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Submitted By :To :KARAN GARG
Roll no: 100903045
Group-: 1CO3



Method of classifying metals is by their
content, and one common division is into
ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals. The
term ferrous is derived from the Latin
"Ferrum" which means "containing iron",
thus ferrous metals contain iron and non
ferrous metals do not. Ferrous metals may
be pure iron, like wrought iron, or they may

be alloys of iron and other elements. Steel,

being an alloy of iron and carbon, would
therefore be a ferrous metal.
Ferrous metals are often magnetic, but this
property is not in and of itself sufficient to
classify a metal as ferrous or non-ferrous.
Austenitic stainless steel, a ferrous metal, is
non-magnetic, while cobalt is magnetic but
non-ferrous. However since ferrous metals
are the most common magnetic materials,
magnets are commonly used to separate
them from non-ferrous metals and other
Common ferrous metals include the various
irons and steels. Common non-ferrous
metals include aluminium, tin, copper, zinc,
and brass, an alloy of copper and zinc. The
precious metals silver, gold, and platinum
are also non-ferrous.

Copper (Cu)
Aluminium (AL)

Zinc (Zn)
Tin (Sn)


Copper is a chemical element in the periodic

table that has the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum)
and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal
with excellent electrical conductivity, and
finds extensive use as an electrical
conductor, thermal conductor, as a building
material, and as a component of various
Copper is an essential nutrient to all higher
plants and animals. In animals, it is found
primarily in the bloodstream, as a cofactor in
various enzymes, and in copper-based

pigments. In sufficient amounts, copper can

be poisonous or even fatal to organisms.
Copper has played a significant part in the
history of mankind, which has used the
easily accessible uncompounded metal for
nearly 10,000 years. Civilizations in places
like Iraq, China, Egypt, Greece and the
Sumerian cities all have early evidence of
using copper, and Britain and the United
States also have extensive histories of
copper use and mining. During the Roman
Empire, copper was principally mined on
Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the
metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later
shortened to Cuprum. A number of countries,
such as Chile and the United States, still
have sizeable reserves of the metal which
are extracted through large open mines.
General Properties
copper, Cu, 29
Chemical series
transition metals
Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d
metallic pinkish red

Atomic mass
Electron configuration
Electrons per shell
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.)
Liquid density at m.p.
Melting point
Boiling point
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat capacity

63.546(3) gmol1
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
2, 8, 18, 1
8.96 gcm3
8.02 gcm3
(1084.62C, 1984.32
(2562C, 4643F)
13.26 kJmol1
300.4 kJmol1


Vapor pressure




10 k 100 k

at T(K) 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2836

Atomic properties
Crystal structure

face centered cubic

Oxidation states
(mildly basic oxide)
1.90 (Pauling scale)
energies 1st: 745.5 kJmol1
2nd: 1957.9 kJmol1
3rd: 3555 kJmol1
135 pm
Atomic radius
Atomic radius (calc.) 145 pm
138 pm
Covalent radius
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Magnetic ordering
(20C) 16.78 nm
Electrical resistivity
Thermal conductivity (300K) 401 Wm1K1

Thermal expansion
Speed of sound (thin (r.t.)
3810 ms1

Young's modulus
Shear modulus
Bulk modulus
Poisson ratio
Mohs hardness
Vickers hardness
Brinell hardness
CAS registry number
Selected isotopes

130 Gpa
48 Gpa
140 Gpa
369 Mpa
874 Mpa

Main article: Isotopes of copper

iso NA





Cu 69.17% Cu is stable with 34 neutrons


Cu 30.83% Cu is stable with 36 neutrons

Notable characteristics
Copper just above its melting point keeps its
pink luster color when enough light
overshines the orange incandescence color.

Copper is a reddish-colored metal, with a

high electrical and thermal conductivity
(silver is the only pure metal to have a higher
electrical conductivity at room temperature).
In oxidation copper is mildly basic. Copper
has its characteristic color because it
reflects red and orange light and absorbs
other frequencies in the visible spectrum,
due to its band structure. This can be
contrasted with the optical properties of
silver, gold and aluminium.
Copper occupies the same family of the
periodic table as silver and gold, since they
each have one S-orbital electron on top of a
filled shell. This similarity in electron
structure makes them similar in many
characteristics. All have very high thermal
and electrical conductivity, and all are
malleable metals.
In its liquid state, a clear copper surface
without ambient light appears somewhat
greenish, another characteristic shared with
gold. Silver does not have this property, so it
is not a complementary color for the orange
incandescence color. When liquid copper is
in bright ambient light, it retains some of its

pinkish luster. Due to its high surface

tension, the liquid metal does not wetten
surfaces but instead forms spherical
droplets when poured on a surface.
Copper is insoluble in water (H2O) as well as
in isopropanol.
There are two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu,
along with a couple dozen radioisotopes.
The vast majority of radioisotopes have half
lives on the order of minutes or less; the
longest lived, 64Cu, has a half life of 12.7
hours, with two decay modes leading to two
separate products.
Numerous alloys of copper exist, many with
important historical and contemporary uses.
Speculum metal and bronze are alloys of
copper and tin. Brass is an alloy of copper
and zinc. Monel metal, also called
cupronickel, is an alloy of copper and nickel.
While the metal "bronze" usually refers to
copper-tin alloys, it also is a generic term for
any alloy of copper, such as aluminium
bronze, silicon bronze, and manganese

The purity of copper is expressed as 4N for

99.99% pure or 7N for 99.99999% pure. The
numeral gives the number of nines after the
decimal point when expressed as a decimal
(eg 4N means 0.9999, or 99.99%).

Copper is malleable and ductile, a good

conductor of heat and, when very pure, a
good conductor of electricity.
It is used extensively, in products such as:

Copper wire.
Printed circuit boards.
electromagnetic motors and generators.
Electrical relays, electrical
electrical switches.

busbars and

Vacuum tubes, cathode ray tubes, and the

magnetrons in microwave ovens.
Wave guides for microwave radiation.
Structural Engineering:
Statuary: The Statue of Liberty, for example,
contains 179,200 pounds (81.3 tonnes) of
Alloyed with nickel, e.g. cupronickel and
Monel, used as corrosive resistant materials
in shipbuilding.
Watt's steam engine.
Household Products:

Copper plumbing fittings and compression

Doorknobs and other fixtures in houses.
Roofing, guttering,




In cookware, such as frying pans.

Most flatware (knives, forks, spoons)
contains some copper (nickel silver).
Sterling silver, if it is to be used in
dinnerware, must contain a few percent
Copper was sometimes used by the Inuit to
make the cutting blade for ulus.
Copper water heating cylinders
As a component
cupronickel alloy.





Euro coins contain different copper alloys

Since 1982, U.S. Pennies are 0.8% copper by
weight (Balance zinc 99.2%).

U.S. Nickels are 75.0% copper by weight

(Balance nickel 25.0%).
Since 1965, U.S. Dimes and Quarters are
91.67% copper by weight (Balance nickel
Copper(II) sulfate is used as a fungicide and
as algae control in domestic lakes and
ponds. It is used in gardening powders and
sprays to kill mildew.
Chemical applications:

Compounds, such as Fehling's solution,

have applications in chemistry.
As a component in ceramic glazes, and to
color glass.

Used in the Water gas shift reaction which

converts carbon monoxide into carbon
Steam reforming which extracts hydrogen
from hydrocarbons.
Musical instruments, especially
instruments and cymbals.


The Egyptians found that adding a small
amount of tin made the metal easier to cast,
so bronze alloys were found in Egypt almost
as soon as copper was found. Copper is
found extensively in the Indus Valley
Civilization by the 3rd millennium BC[2]. By
1200 BC excellent bronzes were being made
in China. Note that these dates are affected
by wars and conquest, as copper is easily
melted down and reused. In Europe, Oetzi
the Iceman, a well-preserved male dated to
3200 BC, was found with a copper-tipped axe
whose metal was 99.7% pure.
There are copper and bronze artifacts from
Sumerian cities that date to 3000 BC, and

Egyptian artifacts of copper and copper-tin

alloys nearly as old. In one pyramid, a
copper plumbing system was found that is
5000 years old. In the Americas production in
the Old Copper Complex, located in present
day Michigan and Wisconsin, was dated
back to at least 6000 to 3000 BC.[3]
In Greek times, the metal was known by the
name chalkos (). Copper was a very
important resource for the Romans and
Greeks. In Roman times, it became known as
aes Cyprium (aes being the generic Latin
term for copper alloys such as bronze and
other metals, and Cyprium because so much
of it was mined in Cyprus).

Ancient Copper ingot from Zakros, Crete is

shaped in the form of an animal skin typical
for that era.

The use of bronze was so pervasive in a

certain era of civilization that it has been
named the Bronze Age. The transitional
period in certain regions between the
preceding Neolithic period and the Bronze
Age is termed the Chalcolithic, with some
high-purity copper tools being used
alongside stone tools.
Copper mining in Britain and the United
States Copper has been mined for many
centuries. By 2000 BC, Europe was using
copper-tin alloys or bronze. The Bronze Age
is taken as 2500 BC to 600 BC.

West Mine at Alderley Edge

British Isles
During the Bronze age, copper was mined in
the British Isles mainly in the following
South West County Cork

West Wales (e.g. Cwmwystwyth)

North Wales (e.g. Great Orme)
Anglesey (Parys Mountain)
Cheshire (Alderley Edge)
The Staffordshire Moorlands (e.g. Ecton
Isle of Man, which is between England and
Northern Ireland
At Great Orme in North Wales, such working
extended for a depth of 70 metres.[5] At
Alderley Edge in Cheshire, carbon dates
have established mining at around 2280 1890 BC (at 95% probability).[6]
United States

Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper

Country, Michigan, USA in 1905.

Copper mining in United States began with

marginal workings by Native Americans and
some development by early Spaniards.
Connecticut as early as 1709. Westward
movement also brought an expansion of
copper exploitation with developments of
significant deposits in Michigan and Arizona
during the 1850's and then in Montana during
the 1860's.
Copper was mined extensively in Michigan's
Keweenaw Peninsula with the heart of
extraction at the productive Quincy Mine.
Arizona had many notable deposits including
the Copper Queen in Bisbee and the United
Verde in Jerome. The Anaconda in Butte,
Montana became the nation's chief copper
supplier by 1886.
Copper has also been made in Utah, Nevada
and Tennessee, and among other locations.
Biological role

Copper is essential in all higher plants and

animals. Copper is carried mostly in the
bloodstream on a plasma protein called
ceruloplasmin. When copper is first
absorbed in the gut it is transported to the
liver bound to albumin. Copper is found in a
variety of enzymes, including the copper
centers of cytochrome c oxidase and the
enzyme superoxide dismutase (containing
copper and zinc). In addition to its enzymatic
roles, copper is used for biological electron
transport. The blue copper proteins that
participate in electron transport include
azurin and plastocyanin. The name "blue
copper" comes from their intense blue color
arising from a ligand-to-metal charge
transfer (LMCT) absorption band around 600

Most molluscs and some arthropods such as

the horseshoe crab use the coppercontaining pigment hemocyanin rather than
iron-containing hemoglobin for oxygen
transport, so their blood is blue when
oxygenated rather than red.[7]
It is believed that zinc and copper compete
for absorption in the digestive tract so that a
diet that is excessive in one of these
minerals may result in a deficiency in the
other. The RDA for copper in normal healthy
adults is 0.9 mg/day.
All copper compounds, unless otherwise
known, should be treated as if they were
toxic. Thirty grams of copper sulfate is
potentially lethal in humans. The suggested
safe level of copper in drinking water for
humans varies depending on the source, but
tends to be pegged at 1.5 to 2 mg/L. The DRI
Tolerable Upper Intake Level for adults of
dietary copper from all sources is 10 mg/day.
In toxicity, copper can inhibit the enzyme
dihydrophil hydratase, an enzyme involved
in haemopoiesis.

