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Hand Gesture Recognition

A project is a creative work of many minds. A proper
Synchronization between individuals is a must for any project to be
Successfully completed.
We owe deep gratitude to our guide Mr. Sutte Muneshkumar . He
Rendered us valuable guidance with a touch of inspiration and
motivation. He guided us through quite a lot substantial hurdle by
giving plenty of early ideas and which finally resulted in the present fine
Our foremost thanks to Prof. Bhavesh Patel, Head of Computer
Technology Department, who had provided every facility to us for
making and completing this project smoothly.
Finally we also would like to express our thanks to all those helped
us directly or indirectly in successful completion of this project.


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Hand Gesture Recognition

Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for computers to begin to
understand human body language, thus building a richer bridge between machines
and humans than primitive text user interfaces or even GUIs (graphical user
interfaces), which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Gesture
recognition enables humans to interface with the machine (HMI) and interact
naturally without any mechanical devices.
Gesture recognition can be conducted with techniques from computer vision
and image processing.

-Hand Gesture Recognition Movement

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Hand Gesture Recognition



Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Polytechnic

Hand Gesture Recognition

1.1 Introduction

Fig 1:- A child being detecting hand location and movement

In the present day framework of interactive, intelligent computing, an efficient humancomputer
interaction is assuming utmost importance. Gesture recognition can be termed as an approach in
this direction. It is the process by which the gestures made by the user are recognized by the
Gestures are expressive, meaningful body motions involving physical movements of the fingers,
hands, arms, head, face, or body with the intent of:

Conveying meaningful information or

Interacting with the environment.

They constitute one interesting small subspace of possible human motion. A gesture may also be
perceived by the environment as a compression technique for the information to be transmitted
elsewhere and subsequently reconstructed by the receiver.
Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for computers to begin to understand human
body language, thus building a richer bridge between machines and humans than primitive text
user interfaces or even GUIs (graphical user interfaces), which still limit the majority of input to
keyboard and mouse. Gesture recognition enables humans to interface with the machine (HMI)
and interact naturally without any mechanical devices.
Gesture recognition can be conducted with techniques from computer vision and image

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Hand Gesture Recognition

Why do we need Gesture Recognition?

The goal of virtual environments (VE) is to provide natural, efficient, powerful, and
flexible interaction. Gesture as an input modality can help meet these requirements because
Human gestures are natural and flexible, and may be efficient and powerful, especially as
compared with alternative interaction modes.
The traditional two-dimensional (2D), keyboard- and mouse- oriented graphical user
interface (GUI) is not well suited for virtual environments. Synthetic environments provide the
opportunity to utilize several different sensing modalities and technologies and to integrate them
into the user experience. Devices which sense body position and orientation, direction of gaze,
speech and sound, facial expression, galvanic skin response, and other aspects of human
behavior or state can be used to mediate communication between the human and the
environment. Combinations of communication modalities and sensing devices can produce a
wide range of unimodal and multimodal interface techniques. The potential for these techniques
to support natural and powerful interfaces for communication in VEs appears promising.
Gesture is used for control and navigation in CAVEs (Cave Automatic Virtual
Environments) and in other VEs, such as smart rooms, virtual work environments, and
performance spaces. In addition, gesture may be perceived by the environment in order to be
transmitted elsewhere (e.g., as a compression technique, to be reconstructed at the receiver).
Gesture recognition may also influence intentionally or unintentionally a systems model of
the users state. Gesture may also be used as a communication backchannel (i.e., visual or verbal
behaviors such as nodding or saying something, or raising a finger to indicate the desire to
interrupt) to indicate agreement, participation, attention, conversation turn taking, etc. Clearly the
position and orientation of each body part the parameters of an articulated body model would
be useful, as well as features that are derived from those measurements, such as velocity and
acceleration. Facial expressions are very expressive. More subtle cues such as hand tension,
overall muscle tension, locations of self-contact and even pupil dilation may be of use.

What are the Different types of Gesture Recognition?

Gestures can be static (the user assumes a certain pose or configuration) or dynamic (with
prestroke, stroke, and poststroke phases).

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Some gestures have both static and dynamic elements, as in sign languages. The
automatic recognition of natural continuous gestures requires their temporal segmentation. The
start and end points of a gesture, in terms of the frames of movement, both in time and in space
are to be specified. Sometimes a gesture is also affected by the context of preceding as well as
following gestures. Moreover, gestures are often language and culture specific.
Gestures can broadly be of the following types:
Gesture recognition is useful for processing information from humans which is not
conveyed through speech or type. As well, there are various types of gestures which can be
identified by computers.

Sign Language Recognition: Just as speech recognition can transcribe speech to text,
certain types of gesture recognition software can transcribe the symbols represented through sign
language into text.

For Socially Assistive Robotics: By using proper sensors (accelerometers and gyros)
worn on the body of a patient and by reading the values from those sensors, robots can assist in
patient rehabilitation. The best example can be stroke rehabilitation.

Directional Indication through Pointing: Pointing has a very specific purpose in our
society, to reference an object or location based on its position relative to ourselves. The use of
gesture recognition to determine where a person is pointing is useful for identifying the context
of statements or instructions. This application is of particular interest in the field of robotics.

Control through Facial Gestures: Controlling a computer through facial gestures is a

useful application of gesture recognition for users who may not physically be able to use a mouse
or keyboard. Eye tracking in particular may be of use for controlling cursor motion or focusing
on elements of a display.

Alternative Computer Interfaces: Foregoing the traditional keyboard and mouse setup
to interact with a computer, strong gesture recognition could allow users to accomplish frequent
or common tasks using hand or face gestures to a camera.

