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# Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specificatio'"

11-174

M

PL
4

= -

(0.900)(8.0)
4

1.80 kip-ft

21.6 kip-in.

M

## V[L/2 -(12.0 - 2.25)J

(0.450)[96.0/2 -9.75]

17.2 kip-in.

P,

V,

1.38kips

## At center, away from holes

M,

P L
(1.38)(8.0)
=
= 2.76 kip-ft = 33.1 kip-in,
4
4

_u_

M,

b)

## Flexural Strength without Holes

The member is not subject to lateral-torsional buckling, so compute strength using Section
C3.1.1 with effective section modulus, Se,at f = Fy.
It can be shown that, in the area without holes, the section is eligible for strength increase

c)

F,

Se

Mn

SeFy

(Eq. C3.1.1-:

## Nominal Flexural Strength with Holes

The member is not subject to lateral-torsional buckling, so compute strength using Section
C3.1.1 with effective section modulus, Se,at f = Fy.
Check web using Section B2.4 - "C-Section Webs with Holes under Stress Gradient".
dh

1.5 in.

Lh

4.5 in.

Check limi ts
dh/h

1.5/3.643

hit

## Holes are centered at mid-depth of web OK

Clear distance between holes = 24.0 - 4.5 = 19.5 in. > 18.0 in. OK

Li, = 4.5 in. OK

## 0.25 in. > (2)(0.0713)

= 0.143

in. OK

-- Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

11-175

## dh> 9/16 in. OK

Since dh/h > 0.38, treat compression
element as follows:
w

= (h-dh)/2

= 0.43

:aIculate
:operties.
f

=(3.643-1.50)/2

first estmate

= fl = 50(4.00/2

## F" = k 12(:2~ ~2) (:

= 0.43

porton

of web as a uniformly

compressed

unstiffened

= 1.072 in.

using similar

triangles

with gross

## -0.0713 - 0.1070J = 45.5ksi

4.00/2

(Eq. B2.1-S)

2
(29500) (0.0713)2
12 (1- 0.32) 1.072
11:

=50.7ksi

J~r

(Eq. B2.1-4)

## = ~45.5 = 0.947> 0.673 :. web is subject to local buckling

50.7
p

(Eq. B2.1-3)

= (1-0.22/A)/A
= (1- 0.22/0.947)/0.947

= 0.811

=pw

(Eq. B2.1-2)

= (0.811)(1.072)

=0.869 in.

Since the web is not fully effective, the cross section is not eligible for design using the cold
work of forming provision in this area.
Check Flange and Lip
It can be shown that the flange and lip are fully effectve at this stress level (calculations
shown).
Recompute

not

Section Properties

Calculate the effective section modulus, Se, deducting both the 1.50 inch hole and the ineffective portion of the compression area of the web. Using the methods illustrated in the examples in Part 1, the effective flexural properties can be computed as:
ye

## Ixe = 1.32 in.s

Sxe = 0.648 in.>
Further

Iterations

The shift in the centroid causes a very slight change to the stress distribution and consequently a very small change in the value of h at the top of the flat width of the web, but not
enough to change the values calculated above.

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specifica .~-

11-176

Mn -s,r,

(Eq. C3....:

## (0.648)(50) = 32.4 kip-in.

Alternatively, M can be taken from Table 11-2. For a 400S162-68 with Fy = 50 ksi,
M = 32.4 kip-in.
d)

Available Strength

## ASD Allowable Strength

Qb =1.67
At center, away from holes
Mn

n,

1.67

Mn

o,

1.67

## LRFD Design Strength

Q>b =0.95
At center, away from holes
Q>bMn = (0.95)(37.9) = 36.0 kip-in. > 33.1 kip-in. OK
At holes nearest center
Q>bMn = (0.95)(32.4) = 30.8 kip-in. > 26.4 kip-in. OK
2.

ShearStrength

a)

Required Strength

## ASD Required Strength

V = 0.450 kips (from above)
LRFD Required Strength
Vu = 0.690 kips (from above)
b)

hit

## 51.1 (computed above)

~Ekv/Fy = ~(29500)(5.34)/50

= 56.1

P,

0.60Fy

(0.60)(50)

(Eq. C3.2.1= 30

ksi
(Eq. C3.2.1-1

e)

## Shear Strength with Holes - Section C3.2.2

Limits same as those checked above OK

Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

11-177

(Eq. C3.2.2-3)

= h/2-dh/2
= 3.643/2 -1.50/2 = 1.07 in.

e/ t = 1.07/0.0713 = 15.0
- ee 5 < e/ t < 54,
qs

ej(54t)

(Eq. C3.2.2-1)

= 1.07/[(54)(0.0713)J

v:

= 0.278

## _ ternatively, V, ean be taken from Table U-2. For a 4005162-68 with F,

50 ksi,

Vn = 2.17 kips
Available 5trength
__Allowable 5trength
=1.60
~

1.60

Design 5trength
=0.95
-

## _-ear the eenter of the beam (no holes)

V)2

QbM)2+(nv

- lnxo

::;;1.0

(Eq. C3.3.1-1)

Vn

1.67)(21.6))2 +((1.60)(0.450))2
37.9 .
7.79

## _-_edge of the hole closest to the eenter

1.67)(17.2))2 + ((1.60)(0.450))2
32.4
2.17

## = 0.947 < 1.0 OK

(Eq. C3.3.1-1)

- tematively, this ease ean be eheeked with Table Il-Tl a. For a 4005162-68 with Fy = 50 ksi,

. g a required allowable moment, M, of 17.2 kip-in., eonservatively interpolate the maxicmm permitted shear, V.
or M

## or M = 18.7 kip-in., V::;;0.351 kips

or M = 17.2 kip-in., interpolating,
V::;; 0.351+(18.7-17.2)(0.678_0.351)
18.7 -16.8

=0.609kips>0.450kips

OK

11-178

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Speciflcati

LRFD
Near the center of the beam (no holes)

-M J2 + ( -- -V J2
~bMnxo

~v

Vn

(Eq. 0--

<10
_.