Symptoms of copper poisoning are very

similar to those produced by arsenic.
Coppery eructations and taste. Fatal cases
are generally terminated by convulsions,
palsy, and insensibility.
In cases of suspected copper poisoning,
albumen is to be administered in either of its
forms which can be most readily obtained,
as milk or whites of eggs. Vinegar should not
be given. The inflammatory symptoms are to
be treated on general principles, and so of
the nervous.
Too much copper in water has also been
found to damage marine life. The observed
effect of these higher concentrations on fish
and other creatures is damage to gills, liver,
kidneys, and the nervous system.
Miscellaneous hazards
The metal, when powdered, is a fire hazard.
At concentrations higher than 1 mg/L,
copper can stain clothes and items washed
in water.

Chuquicamata (Chile). The largest open pit

copper mine in the world.
The main copper ore producing countries are
Chile, United States, Indonesia, Australia,
Peru, Russia, Canada, China, Poland,
Kazakhstan, Zambia and Mexico.[9]
Copper can be found as native copper in
mineral form. Minerals such as the sulfides:
chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), bornite (Cu5FeS4),
covellite (CuS), chalcocite (Cu2S) are sources
of copper, as are the carbonates: azurite
(Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
and the oxide: cuprite (Cu2O).
Most copper ore is mined or extracted as
copper sulfides from large open pit mines in
porphyry copper deposits that contain 0.4 to
1.0 percent copper. Examples include:
Chuquicamata in Chile and El Chino Mine in
New Mexico. The average abundance of

copper found within crustal rocks is

approximately 68 ppm by mass, and 22 ppm
by atoms.

Native Copper Placer Nuggets

Native copper
The Intergovernmental Council of Copper
Exporting Countries (CIPEC), defunct since
1992, once tried to play a similar role for
copper as OPEC does for oil, but never
achieved the same influence, not least
because the second-largest producer, the
United States, was never a member. Formed

in 1967, its principal members were Chile,

Peru, Zaire, and Zambia.
The copper price has quintupled since 1999,
rising from $0.60 per pound in June 1999 to
$3.75 per pound in May 2006 where it began
to drop steadily, most recently dropping
below $3.00 per pound in December of
Common oxidation states of copper include
the less stable copper(I) state, Cu+; and the
more stable copper(II) state, Cu2+, which
forms blue or blue-green salts and solutions.
Under unusual conditions, a 3+ state and
even an extremely rare 4+ state can be
Copper(II) carbonate is green from which
arises the unique appearance of copper-clad
roofs or domes on some buildings.
Copper(II) sulfate forms a blue crystalline
pentahydrate which is perhaps the most
familiar copper compound in the laboratory.
It is used as a fungicide, known as Bordeaux

There are two stable copper oxides,

copper(II) oxide (CuO) and copper(I) oxide
(Cu2O). Copper oxides are used to make
yttrium barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu3O7-) or
YBCO which forms the basis of many
unconventional superconductors.
Copper (I) compounds : copper(I) chloride,
copper(I) bromide, copper(I) iodide, copper(I)
compounds :
carbonate, copper(II) chloride, copper(II)
hydroxide, copper(II) nitrate, copper(II) oxide,
copper(II) sulfate, copper(II) sulfide.
Copper (III) compounds , rare: potassium
hexafluorocuprate (K3CuF6)
Copper (IV) compounds , extremely rare:
caesium hexafluorocuprate (Cs2CuF6)
Copper (I) and Copper (II) can also be
referred to by their common names cuprous
and cupric.
Tests for copper(II) ion

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide. A blue

precipitate of copper(II) hydroxide should
Ionic equation:
Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(aq) Cu(OH)2(s)
The full equation shows that the reaction is
due to hydroxide ions deprotonating the
hexaaquacopper (II) complex:
Cu(H2O)4(OH)2(s) + 2 H2O (l)


Adding aqueous ammonia causes the same

precipitate to form. It then dissolves upon
adding excess ammonia, to form a deep blue
ammonia complex, tetraamminecopper(II).
Ionic equation:
[Cu(H2O)2(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 4 H2O (l)

A more delicate test than the ammonia is the

ferrocyanide of potassium, which gives a
brown precipitate with copper salts.
Alloys of copper

Classification of Copper and Its Alloys

UNS numbers
Zinc (Zn)
alloys, Brass
Tin (Sn)
Aluminium Aluminium
Silicon (Si) C64700C66100
nickel, Nickel Nickel (Ni) C7xxxx
A brass is an alloy of copper with zinc.
Brasses are usually yellow in color. The zinc
content can vary between few % to about
40%; as long as it is kept under 15%, it does
not markedly decrease corrosion resistance
of copper.

Brasses can be sensitive to selective

leaching corrosion under certain conditions,
when zinc is leached from the alloy
(dezincification), leaving behind a spongy
copper structure.
A bronze is an alloy of copper and other
metals, most often tin, but also aluminium
and silicon.
Aluminium bronzes are alloys of copper and
aluminium. The content of aluminium ranges
mostly between 5-11%.
Iron, nickel,
manganese and silicon are sometimes
added. They have higher strength and
corrosion resistance than other bronzes,
especially in marine environment, and have
low reactivity to sulfur compounds.
Aluminium forms a thin passivation layer on
the surface of the metal.
Phosphor bronze
Nickel bronzes,


Precious metal alloys




Copper is often alloyed with precious metals

like silver and gold, to create, for example,
Corinthian bronze, hepatizon, tumbaga and






Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table

General properties

aluminium, Al, 13
Chemical series
poor metals
Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p
Atomic mass
Electron configuration
Electrons per shell
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.)
Liquid density at m.p.
Melting point
Boiling point
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat capacity
Vapor pressure

26.9815386(8) gmol1
[Ne] 3s2 3p1
2, 8, 3
2.70 gcm3
2.375 gcm3
(660.32C, 1220.58F)
(2519C, 4566F)
10.71 kJmol1
294.0 kJmol1






10 k 100 k

at T(K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790

Atomic properties
face centered cubic,
0.4032 nm
Oxidation states
(amphoteric oxide)
1.61 (Pauling scale)
energies 1st: 577.5 kJmol1
2nd: 1816.7 kJmol1
3rd: 2744.8 kJmol1
125 pm
Atomic radius
Atomic radius (calc.) 118 pm
118 pm
Covalent radius
Magnetic ordering
(20C) 26.50 nm
Electrical resistivity
Thermal conductivity (300K) 237 Wm1K1

Thermal expansion
Speed of sound (thin (r.t.) (rolled) 5000
Crystal structure

Young's modulus
Shear modulus
Bulk modulus
Poisson ratio
Mohs hardness
Vickers hardness
Brinell hardness
CAS registry number
Selected isotopes

70 Gpa
26 Gpa
76 Gpa
167 Mpa
245 Mpa

Main article: Isotopes of aluminium

iso NA



Al syn










Al 100% Al is stable with 14 neutrons

Aluminium is found primarily and is

remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion
(due to the phenomenon of passivation) and
its light weight. The metal is used in many
industries to manufacture a large variety of
products and is very important to the world
economy. Structural components made from
aluminium and its alloys are vital to the
aerospace industry and very important in
other areas of transportation and building.

Aluminium is a soft, lightweight metal with

normally a dull silvery appearance caused by
a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly
when the metal is exposed to air. Aluminium
oxide has a higher melting point than pure
aluminium. Aluminium is nontoxic (as the
metal), nonmagnetic, and nonsparking. It has
a tensile strength of about 49 megapascals
(MPa) in a pure state and 400 MPa as an
Aluminium is one of the few metals which
retains full silvery reflectance, even in finely
powdered form, which makes it a very
important component of silver paints.
Aluminium mirror finish has the highest
reflectance of any metal in the 200-400 nm
(UV) and the 3000-10000 nm (far IR) regions,
while in the 400-700 nm visible range it is
slightly outdone by silver and in the 700-3000
(near IR) by silver, gold, and copper. It is the
second-most malleable metal (after gold) and
the sixth-most ductile. Aluminium is a good
thermal and electrical conductor. Aluminium
is capable of being a superconductor, with a
superconducting critical temperature of 1.2

As the metal

A piece of aluminium metal about 15

centimetres long, with a U.S. cent included
for scale.
Whether measured in terms of quantity or
value, the global use of aluminium exceeds
that of any other metal except iron, and it is
important in virtually all segments of the
world economy.
Relatively pure aluminium is encountered
only when corrosion resistance and/or
workability is more important than strength
or hardness. Pure aluminium serves as an
excellent reflector (approximately 99%) of
(approximately 95%) of infrared. A thin layer
of aluminium can be deposited onto a flat
surface by chemical vapor deposition or

chemical means to form optical coatings and

mirrors. These coatings form an even thinner
layer of protective aluminium oxide that does
not deteriorate, as silver coatings do. Nearly
all modern mirrors are made using a thin
coating of aluminium on the back surface of
a sheet of float glass.
Pure aluminium has a low tensile strength,
but when combined with thermo-mechanical
processing, aluminium alloys display a
properties. Aluminium alloys form vital
components of aircraft and rockets as a
result of their high strength-to-weight ratio.
Aluminium readily forms alloys with many
elements such as copper, zinc, magnesium,
manganese and silicon (e.g., duralumin).
Some of the many uses for aluminium metal
are in:
Transportation (automobiles, aircraft, trucks,
railroad cars, marine vessels, bicycles etc.)
Packaging (cans, foil, etc.)
Water treatment

Treatment against fish parasites such as

Gyrodactylus salaris.
Construction (windows,
building wire, etc.)


Consumer durable goods

cooking utensils, etc.)



Electrical transmission lines (aluminium

components and wires are less dense than
those made of copper and are lower in
price[1], but also present higher electrical
resistance. Many localities prohibit the use
of aluminium in residential wiring practices
because of its higher resistance and thermal
expansion value.)
MKM steel and Alnico magnets, although
non-magnetic itself
Super purity aluminium (SPA, 99.980% to
99.999% Al), used in electronics and CDs.
Powdered aluminium, a commonly used
silvering agent in paint, due to its retention
of reflectance, even as powder. Aluminium
flakes may also be included in undercoat

paints, particularly wood primer on drying,

the flakes overlap to produce a water
resistant barrier.
Anodised aluminium is more stable to further
oxidation, and is used in various fields of
construction, as well as heat sinking.
Aluminium Compounds

Aluminium fluorosilicate (Al2(SiF6)3) is used

in the production of synthetic gemstones,
glass and ceramics.
Aluminium ammonium sulfate (Al(NH4)(SO4)2)
is used: as a mordant, in water purification
and sewage treatment, in paper production,
as a food additive, and in leather tanning.
Aluminium borate (Al2O3 B2O3) is used in the
production of glass and ceramics.
Aluminium borohydride (Al(BH4)3) is used as
an additive in jet fuels.