Immersive Game Technology: Gestures can be used to control interactions within video
games to try and make the game player's experience more interactive or immersive.

Virtual Controllers: For systems where the act of finding or acquiring a physical
controller could require too much time, gestures can be used as an alternative control
mechanism. Controlling secondary devices in a car, or controlling a television set are examples
of such usage.

Affective Computing: In affective computing, gesture recognition is used in the process

of identifying emotional expression through computer systems.

Remote Control: Through the use of gesture recognition, "remote control with the wave
of a hand" of various devices is possible. The signal must not only indicate the desired response,
but also which device to be controlled.

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Hand Gesture Recognition

Hand and Arm Gestures : Recognition of hand poses, sign languages, and

entertainment applications (allowing children to play and interact in virtual environments)

Head and Face Gestures : Some examples are:


Nodding or shaking of head;


Direction of eye gaze;


Raising the eyebrows;


Opening the mouth to speak;




Flaring the nostrils;


Looks of surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, anger, sadness, contempt, etc.;

Body Gestures : Involvement of full body motion, as in:


Tracking movements of two people interacting outdoors;


Analyzing movements of a dancer for generatingmatching music and graphics;


Recognizing human gaits for medical rehabilitation and athletic training.

There are many classifications of gestures, such as

Intransitive Gestures: "The ones that have a universal language value especially for the

expression of affective and aesthetic ideas. Such gestures can be indicative, exhortative,
imperative, rejective, etc."

Transitive Gestures: The ones that are part of an uninterrupted sequence of

interconnected structured hand movements that is adapted in time and space, with the aim of
completing a program, such as prehension."
The classification can be based on gesture's functions as:

Semiotic To communicate meaningful information.

Ergotic To manipulate the environment.

Epistemic To discover the environment through tactile experience.

The different gestural devices can also be classified as haptic or non-haptic (haptic means
relative to contact).

Typically, the meaning of a gesture can be dependent on the following:

Spatial Information : Where it occurs;

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Hand Gesture Recognition

Pathic Information : The path it takes;

Symbolic Information : The sign it makes;

Affective Information: Its emotional quality.

What are the different Requirement and Challenges?

The main requirement for gesture interface is the tracking technology used to capture
gesture inputs and process them. Gesture-only interfaces with syntax of many gestures typically
require precise pose tracking.
A common technique for hand pose tracking is to instrument the hand with a glove which
is equipped with a number of sensors which provide information about hand position,
orientation, and flex of the fingers. The first commercially available hand tracker was the
Dataglove. Although instrumented gloves provide very accurate results they are expensive and
Computer vision and image based gesture recognition techniques can be used
overcoming some of the limitations. There are two different approaches to vision based gesture
recognition; model based techniques which try to create a three-dimensional model of the users
pose and use this for recognition, and image based techniques which calculate recognition
features directly from the image of the pose.
Effective gesture interfaces can be developed which respond to natural gestures,
especially dynamic motion. This system must respond to user position using two proximity
sensors, one vertical, and the other horizontal. There must be a direct mapping of the motion to
continuous feedback, enabling the user to quickly build a mental model of how to use the device.
There are many challenges associated with the accuracy and usefulness of gesture
recognition software. For image-based gesture recognition there are limitations on the equipment
used and image noise. Images or video must be under consistent lighting, or in the same location.
Items in the background or distinct features of the users should not make recognition difficult.
The variety of implementations for image-based gesture recognition may also cause issue
for viability of the technology to general usage. For example, an algorithm calibrated for one
camera may not work for a different camera. These criteria must be considered for viability of
the technology. The amount of background noise which causes tracking and recognition

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Hand Gesture Recognition

difficulties, especially when occlusions (partial and full) occur must be minimized. Furthermore,
the distance from the camera, and the camera's resolution and quality, which causes variations in
recognition and accuracy, should be considered. In order to capture human gestures by visual
sensors, robust computer vision methods are also required, for example for hand tracking and
hand posture recognition or for capturing movements of the head, facial expressions or gaze
For the past few years, the common input computer devices did not change a lot. This
means, the communicating with computers at this moment are limited to mouse, keyboard, track
ball, web-cam, light pen and etc. This is happened because the existing of input devices is
adequate in order to perform most of the function that computer able to do. In other hand, the
new application/software is constantly introduced into our market. This software is able to
perform multiples of functions using just the common input computer devices.
Vision based interfaces are feasible and popular at this moment because the computer is
able to communicate with user using webcam. This means, user able to give command to the
computer by just showing some actions in front of the webcam without typing keyboard and
clicking mouse button. Hence, users are able to perform human-machine interaction (HMI) with
these user-friendlier features. Eventually, this will deploy new commands that are not possible
with current computer input devices.
Lately, there has been a surge in interest in recognizing human hand gestures. Hand
gesture recognition has several of applications such as computer games, gaming machines, as
mouse replacement and machinery control (e.g. crane, surgery machines). Moreover, controlling
computers via hand gestures can make many applications work more intuitive than using mouse,
keyboard or other input devices.

