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411 views9 pagesProceedings - NCUR X. (1996), Vol. II, pp. 994-998
Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah
Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah
Introduction
The purpose of these remarks is to introduce a variation on a theme of the scalar (inner, dot) product and establish multiplication in R^{n}. If a = (a_{1},...,a_{n}) and b = (b_{1},...,b_{n}), we define the product ab = (a_{1}b_{1},...,a_{n}b_{n}). The product is the multiplication of corresponding vector components as in the scalar product; however, instead of summing the vector components, the product preserves them in vector form. We define the inner sum (or trace) of a vector a = (a_{1},...,a_{n}) by (a) = a_{1}+...+a_{n}. If taken together with an additional definition of cyclic permutations of vectors, we are able to prove complicated vector products (combinations of dot and cross products) extremely efficiently, without appealing to the traditional (and cumbersome) epsilon-ijk proofs. When applied to determinants, this method hints at the rudiments of Galois theory.

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Proceedings - NCUR X. (1996), Vol. II, pp. 994-998
Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah
Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah
Introduction
The purpose of these remarks is to introduce a variation on a theme of the scalar (inner, dot) product and establish multiplication in R^{n}. If a = (a_{1},...,a_{n}) and b = (b_{1},...,b_{n}), we define the product ab = (a_{1}b_{1},...,a_{n}b_{n}). The product is the multiplication of corresponding vector components as in the scalar product; however, instead of summing the vector components, the product preserves them in vector form. We define the inner sum (or trace) of a vector a = (a_{1},...,a_{n}) by (a) = a_{1}+...+a_{n}. If taken together with an additional definition of cyclic permutations of vectors, we are able to prove complicated vector products (combinations of dot and cross products) extremely efficiently, without appealing to the traditional (and cumbersome) epsilon-ijk proofs. When applied to determinants, this method hints at the rudiments of Galois theory.

© All Rights Reserved

411 views

Proceedings - NCUR X. (1996), Vol. II, pp. 994-998
Jeffrey F. Gold
Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics
University of Utah
Don H. Tucker
Department of Mathematics
University of Utah
Introduction
The purpose of these remarks is to introduce a variation on a theme of the scalar (inner, dot) product and establish multiplication in R^{n}. If a = (a_{1},...,a_{n}) and b = (b_{1},...,b_{n}), we define the product ab = (a_{1}b_{1},...,a_{n}b_{n}). The product is the multiplication of corresponding vector components as in the scalar product; however, instead of summing the vector components, the product preserves them in vector form. We define the inner sum (or trace) of a vector a = (a_{1},...,a_{n}) by (a) = a_{1}+...+a_{n}. If taken together with an additional definition of cyclic permutations of vectors, we are able to prove complicated vector products (combinations of dot and cross products) extremely efficiently, without appealing to the traditional (and cumbersome) epsilon-ijk proofs. When applied to determinants, this method hints at the rudiments of Galois theory.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 9

A New and Ecient

Method of Proving Vector

Identities

Proceedings|NCUR X. (1996), Vol. II, pp. 994{998

Jerey F. Gold

Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics

University of Utah

Don H. Tucker

Department of Mathematics

University of Utah

Introduction

The purpose of these remarks is to introduce a variation on a theme of the scalar

(inner, dot) product and establish multiplication in Rn . If a = (a1 ; : : : ; an ) and

b = (b1 ; : : : ; bn), we dene the product ab (a1b1; : : : ; anbn). The product is

the multiplication of corresponding vector components as in the scalar product;

however, instead of summing the vector components, the product preserves them

in vector form. We dene the inner sum (or trace) of a vector a = (a1 ; : : : ; an )

by (a) = a1 + + an. If taken together with an additional denition of cyclic

permutations of a vector hpi a (a1+p( mod n) ; : : : ; an+p( mod n) ), where a 2 Rn

1

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 2

products (combinations of dot and cross products) extremely eciently, without

appealing to the traditional (and cumbersome) epsilon-ijk proofs. When applied

to determinants, this method hints at the rudiments of Galois theory.

Multiplication in Rn

DEFINITION 1 Suppose a and b 2 Rn , then

ab (a1b1; a2b2; : : : ; anbn) :

The product is the multiplication of corresponding vector components common

to the scalar product, however, instead of summing the vector components, the

product preserves them in vector form.

THEOREM 1 If a, b, c 2 Rn and 2 R, then

(1:1) a(bc) = (ab)c ;

(1:2) a(b + c) = ab + ac ;

(1:3) (ab) = (a)b = a(b) ;

(1:4) 1b = b1 = b ; where 1 (1; 1; : : : ; 1) 2 Rn ;

(1:5) ab = ba ;

(1:6) a = ; where (0; 0; : : : ; 0) 2 Rn :

Proof: Trivial.

