11174
PL
4
= 
(0.900)(8.0)
4
1.80 kipft
21.6 kipin.
(0.450)[96.0/2 9.75]
17.2 kipin.
V,
1.38kips
M,
P L
(1.38)(8.0)
=
= 2.76 kipft = 33.1 kipin,
4
4
_u_
M,
b)
c)
F,
Se
Mn
SeFy
(Eq. C3.1.1:
1.5 in.
Lh
4.5 in.
Check limi ts
dh/h
1.5/3.643
hit
= 0.143
in. OK
 Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
11175
= (hdh)/2
= 0.43
:aIculate
:operties.
f
=(3.6431.50)/2
first estmate
= fl = 50(4.00/2
porton
of web as a uniformly
compressed
unstiffened
= 1.072 in.
using similar
triangles
with gross
(Eq. B2.1S)
2
(29500) (0.0713)2
12 (1 0.32) 1.072
11:
=50.7ksi
J~r
(Eq. B2.14)
(Eq. B2.13)
= (10.22/A)/A
= (1 0.22/0.947)/0.947
= 0.811
=pw
(Eq. B2.12)
= (0.811)(1.072)
=0.869 in.
Since the web is not fully effective, the cross section is not eligible for design using the cold
work of forming provision in this area.
Check Flange and Lip
It can be shown that the flange and lip are fully effectve at this stress level (calculations
shown).
Recompute
not
Section Properties
Calculate the effective section modulus, Se, deducting both the 1.50 inch hole and the ineffective portion of the compression area of the web. Using the methods illustrated in the examples in Part 1, the effective flexural properties can be computed as:
ye
Iterations
The shift in the centroid causes a very slight change to the stress distribution and consequently a very small change in the value of h at the top of the flat width of the web, but not
enough to change the values calculated above.
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specifica .~
11176
(Eq. C3....:
Alternatively, M can be taken from Table 112. For a 400S16268 with Fy = 50 ksi,
M = 32.4 kipin.
d)
Available Strength
n,
o,
ShearStrength
a)
Required Strength
~Ekv/Fy = ~(29500)(5.34)/50
= 56.1
0.60Fy
(0.60)(50)
(Eq. C3.2.1= 30
ksi
(Eq. C3.2.11
e)
Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
11177
(Eq. C3.2.23)
= h/2dh/2
= 3.643/2 1.50/2 = 1.07 in.
e/ t = 1.07/0.0713 = 15.0
 ee 5 < e/ t < 54,
qs
ej(54t)
(Eq. C3.2.21)
= 1.07/[(54)(0.0713)J
v:
= 0.278
50 ksi,
Vn = 2.17 kips
Available 5trength
__Allowable 5trength
=1.60
~
Design 5trength
=0.95

QbM)2+(nv
 lnxo
::;;1.0
(Eq. C3.3.11)
Vn
1.67)(21.6))2 +((1.60)(0.450))2
37.9 .
7.79
(Eq. C3.3.11)
 tematively, this ease ean be eheeked with Table IlTl a. For a 400516268 with Fy = 50 ksi,
. g a required allowable moment, M, of 17.2 kipin., eonservatively interpolate the maxicmm permitted shear, V.
or M
=0.609kips>0.450kips
OK
11178
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Speciflcati
LRFD
Near the center of the beam (no holes)
M J2 + (  V J2
~bMnxo
~v
Vn
(Eq. 0
<10
_.
M =Mu
V =V,
2 + ( 0.690 J2
33.1
( (0.95)(37.9)
J (0.95)(7.79)
= O924 < 1 O OK
.
.
(Eq. C3
2 + ( 0.690 J2
26.4
( (0.95)(32.4)
J (0.95)(2.17)
(Eq.
O:
Alternatively, this case can be checked with Table Illlb. For a 400S16268with Fy = 50
using a required moment, Me. of 26.4 kipin., conservatively interpolate the maximum pe:mitted factored shear, Vu.
for M, = 21.8 kipin., Vu:S;1.46 kips
for M, = 26.7 kipin., Vu:S;1.03 kips
for M, = 26.4 kipin., interpolating,
Vu:S;1.03+(26.726.4)(1.46_1.03)
26.7 21.8
4.
Web CripplingStrength
a)
Required Strength
= V = 0.450 kips
Interior Condition
P
90 degrees
0.1070 in.
0.0713 in.