M =Mu
V =V,

2 + ( 0.690 J2
33.1
( (0.95)(37.9)
J (0.95)(7.79)

= O924 < 1 O OK
.
.

(Eq. C3-

2 + ( 0.690 J2
26.4
( (0.95)(32.4)
J (0.95)(2.17)

## = 0.921 < 1.0 OK

(Eq.

O:

Alternatively, this case can be checked with Table Il-llb. For a 400S162-68with Fy = 50
using a required moment, Me. of 26.4 kip-in., conservatively interpolate the maximum pe:mitted factored shear, Vu.
for M, = 21.8 kip-in., Vu:S;1.46 kips
for M, = 26.7 kip-in., Vu:S;1.03 kips
for M, = 26.4 kip-in., interpolating,
Vu:S;1.03+(26.7-26.4)(1.46_1.03)
26.7 -21.8
4.

Web CripplingStrength

a)

Required Strength

## ASD Required Strength

End Condition
P

= V = 0.450 kips

Interior Condition
P

## LRFD Required Strength

End Condition
P, = Vu = 0.690 kips
Interior Condition
Pu =
b)

## Web Crippling Strength without Holes - Section C3.4.1

90 degrees

0.1070 in.

0.0713 in.

11-179

Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

= 3.643 in.

End Condition
N

3.0 in.

Check limits
hjt

Njt

Njh

C

Flange

=4

CR = 0.14
CN = 0.35
Ch = 0.02
Ow = 1.75

= 0.85

~w

## R/t = 0.1070/0.0713 = 1.50 < 9 OK

Po =

Ct2FySme(1-CR~)(l+CN~)( l-Ch~)

= (4)(0.0713)2 (50)sin(90)[1-

(Eq. C3.4.1-1)

~o.om

## 0.14 0.1070 )[1 + 0.35 /3.0)[1-0.02

0.0713

3.643 )
0.0713

=2.36 kips
Alternatively, Pn can be conservatively interpolated from Table Il-14. For a 400S162-68 with
Fy = 50 ksi, fastened to support, case A:
for N = 2 in., Pn = 2.06 kips
for N = 4 in., P, = 2.61 kips
for N = 3 in., interpolating,

## Pn = 0.5(2.06 + 2.61) = 2.34 kips

Interior Condition
N

5.0 in.

## From Table C3.4.1-2

Check limits (other limits checked above)
N j t = 5.0/0.0713 = 70.1 < 210 OK
Njh

C

=13

CR = 0.23

Flange

11-180

CN = 0.14
Ch = 0.01
!1w = 1.65

= 0.90

~w

## R/t = 1.50 <5.0 OK

Po

Ct2FySll+-CR~J(1+CN~J(l-C JfJ

(Eq.

= (13)(0.0713)2 (50)Sin(90)(1-0.23

c:-

3.643 J
0.0713

## 0.1070 J(l +0.14 /5.OJ(1-0.01

0.0713
~.07i3

=4.79 kips
Alternatively, Pn can be conservatively interpolated from Table II-14. For a 4005162-68 -,
F, = 50 ksi, fastened to support, case B:
for N = 4 in., P, = 4.51 kips
for N = 6 in., Pn = 5.03 kips
for N = 5 in., interpolating,
e)

## Web Crippling 5trength with Holes - Section C3.4.2

Limits same as those checked above OK
End Condition
x

## 12.0 - 4.50/2 - 3.0/2

Re = 1.01-0.325dh/h

= 8.25 in.

(Eq. C3.4. .:

+ 0.083x/h ~ 1.0

## = 1.01- (0.325)(1.50)/3.643 + (0.083)(8.25)/3.643 = 1.06 > 1 Use 1.0

Pn = RcPn = (1.0)(2.36) = 2.36 kips
Alternatively, Re can be extrapolated from Table II-16b. For stud depth = 4 in., x 5

in.,

Re = 1.00
Interior Condition
x

= 7.25

(Eq. C3.4.2-:

## Re = 0.90 - 0.047dh/h + 0.053x/h S; 1.0

= 0.90 - (0.047)(1.50)/3.643 + (0.053)(7.25)/3.643
P,

= RcPn

= (0.986)(

= 0.986 <

1.0 OK

## 4.79) = 4.72 kips

Alternatively, Re can be conservatively interpolated from Table II-16a. For depth = 4 in.,
for x = 4 in., Re = 0.94
for x = 8 in., Re = 0.99
for x = 7.25 in., interpolating,

Re = 0.94+(7.25-4)(0.99_0.94)
8-4

= 0.98

~=am Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

11-181

Available Strength

- 3D Allowable Strength
End Condition
0w = 1.75
Pn = 2.36 = 1.35 kips > 0.450 kips OK
0w 1.75
Interior Condition
0w = 1.65
Pn = 4.72 = 2.86 kips > 0.900 kips OK
0w 1.65
:..RFD Design Strength

End Condition
<I>w =0.85
<pwPn= (0.85)(2.36)=2.01kips>

0.690kips OK

Interior Condition
<pw =0.90
<l>wP=
n (0.90)(4.72) = 4.25kips > 1.38 kips OK
5.

## Concentrated load at center of beam controls

ASD
0.91(~) + (~):s::
Pn
Mnxo
0.91(0.900)+(21.6):s::
4.72
37.9

1.33

(Eq. C3.5.1-1)

1.33
1.70

## 0.743 < 0.782 OK

LRFD

0.91(P]+(
Pn

M ]:S::1.33<P
Mnxo

P =P,
M =M,
0.91(1.38) + (33.1):s:: 1.33(0.90)
4.72
37.9
1.14 < 1.20 OK

(Eq. C3.5.2-1)

11-182

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specifica --

w

C' = 0.773

inTI

tt ..