DEFINITION 2 The inner sum (or trace) of a vector b 2 Rn is dened as

(b)

Xn b = b

i 1 + : : : + bn :

i=1

THEOREM 2 If a; b; c 2 Rn and 2 R, then

(2:1) (a + b) = (a) + (b)

(2:2) (ab) = (ba)

(2:3) (c(a + b)) = (ca + cb)

(2:4) (b) = (b)

Proof: The proofs are straightforward calculations.

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 3

scalar (dot) product.

Proof: (ab) = (a1 b1 ; : : : ; an bn ) = a1 b1 + : : : + an bn = a b.

REMARKS The scalar product can be generalized for n vectors. In R3, for

example, (ab c) = (ac b) = (bc a). Each of these, expanded by using the

inner product, becomes

(abc) = ab c = jabjjcjcos(ab; c)

= ac b = jacjjbjcos(ac; b)

= bc a = jbcjjajcos(bc; a) ;

respectively. Multiplying these results together,

3 (abc) = jajjbjjcjjabjjacjjbcjcos(a; bc)cos(b; ac)cos(c; ab) :

Now, letting c = 1, we obtain

p

3 (ab1) = 3 (ab) = njaj2 jbj2 jabjcos2 (a; b)cos(1; ab) :

Since 2 (ab) = jaj2 jbj2 cos2 (a; b), we nd that an alternative representation of

the inner product is given by

p

(ab) = a b = njabjcos(1; ab) :

This is more easily seen

p by the following: a b = 1 ab = j1jjabjcos(1; ab),

which is equivalent to njabjcos(1; ab).

A weighted inner product can dened by w1 a1 b1 + : : : + wn an bn , where

(w1 ; : : : ; wn ) 2 Rn are the weights.

DEFINITION If a, b, and w 2 Rn , where w is a weighting vector and the

weights wi > 0, then the Euclidean weighted inner product of a and b is dened

as

(wab) :

Note that w itself may be the product of other vectors, provided that all

weights in the nal product w are positive real numbers.

PERMUTATION EXPONENTS

In order to represent the cross product in terms of the new product, we

dene a vector operation that cyclically permutes the vector entries.

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 4

hpi (b) (b1+p(mod n) ; b2+p(mod n) ; : : : ; bn+p(mod n) ) ;

where hpi is the permutation exponent. The cyclic permutation makes the sub-

script assignment i0 ! i + p (mod n) for each component bi . The modulus in the

subscript of each component of b is there to insure that all subscripts i satisfy

the condition 1 i n.

THEOREM 4 If b 2 Rn and p; q 2 Z, then

(4:1) hqi (hpi b) = hp+qi (b)

(4:2) hqi (hpi b) = hpi (hqi b)

(4:3) hpi (a + b) = hpi a + hpi b

(4:4) hpi (ab) = hpi a hpi b

(4:5) hpi (b) = hpi b

Proof:

(4.1) hqi (hpi b) implies the subscript assignment i0 ! i + p(mod n) followed

by the assignment i00 ! i0 + q(mod n). Since i0 = i + p(mod n), the subscript

i00 becomes i00 = i + p + q(mod n). Since p(mod n) + q(mod n) = p + q(mod n),

the assignment i00 = i + (p + q)(mod n) is equivalent to hp+qi b.

(4.2) The process is equivalent to (4.1), except the values p and q are inter-

changed in the assignment i00 ! i + p + q(mod n), that is, i00 ! i + q + p(mod n),

which is equivalent to hpi (hqi b).

(4.3) Note hpi (a + b) = hpi (a1 + b1 ; : : : ; an + bn), which in turn is equal to

(a1+p(mod n) + b1+p(mod n) ; : : : ; an+p(mod n) + bn+p(mod n) ) :

Now we may write this as

(a1+p(mod n) ; : : : ; an+p(mod n) ) + (b1+p(mod n) ; : : : ; bn+p(mod n) ) ;

which is equivalent to hpi a + hpi b.

(4.4) Here hpi (ab) = hpi (a1 b1 ; : : : ; an bn) is equivalent to

(a1+p(mod n) b1+p(mod n) ; : : : ; an+p(mod n) bn+p(mod n) ) :

This, in turn, is rewritten as

(a1+p(mod n) ; : : : ; an+p(mod n) )(b1+p(mod n) ; : : : ; bn+p(mod n) ) ;

which is hpi a hpi b.