11179
Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
= 3.643 in.
End Condition
N
3.0 in.
Njt
Njh
Flange
=4
CR = 0.14
CN = 0.35
Ch = 0.02
Ow = 1.75
= 0.85
~w
Ct2FySme(1CR~)(l+CN~)( lCh~)
= (4)(0.0713)2 (50)sin(90)[1
(Eq. C3.4.11)
~o.om
3.643 )
0.0713
=2.36 kips
Alternatively, Pn can be conservatively interpolated from Table Il14. For a 400S16268 with
Fy = 50 ksi, fastened to support, case A:
for N = 2 in., Pn = 2.06 kips
for N = 4 in., P, = 2.61 kips
for N = 3 in., interpolating,
Interior Condition
N
5.0 in.
=13
CR = 0.23
Flange
11180
CN = 0.14
Ch = 0.01
!1w = 1.65
= 0.90
~w
Ct2FySll+CR~J(1+CN~J(lC JfJ
(Eq.
= (13)(0.0713)2 (50)Sin(90)(10.23
c:
3.643 J
0.0713
=4.79 kips
Alternatively, Pn can be conservatively interpolated from Table II14. For a 400516268 ,
F, = 50 ksi, fastened to support, case B:
for N = 4 in., P, = 4.51 kips
for N = 6 in., Pn = 5.03 kips
for N = 5 in., interpolating,
e)
Re = 1.010.325dh/h
= 8.25 in.
+ 0.083x/h ~ 1.0
in.,
Re = 1.00
Interior Condition
x
= 7.25
= RcPn
= (0.986)(
= 0.986 <
1.0 OK
Alternatively, Re can be conservatively interpolated from Table II16a. For depth = 4 in.,
for x = 4 in., Re = 0.94
for x = 8 in., Re = 0.99
for x = 7.25 in., interpolating,
Re = 0.94+(7.254)(0.99_0.94)
84
= 0.98
~=am Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
11181
Available Strength
 3D Allowable Strength
End Condition
0w = 1.75
Pn = 2.36 = 1.35 kips > 0.450 kips OK
0w 1.75
Interior Condition
0w = 1.65
Pn = 4.72 = 2.86 kips > 0.900 kips OK
0w 1.65
:..RFD Design Strength
End Condition
<I>w =0.85
<pwPn= (0.85)(2.36)=2.01kips>
0.690kips OK
Interior Condition
<pw =0.90
<l>wP=
n (0.90)(4.72) = 4.25kips > 1.38 kips OK
5.
1.33
(Eq. C3.5.11)
1.33
1.70
0.91(P]+(
Pn
M ]:S::1.33<P
Mnxo
P =P,
M =M,
0.91(1.38) + (33.1):s:: 1.33(0.90)
4.72
37.9
1.14 < 1.20 OK
(Eq. C3.5.21)
11182
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specifica 
C' = 0.773
inTI
tt ..
R = 0.1875 In. ,
I,
I+H_X"'D+I
X_
s.c.
in.
in.
.
B' = 2.500
A' = 9.000
Given:
1. Steel: Fy = 55 ksi
2. Section: 9CS2.5x059
3. Gross Section Properties (from Example 11or Table 11)
t,
= 10.3 in."
xo = 1.66 in.
s, = 2.29 n.'
J = 0.00102in.4
m = 1.05 in.
x = 0.641in.
Cw
= 11.9 in.6
y = 4.859 in.
5. The member is a simply supported beam spanning 25 feet supporting a uniformly distriruted loado
6. The load is applied vertically in the plane of the web.
7. The beam has torsional braces at both ends of the member and at the brace points specfe;
below.
Required:
Determine the nominal flexural strength,
based on initiation of yielding of the effecti
section considering the effects of torsion. Consider aIternate conditions of:
M11!
~m
11183
Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
 uiion:
A torsional reduction factor, R, is calculated using Section C3.6 and applied to the nominal
strength calculated using Section C3.1.1(a). Note that this reduction factor is not applied to
other limit states, such as lateraltorsional buckling or distortional buckling.
This solution is based on the method described in the AISC Steel Design Cuide Series 9:
"Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members"7 (DC 9). The actualloading is modeled
by superimposing the three conditions as shown in the figure below.
d along
veb
Load through
shear center
Simple
bending
Loading = #1
t,
Distributed
torque
DG 9 Case 4
tr=wxo
Brace at
midspan
DG 9 Case 3
a. = 0.5
Ti
Brace at
1/3 points
DG 9 Case 3
a. = 0.33 and 0.67
T2 = T2
#3
#3A
#2
Torsional warping stresses are calculated using the second derivative of the angle of rotation, S, with respect to the position, z, along the length of the member.