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is used: in paint

petroleum refining and in the production of
synthetic rubber.
Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) is used: as an
antacid, as a mordant, in water purification,
in the manufacture of glass and ceramics
and in the waterproofing of fabrics.
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3, alumina, is found
sapphires), emery, and is used in glass
making. Synthetic ruby and sapphire are
used in lasers for the production of coherent
light. Aluminium oxidises very energetically
and as a result has found use in solid rocket
fuels, thermite, and other pyrotechnic
Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) is used in the
manufacture: of glass and ceramics, pulp
and paper products, cosmetics, paints and
varnishes and in making dental cement.
Aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO4)3) is used: in the
manufacture of paper, as a mordant, in a fire
extinguisher, in water purification and

sewage treatment, as a food additive, in

fireproofing, and in leather tanning.
In many vaccines, certain aluminium salts
serve as an immune adjuvant (immune
response booster) to allow the protein in the
vaccine to achieve succicient potency as an
immune stimulant.
Engineering use
Aluminium alloys with a wide range of
structures. Alloy systems are classified by a
number system (ANSI) or by names
indicating their main alloying constituents
(DIN and ISO). Selecting the right alloy for a
given application entails considerations of
strength, ductility, formability, weldability
and corrosion resistance to name a few. A
brief historical overview of alloys and
manufacturing technologies is given in Ref.[2]
Aluminium is used extensively in modern
aircraft due to its high strength to weight
Where failure is not an issue but excessive
flex is undesirable due to requirements for
precision of location, or efficiency of

transmission of power, simple replacement

of steel tubing with similarly sized aluminium
tubing will result in a degree of flex which is
undesirable; for instance, the increased flex
under operating loads caused by replacing
steel bicycle frame tubing with aluminium
tubing of identical dimensions will cause
misalignment of the power-train as well as
absorbing the operating force. To increase
the rigidity by increasing the thickness of the
walls of the tubing increases the weight
proportionately, so that the advantages of
lighter weight are lost as the rigidity is
In such cases, aluminium may best be used
by redesigning the dimension of the part to
suit its characteristics; for instance making a
bicycle frame of aluminium tubing which has
an oversize diameter rather than thicker
walls. In this way, rigidity can be restored or
even enhanced without increasing weight.[3]
The limit to this process is the increase in
susceptibility to what is termed "buckling"
failure, where the deviation of the force from
any direction other than directly along the
axis of the tubing, causes folding of the walls
of the tubing.

The latest models of the Corvette

automobile, among others, are a good
example of redesigning parts to make best
use of aluminium's advantages. The
aluminium chassis members and suspension
parts of these cars have large overall
dimensions for stiffness but are lightened by
reducing cross-sectional area and removing
unneeded metal; as a result, they are not
only equally or more durable and stiff as the
usual steel parts, but they possess an airy
gracefulness which most people find
attractive. Similarly, aluminium bicycle
frames can be optimally designed so as to
provide rigidity where required, yet exhibit
some extra flexibility which functions as a
natural shock-absorber for the rider.
The strength and durability of aluminium
varies widely, not only as a result of the
components of the specific alloy, but also as
a result of the particular manufacturing
process. This variability, plus a learningcurve in employing it, has from time to time
gained aluminium a bad reputation. For
instance, a high frequency of failure in many
poorly-designed early aluminium bicycle
frames in the 1970s, temporarily hurt

aluminum's reputation for this use. However,

automotive high performance industries,
where huge stresses are withstood with
vanishingly small failure rates, illustrates
components need not be intrinsically
unreliable. Time and experience has
subsequently proven this to be the case.
One important structural limitation of an
aluminium alloy is its fatigue properities.
While steel has a high fatigue limit (the
structure can theoretically withstand an
infinite number of cyclical loadings at this
stress), aluminium's fatigue limit is near
zero, meaning that it will eventually fail under
even very small cyclic loadings.
Heat sensitivity
Often, the metal's sensitivity to heat must
also be considered. Even a relatively routine
workshop procedure involving heating is
complicated by the fact that aluminium,
unlike steel, will melt without first glowing
red. Forming operations where a blow torch
is used therefore requires some expertise,

since no visual signs reveal how close the

material is to melting.
Aluminium also is subject to internal
stresses and strains when it is overheated;
the tendency of the metal to creep under
these stresses tends to result in delayed
distortions. For instance, the warping or
automobile cylinder heads is commonly
observed, sometimes years later, as is the
tendency of welded aluminium bicycle
frames to gradually twist out of alignment
from the stresses of the welding process.
Thus, the aerospace industry avoids heat
altogether by joining parts with adhesives or
mechanical fasteners. Adhesive bonding was
used in some bicycle frames in the 1970s,
with unfortunate results when the aluminium
tubing corroded slightly, loosening the
adhesive and collapsing the frame.
Stresses in overheated aluminium can be
relieved by heat-treating the parts in an oven
and gradually cooling it in effect annealing
the stresses. Yet these parts may still
become distorted, so that heat-treating of
welded bicycle frames, for instance, can

result in a significant fraction becoming

misaligned. If the misalignment is not too
severe, the cooled parts may be bent into
alignment. Of course, if the frame is properly
designed for rigidity (see above), that
bending will require enormous force.
temperatures has not precluded its use in
rocketry; even for use in constructing
combustion chambers where gases can
reach 3500 K. The Agena upper stage engine
used a regeneratively cooled aluminium
design for some parts of the nozzle,
including the thermally critical throat region;
in fact the extremely high thermal
conductivity of aluminium prevented the
throat from reaching the melting point even
under massive heat flux, resulting in a
reliable lightweight component.
Household wiring
Because of its high conductivity and
relatively low price compared to copper in
the 1960s, aluminium was introduced at that
time for household electrical wiring in the
United States, even though many fixtures
had not been designed to accept aluminium

wire. But






The greater coefficient of thermal expansion

of aluminium causes the wire to expand and
contract relative to the dissimilar metal
screw connection, eventually loosening the
Pure aluminium has a tendency to "creep"
under steady sustained pressure (to a
greater degree as the temperature rises),
again loosening the connection.
Galvanic corrosion from the dissimilar
metals increases the electrical resistance of
the connection.
All of this resulted in overheated and loose
connections, and this in turn resulted in
some fires. Builders then became wary of
using the wire, and many jurisdictions
outlawed its use in very small sizes, in new
construction. Yet newer fixtures eventually
were introduced with connections designed
to avoid loosening and overheating. At first
they were marked "Al/Cu", but they now bear
a "CO/ALR" coding.

Another way to forestall the heating problem

is to crimp the aluminium wire to a short
"pigtail" of copper wire. A properly done
high-pressure crimp by the proper tool is
tight enough to reduce any thermal
expansion of the aluminium. Today, new
alloys, designs, and methods are used for
aluminium wiring in combination with
aluminium terminations.
The ancient Greeks and Romans used
aluminium salts as dyeing mordants and as
astringents for dressing wounds; alum is still
used as a styptic. In 1761 Guyton de
Morveau suggested calling the base alum
alumine. In 1808, Humphry Davy identified
the existence of a metal base of alum, which
he at first named alumium and later
aluminum (see Spelling section, below).
Friedrich Whler is generally credited with
isolating aluminium (Latin alumen, alum) in
1827 by mixing anhydrous aluminium
chloride with potassium. The metal, however,
had indeed been produced for the first time
two years earlier but in an impure form
by the Danish physicist and chemist Hans

Christian rsted. Therefore, rsted can also

be listed as the discoverer of the metal.[4]
aluminium in bauxite ore and successfully
extracted it. [3] The Frenchman Henri SaintClaire Deville improved Whler's method in
1846 and described his improvements in a
book in 1859, chief among these being the
substitution of sodium for the considerably
more expensive potassium.

The statue known as Eros in Piccadilly

Circus London, was made in 1893 and is one
of the first statues to be cast in aluminium.
Aluminium was selected as the material to be
used for the apex of the Washington
Monument, at a time when one ounce cost

twice the daily wages of a common worker in

the project; aluminium was a semiprecious
metal at that time.[5]
The American Charles Martin Hall of Oberlin,
Ohio applied for a patent (400655) in 1886 for
an electrolytic process to extract aluminium
using the same technique that was
independently being developed by the
Frenchman Paul Hroult in Europe. The
invention of the Hall-Hroult process in 1886
made extracting aluminium from minerals
cheaper, and is now the principal method in
common use throughout the world. The HallHeroult process cannot produce Super
Purity Aluminium directly. Upon approval of
his patent in 1889, Hall, with the financial
backing of Alfred E. Hunt of Pittsburgh, PA,
started the Pittsburgh Reduction Company,
renamed to Aluminum Company of America
in 1907, later shortened to Alcoa.
Germany became the world leader in
aluminium production soon after Adolf
Hitler's rise to power. By 1942, however, new
hydroelectric power projects such as the
Grand Coulee Dam gave the United States
something Nazi Germany could not hope to

compete with, namely the capability of

producing enough aluminium to manufacture
sixty thousand warplanes in four years.[6]
Aluminium metal production and refinement

Although aluminium is the most abundant

metallic element in Earth's crust (believed to
be 7.5% to 8.1%), it is very rare in its free
environments such as volcanic mud, and it
was once considered a precious metal more
valuable than gold. Napoleon III, Emperor of
the French, is reputed to have given a
banquet where the most honoured guests
were given aluminium utensils, while the
other guests had to make do with gold ones
. Aluminium has been produced in
commercial quantities for just over 100
years. [citations needed]
Aluminium is a reactive metal that is difficult
to extract from ore, aluminium oxide (Al2O3).

Direct reduction with carbon, for example

is not economically viable since
aluminium oxide has a melting point of about
2,000 C. Therefore, it is extracted by
electrolysis; that is, the aluminium oxide is
dissolved in molten cryolite and then
reduced to the pure metal. By this process,
the operational temperature of the reduction
cells is around 950 to 980 C. Cryolite is
found as a mineral in Greenland, but in
industrial use it has been replaced by a
synthetic substance. Cryolite is a mixture of
aluminium, sodium, and calcium fluorides:
(Na3AlF6). The aluminium oxide (a white
powder) is obtained by refining bauxite in the
Bayer process. (Previously, the Deville
process was the predominant refining
The electrolytic process replaced the Whler
process, which involved the reduction of
potassium. Both of the electrodes used in
the electrolysis of aluminium oxide are
carbon. Once the ore is in the molten state,
its ions are free to move around. The
reaction at the cathode the negative
terminal is

Al3+ + 3 e- Al
Here the aluminium ion is being reduced
(electrons are added). The aluminium metal
then sinks to the bottom and is tapped off.
At the positive electrode (anode), oxygen is
2 O2- O2 + 4 eThis carbon anode is then oxidised by the
oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide. The
anodes in a reduction must therefore be
replaced regularly, since they are consumed
in the process:
O2 + C CO2
Unlike the anodes, the cathodes are not
oxidised because there is no oxygen present
at the cathode. The carbon cathode is
protected by the liquid aluminium inside the
cells. Nevertheless, cathodes do erode,
mainly due to electrochemical processes.
After five to ten years, depending on the
current used in the electrolysis, a cell has to
be rebuilt because of cathode wear.

Aluminium electrolysis with the Hall-Hroult

process consumes a lot of energy, but
alternative processes were always found to
ecologically. The world-wide average specific
energy consumption is approximately 150.5
kilowatt-hours per kilogram of aluminium
produced from alumina. (52 to 56 MJ/kg). The
most modern smelters reach approximately
12.8 kWh/kg (46.1 MJ/kg). Reduction line
current for older technologies are typically
100 to 200 kA. State-of-the-art smelters
operate with about 350 kA. Trials have been
reported with 500 kA cells.
Electric power represents about 20% to 40%
of the cost of producing aluminium,
depending on the location of the smelter.
Smelters tend to be situated where electric
power is both plentiful and inexpensive,
such as South Africa, the South Island of
New Zealand, Australia, the People's
Republic of China, the Middle East, Russia,
Quebec and British Columbia in Canada, and
In 2004, the People's Republic of China was
the top world producer of aluminium.