Research on hand gestures can be classified into three categories. The first category,
glove based analysis, employs sensors (mechanical or optical) attached to a glove that transduces
finger flexions into electrical signals for determining the hand posture. The relative position of
the hand is determined by an additional sensor. This sensor is normally a magnetic or an acoustic
sensor attached to the glove. For some dataglove applications, look-up table software toolkits are
provided with the glove to be used for hand posture recognition. The second category, vision
based analysis, is based on the way human beings perceive information about their surroundings,
yet it is probably the most difficult to implement in a satisfactory way. Several different
approaches have been tested so far. One is to build a three-dimensional model of the human
hand. The model is matched to images of the hand by one or more cameras, and parameters
corresponding to palm orientation and joint angles are estimated. These parameters are then used
to perform gesture classification. A hand gesture analysis system based on a three-dimensional
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Hand Gesture Recognition

hand skeleton model with 27 degrees of freedom was developed by Lee and Kunii. They
incorporated five major constraints based on the human hand kinematics to reduce the model
parameter space search. To simplify the model matching, specially marked gloves were used.
The third category, analysis of drawing gestures, usually involves the use of a stylus as an input
device. Analysis of drawing gestures can also lead to recognition of written text. The vast
majority of hand gesture recognition work has used mechanical sensing, most often for direct
manipulation of a virtual environment and occasionally for symbolic communication. Sensing
the hand posture mechanically has a range of problems, however, including reliability, accuracy
and electromagnetic noise. Visual sensing has the potential to make gestural interaction more
practical, but potentially embodies some of the most difficult problems in machine vision. The
hand is a non-rigid object and even worse self-occlusion is very usual.
Full ASL recognition systems (words, phrases) incorporate datagloves. Takashi and
Kishino discuss a Dataglove-based system that could recognize 34 of the 46 Japanese gestures
(user dependent) using a joint angle and hand orientation coding technique.
From their paper, it seems the test user made each of the 46 gestures 10 times to provide
data for principle component and cluster analysis. A separate test was created from five iterations
of the alphabet by the user, with each gesture well separated in time. While these systems are
technically interesting, they suffer from a lack of training. Excellent work has been done in
support of machine sign language recognition by Sperling and Parish, who have done careful
studies on the bandwidth necessary for a sign conversation using spatially and temporally subsampled images. Point light experiments (where lights are attached to significant locations on
the body and just these points are used for recognition), have been carried out by Poizner. Most
systems to date study isolate/static gestures. In most of the cases those are fingerspelling signs.

Object Recognition
Large Object Tracking
In some interactive applications, the computer needs to track the position or orientation of a
hand that is prominent in the image. Relevant applications might be computer games, or
interactive machine control. In such cases, a description of the overall properties of the image
may be adequate. Image moments, which are fast to compute, provide a very coarse summary of
global averages of orientation and position. If the hand is on a uniform background, this method
can distinguish hand positions and simple pointing gestures. The large-object-tracking method
makes use of a low-cost detector/processor to quickly calculate moments. This is called the
artificial retina chip. This chip combines image detection with some low-level image processing
(named artificial retina by analogy with those combined abilities of the human retina). The chip
can compute various functions useful in the fast algorithms for interactive graphics applications.

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Shape recognition
Most applications, such as recognizing particular static hand signal, require a richer
description of the shape of the input object than image moments provide. If the hand signals fell
in a predetermined set, and the camera views a close-up of the hand, we may use an examplebased approach, combined with a simple method top analyze hand signals called orientation
These example-based applications involve two phases; training and running. In the
training phase, the user shows the system one or more examples of a specific hand shape. The
computer forms and stores the corresponding orientation histograms. In the run phase, the
computer compares the orientation histogram of the current image with each of the stored
templates and selects the category of the closest match, or interpolates between templates, as
appropriate. This method should be robust against small differences in the size of the hand but
probably would be sensitive to changes in hand orientation.

The scope of this project is to create a method to recognize hand gestures, based on a
pattern recognition technique developed by McConnell; employing histograms of local
orientation. The orientation histogram will be used as a feature vector for gesture classification
and interpolation. High priority for the system is to be simple without making use of any special
hardware. All the computation should occur on a workstation or PC. Special hardware would be
used only to digitize the image (scanner or digital )

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1.2 Previous Related Work

Actually, there are much of previous work has been done in this area. Most of researchers
have tried to build presentation controlling systems either use sensor technology or computer
vision approach.
Charade is the seminal work that uses free hand- gestures to control presentation in real
world. The system defined set of gesture commands including advancing slides, highlighting
text, returning to content and etc. The system uses data glove to detect the motion of different
gestures and classify each of them. However, the author also mentioned that purely relying on
the data glove is ultimately not viable for day-to-day use of the system.
Another system proposed in uses laser pointer to control presentation which utilize the
computer vision techniques. The camera simply detects the position of the laser point on the
projection screen and further controls the contents within this slide. They proposed selfcalibrating mechanism which automatically detects the mapping between a point on the
projection screen and the corresponding pixel in the source image that projected to that point on
the screen. This technique enables users to put camera in any place in the room only if it covers
the whole projection screen. The system only supports functionalities such as advancing slides,
highlighting text and annotating on the slide. Our system uses the same hardware devices but
support more functionalities as well as hand gestures to control content of slides. The hand
gestures are simply detected by dynamic movements of laser points on the projection screen,
which purely uses computer vision techniques.
Maestro is another recently built system by University of Waterloo. The system uses
hands to control presentation instead of using laser pointer. However, in order to let camera
detect hand gestures, presenters have to put their hands on the surface of projection screen, more
specifically within the staging area. This generally causes several problems which are already
mentioned in this paper. For example, presenters have to stay besides the projection screen and
lack of freedom of moving from one side of screen to the other. Staying in the center of screen
might cause constant activities in the slides behind them.
After summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of each system, we plan to build
system that is purely computer vision based, provides more flexibilities for users, without
restricting users to stand besides the slides and provides more gestures that frequently used by

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1.3 Problem Statement

In this paper, we will build gesture recognition system called GPPT, which can control
the slides by using different command gestures, such as moving to the next or previous slide,
zooming in or zooming out, editing and highlighting slide contents, and etc. Only video camera
and infrared rays are needed to locate and recognize hand gestures.
Generally, the system includes two sub-systems. The first one is a vision-based handtracking and gesture recognition system, which aims to track humans hands and recognizes
kinds of humans command gestures. The second one is a Power Point renderer system, which
can online modify the ppt file according to users gesture commands.
The main objective of this project is to investigate the robustness of identity verification
based on a sequence of static hand postures or gestures.