R = 0.1875 In. ,

I,
I+H_X"'-D-+I
X_---

s.c.

in.

in.
.

B' = 2.500

A' = 9.000

Given:
1. Steel: Fy = 55 ksi
2. Section: 9CS2.5x059
3. Gross Section Properties (from Example 1-1or Table 1-1)

t,

= 10.3 in."

xo = -1.66 in.

s, = 2.29 n.'

J = 0.00102in.4

m = 1.05 in.

x = 0.641in.

Cw

= 11.9 in.6

Ixe= 9.18 in."

## Sxe= 1.89 in.'

y = 4.859 in.

5. The member is a simply supported beam spanning 25 feet supporting a uniformly distriruted loado
6. The load is applied vertically in the plane of the web.
7. The beam has torsional braces at both ends of the member and at the brace points specfe;
below.
Required:
Determine the nominal flexural strength,
based on initiation of yielding of the effecti
section considering the effects of torsion. Consider aIternate conditions of:
M11!

## 1. A single brace at mid-span

2. Two braces, each at the one-third points of the span
Assump tions:
1. Rotation is completely restrained at the member ends and at the braces.
2. The member is free to warp at both ends.

~m

11-183

Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

- uiion:

A torsional reduction factor, R, is calculated using Section C3.6 and applied to the nominal
strength calculated using Section C3.1.1(a). Note that this reduction factor is not applied to
other limit states, such as lateral-torsional buckling or distortional buckling.
This solution is based on the method described in the AISC Steel Design Cuide Series 9:
"Torsional Analysis of Structural Steel Members"7 (DC 9). The actualloading is modeled
by superimposing the three conditions as shown in the figure below.

d along
veb

shear center
Simple
bending

t,

Distributed
torque
DG 9 Case 4
tr=wxo

Brace at
mid-span
DG 9 Case 3
a. = 0.5
Ti

Brace at
1/3 points
DG 9 Case 3
a. = 0.33 and 0.67
T2 = T2

#3

#3A

#2

Torsional warping stresses are calculated using the second derivative of the angle of rotation, S, with respect to the position, z, along the length of the member.
The sign convention for use with all torsion
expressions are shown in the figure to the
right. Note that calculated values for 8 and
S" may be either positive or negative. The
proper sign for these calculated values must
be used for torsional stress calculations. Calculated positive values are in the directions
shown.

~...

+!

\~
,

';

,
,

,
,

Compression
~1',

,-r' Z-direction
Point A

\
\

\
\
\
\

_?.), Compression

## Positive rotation and warping stresses

burg, P_Aand Carter, C], "TorsionalAnalysisof Structural SteelMembers- SteelDesign Guide Se-

## 9", AmericanInstitute of SteelConstruction,Chicago,IL,1997

11-184

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specifica . -

For the sngly-symmetric channel, only the compression side need be checked for combined
bending and warping.
Normal Stresses Due to Warping
= EWns8"

~s

## (AISe Design Guide 9, Eq. 4.3a

where Wns are normalized warping functions (section properties) of the cross-section at
each point of consideration given by:
Point A, at tip of flange stiffener
WA = a:(~-b)

-c(m+b)

WB

a:(m-b)

= ---'----'-

## Point e, at junction of the flange and web

arn
v.=:
2
where,
a: = centerline web height

8.941 in.

0.744 in.

## m = distance from shear center to web centerline = 1.05 in.

The torsional warping properties for this section are:
WA =

(8.941)(1.05-2.441)
2

.
(0.744)(1.05+2.441) =-8.82 m.2

WB =

(8.941)(1.05 - 2.441)
= -6.22 in.?
2

Wc =

(8.941)(1.05)
=4.69 in.?
2

Formulas for rotation due to a number of torsionalloadings are given in Appendix C.4 of DG 9.
Summarized below are those used in subsequent calculations.
For Loading #2 above, use DG 9 Case 4 - Uniforrnly distributed torque on member with pinned
ends.

8t =--tra [r:(z
---- Z2J +cosh (z)
- -tanh (L).
- sinh (z)
- -1.0
GJ 2a2 L L2
a
2a
a
where
a=JE~Jw
Differentiating twice with respect to z yields

'='

Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

11-185

## -= _ Loadings #3 and #3A above, use DG 9 Case 3 - Concentrated torque at aL.

for O::O;z::O;aL

and

8~ =~[[Sjnh(
~)
aGJ
tanh(~)

-COSh(aL)lSinh(~)l
a
a

ote that the reduction factor, R, defined in Eq. C3.6-1, is a ratio of calculated stresses.
These calculated stresses are directly proportional to the value of the applied uniform loado
Thus a load of any magnitude can be used to calculate R. In this example, a load of w = 10
pounds/ foot is used.
Mid-Span Bracing

e _My
lb -

ki _.
(
)
9.38 P m.
8
8 1000

M-

## Stresses at top flange points A, B and C are all compression stresses.

_
fbA - -

9.38(4.859-0.773)_
9.18

fbB = fbe = -

-4.18

k.
SI

9.38( 4.859)
.
= -4.97ksl
9.18

## ding #2 - Uniformly distributed torque - use DG 9 Case 4.

2
8 =_r_
+cosh (z)
- -tanh ( -L ) sinh (z)
- -1.0
t a [ - 2 (z--- z2)
t
GJ 2a L L2
a
2a
a

where
t =
r

a=

10(1.05)
. . .
(
) = 0.000875 kip-in.Zin.
12 1000
29500(11.9) = 175 in.
11300(0.00102)

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Spf>ri=_~:T

11-186

z = 150 in.