The sign convention for use with all torsion
expressions are shown in the figure to the
right. Note that calculated values for 8 and
S" may be either positive or negative. The
proper sign for these calculated values must
be used for torsional stress calculations. Calculated positive values are in the directions
shown.
~...
+!
\~
,
';
,
,
,
,
Compression
~1',
,r' Zdirection
Point A
\
\
\
\
\
\
_?.), Compression
burg, P_Aand Carter, C], "TorsionalAnalysisof Structural SteelMembers SteelDesign Guide Se
11184
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specifica . 
For the snglysymmetric channel, only the compression side need be checked for combined
bending and warping.
Normal Stresses Due to Warping
= EWns8"
~s
where Wns are normalized warping functions (section properties) of the crosssection at
each point of consideration given by:
Point A, at tip of flange stiffener
WA = a:(~b)
c(m+b)
a:(mb)
= ''
8.941 in.
0.744 in.
(8.941)(1.052.441)
2
.
(0.744)(1.05+2.441) =8.82 m.2
WB =
(8.941)(1.05  2.441)
= 6.22 in.?
2
Wc =
(8.941)(1.05)
=4.69 in.?
2
Formulas for rotation due to a number of torsionalloadings are given in Appendix C.4 of DG 9.
Summarized below are those used in subsequent calculations.
For Loading #2 above, use DG 9 Case 4  Uniforrnly distributed torque on member with pinned
ends.
8t =tra [r:(z
 Z2J +cosh (z)
 tanh (L).
 sinh (z)
 1.0
GJ 2a2 L L2
a
2a
a
where
a=JE~Jw
Differentiating twice with respect to z yields
'='
Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
11185
and
8~ =~[[Sjnh(
~)
aGJ
tanh(~)
COSh(aL)lSinh(~)l
a
a
ote that the reduction factor, R, defined in Eq. C3.61, is a ratio of calculated stresses.
These calculated stresses are directly proportional to the value of the applied uniform loado
Thus a load of any magnitude can be used to calculate R. In this example, a load of w = 10
pounds/ foot is used.
MidSpan Bracing
M
9.38(4.8590.773)_
9.18
fbB = fbe = 
4.18
k.
SI
9.38( 4.859)
.
= 4.97ksl
9.18
where
t =
r
a=
10(1.05)
. . .
(
) = 0.000875 kipin.Zin.
12 1000
29500(11.9) = 175 in.
11300(0.00102)
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Spf>ri=_~:T
11186
z = 150 in.
= 0.000875(175)2
. St
(1.71)2(
2)
)
2
0.500(0.500) + cosh(0.857
,''':1
21.2 X 106
SI
z a 'nhaLa
aL.]
z
(1.00,)+coshsinheJ
L L [ tanh L
a
a
a
r
ST =
and
S~ =~r[Sinh~
+cosh aL]Sinh~l
aeJ
tanh L
a
a
a
Set T = 1.0 to find the rotation per kipin.
eT
S" =
T
1.0(300)
[
1 (Sinh(0.5(l.71))
J .
(
) (10.5)0.5+()
cosh(0.5(l.71)) sinh(0.85/
11300 0.00102
1.71
tanh 1.71
1.21 radians
1.0
[(Sinh(0.5(l.71)) h(O 5(1 71))J inh(O 857)]
175(11300)(0.00102)
tanh(l.71)
cos
..
s
.
172 X 106
Calculate the required value of torque provided by midspan brace to prevent rotaton at midspan.
S
et+TIeT=0.199+TI(1.21)=0
TI
0.164 kipin.
e; + TI e; = 21.2x106
0.164( 172
106 )
en
= 7.01 X 106

11187
Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
f.vA=0.207(8.82)=1.83ksi
f.vB= 0.207 (6.22) = 1.29 ksi
f.vc = 0.207( 4.69) = 0.971 ksi
::EIIDine the location o the maximum
combined
stress.
CONTROLS
factor.
fbending
(Eq. C3.61)
fbending+ ftorsion
4.97
= 0.794
4.97 1.29
~ote that this value occurs at the intersection
crease is permitted.
  zulate the nominal
yielding
no in
strength.