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1.4 Conclusion

Thus we have studied what we mean by Hand Gesture Recognition and what were the
problem statement and previous related work with Hand Gesture Recognition.
Thus, we have inferred that not everything is perfect and that not every software is secure and
dont have any drawback. So this is an effort to overcome the drawbacks of other software and
also to provide a better user friendly GUI that would be simple to use and easily understood by a
normal user and to also make a software that helps in better management of code, and also saves
user time in writing and finding the errors.

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2.1 Introduction

A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to

a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that
control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.
A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a
computation or algorithm. Some, but not all, authors restrict the term "programming language" to
those languages that can express all possible algorithms. Traits often considered important for
what constitutes a programming language include:

Function and target: A computer programming language is a language used to

write computer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation
or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers, disk drives, robots, and so on.
For example PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a
computer printer or display. More generally, a programming language may describe computation
on some, possibly abstract, machine. It is generally accepted that a complete specification for a
programming language includes a description, possibly idealized, of a machine or processor for
that language. In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer;
consequently programming languages are usually defined and studied this way. Programming
languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction
between people, while programming languages also allow humans to communicate instructions
to machines.

Abstractions: Languages usually contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data
structures or controlling the flow of execution. The practical necessity that a programming
language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle; this principle is
sometimes formulated as recommendation to the programmer to make proper use of such

Expressive power: The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations

they are capable of expressing. All Turing complete languages can implement the same set
of algorithms. ANSI/ISO SQL and Charity are examples of languages that are not Turing
complete, yet often called programming languages.

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A programming language's surface form is known as its syntax. Most programming

languages are purely textual; they use sequences of text including words, numbers, and
punctuation, much like written natural languages. On the other hand, there are some
programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between
symbols to specify a program.
The syntax of a language describes the possible combinations of symbols that form a
syntactically correct program. The meaning given to a combination of symbols is handled by
semantics (either formal or hard-coded in a reference implementation). Since most languages are
The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were
used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos. Thousands of
different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, with many
more being created every year. Most programming languages describe computation in
an imperative style, i.e., as a sequence of commands, although some languages, such as those
that support functional programming or logic programming, use alternative forms of description.
The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components
of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification
document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard), while
other languages, such as Perl 5 and earlier, have a dominant implementation that is used as a
There is no need to argue in favor of concise, clear, complete, consistent , descriptions of
programming languages , nor to recite the cost in time, energy, money and effectiveness which is
incurred when a description falls short of these standards. Reliable, high-quality computer
programming is impossible without a clear and precise understanding of the language in which
the programs are written this being true quite independently of the merits of the language as a

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2.2 Features of Programming Language used

C Sharp (C#):

C#(pronounced see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong

typing, imperative, declarative, functional , generic, object-oriented (class-based), and
component-oriented programming disciplines.
It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by
ECMA (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages
designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.
C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming
language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 4.0,
which was released on April 12, 2010.
C-sharp musical note:

The name "C sharp" was inspired by musical notation where a sharp indicates that the
written note should be made a semitone higher in pitch. This is similar to the language name of
C++, where "++" indicates that a variable should be incremented by 1.

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In the course of its development, the C# language has gone through several versions:


Language specification

.NET Framework


.NET Framework1.0


April 2003 .NET Framework1.1


September September November

June 2006
.NET Framework2.0





C# 1.0


April 2003

C# 1.2

C# 2.0

.NET Framework
2.0 (Except

C# 3.0

.NET Framework
3.0 (Except


.NET Framework 3.5

C# 4.0

April 2010 April 2010 .NET Framework 4

C# 5.0



.NET Framework 4.5

Studio 11

Table 1: Version of C#
The Microsoft C# 2.0 specification document only contains the new 2.0 features. For older
features use the 1.2 specification above.
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As of December 2010, no ECMA and ISO/IEC specifications exist for C# 3.0 and 4.0.

Summary of versions

C# 2.0

C# 3.0

C# 4.0

C# 5.0 (planned) Future


Windows Runtime

Implicitly typed
local variables
Partial types
Null able

Object and

and Asynchronous


Private setters methods
Method group expressions

contra Caller info

Expression trees
Table 2: Summary of Version of C#

Some notable features of C# that distinguish it from C and C++ (and Java, where noted) are:

It has no global variables or functions. All methods and members must be declared
within classes. Static members of public classes can substitute for global variables and
Local variables cannot shadow variables of the enclosing block, unlike C and
C++. Variable shadowing is often considered confusing by C++ text.