= 0.000875(175)2
. St

## z/a = 150/175 = 0.857

(1.71)2(
2)
)
2
0.500-(0.500) + cosh(0.857

--,--''----'-:-1

Sil

11300(0.00102)
2

21.2 X 10-6

## Loading #3 - Brace at Mid-Span - use De 9 Case 3 with a = 0.5.

for O~z~aL
TL

SI

z a 'nhaLa
aL.]
z
(1.0-0,)-+-coshsinheJ
L L [ tanh L
a
a
a
r

ST =-

and

S~ =~r[Sinh~
+cosh aL]Sinh~l
aeJ
tanh L
a
a
a
Set T = 1.0 to find the rotation per kip-in.
eT

S" =
T

1.0(300)
[
1 (Sinh(0.5(l.71))
J .
(
) (1-0.5)0.5+()
-cosh(0.5(l.71)) sinh(0.85/
11300 0.00102
1.71
tanh 1.71
1.0
[(Sinh(0.5(l.71)) h(O 5(1 71))J inh(O 857)]
175(11300)(0.00102)
tanh(l.71)
cos
..
s
.
-172 X 10-6

Calculate the required value of torque provided by mid-span brace to prevent rotaton at midspan.
S

et+TIeT=0.199+TI(1.21)=0

TI

-0.164 kip-in.

## Using this brace force, combine the calculated values for

the mid-span braced condition.
Sil

e; + TI e; = -21.2x10-6

-0.164( -172

10-6 )

## The torsional warping stresses are:

f.v = EWne"= 29500Wn(7.01xl0-6) = 0.207Wn

en

= 7.01 X 10-6

--

11-187

Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

f.vA=0.207(-8.82)=-1.83ksi
f.vB= 0.207 (-6.22) = -1.29 ksi
f.vc = 0.207( 4.69) = 0.971 ksi
::EIIDine the location o the maximum

combined

stress.

## fA = fbA + f.vA= -4.18 -1.83 = -6.01 ksi

fB = fbB+ f.vB= -4.97 -1.29 = -6.26 ksi

CONTROLS

## fe = fbC + f.vc = -4.97 + 0.971 = -4.00 ksi

- enlate the reduction

factor.

fbending

(Eq. C3.6-1)

fbending+ ftorsion
-4.97
= 0.794
-4.97 -1.29
~-ote that this value occurs at the intersection
crease is permitted.
- - zulate the nominal

yielding

## of the flange and stiffener; therefore,

no in-

strength.

Mn = RSeFy
= (0.794)(1.89)(55)
applicable

= 82.5 kip-in,

## limit states should al so be evaluated

(not shown) .

. d-Point Bracing
_ this condition, stresses are calculated at both the third-points and at mid-span, since it is not
ious by inspection which location will govem.
: - d #3A. Use DG 9 Case 3 to calculate e and e" at these points due to the torsional restraint
ri ded by the braces. The value of the torque at the brace points is calculated by requiring
=- fue value of be zero at these two points. Note by symmetry, the torques at the braces are

~ . g #1 - Simple bending

through

are:
M

wL2
= -9-=

10(25)212
9(1000)

calculated.

..
=8.33 kip-in.

## fbA = - 8.33 (4.859 - 0.773) = -3.71 ksi

9.18
fbB = fbC = - 8.33 (4.859)
9.18
alues at md-span
z

= Lj3 = 100

in.

= -4.41 ksi

Distributed

## Torque - Use DG 9 Case 4

are aspreviously
zjL

= 0.333

calculated.
z/a

Those at third-points

= 0.571

are:

11-188

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specifica '_

0.000875(175)2

(1.71)2(
2)
2
0.333-(0.333) +cosh(0.571)

## 11300(0.00102) -tanh (1.71).

x sinh ( 0.571) -1.0
2

By symmetry, rotation at the 2/3 point is equal to the rotation at the 1/3 point: 8tl/3= 8e:
0875
0'7
)[-1.0+COSh(0.571)-tanh(1.71)Sinh(0.571)]
11300 0.00102
2

8;1/3 =

-19.0

10-6

By syrnmetry, 8" at the 2/3 point is equal to 8"at the 1/3 point: 8;2/3 = 8;1/3
Loading #3A - Braces at third-points - Use DG 9 Case 3 with a

= 0.667

Apply the brace torque at 2/3 point and calculate 8T and 8~ at z = L/3, z = L/2 and z =
2L/3.
For z

L/3

8Tl/3 =

100 and a

0.667

1.0/300) )l(1-0.667)0.333+_1_[SW;~~;;~~1))
]SiOO(0.571)]
11300 0.00102
1.71
(
)
-cosh 0.667(1.71)

)J

8"
1.0
[(SiOO(0.667(1.71))
(
Tl/3 - 175(11300)(0.00102)
taOO(1.71)
cosh 0.667(1.71) sinh(0.571)
=

-67.1 x 10-6

## 8Tl/2 = 113~~0(~~~l02)l(1-0.667)0.500+ 1.~1[SW;~7~;;~~1))

)]Sinh(0.857)]
-cosh 0.667(1.71)
=

"8Tl/2 =

1.0
[(SiOO(0.667(1.71))
(
)(
)
()
-cosh(0.667(1.71))
175 11300 0.00102
tanh 1.71
-108

J sIOO(0.857)
.
1

10-6

## 8T2/3= 113~~0(~~~l02)l(1-0.667)0.667 + 1.~1[SW;~~;;~~1))

]Sinh(1.14)]
-cosh( 0.667(1.71))
=

gn for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

8T2/3 -

1.0
[(Sinh(0.667(1.71))
(
)(
)
()
175 11300 0.00102
tanh 1.71

= -156

-cosh(0.667(1.71))

11-189

J sinh(1.14)
.
1

10-6

"te the value of the torques at third-points required to prevent rotation at those brace
81/3 = Stl/3 + T2STl/3+ T2ST2/3= 0.173 + 0.826T2 + 0.982T2 = O

T2

= -0.0957 kip-in.