Mn = RSeFy
= (0.794)(1.89)(55)
applicable
= 82.5 kipin,
(not shown) .
. dPoint Bracing
_ this condition, stresses are calculated at both the thirdpoints and at midspan, since it is not
ious by inspection which location will govem.
Superimpose the stresses from Loadings #1,
:  d #3A. Use DG 9 Case 3 to calculate e and e" at these points due to the torsional restraint
ri ded by the braces. The value of the torque at the brace points is calculated by requiring
= fue value of be zero at these two points. Note by symmetry, the torques at the braces are
~ . g #1  Simple bending
through
wL2
= 9=
10(25)212
9(1000)
calculated.
..
=8.33 kipin.
= Lj3 = 100
in.
= 4.41 ksi
Distributed
are aspreviously
zjL
= 0.333
calculated.
z/a
Those at thirdpoints
= 0.571
are:
11188
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specifica '_
0.000875(175)2
(1.71)2(
2)
2
0.333(0.333) +cosh(0.571)
0.173rads
By symmetry, rotation at the 2/3 point is equal to the rotation at the 1/3 point: 8tl/3= 8e:
0875
0'7
)[1.0+COSh(0.571)tanh(1.71)Sinh(0.571)]
11300 0.00102
2
8;1/3 =
19.0
106
By syrnmetry, 8" at the 2/3 point is equal to 8"at the 1/3 point: 8;2/3 = 8;1/3
Loading #3A  Braces at thirdpoints  Use DG 9 Case 3 with a
= 0.667
Apply the brace torque at 2/3 point and calculate 8T and 8~ at z = L/3, z = L/2 and z =
2L/3.
For z
L/3
8Tl/3 =
100 and a
0.667
1.0/300) )l(10.667)0.333+_1_[SW;~~;;~~1))
]SiOO(0.571)]
11300 0.00102
1.71
(
)
cosh 0.667(1.71)
0.826radians
)J
8"
1.0
[(SiOO(0.667(1.71))
(
Tl/3  175(11300)(0.00102)
taOO(1.71)
cosh 0.667(1.71) sinh(0.571)
=
67.1 x 106
"8Tl/2 =
1.03 radians
1.0
[(SiOO(0.667(1.71))
(
)(
)
()
cosh(0.667(1.71))
175 11300 0.00102
tanh 1.71
108
J sIOO(0.857)
.
1
106
0.982radians
gn for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
8T2/3 
1.0
[(Sinh(0.667(1.71))
(
)(
)
()
175 11300 0.00102
tanh 1.71
= 156
cosh(0.667(1.71))
11189
J sinh(1.14)
.
1
106
"te the value of the torques at thirdpoints required to prevent rotation at those brace
81/3 = Stl/3 + T2STl/3+ T2ST2/3= 0.173 + 0.826T2 + 0.982T2 = O
T2
= 0.0957 kipin.
_':ermine the location of the maximum combined flexural and warping stress.
fA=fbA +~A =3.710.611=4.32ksi
fB= fbB+ ~B = 4.41 0.431 = 4.84 ksi
CONTROLS
4.41
= 0.911
4.41 0.431
(Eq. C3.61)
ate the nominal yielding strength at the 1/3 and 2/3 points.
Mn
RSeFy
= (0.911)(1.89)(55) = 94.7kipin.
""xulate torsional warping stress es at midspan.
 z = L/2
Si/2 = 8;1/2+ 2T2Si1/2 = 21.2xl06
= 0.529
~
+ 2( 0.0957)( 108xl06)
106
11190
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specifica :
~c
= 0.0156(
4.69) = 0.0732ksi
Determine the location of the maximum combined flexural and warping stress.
fA = fbA+ fwA= 4.18 + 0.138 = 4.04 ksi
fB= fbB+ ~B = 4.97 + 0.0970 = 4.87 ksi
fe = fbC+ ~c = 4.97  0.0732 = 5.04 ksi
CONTROLS
4.97
4.97  0.0732
= 1.13
> 1.0
(Eq. C3.6_
Since R exceeds 1.0, take R as 1.0 at midspan. The 15% increase is permitted since the maxim
combined stress occurs at the junction of the flange and web.
Calculate the nominal yielding strength at midspan.
Mn
RSeFy
(1.0)(1.89)(55)
= 104 kipin.
