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Overview of Telecom

Network

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Outline of Lecture
What is Telecom?

Concepts and Definitions


Overview of Telecom Network
PSTN
Internet/Data Network
Cellular Telephone Networks
NGN

Transmission & Systems in Telecom


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What is Telecom ?
Telecommunication

is

the

assisted

transmission of signals over a distance for the

purpose of communication.
It is the technology of transferring information
over a distance.

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Information
1. Information can be of several type:

Audio Telephone

Text - Telegraph , email, SMS

Pictures Picture attachments

Video Clipping over internet

Data ATM to bank.

2. The same telecom technology/service cannot


communicate all the types of information.
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Telecom scenario
Growing subscriber base.
New services and technologies.
More focus on wireless & internet.
Government wants more development in rural areas.
Decreasing Prices.
Increasing demand for bandwidth.

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OVERVIEW OF TELECOM NETWORK


There are three networking approaches for a telecom
network infrastructure.
Circuit-switched,
Internet / Data Network and
Cellular mobile,
Finally, all these architectures are migrating towards a

common

IP

network

infrastructure

Generation Network (NGN).

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called

Next

CIRCUIT-SWITCHED NETWORKS
&
DIGITAL SWITCHING SYSTEMS

Public Switched
Telephone Network(PSTN)

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Concepts & Definitions


Telecommunications is the transfer of information from a
transmitter to a receiver over a distance.
A telecommunication network is required to transmit
messages between any of its users (who are usually
called customers or subscribers), and the messages may
be conveyed by signals that are either digital or

analogue.
Telecommunication system - enable the transmission
of information over public or private networks (voice,
data, graphics, video)
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Concepts & Definitions

Definitions:
Transmitter: originates information transfer
Receiver: receives the transferred information
Circuit: a communications path between transmitter and
receiver over an established medium
Link: a two-point segment of an end-to-end circuit
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Concepts & Definitions


Definitions (contd)
Switch: a device that establishes, maintains, and
changes connections over circuits
Line: a single physical connection between a user
and a switch
Trunks: the physical connection between switches
Channel: a channel is a division in a transmission
medium so that it can be used to send multiple
streams of information, a circuit can contain
multiple channels
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Concepts & Definitions


Definitions (contd)
Bit : The binary digit or bit is a unit of information
transfer.
Byte : a collection of 8 bits
Signal : It is electrical, electronic or optical
representation of data, which can be sent over a
communication medium. Stated in mathematical
terms, a signal is merely a function of the data.
Signals can be either analogue or digital.
Symbols : In communications, the analog signal
shape, by pre-agreed convention, stands for a
certain number of bits and is called a symbol.
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Concepts & Definitions


Definitions (contd)
Baud : Symbols transmitted per second is known
as baud.
Modulation : The shaping of a signal to convey
information is known as modulation.
Network : A network is a collection of transmitters,
receivers and transceivers that communicate with
each other.
Multiplexing : combining a defined integral
number of input signals (called tributaries).

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Concepts & Definitions


Definitions (contd)
Modems (modulation/demodulation) : Changes
signals from analog to digital and back to analog.

Spectrum -range of frequencies


Bandwidth -width of the spectrum

Bandwidth

Alternatives

Bandwidth is the
frequency range of a telecommunications network.
Determines the channels maximum transmission rate.
Measured in bits per second (bps) or baud.
Narrow-band : Low-speed transmission.
Broadband : High-speed transmission.

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ANALOG SIGNAL
Continuous Waveform
Analog signals are continuous-valued;
Voice Communications and video

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DIGITAL SIGNAL
DISCRETE WAVEFORM i.e. depicted as discontinuous
TWO DISCRETE STATES:
1-BIT & 0-BIT
ON / OFF PULSE (Each pulse (on/off) is known as a

bit)USES

MODEM TO TRANSLATE ANALOG TO

DIGITAL, DIGITAL TO ANALOG

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Advantages of Digital Transmission