## ate torsional warping stresses at the 1/3 and 2/3 points.

==L/3
8"1/3 -- 8"tl/3 + T2S"Tl/3 + T28"T2/3
= -19.0xl0-6 + (-0.0957)( -67.1xl0-6) + (-0.0957)( -156xl0-6)
=2.35xl0-6
~

## ~A = 0.0693( -8.82) = -0.611 ksi

~B = 0.0693( -6.22) = -0.431 ksi
~c

## = 0.0693( 4.69) = 0.325 ksi

_':ermine the location of the maximum combined flexural and warping stress.
fA=fbA +~A =-3.71-0.611=-4.32ksi
fB= fbB+ ~B = -4.41- 0.431 = -4.84 ksi

CONTROLS

## culate the reduction factor at the 1/3 and 2/3 points.

R=

-4.41
= 0.911
-4.41- 0.431

(Eq. C3.6-1)

ate the nominal yielding strength at the 1/3 and 2/3 points.
Mn

RSeFy

= (0.911)(1.89)(55) = 94.7kip-in.
-""xulate torsional warping stress es at mid-span.
- z = L/2
Si/2 = 8;1/2+ 2T2Si1/2 = -21.2xl0-6
= -0.529
~

+ 2( -0.0957)( -108xl0-6)

10-6

## ~A = -0.0156( -8.82) = 0.138 ksi

~B = -0.0156(-6.22) = 0.0970ksi

11-190

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specifica :

~c

= -0.0156(

4.69) = -0.0732ksi

Determine the location of the maximum combined flexural and warping stress.
fA = fbA+ fwA= -4.18 + 0.138 = -4.04 ksi
fB= fbB+ ~B = -4.97 + 0.0970 = -4.87 ksi
fe = fbC+ ~c = -4.97 - 0.0732 = -5.04 ksi

CONTROLS

## Calculate the reduction factor at mid-span.

R = (1.15)

-4.97
-4.97 - 0.0732

= 1.13

> 1.0

(Eq. C3.6-_

Since R exceeds 1.0, take R as 1.0 at midspan. The 15% increase is permitted since the maxim
combined stress occurs at the junction of the flange and web.
Calculate the nominal yielding strength at mid-span.
Mn

RSeFy

(1.0)(1.89)(55)

= 104 kip-in.

3eam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

11-191

3.0 in.
O--+lf-l-

3.0 in.
O--+lf-j-

12.0 in.

3.0 in.
O--+lf-l-

3.0 in.

V/////

l.

4.0 in.

- ~en:

## Flexural member: SSMA Stud 1200S200-68(50 ksi)

Bearing stiffener: SSMA Stud 362S162-33(33 ksi)
-

uired:
Calculate the available bearing strength of the joist section with the C-section bearing stiffener using both ASD and LRFD

:: tution:

~culate

## the available ASD and LRFD strength using Section C3.7.

~-e Section C3.7.1if the w I t, limits for the stiffener are not exceeded.
Check Applicability

## eck web of stiffener:

w/ts

D -2(R +ts)

3.625-2(0.0765+0.0346) =98.3
0.0346
Limit= 1.28M
= 1.28~29500/33 = 38.3< 98.3 NG; therefore, try Section C3.7.2
2. Check Applicability Limits for Section C3. 7.2

1) The stiffener has full bearing; therefore, use 100% of the calculated capacity. OK
_) The stiffener is a C-section with a web depth of 3.625 in. > 3.5 in. minimum. The stiffener
has a thickness of 0.0346in. > 0.0329in. minimum. OK
3) The stiffener is attached to the flexural member with three screws. OK
~) The distance from the flexural member flanges to the first fastener is d/4 > d/8 minimum.
OK
5) The length of the stiffener is equal to the depth of the flexural member. OK
6) The bearing width is greater than 1112in. OK

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specifican

11-192
2. Calculate

## Calculate the nominal bearing strength.

Pn = 0.7(Pwc+AeFy)2Pwc
From Table II-14 for a 1200S200-68 (50 ksi), Fastened to the support, Case

(Eq. C3.7_-:

e N = 4 in.

## Pwc= 1.26 kips (flexural member)

From Table I1I-2for a 362S162-33 (33 ksi)
Pn = 5.72 kips (stiffener) = AeFy
Nominal Strength
Pn = 0.7(1.26+5.72) 21.26kips

(Eq. C3.7_-_

## = 4.89 kips > 1.26 kips; therefore, use 4.89 kips

3. Available Strength

## ASD - Allowable strength

Pn = 4.89 = 2.88 kips
n 1.70

(Eq. A4.1.1-:

## LRFD - Design strength

<!>Pn
=0.90(4.89)=4.40kips

(Eq. A5.1.:-:

3eam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification
ample 11-1.2: Web-Stiffened

11-193

## C-Section by the Direct Strength Method - Flexure

IO.875 in.

2.25 in.

0.500 in.

0.625 in.

-I----""

8.00 in.
2.25 in.

0.0451 in.

2.50 in.

~I

roen:
Steel: Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi
Sigma section (C-section with web stiffener) as shown above
is a simply supported

flexural member

## Calculate the ASD and LRFD available

~ om Specification Appendix 1

flexural strengths

## using the Direct Strength

J.

The member
buckling.

equired:
procedure

~olution:
Although the Direct Strength method may be used for any cross-section, it is particularly well
suited to this example, since the cross-section is somewhat complex and the Specification has no
rovisions for the complex edge stiffeners on the flanges.
Perform a finite strip analysis

A finite strip analysis of the cross-section is performed using a program such as CUFSM8. A
ure flexural stress distribution is assumed with the extreme fibers at Fy. Results from the
analysis include the bending moment under the assumed stress distribution, My, and a graph of
the section buckling strength versus unbraced length, shown below.
From the analysis:
ield moment
M,

<

86.4 kip-in,

Schafer, B.W., dny, S. "Buckling analysis of cold-formed steel members using CUFSM: conventional
and constrained finite strip methods." Eighteenth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed
Steel Structures, Orlando, FL. October 2006. Available at www.ce.jhu.edujbschaferjcufsm

Beam Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specicet -

11-194

## Critical elastic local buckling moment

Mere =0.96My =(0.96)(86.4) =82.9 kip-in.