3eam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
11191
3.0 in.
O+lfl
3.0 in.
O+lfj
12.0 in.
3.0 in.
O+lfl
3.0 in.
V/////
l.
4.0 in.
 ~en:
uired:
Calculate the available bearing strength of the joist section with the Csection bearing stiffener using both ASD and LRFD
:: tution:
~culate
~e Section C3.7.1if the w I t, limits for the stiffener are not exceeded.
Check Applicability
D 2(R +ts)
3.6252(0.0765+0.0346) =98.3
0.0346
Limit= 1.28M
= 1.28~29500/33 = 38.3< 98.3 NG; therefore, try Section C3.7.2
2. Check Applicability Limits for Section C3. 7.2
1) The stiffener has full bearing; therefore, use 100% of the calculated capacity. OK
_) The stiffener is a Csection with a web depth of 3.625 in. > 3.5 in. minimum. The stiffener
has a thickness of 0.0346in. > 0.0329in. minimum. OK
3) The stiffener is attached to the flexural member with three screws. OK
~) The distance from the flexural member flanges to the first fastener is d/4 > d/8 minimum.
OK
5) The length of the stiffener is equal to the depth of the flexural member. OK
6) The bearing width is greater than 1112in. OK
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specifican
11192
2. Calculate
(Eq. C3.7_:
e N = 4 in.
(Eq. C3.7__
(Eq. A4.1.1:
(Eq. A5.1.::
3eam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
ample 111.2: WebStiffened
11193
IO.875 in.
2.25 in.
0.500 in.
0.625 in.
I""
8.00 in.
2.25 in.
0.0451 in.
2.50 in.
~I
roen:
Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi
Sigma section (Csection with web stiffener) as shown above
is a simply supported
flexural member
flexural strengths
J.
The member
buckling.
equired:
procedure
~olution:
Although the Direct Strength method may be used for any crosssection, it is particularly well
suited to this example, since the crosssection is somewhat complex and the Specification has no
rovisions for the complex edge stiffeners on the flanges.
Perform a finite strip analysis
A finite strip analysis of the crosssection is performed using a program such as CUFSM8. A
ure flexural stress distribution is assumed with the extreme fibers at Fy. Results from the
analysis include the bending moment under the assumed stress distribution, My, and a graph of
the section buckling strength versus unbraced length, shown below.
From the analysis:
ield moment
M,
<
86.4 kipin,
Schafer, B.W., dny, S. "Buckling analysis of coldformed steel members using CUFSM: conventional
and constrained finite strip methods." Eighteenth International Specialty Conference on ColdFormed
Steel Structures, Orlando, FL. October 2006. Available at www.ce.jhu.edujbschaferjcufsm
Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specicet 
11194
kipin.
,,""
'"''''''''''"''
~,
,,
..
",,,,
...
t:=::J
'
r"t:lt:.Io..,_
..... _.~'.~
tFSMI~C1~.jiQl'I
. ,1
0;;;;;_1;;....
2.
Per section 1.2.2 of Appendix 1, take M, as the lowest of the nominal strengths for lateraltorsional buckling, Mne,local buckling, Mne and distortional buckling, Mnd.
1)
Lateraltorsional buckling: In this case, since the member is fully braced against lateraltorsional buckling,
Mne = M, = 86.4 kipin.
(Eq. 1.2.23
2)
Local buckling:
Al
~Mne/Mcre
~86.4/82.9 = 1.02
Since
(Eq.1.2.2
x, >0.776,
rJ(~:r Mne
Mnt = [1015(~:
=
3)
(Eq.1.2.26)
Distortional buckling:
Ad
(Eq.1.2.210
~My/Merd
~86.4/100
0.93
Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
inee
~M
x, >0.673,
=
[1022[~d
1 0.22( 100
86.4
rl~7rM,
)0.5)(
100
86.4
)0.5 86.4
11195
(Eq. 1.2.28)
= 71.0 kipin,
The nominal flexural strength is therefore 71.0 kipin, governed by distortional buekling.
Calculate the available strengths
the limitations for prequalified beams in Table 1.1.12 to determine the appropriate
gth reduetion faetors. Sinee there is no prequalified eategory for Csections with web stiffand eomplex lips, use the strength reduetion faetors from Seetion Al.2(b)

 Allowable strength
M, _71.0 355. ki pm.