Aluminium has nine isotopes, whose mass
numbers range from 23 to 30. Only 27Al
(stable isotope) and 26Al (radioactive isotope,
t1/2 = 7.2 105 y) occur naturally, however 27Al
has a natural abundance of 100%. 26Al is
produced from argon in the atmosphere by
spallation caused by cosmic-ray protons.
Aluminium isotopes have found practical
application in dating marine sediments,
manganese nodules, glacial ice, quartz in
rock exposures, and meteorites. The ratio of
Al to 10Be has been used to study the role of
transport, deposition, sediment storage,
burial times, and erosion on 105 to 106 year
time scales.[citation needed]Cosmogenic 26Al was
first applied in studies of the Moon and
departure from their parent bodies, are
exposed to intense cosmic-ray bombardment
during their travel through space, causing
substantial 26Al production. After falling to
Earth, atmospheric shielding protects the
meteorite fragments from further 26Al
production, and its decay can then be used
to determine the meteorite's terrestrial age.
Meteorite research has also shown that 26Al

was relatively abundant at the time of

formation of our planetary system. Possibly,
the energy released by the decay of 26Al was
differentiation of some asteroids after their
formation 4.6 billion years ago.[citation needed]
In the journal Science of 14 January 2005 it
was reported that clusters of 13 aluminium
atoms (Al13) had been made to behave like an
iodine atom; and, 14 aluminium atoms (Al14)
behaved like an alkaline earth atom. The
researchers also bound 12 iodine atoms to
an Al13 cluster to form a new class of
polyiodide. This discovery is reported to give
rise to the possibility of
a new
characterisation of the periodic table:
superatoms. The research teams were led by
Shiv N. Khanna (Virginia Commonwealth
University) and A. Welford Castleman Jr
(Penn State University).[10]
Aluminium is a neurotoxin that alters the
function of the blood-brain barrier.[11] It is one
of the few abundant elements that appears to

have no beneficial function to living cells. A

small percent of people are allergic to it
they experience contact dermatitis from any
form of it: an itchy rash from using styptic or
antiperspirant products, digestive disorders
and inability to absorb nutrients from eating
food cooked in aluminium pans, and
vomiting and other symptoms of poisoning
from ingesting such products as Rolaids,
Amphojel, and Maalox (antacids). In other
people, aluminium is not considered as toxic
as heavy metals, but there is evidence of
some toxicity if it is consumed in excessive
amounts. The use of aluminium cookware,
popular because of its corrosion resistance
and good heat conduction, has not been
shown to lead to aluminium toxicity in
general. Excessive consumption of antacids
containing aluminium compounds and
excessive use of aluminium-containing
antiperspirants are more likely causes of
toxicity. In research published in the Journal
of Applied Toxicology, Dr. Philippa D. Darby
of the University of Reading has shown that
aluminium salts increase estrogen-related
gene expression in human breast cancer
cells grown in the laboratory. These salts'

estrogen-like effects have lead to their

classification as a metalloestrogen.
It has been suggested that aluminium is a
cause of Alzheimer's disease, as some brain
plaques have been found to contain the
metal. Research in this area has been
inconclusive; aluminium accumulation may
be a consequence of the Alzheimer's
damage, not the cause. In any event, if there
is any toxicity of aluminium it must be via a
very specific mechanism, since total human
exposure to the element in the form of
naturally occurring clay in soil and dust is
enormously large over a lifetime.[12],[13]
Mercury applied to the surface of an
aluminium alloy can damage the protective
oxide surface film. This may cause further
corrosion and weakening of the structure.
For this reason, mercury thermometers are
not allowed on many airliners, as aluminium
is used in many aircraft structures.
Powdered aluminium can react with Fe2O3 to
form Fe and Al2O3. This mixture is known as
thermite, which burns with a high energy
inadvertently during grinding operations, but

the high ignition temperature makes

incidents unlikely in most workshop
Aluminium and plants (Phytoremediation)
Aluminium is primary among the factors that
contribute to the loss of plant production on
acid soils. Although it is generally harmless
to plant growth in pH-neutral soils, the
concentration in acid soils of toxic Al3+
cations increases and disturbs root growth
and function.
Wheat's adaptation to allow aluminium
tolerance is such that the aluminium induces
a release of organic compounds that bind to
the harmful aluminium cations. Sorghum is
believed to have the same tolerance
mechanism. The first gene for aluminium
tolerance has been identified in wheat. A
group in the US Department of Agriculture
showed that sorghum's aluminium tolerance
is controlled by a single gene, as for wheat.
This is not the case in all plants.
Oxidation state one

AlH is produced when aluminium is heated at

1500C in an atmosphere of hydrogen.
Al2O is made by heating the normal oxide,
Al2O3, with silicon at 1800C in a vacuum.
Al2S can be made by heating Al2S3 with
aluminium shavings at 1300C in a vacuum.
It quickly disproportionates to the starting
materials. The selenide is made in a parallel
AlF, AlCl and AlBr exist in the gaseous phase
when the tri-halide is heated with aluminium.
Oxidation state two
Aluminium monoxide, AlO, is present when
aluminium powder burns in oxygen.
Oxidation state three
Fajans rules show that the simple trivalent
cation Al3+ is not expected to be found in
anhydrous salts or binary compounds such
as Al2O3. The hydroxide is a weak base and
aluminium salts of weak acids, such as
carbonate, can't be prepared. The salts of
strong acids, such as nitrate, are stable and
soluble in water, forming hydrates with at





Aluminium hydride, (AlH3)n, can be produced

from trimethylaluminium and an excess of
hydrogen. It burns explosively in air. It can
also be prepared by the action of aluminium
chloride on lithium hydride in ether solution,
but cannot be isolated free from the solvent.
Aluminium carbide, Al4C3 is made by heating
a mixture of the elements above 1000C. The
pale yellow crystals have a complex lattice
structure, and react with water or dilute acids
to give methane. The acetylide, Al2(C2)3, is
made by passing acetylene over heated
Aluminium nitride, AlN, can be made from
the elements at 800C. It is hydrolysed by
water to form ammonia and aluminium
Aluminium phosphide, AlP, is made similarly,
and hydrolyses to give phosphine.
Aluminium oxide, Al2O3, occurs naturally as
corundum, and can be made by burning
aluminium in oxygen or by heating the
hydroxide, nitrate or sulfate. As a gemstone,

its hardness is only exceeded by diamond,

boron nitride, and carborundum. It is almost
insoluble in water.
Aluminium hydroxide may be prepared as a
gelatinous precipitate by adding ammonia to
an aqueous solution of an aluminium salt. It
is amphoteric, being both a very weak acid,
and forming aluminates with alkalis. It exists
in various crystalline forms.
Aluminium sulfide, Al2S3, may be prepared by
passing hydrogen sulfide over aluminium
powder. It is polymorphic.
Aluminium iodide, (AlI3)2, is a dimer with
applications in organic synthesis.
Aluminium fluoride, AlF3, is made by treating
the hydroxide with HF, or can be made from
the elements. It consists of a giant molecule
which sublimes without melting at 1291C. It
is very inert. The other trihalides are dimeric,
having a bridge-like structure.
Aluminium fluoride/water complexes: When
aluminium and fluoride are together in
aqueous solution, they readily form complex
ions such as AlF(H2O)5+2, AlF3(H2O)30, AlF6-3.
Of these, AlF6-3 is the most stable. This is

explained by the fact that aluminium and

fluoride, which are both very compact ions,
fit together just right to form the octahedral
aluminium hexafluoride complex. When
aluminium and fluoride are together in water
in a 1:6 molar ratio, AlF6-3 is the most
common form, even in rather low
Al-Li (lithium)
Duralumin (copper)
Nambe (aluminium plus seven other
undisclosed metals)
Silumin (silicon)
AA-8000: used for building wire in the
U.S. per the National Electrical Code
Magnalium (5% magnesium)/used in
airplane bodies, ladders,etc.
Aluminium also forms complex metallic
alloys, like -Al-Mg, '-Al-Pd-Mn, T-Al3Mn


General Properties
zinc, Zn, 30
Chemical series
transition metals
Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d
Atomic mass
Electron configuration
Electrons per shell
Physical properties
Density (near r.t.)
Liquid density at m.p.
Melting point
Boiling point
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization
Heat capacity

65.409(4) gmol1
[Ar] 3d10 4s2
2, 8, 18, 2
7.14 gcm3
6.57 gcm3
(419.53C, 787.15F)
(907C, 1665F)
7.32 kJmol1
123.6 kJmol1


Vapor pressure


at T(K)

610 670 750 852 990

Atomic properties
Crystal structure

100 1 k

10 k 100 k

Oxidation states
(amphoteric oxide)
1.65 (Pauling scale)
energies 1st: 906.4 kJmol1
2nd: 1733.3 kJmol1
3rd: 3833 kJmol1
135 pm
Atomic radius
Atomic radius (calc.) 142 pm
131 pm
Covalent radius
Van der Waals radius 139 pm
Magnetic ordering
(20C) 59.0 nm
Electrical resistivity
Thermal conductivity (300K) 116 Wm1K1


Speed of sound (thin (r.t.) (rolled) 3850
108 GPa
Young's modulus
43 GPa
Shear modulus
70 GPa
Bulk modulus
Poisson ratio
Mohs hardness
412 MPa
Brinell hardness
CAS registry number 7440-66-6
Selected isotopes
Thermal expansion

Main article: Isotopes of zinc

iso NA





Zn 48.6% Zn is stable with 34 neutrons

Zn syn



244.26 d



Zn 27.9% Zn is stable with 36 neutrons


Zn 4.1%


Zn 18.8% Zn is stable with 38 neutrons


Zn syn

56.4 min


Zn 0.6%

Zn is stable with 40 neutrons

Zn is stable with 37 neutrons




Zinc is a chemical element in the periodic

table that has the symbol Zn and atomic
number 30.
Notable characteristics
Zinc is a moderately-reactive bluish-white
metal that tarnishes in moist air and burns in
air with a bright greenish flame, giving off
plumes of zinc oxide. It reacts with acids,
alkalis and other non-metals. If not
completely pure, zinc reacts with dilute acids
to release hydrogen. The one common
oxidation state of zinc is +2. From 100 C to
210 C zinc metal is malleable and can easily
be beaten into various shapes. Above 210 C,
the metal becomes brittle and will be
pulverized by beating.

Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use,

trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper in
annual production.
Zinc is used to galvanize steel to prevent
Zinc is used to Parkerize steel to prevent rust
and corrosion
Zinc is used in alloys such as brass,
nickelled silver, typewriter metal, various
soldering formulas and German silver.
Zinc is the primary metal used in making
American cents since 1982.

Zinc is used in die casting notably in the

automobile industry.
Zinc is used as part of the containers of
batteries. The most widespread such use is
as the anode in alkaline batteries.
Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zincair battery/fuel cell providing the basis of the
theorised zinc economy.
Zinc is used as a sacrificial anode on boats
and ships that use cathodic protection to
prevent corrosion of metals that are exposed
to sea water.
Zinc is used in contemporary pipe organ
building as a substitute for the classic
lead/tin alloy in pipes sounding the lowest
(pedal) tones, as it is tonally almost
indistinguishable from lead/tin at those
pitches, and has the added advantages of
being much more economical and lighter in
weight. Even the best organ builders use
zinc in this capacity.
Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in
watercolours or paints, and as an activator in
the rubber industry. As an over-the-counter
ointment, it is applied as a thin coating on

the exposed skin of the face or nose to

prevent dehydration of the area of skin. It
can protect against sunburn in the summer
and windburn in the winter. Applied thinly to
a baby's diaper area (perineum) with each
diaper change, it can protect against rash. As
determined in the Age-Related Eye Disease
Study, it is part of an effective treatment for
age-related macular degeneration in some
Zinc chloride is used as a deodorant and can
also be used as a wood preservative.
Zinc sulfide is used in luminescent pigments
such as on the hands of clocks and other
items that glow in the dark.
Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of
organic syntheses.
Zinc stearate is a lubricative plastic additive.
Lotions made of calamine, a mix of Zn(hydroxy-)carbonates and silicates, are used
to treat skin rash.
Zinc gluconate glycine and zinc acetate are
also used in throat lozenges or tablets in an
attempt to remedy the common cold. [1]


In ancient India the production of zinc metal
was very common. Many mine sites of
Zawarmaala were active even during 13001000 BC. There are references of medicinal
uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300
BC). The Rasaratna Samuccaya (800 AD)
explains the existence of two types of ores
for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal
extraction while the other is used for
medicinal purpose. [2] Zinc alloys have been
used for centuries, as brass goods dating to
10001400 BC have been found in Israel and
zinc objects with 87% zinc have been found
in prehistoric Transylvania. Because of the
low boiling point and high chemical
reactivity of this metal (isolated zinc would
tend to go up the chimney rather than be
captured), the true nature of this metal was
not understood in ancient times.