## Critical elastic distortional buckling moment

Merd =1.16My =(1.16)(86.4)=100

kip-in.

---,--,--"--"--------

-'-"'--'--''''''--'--'---"-''

~,

,,-

-..

",,,,
...

t:=::J

'
r"t:lt:.Io..,_

## .... _... _... __ ..... ~..... _.

..... _.~'.~

tFSMI~C1~.jiQl'I

. ,1

---0;;;;;_-----1;;....

2.

## Calculate the nominal flexural strength

Per section 1.2.2 of Appendix 1, take M, as the lowest of the nominal strengths for lateraltorsional buckling, Mne,local buckling, Mne and distortional buckling, Mnd.
1)

Lateral-torsional buckling: In this case, since the member is fully braced against lateraltorsional buckling,
Mne = M, = 86.4 kip-in.
(Eq. 1.2.2-3

2)

Local buckling:
Al

~Mne/Mcre

~86.4/82.9 = 1.02

Since

(Eq.1.2.2-

x, >0.776,

rJ(~:r Mne

Mnt = [1-015(~:
=

3)

(Eq.1.2.2-6)

## (1_0.15(82.9)OAJ(82.9)OA 86.4 = 72.4 kip-in.

86.4
86.4

Distortional buckling:

(Eq.1.2.2-10

~My/Merd
~86.4/100

0.93

Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

inee

~M

x, >0.673,
=

[1-022[~d
1- 0.22( 100
86.4

rl~7rM,
)0.5)(

100
86.4

)0.5 86.4

11-195

(Eq. 1.2.2-8)

= 71.0 kip-in,

The nominal flexural strength is therefore 71.0 kip-in, governed by distortional buekling.
Calculate the available strengths

the limitations for prequalified beams in Table 1.1.1-2 to determine the appropriate
gth reduetion faetors. Sinee there is no prequalified eategory for C-sections with web stiff-and eomplex lips, use the strength reduetion faetors from Seetion Al.2(b)
--

- Allowable strength
M, _71.0 -355. ki p-m.
.
----n 2.00

(Eq. A4.1.1-1)

~Mn

## = 0.80(71.0) = 56.8 kip-in.

(Eq. A5.1.1-1)

mn Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

111-1

PART 11I
COLUMN DESIGN
For Use With the
2007 Edition of the
North American Specification for the Design
of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

## .1 Notes On The Tables

3
1.2 Nominal Axial Strength Tables - Braced Columns
3
Table 11I-1 Braced Column Properties - C-Sections With Lips
4
Table 11I-2 Braced Column Properties - SSMA Studs - C-Sections With Lips
6
Table 11I-3 Braced Column Praperties - SSMA Tracks - C-Sections Without Lips
8
.3 Distortional Buckling Axial Strength Tables
10
Table 11I-4 Distortional Buckling Properties - Axial Strength - C-Sections With Lips
11
Table 11I-5 Distortional Buckling Properties - SSMA Studs - Axial Strength
- C-Sections With Lips
13
Table 11I-6 Distortional Buckling Praperties - Axial Strength - Z-Sections With Lips
16
.4 Nominal Axial Strength Tables - Unbraced Columns
18
Table 11I-7 Nominal Axial Strength, Pntkips - C-Sections With Lips
18
Table 11I-8 Nominal Axial Strength, Pntkips - SSMA Studs C-Sections With Lips
24
Table 11I-9 Nominal Axial Strength, Pn, kips - SSMA Tracks C-Sections Without Lips ..35
CTION 2 - EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example

11I-1
11I-2
11I-3
11I-4
11I-5
11I-6

Example 11I-7
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example

11I-8
11I-9
11I-10
11I-11
11I-12

## Braced C-Section With Lips - Bending And Compression

C-Section With Lips With Holes - Compression
C-Section Subject to Distortional Buckling - Compression
Unbraced Equal Leg Angle With Lips - Compression
Tubular Section - Round - Bending and Compression
Stiffened Z-Section With One Flange Through-Fastened To Deck Or
Sheathing - Compression
Stiffened Z-Section With One Flange Fastened To a Standing Seam
Roof - Compression
Hat Sec.tion- Bending and Compression
1Section - Built-Up fram Channels
Square HSS Section - Bending and Compression
Frame Design by Second Order Analysis
:
Web-Stiffened C- Section by the Direct Strength MethodCompression

45

46
50
55
63
67
71
74
76
80
86
92
97

Column Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Speci

111-2

DESIGN

## L Combined overall member buckling and local buckling, and

2. Distortional buckling

Specification Section C4 includes provisions for the evaluation of these limit states. For col
that are parts of certain structural systems, Section D6 includes provisions that supersede
of the general provisions of Section C4 .

Overall and Local Buckling: The strength of all columns is limited by the combined limit state
global and local buckling, which is evaluated using Section C4.1. Although the specifics v~
somewhat for different cross-section shapes, the general procedure involves 1) determination
the elastic column buckling stress, 2) transformation of the elastic buckling stress to a critical
buckling stress, taking into account the effects of inelasticity and 3) determination of the effective area with the section at the critical buckling stress. See Manual Section 3.6 and Examples and 1-10 through 1-13 for further information on the calculation of effective area of compre __
members.
The elastic buckling stress is taken as the lowest of the applicable buckling stresses for flexura
(Euler) buckling, torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. All cross-sections are surject to flexural buckling about their principal axes, per Section C4.1.1.
All doubly-symmetric sections and most singly-symmetric sections, such as C-shapes, are su ject to flexural-torsional buckling per Section C4.1.2. Unlipped singly-symmetric angles havi _
fully effective areas, Ae, at a stress of Fy are exempt from the flexural-torsional provisions an
designed based on flexural buckling about the principal axis. Point-symmetric sections, such zs
Z-shapes, are subject torsional and flexural buckling per Section C4.1.3.
Section D6 of the Specification provides specialized provisions for the flexural-torsional bucklir ;
of compression members that are elements of metal roof and wall systems, including throughfastened purlins and girts and standing seam roofs.