.
n 2.00
(Eq. A4.1.11)
(Eq. A5.1.11)
mn Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
1111
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART 11I
COLUMN DESIGN
For Use With the
2007 Edition of the
North American Specification for the Design
of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
11I1
11I2
11I3
11I4
11I5
11I6
Example 11I7
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
11I8
11I9
11I10
11I11
11I12
45
46
50
55
63
67
71
74
76
80
86
92
97
Column Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Speci
1112
DESIGN
Specification Section C4 includes provisions for the evaluation of these limit states. For col
that are parts of certain structural systems, Section D6 includes provisions that supersede
of the general provisions of Section C4 .
Overall and Local Buckling: The strength of all columns is limited by the combined limit state
global and local buckling, which is evaluated using Section C4.1. Although the specifics v~
somewhat for different crosssection shapes, the general procedure involves 1) determination
the elastic column buckling stress, 2) transformation of the elastic buckling stress to a critical
buckling stress, taking into account the effects of inelasticity and 3) determination of the effective area with the section at the critical buckling stress. See Manual Section 3.6 and Examples and 110 through 113 for further information on the calculation of effective area of compre __
members.
The elastic buckling stress is taken as the lowest of the applicable buckling stresses for flexura
(Euler) buckling, torsional buckling and flexuraltorsional buckling. All crosssections are surject to flexural buckling about their principal axes, per Section C4.1.1.
All doublysymmetric sections and most singlysymmetric sections, such as Cshapes, are su ject to flexuraltorsional buckling per Section C4.1.2. Unlipped singlysymmetric angles havi _
fully effective areas, Ae, at a stress of Fy are exempt from the flexuraltorsional provisions an
designed based on flexural buckling about the principal axis. Pointsymmetric sections, such zs
Zshapes, are subject torsional and flexural buckling per Section C4.1.3.
Section D6 of the Specification provides specialized provisions for the flexuraltorsional bucklir ;
of compression members that are elements of metal roof and wall systems, including throughfastened purlins and girts and standing seam roofs.
Distortonal Buckling: The distortional buckling limit state involves the crosssectional deformations of two or more elements acting as a group, e.g., the rotation of the flange and lip of a Cshape about the webtoflange junction. The Specification provides three levels of provisions f _
this limit state in Section C4.2. Section C4.2(a) requires a simple calculation using basic cros section dimensions and produces a conservative, and sometimes very conservative, result. 1: approach can sometimes be used to quickly establish that distortional buckling is not a controlling limit state. For those cases where the extra work is justified, Section C4.2(b) can be used,
which requires considerably more complex calculations, but produces accurate results. Secti
C4.2(c) provides a framework for the use of computerized numerical methods to evaluate distortional buckling. This approach requires fewer calculations than Section C4.2(b) and is especially useful for crosssections that do not meet the limits of applicability of the other two approaches. For all three approaches, the general procedure involves 1) determination of the elastic distortional buckling stress, 2) determination of the corresponding elastic buckling force using the gross area of the crosssection and 3) transformation of the elastic buckling force to a
nominal axial strength, taking into account the effects of inelasticity and postbuckling streng
For members whose required strengths are determined by firstorder analysis, combined flexure and axial force must be checked using Section CS. Altematively, Appendix 2 permits the
use of secondorder analysis for the determination of required strengths. In this case, Section
CS is still used to evaluate members subject to combined flexure and axial force, but the moment modifiers and effective length factors used in Section CS are set to unity.
_ n Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specification
1113
a)
b)
e)
d)
e)
f)
a)
;)
)
,}
With the exception of the SSMA studs and tracks, the sections listed in these tables are
not necessarily stock sections. They are included primarily as a guide in the design of
coldformed steel structural members.
The section designations listed in these tables correspond to those for which dimensions and properties are given in Tables 11,12and 13.
Tabulated properties and capacities are shown to three significant figures.
Where they apply, the algebraic formulae presented in Section 3 of Part 1 formed the
basis of the calculations for these tables.
The strengths listed in Tables III1 to III9 inclusive were computed using the yield
stress listed in the tables. Cold work of forming increases were not included.
Tables III1, III2 and III3 give the nominal axial strength, Pn, for fu11ybraced Csections at the yield stress listed in the respective tables. Distortional buckling is not
considered.