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C# supports a strict Boolean data type, bool. Statements that take conditions, such
as while and if, require an expression of a type that implements the true operator, such as
the Boolean type. While C++ also has a Boolean type, it can be freely converted to and
from integers, and expressions such as if (a) require only that a is convertible to bool,
allowing a to be an int, or a pointer. C# disallows this "integer meaning true or false"
approach, on the grounds that forcing programmers to use expressions that return exactly
bool can prevent certain types of common programming mistakes in C or C++ such
as if (a = b) (use of assignment = instead of equality ==).
In C#, memory address pointers can only be used within blocks specifically marked
as unsafe, and programs with unsafe code need appropriate permissions to run. Most
object access is done through safe object references, which always either point to a "live"
object or have the well-defined null value; it is impossible to obtain a reference to a
"dead" object (one that has been garbage collected), or to a random block of memory.
An unsafe pointer can point to an instance of a value-type, array, string, or a block of
memory allocated on a stack. Code that is not marked as unsafe can still store and
manipulate pointers through the System.IntPtr type, but it cannot dereference them.
Managed memory cannot be explicitly freed; instead, it is automatically garbage
collected. Garbage collection addresses the problem of memory leaks by freeing the
programmer of responsibility for releasing memory that is no longer needed.
In addition to the try...catch construct to handle exceptions, C# has
a try...finally construct to guarantee execution of the code in the finally block.
Multiple inheritance is not supported, although a class can implement any number of
interfaces. This was a design decision by the language's lead architect to avoid
complication and simplify architectural requirements throughout CLI.
C#, like C++, but unlike Java, supports operator overloading.
C# is more type safe than C++. The only implicit conversions by default are those that
are considered safe, such as widening of integers. This is enforced at compile-time,
during JIT, and, in some cases, at runtime. No implicit conversions occur between
Booleans and integers, nor between enumeration members and integers (except for literal
0, which can be implicitly converted to any enumerated type). Any user-defined
conversion must be explicitly marked as explicit or implicit, unlike C++ copy
constructors and conversion operators, which are both implicit by default. Starting with
version 4.0, C# supports a "dynamic" data type that enforces type checking at runtime
Enumeration members are placed in their own scope.
C# provides properties as syntactic sugar for a common pattern in which a pair of
methods, accessor (getter) and mutator (setter) encapsulate operations on a
single attribute of a class.
Checked exceptions are not present in C# (in contrast to Java). This has been a conscious
decision based on the issues of scalability and versionability.
Though primarily an imperative language, since C# 3.0 it supports functional
programming techniques through first-class function objects and lambda expressions.

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Common type system:

C# has a unified type system. This unified type system is called Common Type System (CTS).
A unified type system implies that all types, including primitives such as integers, are subclasses
of the System. Object class. For example, every type inherits a ToString() method.
Categories of data types
CTS separate data types into two categories:
1. Value types
2. Reference types
Both type categories are extensible with user-defined types.
Generics were added to version 2.0 of the C# language. Generics use type parameters,
which make it possible to design classes and methods that do not specify the type used until the
class or method is instantiated. The main advantage is that one can use generic type parameters
to create classes and methods that can be used without incurring the cost of runtime casts or
boxing operations, as shown here:
// Declare the generic class.
public class GenericList<T>
void Add(T input) { }
class TestGenericList
private class ExampleClass { }
static void Main()
// Declare a list of type int.
GenericList<int> list1 = new GenericList<int>();
// Declare a list of type string.
GenericList<string> list2 = new GenericList<string>();
// Declare a list of type ExampleClass.
GenericList<ExampleClass> list3 = new GenericList<ExampleClass>();

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C# features "preprocessor directives"(though it does not have an actual preprocessor) based on
the C preprocessor that allow programmers to define symbols, but not macros. Conditionals such
as #if, #endif, and #else are also provided. Directives such as #region give hints to editors
for code folding.
public class Foo
#region Constructors
public Foo() {}
public Foo(int firstParam) {}
#region Procedures
public void IntBar(int firstParam) {}
public void StrBar(string firstParam) {}
public void BoolBar(bool firstParam) {}
Code comments:
C# utilizes a double forward slash (//) to indicate the rest of the line is a comment. This is
inherited from C++.
public class Foo
// a comment
public static void Bar(int firstParam) {} // also a comment
Multi-line comments can be indicated by a starting forward slash/asterisk (/*) and ending
asterisk/forward slash (*/). This is inherited from standard C.
public class Foo
/* A Multi-Line
comment */
public static void Bar(int firstParam) {}

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XML documentation system:
C#'s documentation system is similar to Java's Javadoc, but based on XML. Two methods
of documentation are currently supported by the C# compiler.
Single-line documentation comments, such as those commonly found in Visual Studio generated
code, are indicated on a line beginning with ///.
public class Foo
/// <summary>A summary of the method.</summary>
/// <param name="firstParam">A description of the parameter.</param>
/// <remarks>Remarks about the method.</remarks>
public static void Bar(int firstParam) {}
Multi-line documentation comments, while defined in the version 1.0 language specification,
were not supported until the .NET 1.1 releases. These comments are designated by a starting
forward slash/asterisk/asterisk (/**) and ending asterisk/forward slash (*/).
public class Foo
/** <summary>A summary of the method.</summary>
* <param name="firstParam">A description of the parameter.</param>
* <remarks>Remarks about the method.</remarks> */
public static void Bar(int firstParam) {}
Note: There are some stringent criteria regarding white space and XML documentation when
using the forward slash/asterisk/asterisk (/**) technique.
This code block:
* <summary>
* A summary of the method.</summary>*/
produces a different XML comment from this code block:
* <summary>
A summary of the method.</summary>*/

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Syntax for documentation comments and their XML markup is defined in a non-normative
annexe of the ECMA C# standard. The same standard also defines rules for processing of such
comments, and their transformation to a plain XML document with precise rules for mapping
of CLI identifiers to their related documentation elements. This allows any C# IDE or other
development tool to find documentation for any symbol in the code in a certain well-defined
The C# specification details a minimum set of types and class libraries that the compiler expects
to have available. In practice, C# is most often used with some implementation of the Common
Language Infrastructure (CLI), which is standardized as ECMA-335 Common Language
Infrastructure (CLI).