Distortonal Buckling: The distortional buckling limit state involves the cross-sectional deformations of two or more elements acting as a group, e.g., the rotation of the flange and lip of a Cshape about the web-to-flange junction. The Specification provides three levels of provisions f _
this limit state in Section C4.2. Section C4.2(a) requires a simple calculation using basic cros section dimensions and produces a conservative, and sometimes very conservative, result. 1: approach can sometimes be used to quickly establish that distortional buckling is not a controlling limit state. For those cases where the extra work is justified, Section C4.2(b) can be used,
which requires considerably more complex calculations, but produces accurate results. Secti
C4.2(c) provides a framework for the use of computerized numerical methods to evaluate distortional buckling. This approach requires fewer calculations than Section C4.2(b) and is especially useful for cross-sections that do not meet the limits of applicability of the other two approaches. For all three approaches, the general procedure involves 1) determination of the elastic distortional buckling stress, 2) determination of the corresponding elastic buckling force using the gross area of the cross-section and 3) transformation of the elastic buckling force to a
nominal axial strength, taking into account the effects of inelasticity and post-buckling streng
For members whose required strengths are determined by first-order analysis, combined flexure and axial force must be checked using Section CS. Altematively, Appendix 2 permits the
use of second-order analysis for the determination of required strengths. In this case, Section
CS is still used to evaluate members subject to combined flexure and axial force, but the moment modifiers and effective length factors used in Section CS are set to unity.

_ n Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specification

111-3

1..1

a)

b)
e)
d)
e)
f)

a)

;)

-)

,}

## Notes On The Tables

With the exception of the SSMA studs and tracks, the sections listed in these tables are
not necessarily stock sections. They are included primarily as a guide in the design of
cold-formed steel structural members.
The section designations listed in these tables correspond to those for which dimensions and properties are given in Tables 1-1,1-2and 1-3.
Tabulated properties and capacities are shown to three significant figures.
Where they apply, the algebraic formulae presented in Section 3 of Part 1 formed the
basis of the calculations for these tables.
The strengths listed in Tables III-1 to III-9 inclusive were computed using the yield
stress listed in the tables. Cold work of forming increases were not included.
Tables III-1, III-2 and III-3 give the nominal axial strength, Pn, for fu11ybraced Csections at the yield stress listed in the respective tables. Distortional buckling is not
considered.
The values labeIed Pweb,Pflange
and Plipin Tables III-1, III-2 and I11-3are the highest
nominal forces at which the web, flange and lip (if applicable) respectiveIy are fu11yeffective. These values are only meaningful where they do not exceed Pnofor the section
and yield stress in question. A vaIue of 0.00 for Pwebin Table III-2 indicates that a reduction in web area is required at any stress level when standard punchouts are used.
Tables III-4, III-5 and III-6 give tabuIated criticaI buckling lengths, stiffness coefficients, elastic buckling stresses and nominal axiaI strengths for the limit state of distortional buckling for use with Section C4.2(b). Rotational restraint from sheathing or
discrete bracing is not considered in the values given for the stiffness coefficients, elastic buckling stresses and nominal flexural strengths. To incorporate the strength increases resulting from significant continuous rotational bracing or discrete distortional
bracing spaced at Iess than Ler,use the provisions of Section C4.2(b) or C4.2(c).
Tables III-7, III-8 and III-9 give the nominal axial strength, Pn, for C-sections with varying x- and y-axis unbraced Iengths. In a11cases, the torsional unbraced length is assumed to equal the y-axis unbraced Iength and K, = K, = 1.0. Lengths are arbitrarily
cut off at a KL/rx ratio of approximately 100.
The calculated values in Tables III-1 through III-9 are nominal strengths. These values
must be modified by a safety factor, Qc, for ASO or a resistance factor <Pc, for LRFD.
The effects of standard factory punchouts in SSMA studs have been included in Tables
III-2 and III-8. These punchouts are considered in SSMA studs with flange widths of
1.625in. or less. Standard punchout sizes are 1.5 in. by 4.5 in. for sections with depths
of 3.5 inches or more and 0.75 in. by 4.5 in. for sections with shallower depths.
Dashes in the place of data vaIues in the P, columns of Tables III-2, III-3 and III-5 indicate that the section is not available in the listed grade of steel. Blank data values in
TabIes III-7, III-8 and III-9 indicate that the section is not avaiIable in the listed grade
of steel or that KL/ry exceeds 200.
Nominal Axial Strength Tables - Braced Columns

111-4

Column Design for Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specica;