The manufacture of brass was known to the

Romans by about 30 BC, using a technique
where calamine and copper were heated
together in a crucible. The zinc oxides in
calamine were reduced, and the free zinc
metal was trapped by the copper, forming an
alloy. The resulting calamine brass was
either cast or hammered into shape.
Smelting and extraction of impure forms of
zinc was accomplished as early as 1000 AD
in India and China. In the West, impure zinc
as a remnant in melting ovens was known
since Antiquity, but usually discarded as
worthless. Strabo mentions it as pseudoarguros "mock silver". The Berne zinc
tablet is a votive plaque dating to Roman
Gaul, probably made from such zinc
remnants. The discovery of pure metallic
zinc is most often credited to the German
Andreas Marggraf, in the year 1746, though
the whole story is disputed.[citation needed]
The English metallurgist Libavius received in
1597 a quantity of zinc metal in its pure form,
which was unknown in the West before then.
Libavius identified it as Indian/Malabar lead.
Paracelsus (1616) was credited with the

Dictionary, the most authentic source of all
technological information in Europe, did not
mention zinc before 1751.
In 1738, William Champion is credited with
patenting in Britain a process to extract zinc
from calamine in a smelter, a technology he
acquired after visiting Zawar zinc mines in
Rajasthan. His first patent was rejected by
the patent court on grounds of plagiarising
the technology common in India. However he
was granted the patent on his second
submission of patent approval.
Before the discovery of the zinc sulfide
flotation technique, calamine was the mineral
source of zinc metal.

Foods and spices that contain the essential

mineral zinc
Biological role
Zinc is an essential element, necessary for
sustaining all life. It is estimated that 3000 of
the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the
human body contain zinc prosthetic groups.
[citation needed]
In addition, there are over a dozen
types of cells in the human body that secrete
zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted
zinc signals in medicine and health are now
being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain
cells in the mammalian forebrain are one
type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its

other neuronal messenger substances. Cells

in the salivary gland, prostate, immune
system and intestine are other types that
secrete zinc.[citation needed]
Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such
as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase
is important in the transport of carbon
dioxide in vertebrate blood. It is also
required in plants for leaf formation, the
synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and
fermentation).[citation needed]
Food sources
Zinc is found in oysters, and to a far lesser
degree in most animal proteins, beans, nuts,
whole grains, pumpkin seeds and sunflower
seeds. Phytates, which are found in whole
grain breads, cereals, legumes and other
products, have been known to decrease zinc
absorption. Clinical studies have found that
zinc, combined with antioxidants, may delay
degeneration[citation needed], but the effect is
extremely small and not likely to be clinically
important. Significant dietary intake of zinc
has also recently been shown to impede the

onset of flu[citation needed]. Soil conservation

analyzes the vegetative uptake of naturally
occurring zinc in many soil types.
Zinc deficiency
Zinc deficiency results from inadequate
intake of zinc, or inadequate absorption of
zinc into the body. Signs of zinc deficiency
includes hair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea,
wasting of body tissues, and, eventually,
death. Eyesight, taste, smell and memory are
also connected with zinc. A deficiency in zinc
can cause malfunctions of these organs and
functions. Congenital abnormalities causing
zinc deficiency may lead to a disease called
Acrodermatitis enteropathica.
Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during
pregnancy and in young children is a very
real problem, especially among those who
cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain
development is stunted by zinc insufficiency
in utero and in youth.
Zinc toxicity
Even though zinc is an essential requirement
for a healthy body, too much zinc can be
harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can

also suppress copper and iron absorption.

The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to
plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate
fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is
well-established in the literature, and shows
that just micromolar amounts of the free ion
kills some organisms. A recent example
showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all
daphnia in water. [3] Swallowing an American
one cent piece (98% zinc) can also cause
damage to the stomach lining due to the high
solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic
stomach. [4] Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form
of the ingestion of US pennies minted after
1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it
causes a severe hemolytic anemia.
Immune system
Zinc salts are effective against pathogens in
direct application. Gastrointestinal infections
are also strongly attenuated by ingestion of
zinc, and this effect could be due to direct
antimicrobial action of the zinc ions in the GI
tract, or to absorption of the zinc and rerelease from immune cells (all granulocytes
secrete zinc) or both.

The direct effect of zinc (as in lozenges) on

bacteria and viruses is also well-established,
and has been used since at least 2000 BC,
from when zinc salts in palliative salves are
documented. However, exactly how to deliver
zinc salts against pathogens without injuring
one's own tissues is still being investigated.
Zinc is the 23rd most abundant element in
the Earth's crust. The most heavily mined
ores (sphalerite) tend to contain roughly 10%
iron as well as 4050% zinc. Minerals from
which zinc is extracted include sphalerite
(zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate),
hemimorphite (zinc silicate), and franklinite
(a zinc spinel).
Zinc mining and processing
There are zinc mines throughout the world,
with the largest producers being Australia,
Canada, China, Peru and the U.S.A. Mines
and refiners in Europe include Umicore in
Belgium, Tara, Galmoy and Lisheen in
Ireland, and Zinkgruvan in Sweden. Zinc
metallurgy. Zinc sulfide (sphalerite) minerals

are concentrated using the froth flotation

method and then usually roasted using
pyrometallurgy to oxidise the zinc sulfide to
zinc oxide. The zinc oxide is leached in
several stages of increasingly stronger
sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Iron is usually rejected
as Jarosite or goethite, removing other
impurities at the same time. The final
purification uses zinc dust to remove copper,
cadmium and cobalt. The metal is then
electrowinning as cathodic deposits. Zinc
cathodes can be directly cast or alloyed with
There are two common processes for
electrowinning the metal, the low current
density process, and the Tainton high
current density process. The former uses a
10% sulfuric acid solution as the electolyte,
with current density of 270325 amperes per
square meter. The latter uses 22-28% sulfuric
acid solution as the electrolyte with current
density of about 1000 amperes per square
There are also several pyrometallurgical
processes that reduce zinc oxide using

carbon, then distill the metallic zinc from the

resulting mix in an atmosphere of carbon
monoxide. These include the Belgian-type
horizontal-retort process, the New Jersey
Zinc continuous vertical-retort process, and
electrothermal process. The Belgian process
requires redistillation to remove impurities of
lead, cadmium, iron, copper, and arsenic.
Another pyrometallurgical process is flash
smelting. Then zinc oxide is obtained,
usually producing zinc of lesser quality than
the hydrometallurgical process. Zinc oxide
treatment has much fewer applications, but
high grade deposits have been successful in
producing zinc from zinc oxides and zinc
carbonates using hydrometallurgy.

The most widely used alloy of zinc is brass,

in which copper is alloyed with anywhere
from 9% to 45% zinc, depending upon the
type of brass, along with much smaller
amounts of lead and tin. Alloys of 8588%
zinc, 410% copper, and 28% aluminum find
limited use in certain types of machine
bearings. Alloys of primarily zinc with small
magnesium are useful in die-casting. Similar
alloys with the addition of a small amount of
lead can be cold-rolled into sheets. An alloy
of 96% zinc and 4% aluminum is used to
make stamping dies for low production run

applications where ferrous metal dies would

be too expensive.
Zinc oxide is perhaps the best known and
most widely used zinc compound, as it
makes a good base for white pigments in
paint. It also finds industrial use in the
rubber industry, and is sold as opaque
sunscreen. A variety of other zinc
compounds find use industrially, such as
zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione
(anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in
luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc
diethyl in the organic laboratory. Roughly
one quarter of all zinc output is consumed in
the form of zinc compounds.
Naturally occurring zinc is composed of the
5 stable isotopes 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, and
Zn with 64Zn being the most abundant
(48.6% natural abundance). Twenty-one
radioisotopes have been characterised with
the most abundant and stable being 65Zn with
a half-life of 244.26 days, and 72Zn with a halflife of 46.5 hours. All of the remaining

radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are

less than 14 hours and the majority of these
have half lives that are less than 1 second.
This element also has 4 meta states.
Zinc has been proposed as a "salting"
material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is
another, better-known salting material). A
jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn, irradiated
by the intense high-energy neutron flux from
an exploding thermonuclear weapon, would
transmute into the radioactive isotope Zn-65
with a half-life of 244 days and produce
approximately 2.27 MeV of gamma radiation,
significantly increasing the radioactivity of
the weapon's fallout for several days. Such a
weapon is not known to have ever been built,
tested, or used.
Metallic zinc is not considered to be toxic,
but free zinc ions in solution (like copper or
iron ions) are highly toxic. There is also a
condition called zinc shakes or zinc chills
(see metal fume fever) that can be induced
by the inhalation of freshly formed zinc oxide
formed during the welding of galvanized

materials. Excessive intake of zinc can

promote deficiency in other dietary minerals.



indium tin


Periodic Table
Extended Periodic
General properties
tin, Sn, 50
Chemical series
poor metals
14, 5, p
silvery lustrous
Atomic mass

118.710(7) gmol1
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2


Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 4

Physical properties
(white) 7.265 gcm3
Density (near r.t.)
(gray) 5.769 gcm3
Density (near r.t.)
Liquid density at
6.99 gcm3
Melting point
(231.93C, 449.47F)
Boiling point
(2602C, 4716F)
(white) 7.03 kJmol1
Heat of fusion
Heat of vaporization (white) 296.1 kJmol1
Heat capacity
27.112 Jmol1K1
Vapor pressure




10 k 100 k

at T(K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893

Atomic properties
Crystal structure


(amphoteric oxide)
1.96 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 708.6 kJmol1
2nd: 1411.8 kJmol1
3rd: 2943.0 kJmol1
145 pm
Atomic radius
145 pm
141 pm
Covalent radius
217 pm
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (0 C) 115 nm
(300K) 66.8 Wm1K1
Thermal expansion (25C) 22.0 mm1K1
Speed of sound
(r.t.) (rolled) 2730 ms1
(thin rod)
50 GPa
Young's modulus
18 GPa
Shear modulus
58 GPa
Bulk modulus
Oxidation states

Poisson ratio
Mohs hardness
51 MPa
Brinell hardness
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of tin


half-life DM



Sn is stable with 62 neutrons


Sn is stable with 64 neutrons


Sn is stable with 65 neutrons

Sn 0.97%
Sn 0.65%
Sn 0.34%


Sn 14.54% Sn is stable with 66 neutrons


Sn 7.68%

Sn is stable with 67 neutrons


Sn 24.23% Sn is stable with 68 neutrons


Sn 8.59%

Sn is stable with 69 neutrons


Sn 32.59% Sn is stable with 70 neutrons


Sn is stable with 72 neutrons


Sn is stable with 74 neutrons


~1 E5 y Beta- 0.380

Sn 4.63%
Sn 5.79%
Sn syn



Tin chemical element in the periodic table

that has the symbol Sn (Latin: stannum) and
atomic number 50. This silvery, malleable
poor metal that is not easily oxidized in air
and resists corrosion, is found in many
alloys and is used to coat other metals to
prevent corrosion. Tin is obtained chiefly
from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs
as an oxide.
Notable characteristics

Tin is a malleable, ductile, highly crystalline,

silvery-white metal; when a bar of tin is bent,
a strange crackling sound known as the "tin
cry" can be heard due to the breaking of the
crystals. This metal resists corrosion from
distilled, sea and soft tap water, but can be
attacked by strong acids, alkalis, and by acid
salts. Tin acts as a catalyst when oxygen is
in solution and helps accelerate chemical

Tin forms the dioxide SnO2 when it is heated

in the presence of air. SnO2, in turn, is feebly
acidic and forms stannate (SnO3-2) salts with
basic oxides. Tin can be highly polished and
is used as a protective coat for other metals
in order to prevent corrosion or other
chemical action. This metal combines
directly with chlorine and oxygen and
displaces hydrogen from dilute acids. Tin is
malleable at ordinary temperatures but is
brittle when it is heated.