DLL (Data Link Library):

A DLL is a library that contains code and data that can be used by more than one
program at the same time. For example, in Windows operating systems, the Comdlg32 DLL
performs common dialog box related functions. Therefore, each program can use the
functionality that is contained in this DLL to implement an Open dialog box. This helps promote
code reuse and efficient memory usage.
By using a DLL, a program can be modularized into separate components. For example,
an accounting program may be sold by module. Each module can be loaded into the main
program at run time if that module is installed. Because the modules are separate, the load time
of the program is faster, and a module is only loaded when that functionality is requested.
Additionally, updates are easier to apply to each module without affecting other parts of
the program. For example, you may have a payroll program, and the tax rates change each year.
When these changes are isolated to a DLL, you can apply an update without needing to build or
install the whole program again.
The following list describes some of the files that are implemented as DLLs in Windows
operating systems:

ActiveX Controls (.ocx) files:

An example of an ActiveX control is a calendar control that lets you select a date from a

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Control Panel (.cpl) files:

An example of a .cpl file is an item that is located in Control Panel. Each item is a
specialized DLL.

Device driver (.drv) files:

An example of a device driver is a printer driver that controls the printing to a printer.

DLL advantages:
The following list describes some of the advantages that are provided when a program uses a
Uses fewer resources:
When multiple programs use the same library of functions, a DLL can reduce the
duplication of code that is loaded on the disk and in physical memory. This can greatly
influence the performance of not just the program that is running in the foreground, but
also other programs that are running on the Windows operating system.

Promotes modular architecture:

A DLL helps promote developing modular programs. This helps you develop large
programs that require multiple language versions or a program that requires modular
architecture. An example of a modular program is an accounting program that has many
modules that can be dynamically loaded at run time.

Eases deployment and installation:

When a function within a DLL needs an update or a fix, the deployment and installation of
the DLL does not require the program to be relinked with the DLL. Additionally, if
multiple programs use the same DLL, the multiple programs will all benefit from the
update or the fix. This issue may more frequently occur when you use a third-party DLL
that is regularly updated or fixed.

DLL dependencies:
When a program or a DLL uses a DLL function in another DLL, a dependency is created.
Therefore, the program is no longer self-contained, and the program may experience problems if
the dependency is broken. For example, the program may not run if one of the following actions
A dependent DLL is upgraded to a new version.
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A dependent DLL is fixed.

A dependent DLL is overwritten with an earlier version.

A dependent DLL is removed from the computer.

These actions are generally known as DLL conflicts. If backward compatibility is not
enforced, the program may not successfully run.
The following list describes the changes that have been introduced in Microsoft Windows
2000 and in later Windows operating systems to help minimize dependency issues:

Windows File Protection:

In Windows File Protection, the operating system prevents system DLLs
from being updated or deleted by an unauthorized agent. Therefore, when a program
installation tries to remove or update a DLL that is defined as a system DLL, Windows
File Protection will look for a valid digital signature.

Private DLLs:
Private DLLs let you isolate a program from changes that are made to shared
DLLs. Private DLLs use version-specific information or an empty .local file to enforce the
version of the DLL that is used by the program. To use private DLLs, locate your DLLs in
the program root folder. Then, for new programs, add version-specific information to the
DLL. For old programs, use an empty .local file. Each method tells the operating system to
use the private DLLs that are located in the program root folder.

DLL development:
This section describes the issues and the requirements that you should consider when you
develop your own DLLs.
Types of DLLs:
When you load a DLL in an application, two methods of linking let you call the exported
DLL functions. The two methods of linking are load-time dynamic linking and run-time dynamic
Load-time dynamic linking:
In load-time dynamic linking, an application makes explicit calls to exported DLL
functions like local functions. To use load-time dynamic linking, provide a header (.h) file and an
import library (.lib) file when you compile and link the application. When you do this, the linker
will provide the system with the information that is required to load the DLL and resolve the
exported DLL function locations at load time.

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Run-time dynamic linking:

In run-time dynamic linking, an application calls either the Load Library function or
the Load Library Ex function to load the DLL at run time. After the DLL is successfully
loaded, you use the GetProcAddress function to obtain the address of the exported DLL
function that you want to call. When you use run-time dynamic linking, you do not need an
import library file.
The following list describes the application criteria for when to use load-time dynamic linking
and when to use run-time dynamic linking:

Startup performance:
If the initial startup performance of the application is important, you should use
run-time dynamic linking.

Ease of use:
In load-time dynamic linking, the exported DLL functions are like local functions.
This makes it easy for you to call these functions.

Application logic:
In run-time dynamic linking, an application can branch to load different modules
as required. This is important when you develop multiple-language versions.

The DLL entry point:

When you create a DLL, you can optionally specify an entry point function. The entry
point function is called when processes or threads attach themselves to the DLL or detached
themselves from the DLL. You can use the entry point function to initialize data structures or to
destroy data structures as required by the DLL. Additionally, if the application is multithreaded,
you can use thread local storage (TLS) to allocate memory that is private to each thread in the
entry point function. The following code is an example of the DLL entry point function.
HANDLE hModule,
// Handle to DLL module
DWORD ul_reason_for_call,
// Reason for calling function
LPVOID lpReserved )
// Reserved
switch ( ul_reason_for_call )
// A process is loading the DLL.
// A process is creating a new thread.
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// A thread exits normally.