Table 11I-1
Braced Column Properties

nc

## C-Sections With Lips

Pn

at r-r,
kips 1

r,
Section
12CS4xl05
12CS4x085
12CS4x070

33

55

ksi

ksi

Pn

Maximum
Effective Force, kips
Pflange

8.99

45.8

12CS2.5x070

54.9
41.2

Pweb

13.2

8CS2x085

12.9

8CS2x070

27.0
20.7

8.56

54.0

41.2

8CS2x065

18.7

44:9

4.51

30.8

24.5

8CS2x059

16.5

25.1

33.0

2.51

18.5

15.6

7CS4xl05

45.7

62.5

21.7

44.0

l1A

25.1

6.91

31.8

3.83

28.8

3.06
2.28

62.0

7.70

82.2

70.1

7CS4x085

32.2

44.6

4.06
2.25

47.0
28.3

41.2

7CS4x070

23.8

32.7

23A

44.8
31.8

25.9

7CS4x065

21.2

29.1

6.28
5.02

10CS4xl05

47.1

63.9

45.3

33.3

7CS4x059

18.2

24.9

3.74

10CS4x085

32.9
24.2

45.3

6.29

25.8

20.0

39.1

60.1

33.1

3A9

15A

12.7

7CS2.5xl05
7CS2.5x085

29.5

43.9

2.79
11.3

10CS4x070
10CS4x065
10CS3.5xl05
10CS3.5x085
10CS3.5x070
10CS3.5x065

21.5

29A

45.7
32.7

63.0
44.7

23.8
21.3

32.9
29.3
61.5

40.4

Pflange

15.6

2.63

40.9
30.5

ksi

26.0

4.74

12CS2.5xl05
12CS2.5x085

55

ksi

12.0

5.96
3.31
2.64
10.1

Maximum
Effective Force, kip:-

36.2

33.3
63.5

24.0

33

0.85

8CS2xl05

24.3

12CS3.5x070

Plip

at r-r,
kips 1
Fy

1.80

33.8
20.2

64A
45.6

46.2
33.0

Section
Pweb

47.6
33.1

12CS3.5xl05
12CS3.5x085

~c

=
=

108
62.1
37.7
30.9
23.3

15.0
12.4
9.63

p103
59._
37.31..':
25.=
32.=
19_
12.~

ro.s
8':-=

80A

68-::

9.22

46.0

40
25.21....!.

17.6

12.7

10.8

7CS2.5x070

22.9

31.3

5.10

27.8

53.5
30.5

40.7
24.2

7CS2.5x065
7CS2.5x059

20.8

27.7

4.07

23.0

18.0

24.1

18A
15.2
81.7

15A
13.0

6CS4xl05
6CS4x085

45.0
31.8

61.7
44.2

69.6

6CS4x070

23.5

32.5

3.03
28.5
14.9
8.23

10CS2.5xl05
10CS2.5x085

30.2

44.6

5.29

46.7

40.9

6CS4x065

21.0

28.9

6.57

10CS2.5x070

23.3

31.7

2.94

28.2

25.8

6CS4x059

18.1

24.8

4.89

10CS2.5x065

21.1

28.0

2.35

23.3

21.7

6CS2.5xl05

38.3

59A
43.5

18.0
43.2
24.7
14.8
12.2
9.50

17_
31..2
18.
12.':
10.~
8.3..:

22.8

79.6

67.::

11.9

45.6

39.

10CS2xl05
10CS2x085

36.9
27A

55.7
41.6

9A3
4.96

109
62.5

104
60.3

6CS2.5x085
6CS2.5x070

29.1
22.6

31.1

10CS2x070

20.9

32.0

2.75

38.0

37.7

6CS2.5x065

20.6

27.6

6.58
5.25

27.6
22.8

25
21..2

10CS2x065

18.9

29.0

2.20

31.1

31.6

6CS2.5x059

17.8

24.0

3.91

17.8

17.'::
27.~
16.11..

9CS2.5xl05

40.1

61.1

9CS2.5x085

30.0

44A

9CS2.5x070

23.2

9CS2.5x065

21.0

9CS2.5x059
8CS4xl05

11.8

81.4

69.3

4CS4xl05

41.1

58.8

51.6

39.3

6.20

46.5

40.8

4CS4x085

30.2

27.8

31.6

3A4

28.1

25.7

4CS4x070

22.7

42.7
31.6

15.8

22.7
13.8

28.0

2.75

23.2

21.7

4CS4x065

20.3

28.2

12.8

11A

18.2

24.3

2.05

18.1

17.4

4CS4x059

17.6

24.3

46.3

63.1

44.6

4CS2.5xl05

34A

56.4

47.7

76.7

64.:::

8.92

9 -~

tss

8CS4x085

32.5

44.9

9.05

25A

32.5
19.5

4CS2.5x085

27.6

41.9

24.7

44.0

38.-::

8CS4x070

23.9

32.9

5.01

15.2

12.5

4CS2.5x070

21.8

30.2

13.6

26.7

24.~

8CS4x065

29.2

4.00

12.5

19.9

26.9

10.8

2.98

4CS2.5x059

17.3

23.5

22.1
17.3

20.

25.0

10.6
8.56

4CS2.5x065

8CS4x059

21.3
18.3

8CS3.5xl05

44.9

62.2

8CS3.5x085

32.3

44.3

8.51

8CS3.5x070

23.6
21.1

32.7

8CS3.5x065

29.1

8CS3.5x059

18.2

25.0

8CS2.5xl05
8CS2.5x085
8CS2.5x070

44.2
31.4

7A4
4.13

8CS2.5x065

39.6
29.8
23.0
20.9
18.1

27.9
24.2

3.29

8CS2.5x059

60.7

17.2

9.70

16.2

9.73

8.02

16.c

52.7

27.3

4CS2xl05

31.6

51.7

43.8

103

104

16.7

4CS2x085

25.3

39.8

22.7

58A

4.72

30.1
18.2

11.0

4CS2x070

19.9

31.3

12.5

33.8

59.=
35.

3.77

15.0

9.38

4CS2x065

18.2

2.81

11.7

7.68

4CS2x059

16.1

28A
24.5

14.2

2A6

80.9
46.3
28.0
23.1
18.1

64.5
38.3
24.3
20.6
16.6

9.92

27A

28.

7.37

20.7

21.8

Oesign tor Use with the 2007 North American Cold-Formed Steel Specitication

_ "al strengths given are nominal strengths. To obtain the available strength, these
values must be modified by safety factors (ASD)or resistance factors (LRFD).
and Plip are the highest nominal axial compression forces at which the
-"eb, flange and lip, respectively, are fully effective.
reb, Pflange

## The distortional buckling limit state is not considered in this table,

_ ckling strengths are provided in Table III-4.

Distortional

111-5