(4.5) In this case, hpi (b) = hpi (b1 ; : : : ; bn ) which is equivalent to hpi b

by

(b1+p( mod n) ; : : : ; bn+p( mod n) ) = (b1+p( mod n) ; : : : ; bn+p( mod n) ) :

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 5

Proof: Since the order of the components doesn't matter, the sum remains the

same for all (cyclic) permutations of the components.

THEOREM 6 If a; b 2 Rn and p; q; p0; q0 2 Z, then (hpi a + hqi b) = (hp i a + 0

hq i b).

0

Proof:

(hpi a + hqi b) = (hpi a) + (hqi b)

= (hp i a) + (hq i b)

0 0

= (hp i a + hq i b)

0 0

Proof: (ab) + h1i (ab) + : : : + hn,1i (ab)

= (a1 b1 ; : : : ; an bn) + (a2 b2; : : : ; an bn ; a1 b1 ) + : : : + (an bn ; a1 b1 ; : : : ; an,1 bn,1 )

= (a1 b1 + : : : + an bn ; a2 b2 + : : : + an bn + a1 b1 ; : : : ; an bn + a1 b1 + : : : + an,1 bn,1 )

= ((ab); (h1i (ab)); : : : ; (hn,1i (ab)))

= ((ab); : : : ; (ab))

= 1(ab)

Cross Products

THEOREM 8 If a; b 2 R3 , then a b = h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b.

Proof:

a b (a2 b3 , a3b2; a3b1 , a1b3; a1b2 , a2b1)

= (a2 b3 ; a3 b1 ; a1 b2 ) , (a3 b2 ; a1 b3; a2 b1)

= (a2 ; a3 ; a1 )(b3 ; b1 ; b2 ) , (a3 ; a1 ; a2 )(b2 ; b3; b1 )

= h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b :

THEOREM 9 If a; b 2 R3 , then a b = ,b a.

Proof:

ab = h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b

= ,( h1i bh2i a , h2i bh1i a )

= ,b a :

THEOREM 10 If a; b 2 R3 , then a b = h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b = h1i (ah1i b ,

h1i ab) = h2i (h2i ab , ah2i b), by Theorems 4.1, 4.3, and 4.4.

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 6

Vector Identities

The method of proof for the subsequent theorems is as follows: Each vector

identity is rewritten in terms of the denitions of the inner product and cross

product, by Theorems 3 and 8, respectively. In the case of scalar identities, terms

are permutated to isolate any desired vector in its native (un-permutated) form,

by Theorem 5. Then the newly formed terms are grouped by similar permuta-

tions. It is important to recognize cross product terms, h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b, or

inner product terms such as h1i (ac) + h2i (ac). In the latter case, for example,

one adds to this the term ac (and subtracts ac from another term), for then

one recognizes ac + h1i (ac) + h2i (ac) as the inner product 1(a c), according to

Theorem 7.

THEOREM 11 If a; b; c 2 R3 , then a (b c) = b (c a) = c (a b).

Proof:

a (b c) = (ah1i bh2i c , ah2i bh1i c)

= (h2i abh1i c , h1iabh2i c)

= (b(h1i ch2i a , h2i ch1i a))

= b (c a)

and

a (b c) = (ah1i bh2i c , ah2i bh1i c)

= (h1i ah2i bc , h2i ah1i bc)

= (c(h1i ah2i b , h2iah1i b))

= c (a b)

THEOREM 12 If a; b; c 2 R3 , then a b c = b(a c) , c(a b).

Proof:

a (b c) = h1i ah2i (h1i bh2i c , h2i bh1i c) , h2i ah1i (h1i bh2i c , h2i bh1i c)

= h1i abh1i c + h2i abh2i c , h1i ah1i bc , h2iah2i bc

= b(h1i (ac) + h2i (ac)) , c(h1i (ab) + h2i (ab)) + abc , abc

= b(ac + h1i (ac) + h2i (ac)) , c(ab + h1i (ab) + h2i (ab))

= b(a c) , c(a b)

Proof: (a b) (c d)

= (h1i (ac)h2i (bd) + h2i (ac)h1i (bd) , h1i (ad)h2i (bc) , h2i (ad)h1i (bc))

= ( (ac(h1i (bd) + h2i (bd)) , ad(h1i (bc) + h2i (bc)) + abcd , abcd)

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 7

= (ac(bd + h1i (bd) + h2i (bd)) , ad(bc + h1i (bc) + h2i (bc)))

= (ac(b d)) , (ad(b c))

= (b d)(ac) , (b c)(ad)

= (a c)(b d) , (a d)(b c)

THEOREM 14 If a; b; c; d 2 R3 , then (a b) (c d) = b(a (c d)) , a(b

(c d)).