Chemically tin shows properties intermediate

between those of metals and non-metals,
just as the semiconductors silicon and
germanium do. Tin has two allotropes at
normal pressure and temperature, gray tin,
and white tin.

Below 13.2 C it exists as gray or alpha tin,

which has a cubic crystal structure similar to
silicon and germanium. Gray tin has no
metallic properties at all, is a dull-gray
powdery material, and has no known uses.
When warmed above 13.2 C tin changes into
white or beta tin, which is metallic and has a
tetragonal structure. Converting gray tin
powder into white tin produces white tin
powder. To convert powdery gray tin into
solid white tin the temperature must be
raised above the melting point of tin.
Gray tin can be a real problem, since metallic
white tin will slowly convert to gray tin if it is
held for a long time below 13.2 Celsius. The
metallic surface of white tin becomes
covered with a gray powder which is easily
rubbed off. The gray patches slowly expand
until all of the tin in the object is converted
from the metal to the powder, at which point
it totally loses its structural integrity and falls
to pieces. This process is known as tin
disease or tin pest.

Tin bonds readily to iron, and has been used

for coating lead or zinc and steel to prevent
corrosion. Tin-plated steel containers are
widely used for food preservation, and this
forms a large part of the market for metallic
tin. Speakers of British English call them
"tins"; Americans call them "cans" or "tin
cans". One thus-derived use of the slang
term "tinnie" or "tinny" means "can of beer".
The tin whistle is so called because it was
first mass-produced in tin-plated steel.
Other uses:
Some important tin alloys are: bronze, bell
metal, Babbitt metal, die casting alloy,
pewter, phosphor bronze, soft solder, and
White metal.

The most important salt formed is stannous

chloride, which has found use as a reducing
agent and as a mordant in the calico printing
process. Electrically conductive coatings are
produced when tin salts are sprayed onto
glass. These coatings have been used in
panel lighting and in the production of frostfree windshields.
Most metal pipes in a pipe organ are made of
varying amounts of a tin/lead alloy, with
50%/50% being the most common. The
amount of tin in the pipe defines the pipe's
tone, since tin is the most tonally resonant of
all metals. When a tin/lead alloy cools, the
lead cools slightly faster and makes a
mottled or spotted effect. This metal alloy is
referred to as spotted metal.
Window glass is most often made via
floating molten glass on top of molten tin
(creating float glass) in order to make a flat
surface (this is called the "Pilkington
Tin is also used in solders for joining pipes
or electric circuits, in bearing alloys, in
glass-making, and in a wide range of tin
chemical applications. Although of higher

melting point than a lead-tin alloy, the use of

pure tin or tin alloyed with other metals in
these applications is rapidly supplanting the
use of the previously common lead
containing alloys in order to eliminate the
problems of toxicity caused by lead.
Tin foil was once a common wrapping
material for foods and drugs; replaced in the
early 20th century by the use of aluminium
foil, which is now commonly referred to as
tin foil. Hence one use of the slang term
"tinnie" or "tinny" for a small retail package
of a drug such as cannabis or for a can of
Tin becomes a superconductor below 3.72 K.
In fact, tin was one of the first
superconductors to be studied; the Meissner
effect, one of the characteristic features of
superconductors, was first discovered in
superconducting tin crystals.
Tin (Old English: tin, Old Latin: plumbum
candidum, Old German: tsin, Late Latin:
stannum) is one of the earliest metals known
and was used as a component of bronze

from antiquity. Because of its hardening

effect on copper, tin was used in bronze
implements as early as 3,500 BC. Tin mining
is believed to have started in Cornwall and
Devon (esp. Dartmoor) in Classical times,
and a thriving tin trade developed with the
However the lone metal was not used until
about 600 BC. The last Cornish Tin Mine, at
South Crofty near Camborne closed in 1998
bringing 4000 years of mining in Cornwall to
an end.
The word "tin" has cognates in many
Germanic and Celtic languages. The
American Heritage Dictionary speculates that
the word was borrowed from a pre-IndoEuropean language. The later name of
"stannum" and its Romance derivatures
come from the lead-silver alloy of the same
name for the winning of the latter in ores; its
former "stagnum" was the word for a stale
pool or puddel.
In modern times, the word "tin" is often
(improperly) used as a generic phrase for
any silvery metal that comes in thin sheets.
Most everyday objects that are commonly

called tin, such as aluminum foil, beverage

cans, and tin cans, are actually made of steel
or aluminum, although tin cans (tinned cans)
do contain a thin coating of tin to inhibit rust.
Likewise, so-called "tin toys" are usually
made of steel, and may or may not have a
thin coating of tin to inhibit rust.

About 35 countries mine tin throughout the

world. Nearly every continent has an
important tin-mining country. Tin is produced
by reducing the ore with coal in a
reverberatory furnace. This metal is a
relatively scarce element with an abundance
in the Earth's crust of about 2 ppm,
compared with 94 ppm for zinc, 63 ppm for
copper, and 12 ppm for lead. Most of the
world's tin is produced from placer deposits;
at least one-half comes from Southeast Asia.

The only mineral of commercial importance

as a source of tin is cassiterite (SnO2),
although small quantities of tin are
recovered from complex sulfides such as
stannite, cylindrite, franckeite, canfieldite,
and teallite. Secondary, or scrap, tin is also
an important source of the metal.
Tasmania hosts some important deposits of
historical importance, most importantly
Mount Bischoff and Renison Bell.
see also Category:Tin minerals
Tin is the element with the greatest number
of stable isotopes (ten), which is probably
related to the fact that 50 is a "magic
number" of protons. 28 additional unstable
isotopes are known, including the "doubly
magic" tin-100 (100Sn) (discovered in 1994)[3].
For discussion of Stannate compounds
(SnO32-) see Stannate. For Stannite (SnO2-)
see Stannite. See also Stannous hydroxide
(Sn(OH)2), Stannic acid (Stannic Hydroxide Sn(OH)4), Tin dioxide (Stannic Oxide - SnO2),

Tin(II) oxide (Stannous Oxide - SnO), Tin(II)

chloride (SnCl2), Tin(IV) chloride (SnCl4)
see also category:Tin compounds
Biologic effects of organic tin compounds
The small amount of tin that is found in
canned foods is not harmful to humans.
Certain organic tin compounds, organotin,
such as triorganotins (see tributyltin oxide)
are toxic and are used as industrial
fungicides and bactericides.
Alloys of tin
Britannium (copper, antimony)
Pewter (lead, copper)
Solder (lead, antimony)



Carbon Steel::-

Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel,

is a malleable, iron-based metal containing
carbon, small amounts of manganese, and
other elements that are inherently present.
Steels can either be cast to shape or wrought
into various mill forms from which finished
parts are formed, machined, forged,
stamped, or otherwise shaped.
Cast steels are poured to near-final shape in
sand molds. The castings are then heat
treated to achieve specified properties and
machined to required dimensions.

Wrought steel undergoes two operations.

First, it is either poured into ingots or strand
cast. Then, the metal is reheated and hot
rolled into the finished, wrought form. Hotrolled steel is characterized by a scaled
surface and a decarburized skin. Hot-rolled
bars may be subsequently finished in a twopart process. First, acid pickling or shot
blasting removes scale. Then, cold drawing
through a die and restraightening improves
surface properties and strength. Hot-rolled
steel may also be cold finished by metalremoval processes such as turning or
grinding. Wrought steel can be subsequently
heat treated to improve machinability or to
adjust mechanical properties.
Carbon steels may be specified by chemical
composition, mechanical properties, method
of deoxidation, or thermal treatment (and the
resulting microstructure).

Wrought steels are most often specified by

composition. No single element controls the
characteristics of a steel; rather, the
combined effects of several elements
influence hardness, machinability, corrosion
resistance, tensile strength, deoxidation of
the solidifying metal, and microstructure of
the solidified metal.
Effects of carbon, the principal hardening
and strengthening element in steel, include
increased hardness and strength and
decreased weldability and ductility. For plain
carbon steels, about 0.2 to 0.25% C provides
the best machinability. Above and below this
level, machinability is generally lower for
hot-rolled steels.
Standard wrought-steel compositions (for
both carbon and alloy steels) are designated
by an AISI or SAE four-digit code, the last
two digits of which indicate the nominal
carbon content. The carbon-steel grades are:
10xx: Plain carbon
11xx: Resulfurized
12xz: Resulfurized and rephosphorized
15xx: Nonresulfurized, Mn over 1.0%

The letter "L" between the second and third

digits indicates a leaded steel; "B" indicates
a boron steel. Cast-carbon steels are usually
specified by grade, such as A, B, or C. The A
grade (also LCA, WCA, AN, AQ, etc.) contains
0.25% C and 0.70% Mn maximum. B-grade
steels contain 0.30% C and 1.00% Mn, and
the C-grade steels contain 0.25% C and
1.20% Mn. These carbon and manganese
contents are designed to provide good
strength, toughness, and weldability. Cast
carbon steels are specified to ASTM A27,
A216, A352, or A487.
Microalloying technology has created a new
category of steels, positioned both in cost
and in performance between carbon steels
and the alloy grades. These in-between
steels consist of conventional carbon steels
to which minute quantities of alloying
elements -- usually less than 0.5% -- are
added in the steelmaking process to improve
mechanical properties. Strength and
hardness are increased significantly.
Any base-grade steel can be microalloyed,
but the technique was first used in sheet
steel a number of years ago. More recently,

microalloying has been applied to bar

products to eliminate the need for heattreating operations after parts are forged.
Automotive and truck applications include
connecting rods, blower shafts, stabilizer
bars, U-bolts, and universal joints. Other
uses are sucker rods for oil wells and anchor
bolts for the construction industry.
Mechanical properties

Cast and wrought products are often

specified to meet distinct mechanical
requirements in structural applications
where forming and machining are not
extensive. When steels are specified by
mechanical properties only, the producer is
free to adjust the analysis of the steel (within
limits) to obtain the required properties.
Properties may vary with cross section and
part size.

Mechanical tests are usually specified under

one of two conditions: mechanical test
requirements and no chemical limits on any
element, or mechanical test requirements
and chemical limits on one or more
elements, provided that such requirements
are technologically compatible.
Method of deoxidation
Molten steel contains dissolved oxygen -- an
important element in the steelmaking
reaction. How this oxygen is removed or
allowed to escape as the metal solidifies
determines some of the properties of the
steel. So in many cases, "method of
deoxidation" is specified in addition to AISI
and SAE chemical compositions.
For "killed" steels, elements such as
aluminum and silicon may be added to
combine chemically with the oxygen,
removing most of it from the liquid steel.
Killed steels are often specified for hot
forging, carburizing, and other processes or
applications where maximum uniformity is
required. In sheet steel, aging is controlled
by killing -- usually with aluminum. Steels

intended for use in the as-cast condition are

always killed. For this reason, steels for
casting are always fully deoxidized.
On the other hand, for "rimmed" steels,
oxygen (in the form of carbon monoxide)
evolves briskly throughout the solidification
process. The outer skin of rimmed steels is
practically free from carbon and is very
ductile. For these reasons, rimmed steels are
often specified for cold-forming applications.
Rimmed steels are often available in grades
with less than 0.25% C and 0.60% Mn.
Segregation -- a nonuniform variation in
internal characteristics and composition that
results when various alloying elements
redistribute themselves during solidification
-- may be pronounced in rimmed steels. For
this reason, they are usually not specified for
hot forging or for applications requiring
"Capped" and "semikilled" steels fall
between the rimmed and killed steels in
behavior, properties, and degree of oxidation
and segregation. Capped steels, for example,
are suited for certain cold-forming

applications because they have a soft,

ductile, surface skin, which is thinner than
rimmed-steel skin. For other cold-forming
applications, such as cold extrusion, killed
steels are more suitable.