The values labeIed Pweb,Pflange
and Plipin Tables III1, III2 and I113are the highest
nominal forces at which the web, flange and lip (if applicable) respectiveIy are fu11yeffective. These values are only meaningful where they do not exceed Pnofor the section
and yield stress in question. A vaIue of 0.00 for Pwebin Table III2 indicates that a reduction in web area is required at any stress level when standard punchouts are used.
Tables III4, III5 and III6 give tabuIated criticaI buckling lengths, stiffness coefficients, elastic buckling stresses and nominal axiaI strengths for the limit state of distortional buckling for use with Section C4.2(b). Rotational restraint from sheathing or
discrete bracing is not considered in the values given for the stiffness coefficients, elastic buckling stresses and nominal flexural strengths. To incorporate the strength increases resulting from significant continuous rotational bracing or discrete distortional
bracing spaced at Iess than Ler,use the provisions of Section C4.2(b) or C4.2(c).
Tables III7, III8 and III9 give the nominal axial strength, Pn, for Csections with varying x and yaxis unbraced Iengths. In a11cases, the torsional unbraced length is assumed to equal the yaxis unbraced Iength and K, = K, = 1.0. Lengths are arbitrarily
cut off at a KL/rx ratio of approximately 100.
The calculated values in Tables III1 through III9 are nominal strengths. These values
must be modified by a safety factor, Qc, for ASO or a resistance factor <Pc, for LRFD.
See the appropriate Specification section for more information.
The effects of standard factory punchouts in SSMA studs have been included in Tables
III2 and III8. These punchouts are considered in SSMA studs with flange widths of
1.625in. or less. Standard punchout sizes are 1.5 in. by 4.5 in. for sections with depths
of 3.5 inches or more and 0.75 in. by 4.5 in. for sections with shallower depths.
Dashes in the place of data vaIues in the P, columns of Tables III2, III3 and III5 indicate that the section is not available in the listed grade of steel. Blank data values in
TabIes III7, III8 and III9 indicate that the section is not avaiIable in the listed grade
of steel or that KL/ry exceeds 200.
Nominal Axial Strength Tables  Braced Columns
1114
Column Design for Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specica;
Table 11I1
Braced Column Properties
nc
at rr,
kips 1
r,
Section
12CS4xl05
12CS4x085
12CS4x070
33
55
ksi
ksi
Pn
Maximum
Effective Force, kips
Pflange
8.99
45.8
12CS2.5x070
54.9
41.2
Pweb
13.2
8CS2x085
12.9
8CS2x070
27.0
20.7
8.56
54.0
41.2
8CS2x065
18.7
44:9
4.51
30.8
24.5
8CS2x059
16.5
25.1
33.0
2.51
18.5
15.6
7CS4xl05
45.7
62.5
21.7
44.0
l1A
25.1
6.91
31.8
3.83
28.8
3.06
2.28
62.0
7.70
82.2
70.1
7CS4x085
32.2
44.6
4.06
2.25
47.0
28.3
41.2
7CS4x070
23.8
32.7
23A
44.8
31.8
25.9
7CS4x065
21.2
29.1
6.28
5.02
10CS4xl05
47.1
63.9
45.3
33.3
7CS4x059
18.2
24.9
3.74
10CS4x085
32.9
24.2
45.3
6.29
25.8
20.0
39.1
60.1
33.1
3A9
15A
12.7
7CS2.5xl05
7CS2.5x085
29.5
43.9
2.79
11.3
10CS4x070
10CS4x065
10CS3.5xl05
10CS3.5x085
10CS3.5x070
10CS3.5x065
21.5
29A
45.7
32.7
63.0
44.7
23.8
21.3
32.9
29.3
61.5
40.4
Pflange
15.6
2.63
40.9
30.5
ksi
26.0
4.74
12CS2.5xl05
12CS2.5x085
55
ksi
12.0
5.96
3.31
2.64
10.1
Maximum
Effective Force, kip:
36.2
33.3
63.5
24.0
33
0.85
8CS2xl05
24.3
12CS3.5x070
Plip
at rr,
kips 1
Fy
1.80
33.8
20.2
64A
45.6
46.2
33.0
Section
Pweb
47.6
33.1
12CS3.5xl05
12CS3.5x085
~c
=
=
108
62.1
37.7
30.9
23.3
15.0
12.4
9.63
p103
59._
37.31..':
25.=
32.=
19_
12.~
ro.s
8':=
80A
68::
9.22
46.0
40
25.21....!.