Proof: Let (c d) = e, then (a b) e

= h2i abh2i e , ah2i bh2i e , ah1i bh1i e + h1i abh1i e

= b(h1i (ae) + h2i (ae)) , a(h1i bh1i e + h2i (be)) + abe , abe

= b(ae + h1i (ae) + h2i (ae)) , a(be + h1i (be) + h2i (be))

= b(a e) , a(b e)

= b(a (c d)) , a(b (c d))

b)(c d).

Proof: Let (c d) = e, then a (b e)

= h1i ah2i (h1i bh2i e , h2i bh1i e) , h2i ah1i (h1i bh2i e , h2i bh1i e)

= h1i abh1i e , h1i ah1i be , h2i ah2i be + h2i abh2i e

= b(h1i (ae) + h2i (ae)) , e(h1i (ab) + h2i(ab)) + abe , abe

= b(ae + h1i (ae) + h2i (ae)) , e(ab + h1i (ab) + h2i (ab))

= b(a e) , e(a b)

= b(a (c d)) , (a b)(c d)

Proof: First, (b c) (c a)

= h1i (h1i bh2i c , h2i bh1i c)h2i (h1i ch2i a , h2i ch1i a)

, h2i (h1i bh2i c , h2i bh1i c)h1i (h1i ch2i a , h2i ch1i a)

= (h2i bc , bh2i c)(ch1i a , h1i ca)

,(bh1i c , h1i bc)(h2i ca , ch2i a)

= h1i ah2i bcc , ah2i bch1i c , h1i abch2i c + abh1i ch2i c

,abh1i ch2i c + h2i abch1i c + ah1i bch2i c , h2i ah1i bcc

= cc(h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b) + ch1i c(h2i ab , ah2i b)

+ch2i c(ah1i b , h1i ab)

= cc(h1i ah2i b , h2i ah1i b) + ch1i (c(h1i ah2i b ,h2i ah1i b))

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 8

= c(c(a b)) + ch1i (c(a b)) + ch2i (c(a b))

= c(c (a b))

= ((a b)c(c (a b)))

= (c (a b))(c(a b))

= (c (a b))(c (a b))

= (c (a b))2

Determinants

DEFINITION 4 ThePalternating vector (1; ,1; 1; ,1; : : :) for the vector space

Rn is dened as @ ni=1 (,1)i,1 e^i , where the e^i are orthonormal vectors.

THEOREM 17 If a; b; @ 2 R2 , then det(a; b) = (@ ah1i b).

Proof:

det(a; b) = a1 b2 , a2 b1

= ((a1 ; a2 )(b2 ; ,b1))

= ((1; ,1)(a1 ; a2 )(b2 ; b1 ))

= (@ ah1i b)

THEOREM 18 If a; b; c 2 R3 , then

Proof:

det(a; b; c) = a (b c)

= (a(b c))

= (a(h1i bh2i c , h2i bh1i c))

det(a; b; c; d) = (@ a (h1i b(h2i ch3i d , h3i ch2i d)

+ h2ib(h3i ch1i d , h1i ch3i d)

+ h3ib(h1i ch2i d , h2i ch1i d)))

CHAPTER 8. VECTOR PRODUCTS REVISITED 9

det(a; b; c; d; e) = (a (h1i b(h2i c(h3i dh4i e , h4i dh3i e)

+ h3i c(h4i dh2i e , h2i dh4i e)

+ h4i c(h2i dh3i e , h3i dh2i e))

+ h2i b(h3i c(h1i dh4i e , h4i dh1i e)

+ h4i c(h3i dh1i e , h1i dh3i e)

+ h1i c(h4i dh3i e , h3i dh4i e))

+ h3i b(h4i c(h1i dh2i e , h2i dh1i e)

+ h1i c(h2i dh4i e , h4i dh2i e)

+ h2i c(h4i dh1i e , h1i dh4i e))

+ h4i b(h1i c(h3i dh2i e , h2i dh3i e)

+ h2i c(h1i dh3i e , h3i dh1i e)

+ h3i c(h2i dh1i e , h1i dh2i e))))

cannot be characterized by closed-form solutions. Associated with each deter-

minant is a characteristic polynomial which may reveal the connection between

Galois theory and the determinant representation given by our vector product.

A quick comparison of Theorems 19 and 20 reveals that the latter determinant

cannot be expressed in terms of only cyclical and reverse-cyclical permutations

of the permutation exponents in their natural, ascending order. With further

study, we anticipate establishing the connection between the vector product

representation and the group-theoretic results of Galois.

Conclusion

The utilization of this method for proving vector identities is reinforced by the

very simple rules and notation. When applied to determinants, this method

hints at the rudiments of Galois theory. Further study in this area by the

authors will hopefully establish that connection in the future.

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