// A process unloads the DLL.
return TRUE;

When the entry point function returns a FALSE value, the application will not start if
you are using load-time
time dynamic linking. If you are using run
time dynamic linking, only the
individual DLL will not load.
The entry point function should only perform simple initialization tasks and should not
call any other DLL loading or termination functions. For example, in the entry point function,
you should not directly or indirectly call the Load Library function or the Load Library
Ex function. Additionally, you shoul
should not call the Free Library function when the process is

Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET), is an object-oriented computer programming
language that can be viewed as an evolution of the classic Visual Basic (VB), which is
implemented on the .NET Framework
Framework.. Microsoft currently supplies two major implementations
of Visual Basic: Microsoft Visual Studio 2010
2010, which is commercial software and Visual Basic
Express Edition 2010, which is free of charge


The VB.NET language accesses the powerful types in the .NET Framework. It has a
distinctive syntax form. Knowledge of this language helps many developers who primarily use
other languages. VB.NET has features nearly equivalent to the C# language. It has lots of
expressive power.

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This section shows example VB programs. It covers VB.NET syntax, keywords and
As an introduction, let's run a program that uses the Console.WriteLine subroutine and
prints Hello world to the screen. The program is contained in a module named Module1. The Sub
Main is the entry point of the program

Program for introduction [VB.NET]

Module Module1
Sub Main()
' Say hi in VB.NET.
Console.WriteLine("Hello world")
End Sub
End Module

Hello world

Numbers are often stored as Integer types in VB.NET programs. If you have data in a
String that you want to convert into an Integer, you must first parse it. We cover various aspects
of numbers and mathematical processing in the language. Chars are essentially numbers in
VB.NET as well.

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Enums are an excellent choice to use in your VB.NET code base if you have certain
magical constants to embed. They greatly improve the documentation quality because they are
always labeled. We describe Enums in the language.

Converting data in the VB.NET language requires a lot of knowledge of what functions
are available in the .NET Framework. We elaborate upon conversions in the VB.NET
programming language.
VB.NET also provides a host of useful built-in functions that you can use. These
typically provide low-level functionality and conversions.

You often need to store many elements in a resizable array. You might not even know
how many elements are needed when you begin processing. The List and ArrayList types are an
excellent choice for programs with this requirement. The List type is best.

There are other collection types available for use in your VB.NET programs. Some of
these, including the HashSet and Tuple types, are generics. They can be used to simplify certain

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Interfaces in the VB.NET language introduce an essential level of abstraction. You can
act upon many different types through one Interface type. This represents polymorphism. This
can help simplify your program.

We cover various aspects of VB.NET, the looping constructs, as well as the subroutine
syntax. These may be helpful as an introduction to VB.NET for people familiar with other

Here are the looping constructs in the VB.NET language. The For Each construct is
probably the least error-prone but is not always available. We also see a simple example of the
For-loop construct directly on this page.

Program that demonstrates For loop [VB.NET]

Module Module1
Sub Main()

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For i As Integer = 0 To 3
End Sub
End Module

When a function calls itself, recursion occurs. The VB.NET language supports recursion.
The ByRef keyword can be very useful when implementing recursive algorithms.

One of the top uses for VB.NET programs is to process data stored in databases. You can
use many different types in the .NET Framework to accomplish this task. The DataGridView is
one of the most popular choices. It works well with the DataTable.

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The VB.NET language exposes the power of the .NET Framework to many
programmers. With the Framework methods, you can avoid writing a lot of tedious code. This
leads to much faster development. It leads to more robust software applications.

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2.3 Vision based Analysis

There are few technologies already using vision based analysis system.
Example, Hand gesture recognition which using Vision-Based approaches use only the
vision sensor (camera) for understand musical conduction action. This system works by when the
conductor uses only one-side hand and must in the view range of camera. The conductor may
indicate 4 timing patterns with 3 tempos by his/her hand motion. When the camera capture the
image of hand gesture, the system extract the human hand region which is the region of interest
(ROI) using the intensity color information. The system is obtained the motion velocity and the
direction by tracking the center of gravity (COG) of the hand region, which provides the speed of
any conducting time pattern.
While another one is Gesture-Based Interface for Home Appliance Control in Smart
Home. This technology is based on HMI (Human-Machine Interface). A small advanced color
camera built onto the television senses when someone enters its field of vision and searches for
their hand. The machine will then interprets the hands signal such as waving up and down could
alter the volume and raise their finger would switch the channel. This technology is designed by
detecting the skin color of face and hand whether is matching, then commanding the hand
detection/tracking algorithms which use a cascade hand motion recognizer is used for
distinguishing pre-defined hand motions from the meaningless gestures.
For this Hand Gesture Recognition project, is based on Human-Computer Interaction
(HCI) technology. The computer can perform hand gesture recognition on American Sign
Language (ASL). The system use .NET Toolboxes. Further explanation regarding how the
images are feed into network and how the network process will be discuss on this report.

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2.4 Perceptron Learning Rule

Perceptron is one of the programs of Neural Network that learns concepts. For example,
this program is able to learn to respond for the inputs that present to it whether it is True(1) or
False(0), by repeatedly "studying" examples presented to it. This program is the suitable for
classification and pattern recognition.
Single perceptrons structure is quite simple. There are few inputs, depends on input data,
a bias with and output. The inputs and outputs must be in binary form which the value can only
be 0 or 1. Figure 3 shows Perceptron Schematic diagram.

Figure 2: Perceptron Schematic diagram

Inside the Perceptron layer, the input data (0 or 1) are feed into weight by multiply with it
and the weight is generally a real number between 0 and 1. The value are then feed into neuron
together with bias, bias is real value as well range from 0 to 1. Inside neuron, the both these
values are summed up. After that, the summed values will fed into Hard-Limiter. Hard-Limiter is
a function which defined the threshold values as discussed earlier. For example, f(x) = {x 0.5
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0 or x 0.5 1}. This mean we set the threshold value of Hard-Limiter function to 0.5, if the
sum of the input multiplied by the weight is less than 0.5, the limiter function would return value
0 else if the sum of input multiplied by the weight is more than 0.5, the limiter function would
return value 1.
Once the value is obtained, the next step process is adjusting the weights. The way of
Perceptron learning is through modifying its weights.
The value obtained from the limiter function is also known as actual output. Perceptron
adjust its weights by the difference between the desired output and the actual output. This can be
written as:

Change in Weight i = Current Value of Input i (Desired Output - Current Output)

Perceptron will continue adjust its weights until the actual output value is no difference with
desired output value or with minimum difference value.