The microstructure of carbon and alloy

steels in the as-rolled or as-cast condition
generally consists of ferrite and pearlite. This
basic structure can be altered significantly
by various heat treatments or by rolling
techniques. A spheroidized annealed
structure would consist of spheroids of iron
and alloy carbides dispersed in a ferrite
matrix for low hardness and maximum
ductility, as might be required for coldforming operations. Quenching and
tempering provide the optimum combination
of mechanical properties and toughness

obtainable from steel. Grain size can also be

an important aspect of the microstructure.
Toughness of fine-grained steels is generally
greater than that of coarse-grained steels.
Free-machining steels: Several freemachining carbon steels are available as
castings and as hot-rolled or cold-drawn bar
stock and plate. Machinability in steels is
improved in several ways, including:
Addition of elements such as lead (the
"leaded" steels such as 12L13 and 12L14),
phosphorus and sulfur (the "rephosphorized,
resulfurized" steels such as 1211, 1212, or
1213), sulfur (the "resulfurized only" steels
such as 1117, 1118, or 1119), and tellerium,
selenium, and bismuth (the "super" freemachining steels)
Cold finishing

Reducing the level of residual stress (usually

by a stress-relieving heat treatment)
Adjusting microstructure to optimize

Alloy Steel ::-

Steels that contain specified amounts of

alloying elements -- other than carbon and
the commonly accepted amounts of
manganese, copper, silicon, sulfur, and
phosphorus -- are known as alloy steels.
Alloying elements are added to change
mechanical or physical properties.

A steel is considered to be an alloy when the

maximum of the range given for the content
of alloying elements exceeds one or more of
these limits: 1.65% Mn, 0.60% Si, or 0.60%
Cu; or when a definite range or minimum
amount of any of the following elements is
specified or required within the limits
recognized for constructional alloy steels:
aluminum, chromium (to 3.99%), cobalt,

columbium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium,

tungsten, vanadium, zirconium or other
element added to obtain an alloying effect.
Technically, then, tool and stainless steels
are alloy steels. In this chapter, however, the
term alloy steel is reserved for those steels
that contain a modest amount of alloying
elements and that usually depend on thermal
treatment to develop specific properties.
With proper heat treatment, for example,
tensile strength of certain alloy steels can be
raised from about 55,000 psi to nearly
300,000 psi.
Subdivisions for most steels in this family
include "through-hardenable" and
"carburizing" grades (plus several specialty
grades such as nitriding steels). Throughhardening grades -- which are heat treated
by quenching and tempering -- are used
when maximum hardness and strength must
extend deep within a part. Carburizing
grades are used where a tough core and
relatively shallow, hard surface are needed.
After a surface-hardening treatment such as
carburizing (or nitriding for nitriding alloys),
these steels are suitable for parts that must

withstand wear as well as high stresses.

Cast steels are generally through hardened,
not surface treated.
Carbon content and alloying elements
influence the overall characteristics of both
types of alloy steels. Maximum attainable
surface hardness depends primarily on
carbon content. Maximum hardness and
strength in small sections increase as
carbon content increases, up to about 0.7%.
However, carbon contents greater than 0.3%
can increase the possibility of cracking
during quenching or welding.
Lead additions (0.15 to 0.35%) substantially
improve machinability of alloy steels by
high-speed tool steels. For machining with
carbide tools, calcium-treated steels are
reported to double or triple tool life in
addition to improving surface finish.
Alloy steels are often specified when high
strength is needed in moderate-to-large
sections. Whether tensile or yield strength is
the basis of design, thermally treated alloy
steels generally offer high strength-to-weight
ratios. For applications requiring maximum

ductility, alloys with low sulfur levels

(<0.01%) can be supplied by producers using
ladle-refining techniques.

For any combination of alloy steel and heat

treatment, three factors tend to decrease
toughness: low service temperature, high
loading rates, and stress concentrations or
residual stress. The general effects of these
three conditions are qualitatively similar, so

low-temperature impact tests (to -50F) are

useful for many applications as toughness
indicators under various service conditions
and temperatures.
Fully hardened-and-tempered, low-carbon
(0.10 to 0.30% C) alloy steels have a good
combination of strength and toughness, both
at room and low temperature. Care must be
taken in heat treatment of certain alloy-steel
grades, however, because toughness may be
decreased substantially by temper
brittleness -- a form of embrittlement
developed by slow cooling through the range
of 900 to 600F, or by holding or tempering in
this range.
When liquid quenching is impractical
(because of the danger of cracking or
distortion, or because of cost), various lowcarbon nickel or nickel-molybdenum steels
in the normalized-and-tempered condition
can be used for low-temperature service.

Wrought alloy steels (and carbon steels) are

classified by a series of AISI and SAE
numbers that designate composition and
alloy type. Letters, which are used in
addition to the four-digit designations,
include the suffix "H," used for steel
produced to specific hardenability limits
(which allows wider composition ranges for
certain alloying elements), and the prefix "E,"
which indicates a steel made by the basic
electric-furnace method. Other
specifications, such as those issued by
ASTM, specify minimum properties for
critical structural, pressure-vessel, and
nuclear applications.
ASTM specifications classify cast alloy
steels by relating the steel to the mechanical
properties and intended service condition.

Chemical analysis is secondary. There are

ASTM specifications for general use such as
A27 or A148 when mechanical properties are
critical. For low-temperature service, A352 or
A757 is recommended when toughness is
important. For weldability, A216 is specified
when fabrication is critical, and for pressure
service, A217 or A389 is recommended when
a number of properties are important. Still
other ASTM alloy steels are available for
special applications. Other specifications
such as SAE J435 are used for cast steels in
automotive applications. A summary of steelcasting specifications is available from the
Steel Founders' Society of America, Des
Plaines, Ill.

Stainless Steel::-

One of the features that characterize

stainless steels is a minimum 10.5%
chromium content as the principal alloying
element. Four major categories of wrought
stainless steel, based on metallurgical
structure, are austenitic, ferritic, martensitic,
and precipitation hardening. Cast stainlesssteel grades are generally designated as
either heat resistant or corrosion resistant.

Austenitic wrought stainless steel are

classified in three groups:
The AISI 200 series (alloys of iron-chromium-

The AISI 300 series (alloys of iron-chromiumnickel)
Nitrogen-strengthened alloys
Carbon content is usually low (0.15% or
less), and the alloys contain a minimum of
16% chromium with sufficient nickel and
manganese to provide an austenitic
structure at all temperatures from the
cryogenic region to the melting point of the

Nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless

steels are alloys of chromium-manganese-

nitrogen; some grades also contain nickel.

Yield strengths of these alloys (annealed) are
typically 50% higher than those of the
nonnitrogen-bearing grades. They are
nonmagnetic and most remain so, even after
severe cold working.
Like carbon, nitrogen increases the strength
of a steel. But unlike carbon, nitrogen does
not combine significantly with chromium in a
stainless steel. This combination, which
forms chromium carbide, reduces the
strength and corrosion resistance of an alloy.
Until recently, metallurgists had difficulty
adding controlled amounts of nitrogen to an

Typical applications include shafts, pumps,

fasteners, and piping in seawater and
equipment for processing chemicals, food,
and dairy products.
Ferritic wrought alloys (the AISI 400 series)
contain from 10.5 to 27% chromium. In
addition, the use of argon-oxygen
decarburization and vacuum-induction
melting has produced several new ferritic
grades including 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni. Low in carbon
content, but generally higher in chromium
than the martensitic grades, these steels
cannot be hardened by heat treating and are
only moderately hardened by cold working.
Ferritic stainless steels are magnetic and
retain their basic microstructure up to the
melting point if sufficient Cr and Mo are
present. In the annealed condition, strength
of these grades is approximately 50% higher
than that of carbon steels.

Ferritic stainless steels are typically used

where moderate corrosion resistance is
required and where toughness is not a major
need. They are also used where chloride
stress-corrosion cracking may be a problem
because they have high resistance to this
type of corrosion failure. In heavy sections,
achieving sufficient toughness is difficult
with the higher-alloyed ferritic grades.
Typical applications include automotive trim
and exhaust systems and heat-transfer
equipment for the chemical and
petrochemical industries.
Martensitic steels are also in the AISI 400
series. These wrought, higher-carbon steels
contain from 11.5 to 18% chromium and may
have small quantities of additional alloying
elements. They are magnetic, can be
hardened by heat treatment, and have high
strength and moderate toughness in the
hardened-and-tempered condition. Forming
should be done in the annealed condition.
Martensitic stainless steels are less resistant
to corrosion than the austenitic or ferritic
grades. Two types of martensitic steels -- 416
and 420F -- have been developed specifically
for good machinability.

Martensitic stainless steels are used where

strength and/or hardness are of primary
concern and where the environment is
relatively mild from a corrosive standpoint.
These alloys are typically used for bearings,
molds, cutlery, medical instruments, aircraft
structural parts, and turbine components.
Type 420 is used increasingly for molds for
plastics and for industrial components
requiring hardness and corrosion resistance.

Precipitation-hardening stainless steels

develop very high strength through a lowtemperature heat treatment that does not
significantly distort precision parts.
Compositions of most precipitationhardening stainless steels are balanced to
produce hardening by an aging treatment
that precipitates hard, intermetallic
compounds and simultaneously tempers the
martensite. The beginning microstructure of
PH alloys is austenite or martensite. The

austenitic alloys must be thermally treated to

transform austenite to martensite before
precipitation hardening can be
These alloys are used where high strength,
moderate corrosion resistance, and good
fabricability are required. Typical
applications include shafting, high-pressure
pumps, aircraft components, high-temper
springs, and fasteners.
Cast stainless steels usually have
corresponding wrought grades that have
similar compositions and properties.
However, there are small but important
differences in composition between cast and
wrought grades. Stainless-steel castings
should be specified by the designations
established by the ACI (Alloy Casting
Institute), and not by the designation of
similar wrought alloys.

Service temperature provides the basis for a

distinction between heat-resistant and
corrosion-resistant cast grades. The C series
of ACI grades designates the corrosionresistant steels; the H series designates the
heat-resistant steels, which can be used for
structural applications at service
temperatures between 1,200 and 2,200F.
Carbon and nickel contents of the H-series
alloys are considerably higher than those of
the C series. H-series steels are not immune
to corrosion, but they corrode slowly -- even
when exposed to fuel-combustion products

or atmospheres prepared for carburizing and

nitriding. C-series grades are used in valve,
pumps, and fittings. H-series grades are
used for furnace parts and turbine
Galling and wear are failure modes that
require special attention with stainless steels
because these materials serve in many harsh
environments. They often operate, for
example, at high temperatures, in foodcontact applications, and where access is
limited. Such restrictions prevent the use of
lubricants, leading to metal-to-metal contact
-- a condition that promotes galling and
accelerated wear.
In a sliding-wear situation, a galling failure
mode occurs first, followed by dimensional
loss due to wear, which is, in turn, usually
followed by corrosion. Galling is a severe
form of adhesive wear that shows up as torn
areas of the metal surface. Galling can be
minimized by decreasing contact stresses or
by the use of protective surface layers such
as lubricants (where acceptable), weld
overlays, platings, and nitrided or carburized
surface treatments.

Test results from stainless-steel couples

(table) indicate the relatively poor galling
resistance of austenitic grades and even
alloy 17-4 PH, despite its high hardness.
Among the standard grades, only AISI 416
and 440C performed well. Good to excellent
galling resistance was demonstrated by
Armco's Nitronic 32 and 60 alloys (the latter
were developed specifically for antigalling
Recent research findings prove that adding
silicon to a high-manganese, nitrogenstrengthened austenitic stainless alloy
produces a wear-resistant stainless steel.
Wear and corrosion resistance are still
considered unavoidable trade-offs in
stainless, but the new formula promises to
resist both conditions.