The signal is exact
Signals can be checked for errors
Noise/interference are easily filtered out
A variety of services can be offered over one line
Higher

bandwidth

is

possible

compression

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with

data

Network Elements of PSTN


A

telecommunication

network

may

therefore

be

considered as a system consisting of four basic network


elements:
Station apparatus
Transmission
Switching
Signaling

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Network Elements

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Station apparatus
Station Apparatus are the transmitters and receivers:

Telephones
Answering Machines
Facsimile Machines
Most are combined transmitters and receivers

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TRANSMISSION
Transmission is the conveyance of signals from one
place to another.
Signals may be audio, video, or data
Transmission systems include:
Open Wire
Copper wire cable (Twisted Wires)

Co-axial Cable
Microwave radio (terrestrial and satellite)
Fiber optic cable

Other wireless
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TRANSMISSION

Open wire

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TRANSMISSION (contd)
The network is composed of transmission media linked
at physical locations (central offices, carrier units, etc.)
Originally each line ran all the way back to the C.O.
Called a home run architecture
Circuit cards linked the transmission media
Access Lines

Circuit
Ports
Toll Trunk

Switch

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IXC

TRANSMISSION (contd)
Modern networks use multiplexing, the sharing
of a transmission medium by multiple signals
Frequency (analog) & Time-division (digital) muxing
Multiple channels on a single circuit
Node architecture has replaced the home run
Digital Line
Carrier Units

DLC

Circuit
Ports
Toll Trunk

Access Lines

Splice point

DLC

Switch

DLC

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IXC

Transmission Modes
Performance can be measured by the mode of the
connection.

Simplex transmission, messages can be


carried in only one direction.
Half-duplex, messages can be carried in
both directions just not simultaneously.
Full-duplex, messages can be carried in
both directions simultaneously.
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SWITCHING
Telephones introduced in late-1800s.
Initially
each
telephone
was
directly
connected to another site.
This led to an explosion of direct connections
(n*(n-1)/2) This lead to the need to switch
the connections.

Switch

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SWITCHING
Switches establish, maintain, and change connectivity
between circuits
The earliest telephone exchanges used switchboards
worked by operators. The manual exchange was unique
among switching systems, since a single switch (i.e., the
operator) could make a connection to any of several
thousand lines by inserting a plug in a jack within arms
reach.
A modern electronic exchange performs basic actions
very rapidly, so it can be controlled by a single central
digital processor.
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SWITCHING
Switches used to be electro-mechanical in nature; most
are now digital
Digital switches are simply computers that make logical
routing decisions to connect circuits to complete calls
When a call is dialed, the end-office switch decides
whether it can handle the call or if it needs to pass it up

the hierarchy
Each switch in succession makes the decision to pass it
up or down the hierarchy until it reaches the end-office
that can complete the call
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SIGNALING
In order for the network to function properly, the various
components and elements must have the ability to signal
each other to indicate status and condition.
Signaling can be either:
In-band: takes place over the same physical path as
the conversation and occupy the same channel

Out-of-band: takes place over a separate channel or


physical path as the conversation

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SIGNALING
Signaling performs several functions:
Supervising: monitoring the status of a line
or circuit to see if it is busy, idle or requesting
service; and performing diagnostics
Alerting: indicates a specific condition such
as the arrival of an incoming call (ringing),
off-hook status (alert tone), busy signal, etc.
Addressing: transmitting routing, billing and
destination information
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SIGNALING MODELS
Point-to-Point Signaling
Point-to-Point signaling model is used to establish
and release connections between two end-points.
The is the most common model of signaling.
Not only is this model popular, it is also very
simple to implement.
Point-to-MultiPoint (PMP) Signaling
Point-to-MultiPoint signaling model is used to
establish and release connections between a root
and multiple end-points.
This form of signaling is mainly used for
multicasting or broadcasting applications (e.g.,
distant learning).
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SIGNALING

Basic Phases of a Call

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Basic Phases of a Call


Phase 1- When a customer trying to make call he will lift
the receiver. This intern will activate the telephone exchange
and immediately dial tone will be fed from the exchange to
indicate that exchange is waiting for the dialing digits.
Phase 2- Customer starts dialing. Normally this dialing
period is variable and usually around 10 seconds.
Phase 3- When customer dials the complete B number (call
number) the originating exchange will decide the route that
has to be activated and send the B number details in an
agreed protocol to the terminating exchange. The time taken
for this phase too is variable but maybe limited to the
maximum of one or two seconds.
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Basic Phases of a Call


Phase 4- When the terminating exchange finds the B

customer is free it will send ringing current to the B


customer and send Ring Back Tone to the A customer (A

is the originating customer). This period is a variable and


can go up even to two minutes until the B customer
answers. If B customer does not answer within two
minutes (can be programmed) A customer will be
disconnected.