17.6
12.7
10.8
7CS2.5x070
22.9
31.3
5.10
27.8
53.5
30.5
40.7
24.2
7CS2.5x065
7CS2.5x059
20.8
27.7
4.07
23.0
18.0
24.1
18A
15.2
81.7
15A
13.0
6CS4xl05
6CS4x085
45.0
31.8
61.7
44.2
69.6
6CS4x070
23.5
32.5
3.03
28.5
14.9
8.23
10CS2.5xl05
10CS2.5x085
30.2
44.6
5.29
46.7
40.9
6CS4x065
21.0
28.9
6.57
10CS2.5x070
23.3
31.7
2.94
28.2
25.8
6CS4x059
18.1
24.8
4.89
10CS2.5x065
21.1
28.0
2.35
23.3
21.7
6CS2.5xl05
38.3
59A
43.5
18.0
43.2
24.7
14.8
12.2
9.50
17_
31..2
18.
12.':
10.~
8.3..:
22.8
79.6
67.::
11.9
45.6
39.
10CS2xl05
10CS2x085
36.9
27A
55.7
41.6
9A3
4.96
109
62.5
104
60.3
6CS2.5x085
6CS2.5x070
29.1
22.6
31.1
10CS2x070
20.9
32.0
2.75
38.0
37.7
6CS2.5x065
20.6
27.6
6.58
5.25
27.6
22.8
25
21..2
10CS2x065
18.9
29.0
2.20
31.1
31.6
6CS2.5x059
17.8
24.0
3.91
17.8
17.'::
27.~
16.11..
9CS2.5xl05
40.1
61.1
9CS2.5x085
30.0
44A
9CS2.5x070
23.2
9CS2.5x065
21.0
9CS2.5x059
8CS4xl05
11.8
81.4
69.3
4CS4xl05
41.1
58.8
51.6
39.3
6.20
46.5
40.8
4CS4x085
30.2
27.8
31.6
3A4
28.1
25.7
4CS4x070
22.7
42.7
31.6
15.8
22.7
13.8
28.0
2.75
23.2
21.7
4CS4x065
20.3
28.2
12.8
11A
18.2
24.3
2.05
18.1
17.4
4CS4x059
17.6
24.3
46.3
63.1
44.6
4CS2.5xl05
34A
56.4
47.7
76.7
64.:::
8.92
9 ~
tss
8CS4x085
32.5
44.9
9.05
25A
32.5
19.5
4CS2.5x085
27.6
41.9
24.7
44.0
38.::
8CS4x070
23.9
32.9
5.01
15.2
12.5
4CS2.5x070
21.8
30.2
13.6
26.7
24.~
8CS4x065
29.2
4.00
12.5
19.9
26.9
10.8
2.98
4CS2.5x059
17.3
23.5
22.1
17.3
20.
25.0
10.6
8.56
4CS2.5x065
8CS4x059
21.3
18.3
8CS3.5xl05
44.9
62.2
8CS3.5x085
32.3
44.3
8.51
8CS3.5x070
23.6
21.1
32.7
8CS3.5x065
29.1
8CS3.5x059
18.2
25.0
8CS2.5xl05
8CS2.5x085
8CS2.5x070
44.2
31.4
7A4
4.13
8CS2.5x065
39.6
29.8
23.0
20.9
18.1
27.9
24.2
3.29
8CS2.5x059
60.7
17.2
9.70
16.2
9.73
8.02
16.c
52.7
27.3
4CS2xl05
31.6
51.7
43.8
103
104
16.7
4CS2x085
25.3
39.8
22.7
58A
4.72
30.1
18.2
11.0
4CS2x070
19.9
31.3
12.5
33.8
59.=
35.
3.77
15.0
9.38
4CS2x065
18.2
2.81
11.7
7.68
4CS2x059
16.1
28A
24.5
14.2
2A6
80.9
46.3
28.0
23.1
18.1
64.5
38.3
24.3
20.6
16.6
9.92
27A
28.
7.37
20.7
21.8
Oesign tor Use with the 2007 North American ColdFormed Steel Specitication
_ "al strengths given are nominal strengths. To obtain the available strength, these
values must be modified by safety factors (ASD)or resistance factors (LRFD).
and Plip are the highest nominal axial compression forces at which the
"eb, flange and lip, respectively, are fully effective.
reb, Pflange
Distortional
1115