Beating corrosion is the number one reason

for choosing stainless. But in cases where
parts are difficult to lubricate, most stainless
steels cannot resist wear. Under high loads
and insufficient lubrication, stainless often

sports a type of surface damage known as

galling. In critical parts, galling can lead to
seizure or freezing, which can shut down
In search of a cost-effective alternative,
researchers at Carpenter Technology,
Reading, Pa., looked at elemental effects of
silicon, manganese, and nickel on galling
resistance of nitrogen-strengthened,
austenitic stainless steels. Results of an
initial test program determined that silicon
was a catalyst for galling resistance, while
nickel and manganese were not.
The silicon levels in a recently developed
gall-resistant stainless alloy are between 3
and 4%. Silicon levels must remain lower
than 5% to maintain the proper metallurgical
structure. In addition, too much silicon
decreases nitrogen solubility. To maintain
strength, higher amounts of costly nickel
would need to be added.
Researchers can now define optimum
composition limits for a gall-resistant
stainless steel. To prove the new steel's
validity, properties such as galling, wear, and
corrosion are evaluated and compared with

commercially available stainless steels. Four

alloys, a gall-resistant austenitic alloy called
Gall-Tough, another austenitic alloys with
higher nickel and manganese content (16Cr8Ni-4Si-8Mn), and Types 304 and 430
stainless steels are included in the
Results show the galling threshold for gallresistant stainless is over 15 times higher
than that of conventional stainless steels. In
addition, gall-resistant stainless withstands
more than twice the stress without galling
compared to the 16Cr-8Ni-4Si-8Mn alloy. Yet,
the new formula sacrifices only a slight
amount of corrosion resistance.
For strength and hardness, both gallresistant stainless and the 16Cr-8Ni-4Si-8Mn
alloy beat Types 304 and 430 alloys. The new
alloy also shows a uniquely high ultimate
tensile strength, possibly due to martensite
formation during tensile testing. Ductility for
all four alloys is excellent. These findings
indicate that gall-resistant alloys can
economically bridge the gap between
corrosion, galling, and metal-to-metal wear

Tool Steel::-

The same properties that qualify tool steels

for tools and dies are also used for other
parts that require resistance to wear, stability
during heat treatment, strength at high
temperatures, or toughness. Tool steels are
increasingly being used for mechanical parts
to reduce size or weight, or to resist wear or
high-temperature shock.
Tool steels are metallurgically "clean," highalloy steels that are melted in relatively small
heats in electric furnaces and produced with
careful attention to homogeneity. They can
be further refined by argon/oxygen
decarburization (AOD), vacuum methods, or
electroslag refining (ESR). As a result, tool
steels are often specified for critical highstrength or wear-resistant applications.
Because of their high alloy content, tool
steels must be rolled or forged with care to

produce satisfactory bar products.

To develop their best properties, tool steels
are always heat treated. Because the parts
may distort during heat treatment, precision
parts should be semifinished, heat treated,
then finished. Severe distortion is most likely
to occur during liquid quenching, so an alloy
should be selected that provides the needed
mechanical properties with the least severe
Tool steels are classified into several broad
groups, some of which are further divided
into subgroups according to alloy
composition, hardenability, or mechanical
Water-hardening, or carbon, tool steels,
designated Type W by AISI, rely solely on
carbon content for their useful properties.
These steels are available as shallow,
medium, or deep hardening, so the specific
alloy selected depends on part cross section
and required surface and core hardnesses.
Shock-resisting tool steels (Type S) are
strong and tough, but they are not as wear

resistant as many other tool steels. These

steels resist sudden and repeated loadings.
Applications include pneumatic tooling
parts, chisels, punches, shear blades, bolts,
and springs subjected to moderate heat in

Cold-work tool steels, which include oil and

air-hardening Types O, A, and D, are often
more costly but can be quenched less

drastically than water-hardening types. Type

O steels are oil hardening; Type A and D
steels are air hardening (the least severe
quench), and are best suited for applications
such as machine ways, brick mold liners,
and fuel-injector nozzles. The air-hardening
types are specified for thin parts or parts
with severe changes in cross section -- parts
that are prone to crack or distort during
hardening. Hardened parts from these steels
have a high surface hardness; however,
these steels should not be specified for
service at elevated temperatures.
Hot-work steels (Type H) serve well at
elevated temperatures. The tungsten and
molybdenum high-alloy hot-work steels are
heat and abrasion resistant even at 600 to
1,000F. But although these alloys do not
soften at these high temperatures, they
should be preheated before and cooled
slowly after service to avoid cracking. The
chromium grades of hot-work steels are less
expensive than the tungsten and
molybdenum grades. One of the chromium
grades H11, is used extensively for aircraft
parts such as primary airframe structures,
cargo-support lugs, catapult hooks, and
elevon hinges. Grade H13, which is similar to

H11 is usually more readily available from


High-speed tool steels -- Types T (tungsten

alloy) and M (molybdenum alloy) -- make
good cutting tools because they resist
softening and maintain a sharp cutting edge
at high service temperatures. This
characteristic is sometimes called "red
hardness." These deep-hardening alloys are
used for steady, high-load conditions rather
than shock loads. Typical applications are
pump vanes and parts for heavy-duty
strapping machinery.
Other grades, called special-purpose tool
steels, include low-cost, Type L, low-alloy
steels, often specified for machine parts

when wear resistance combined with

toughness is important. Carbon-tungsten
alloys (Type F) are shallow hardening and
wear resistant, but are not suited for high
temperatures or for shock service.
Type P mold steels are designed specifically
for plastic-molding and zinc die-casting dies.
These steels are seldom used for nontooling
Many steel mills have formulated their own
special-purpose tool-steel alloy. Such alloys
may not match a specific AISI designation
and must be specified by trade name.
Special-purpose tool steels may be superior
to the standard grades when used as
intended, but they should be specified only
after careful evaluation of mechanical
properties, heat-treat behavior, and
availability in comparison with the standard

HSLA Steel::-

Those steel alloys known as high-strength

low-alloy (HSLA) steels provide increased
strength-to-weight ratios over conventional
low-carbon steels for only a modest price
premium. Because HSLA alloys are stronger,
they can be used in thinner sections, making
them particularly attractive for
transportation-equipment components where
weight reduction is important. HSLA steels
are available in all standard wrought forms -sheet, strip, plate, structural shapes, bar-size
shapes, and special shapes.
Typically, HSLA steels are low-carbon steels
with up to 1.5% manganese, strengthened by
small additions of elements, such as
columbium, copper, vanadium or titanium
and sometimes by special rolling and
cooling techniques. Improved-formability
HSLA steels contain additions such as
zirconium, calcium, or rare-earth elements
for sulfide-inclusion shape control.

Since parts made from HSLA steels can have

thinner cross sections than equivalent parts
made from low-carbon steel, corrosion of an
HSLA steel can significantly reduce strength
by decreasing the load-bearing cross
section. While additions of elements such as
copper, silicon, nickel, chromium, and
phosphorus can improve atmospheric
corrosion resistance of these alloys, they
also increase cost. Galvanizing, zinc-rich
coatings, and other rust-preventive finishes
can help protect HSLA-steel parts from

Grades known as "improved-formability"

HSLA steels (sheet-steel grades designated
ASTM A715, and plates designated ASTM
A656) have yield strengths up to 80,000 psi,

yet cost only about 24% more than a typical

34,000-psi plain-carbon steel. Because these
alloys must compete with other structural
metals such as AISI 1010 steel and
aluminum, they must be as inexpensive as
possible. However, formulating and rolling a
steel that meets this cost requirement is not
easy, and the finished product presents a
number of trade-offs. For example, the
increase in strength from 35,000 to 80,000
psi may be accompanied by a 30 to 40% loss
in ductility.
Improved-formability HSLA steels were
developed primarily for the automotive
industry to replace low-carbon steel parts
with thinner cross-section parts for reduced
weight without sacrificing strength and dent
resistance. Typical passenger-car
applications include door-intrusion beams,
chassis members, reinforcing and mounting
brackets, steering and suspension parts,
bumpers, and wheels.

Trucks, construction equipment, off-highway

vehicles, mining equipment, and other
heavy-duty vehicles use HSLA sheets or
plates for chassis components, buckets,
grader blades, and structural members
outside the body. For these applications,
sheets or light-gage plates are specified.
Structural forms (alloys from the family of
45,000 to 50,000-psi minimum yield strength
HSLA steels) are specified in applications
such as offshore oil and gas rigs, single-pole
power-transmission towers, railroad cars,
and ship construction.
In equipment such as power cranes, cement
mixers, farm machinery, trucks, trailers, and
power-transmission towers, HSLA bar, with
minimum yield strengths ranging from
50,000 to 70,000 psi is used. Forming,
drilling, sawing, and other machining
operations on HSLA steels usually require 25
to 30% more power than do structural carbon

Most HSLA alloys have directionally

sensitive properties. For some grades,
formability and impact strength vary
significantly depending on whether the
material is tested longitudinally or
transversely to the rolled direction. For
example, bends parallel to the longitudinal
direction are more apt to cause cracking
around the outside, tension-bearing surface
of the bend. This effect is more pronounced
in thick sheets. This directional
characteristic is substantially reduced in
HSLA steels that have been treated for
sulfide shape control.

Steels for Strength::-

Developed primarily for high-strength

applications, these steels are usually heattreated alloys that provide strengths at least
equal to those of as-rolled steel. Heat-treated
constructional alloy steels and the ultrahigh-

strength steels are used in applications

where high strength can be converted to a
weight-saving advantage over other steels.
High-yield-strength, quenched-and-tempered
constructional alloy steels are usually heat
treated at the mill to develop their properties
so they require no further heat treatment by
the fabricator. Although these heat-treated
alloy steels are available in all conventional
product forms, they are most common in
plate products.
Some grades are also available as abrasionresistant (AR) modifications. In these
conditions, high hardness is the desired
property, with some toughness being
sacrificed. Over 20 types of these proprietary
high-strength alloy steels are produced.
Some have been developed to combine
improved welding characteristics along with
high strength. Most have good impact
properties in addition to high strength. An
example of the high-yield-strength grades in
this class is HY-80/100, which is used for
naval vessels. This material combines high
strength and toughness with weldability.

Medium-carbon alloy steels are generally

modifications of grade 4330 or 4340 (usually
with increased molybdenum, silicon, and/or
vanadium). These grades provide excellent
hardenability in thick sections.
Modified tool steels of the 5% Cr, 1% Mo, 1%
V hot-work die-steel variety (H11 modified,
H13) provide the next step in increased
hardenability and greater strength. Most
steels in this group are air hardened in
moderate to large sections and, therefore,
are not likely to distort or quench crack.
Structural uses of these steels are not as
widespread as they once were, mainly
because of the development of other steels
costing about the same but offering greater
fracture toughness.

Maraging steels contain 18% nickel, along

with appreciable amounts of molybdenum,
cobalt, and titanium, and almost no carbon.
These alloys can be strengthened
significantly by a precipitation reaction at a
relatively low temperature. They can be
formed and machined in the solutionannealed condition but not without difficulty.
Weldability is excellent. They can be heat
treated to 250 to 300-ksi yield strength with a
simple 900F aging treatment. Fracture
toughness of the maraging steels is
considerably higher than that of the
conventional high-strength steels.
Maraging steels are used in a variety of highperformance applications, and most
extensively in aircraft and tooling

The 9% Ni, 4% Co alloys were designed to

provide high strength and toughness at

room temperature as well as at moderately
elevated temperatures -- to about 800F.
Weldability and fracture toughness are good,
but the alloys are susceptible to hydrogen
embrittlement. These steels are used in
airframes, gears, and large aircrafts.