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Basic Phases of a Call


Phase 5- When the B customer answers the terminating

exchange will remove Ring Back Tone and ringing current


and inform the answer condition to the originating

exchange. Normally this will take around 100-200ms and


generally is variable within millisecond periods.
Phase 6- A and B customers speaking. Without their
knowledge they will follow the following phases

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Public Circuit Switched Network

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INTERNET AND DATA


NETWORK (PSPDN)

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What Is the Internet?


Internet is the network of
networks i.e. a global network

which make WWW (world


wide web).
An Internet: A network of
networks of computer hosts
able
to
seamlessly
communicate - usually through
the Internet Protocol (IP)
and services

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Birth of the Net


The Internet grew out of an experiment in the
1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense. The
DoD wanted to create a computer network that
would continue to function in the event of a
disaster, such as a nuclear war. If part of the
network was damaged or destroyed, the rest of
the system still had to work. That network was
ARPANET, (Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network) which linked U.S. scientific
and academic researchers. It was the
forerunner of today's Internet.
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Internet Milestones
NSF Net
Originally called ARPANET, the created as US
Internet began as a militaryInternet
academic network
backbone

1969

1983

1986

ARPANET splits:
Milnet - for military
Internet - academic, education
and research purposes only

Commercial
access to the
Internet begins

1990

1994

Government
funding of the
backbone ends

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2007

Worldwide: Over
1 billion Internet
users

The Internet
Server

Internet
Text, Audio, Video,
and Graphics Data

Connection Using
TCP/IP Protocol

Client

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Internet Services
Electronic Mail (e-mail)
World Wide Web (WWW)
Chat
Internet News
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

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Internet

CELLULAR TELEPHONE
NETWORKS (PLMN)

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CELLULAR TELEPHONE NETWORKS


The public land mobile networks (PLMN) use a
landline component that employs many of the
basic principles of landline telephony, either
based on circuit or packet techniques.
However, they require additional functionality to
enable radio connections to be made to mobile
phones and to keep track of where the network
users are located.
Just as major change is reshaping fixed, or
landline, telephone networks, so, too, is massive
change being seen in mobile networks with
third-generation networks now being widely
introduced.
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Evolution of Wireless Technology


Broadband Wireless

4th Generation

2010

Digital, MultimediaCapable
IMT-2000

3rd Generation

2000

Digital (Speech + data)


EDGE, GPRS, IS-95 B,C

Generation 2+

1995
Digital (Speech)
GSM, IS-95, PDC

2nd Generation

1990

Analog
AMPS, TACS, JTACS

1st Generation
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1980

GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS

FIRST-GENERATION SYSTEMS
SECOND-GENERATION SYSTEMS
SECOND-AND-A-HALF GENERATION SYSTEMS
THIRD-GENERATION SYSTEMS

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GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS

1979-80 Came the first Cellular Mobile


system such as:

AMPS ( Advance Mobile Phone Service),USA


:800 MHz Band
NMT ( Nordic Mobile Telephony ), Sweden,
Denmark 450 Mhz, & 900 MHz
TACS ( Total Access Communication System),
UK 900 MHz
These were analog in Nature and known as

Generation System
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First

GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS


THE MOBILE SYSTEMS WORKING DURING EARLY 1980s
WERE INCOMPATIBLE & RESULTED IN MOBILE PHONES
DESIGNED FOR ONE SYSTEM COULD NOT BE USED WITH
OTHER SYSTEM.
IN 1982 CEPT (CONFEDERATION OF EUROPEAN POSTS &
TELECOMMUNICATION ) SET UP A COMMITTEE.
THIS COMMITTEE WAS KNOWN AS GROUP SPECIAL
MOBILE (GSM) & LATER KNOWN AS GLOBAL
SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS.
IN 1989 THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR FRAMING SPECS FOR
GSM WAS PASSED FROM CEPT TO ETSI (EUROPEAN
TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARD INSTITUTE) .
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GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS


During 1990 many digital mobile standards were

introduced in different regions/ countries


DAMPS

Digital

Advance

Mobile

Phone

for

Mobile

Service), USA: 800 Mhz.


