pH = 4,8 : F % ‫ ا‬1 @

3

xf

A

B

f

= 10 −4 mol / l : d@(‫و‬

[HO ] = 10V

−4

A

− xf
+ VB

. ‫ة آ‬# ‫ ا‬F =  % "‫ و‬τ =

:‫ ول‬$ ‫^ل ا‬u 4(‫و‬
xf
x max

10 −4
=1
10 − 4
:‫م‬%„ ‫و; ا‬

=

'S% " ‫ ا >م‬I 1‫ =و‬I Y b‫ع وآ‬B ‫ا ا‬b‫ ها ; إ اد ه‬4b ‫  ا ا و ا‬T ; ‫ة ا ء‬b=‫ أ‬#+
. $ ‫ا‬
.‫ = ا  ة‬Y b"‫ و‬WL ‫@ء ا‬v‫ إ‬FH‫ أ‬4( #$% ‫'ن ا‬%([‫ ا‬WB‫ أن !ا (ا‬b(^% ‫ة وا‬b=r‫ ا‬4( H# : ‫ اء‬
SBIRO ABDELKRIM

E-MAIL sbiabdou@yahoo.fr

msn : sbiabdou@hotmail.fr