GSM

Global

System

Communications), EUROPE: 900/1800 MHz.


CDMA ( Code Division Multiple Access )
These are known as 2nd Generation System (voice
& Data SMS)
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GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS


For introduction of data transfer capability on

the

Mobile

,additional

Hardware

was

introduced in GSM systems, known as GPRS (

General Packet Radio Service ) . These are


being referred as 2.5 Generation System

Data rate supported 64 kbps-144 kbps


ENHANCED DATA RATE FOR GSM EVOLUTION

EDGE-384 KBPS
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GENERATIONS OF CELLULAR SYSTEMS


Now
a
Global
Standard
IMT-2000
(International Mobile Telecom.-2000)
is
proposed which encapsulate all the existing
networks and different access technologies to
provide any time and any where type of
communication in very near future and known
as 3rd Generation standard.
Supports 2Mbps

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EVOLUTION TO IMT-2000/3G

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

IMT-2000
CAPABLE SYSTEMS

PDC

CdmaOne

TDMA
IS-136

TODAY 2G
9.6/14.4Kbps

WCDMA

Cdma 2000

TDMA/
GPRS

TDMA/
EDGE

3G

2000 EVOLVED 2G
64-115 Kbps

115-384 Kbps &384-2 Mbps

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Communication - Mobile

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Uplink and Downlink frequencies

Cell To Mobile Down Link


935-960 Mhz
1805-1880 Mhz

BTS

Mobile to Cell Up Link


890-915 Mhz
1710-1785 Mhz

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Multiple Access Techniques

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GSM Network Architecture


BSC
l

OMC
VMSC
A

BTS
BTS

BTS

TRAU

AUC

MSC

HLR
EIR

VLR

BTS

SMSC

BTS

BTS
BTS

BC

MS
BTS

BSC

SMSC : Short Message Service Center


VMSC : Voice Mail Service Center
BC : Billing Center
OMC : Operations and Maintenance Center

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PSTN

GSM Network Architecture

BTS : Base Transceiver Station


BSC : Base Station Controller
MS : Mobile Station
TRAU : Trans-coder Rate Adaptation Unit
MSC : Mobile Switching Center
HLR : Home Location Register
VLR : Visiting Location Register
AUC : Authentication Centre
EIR : Equipment Identity Register
SMSC : Short Message Service Center
VMSC : Voice Mail Service Center
BC : Billing Center
OMC : Operations and Maintenance Center
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Transition to NGN: Third wave


Today

Tomorrow

Internet

Telephone
network

IP-Network

Mobile radio
network

One network for everything


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Multimedia Access - Advantages:


Easy to handle
Reliable
Mobile

Next Generation Networks Technology

Present Day Networks

Next Generation Networks (NGN)

Internet

Integrated
Services
Over IP

Gateways
Wireless

POTS

Evolving towards All IP Communications


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NEXT GENERATION NETWORKS


It is a packet-based network that can use
multiple transport network technologies.
The transport network has QoS capabilities.
Service-related functions are separated from the
transport technologies.
The access and core networks are clearly
separated so that users can have a choice about
who delivers the services.
Generalized mobility is supported so that users
can have ubiquitous access to services.
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Transmission &
Systems

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ROLE OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM


Transmission is the process of transporting

information between end points of a system or


network. The end-to-end communication distance

is often very long and there are many electrical


systems on the line.

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Elements of a Transmission System

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Transport Network by Geography

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Conclusion
There are unprecedented developments

happening in
Access

Core
Transport
Client Devices
Convergence at every level

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For
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16-Feb-12