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2.5 Conclusion
Thus, from this chapter, we learnt about the computer language we are going to deal with
i.e. Microsoft Visual .NET, C # and DLL and the advantages over other languages. We also
learned about the different important features of .NET and C # i.e. the platform on which we are
going to build our system. The database where the images will be stored is also defined here only
and how the image will process from the database to our project will be shown in next chapter.
This chapter also covers the important domains connected with our system and a detailed
description on them. We also compared our algorithm with the passed works.

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3.1 Introduction

In This Chapter, we explain our algorithm on using various uml diagrams like
flowchart, activity diagrams, use cases.
Then we discuss the database design of our algorithm and the hardware and the
software requirements of our system.
Finally we conclude the chapter.
Taking into consideration that new system was to be developed, the next phase of the
system development system analysis. Analysis involved a detailed study of the current systems
leading to specification of a new system.
Analysis is a detailed study of various operation performed by a system and their
relationships within and outside the system. During Analysis data are collected from the
available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system.
In system analysis more emphasis is given to understanding the details of an existing
system or a proposed one and then deciding whether the existing system needs improvement.
Thus, systems analysis is the process or art of defining the architecture, components,
modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. One could see it as
the application of systems theory to product development. There is some overlap and synergy
with the disciplines of systems analysis, systems architecture and systems engineering.

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Component of analysis model:

Scenario-based elements
Use case Diagrams
Activity Diagrams
Swim lanes

Flow oriented elements

Data Flow Diagrams
Control Flow Diagrams
Processing Narratives

Class-Based elements
Use case Diagrams
Activity Diagrams

Behavioral elements
State Diagrams
Sequence Diagrams

Analysis Model
This model shows different elements Such as :
Scenario-based elements : This element mainly deals with use case diagrams and other
diagrams too Activity diagram and also Swim Lanes.
Flow Oriented elements :This element mainly deals with Data flow diagrams But other
diagrams too come under this as Control flow diagrams and also processing narratives.
Behavioral elements : This element consist of displaying the current behavior of running
project in forms of state diagrams and sequence diagrams.
Class-based elements: This element is somewhat as Scenario-based elements.

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1. Perceptron Convergence Algorithms

Perceptron is so powerful because they can be trained behavior of certain way. Error-correction
learning algorithm is part of Perceptron learning process. Perceptron will have converged (a
technical name for learned) for to behave that way.
Figure 10 below shows signal-flow graph how error-correction learning algorithm works in a
single-layer Perceptron. In this case the threshold (n) is treated as synaptic weight connected to
a fixed input equal to -1.

Figure 3: Perceptron Signal Flow Graph

Firstly, define the (p+1)-by-1 input vector:

x(n) = [-1, x1 (n), x2 (n),.....xp (n)] T
After that, define the (p+1)-by-1 weight vector:
w(n) = [(n), w1(n), w2(n),.....w p (n)] T
Here are some variable and parameters used in the convergence algorithm for further
explanation: [23]

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(n) =threshold


y(n) = actual response


d(n) = desired response


= learning rate parameter, 0< <1

Lets focus the 4-step algorithm in more detail:

1st step: Initialization
Set the weight w (0) =0. Then perform computations for time n=1, 2, 3
2nd step: Activation
At time n, activate the Perceptron layer by applying continuous-valued input vector x(n)
and desired response d(n).
3rd step: Computation of Actual Response
Compute the actual response of the Perceptron using following equation:
y(n) = sgn[wT(n)x(n)]
Linear output is written in the form:
u(n) = wT(n)x(n)

if u > 0,

sgn(u) = +1

If u < 0, sgn(u) = -1

4th step: Adaptation of Weight Vector

Adaptation of weight vector equation:
w(n+1) = w(n) + [d(n) y(n)]x(n)
if x(n) belongs to class C1,
then d(n) = +1
If x(n) belongs to class C2, then d(n) = -1

5th step: Increment time n by one unit then repeat back step 2.

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3.3 Use Case Diagram

Figure 4: Network Testing

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1st Step: Select test set image / Get Image from Webcam
Once the Perceptron Network is completed trained, the network is ready for testing. First, we
select test set of image which already converted into feature vector form or get image through
webcam then process it into feature vector form. The image can be come from any type of hand
gesture sign, not necessary to be trained hand gesture sign since this is just for testing.
Then feed the feature vector into the trained network.

2nd Step: Process by Perceptron Network

Now the image in feature vector form is feed into the network. These feature vector values will
go through all the adjusted weights (neurons) inside the Perceptron network and the will come
out an output.

3rd Step: Display Matched Output

The system will display the matched output which presented in vector format. Improvement is
made so the output will display both vector format and the meaning of gesture sign in graphical

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3.4 Flowchart

A flowchart is the diagrammatic representation of a step-by-step solution to given

problem. It is a common type of a diagram that represents the algorithm or process showing the
steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. Data is
represented in these boxes, and arrow connecting them represents flow / direction of a flow of
data. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or
program in various fields.
The advantage of the flow chart is, it depends on visualization and as it is in the form of
diagram, anyone can understand the flow of code very easily.
The better is the flowchart, the better is the software product made and if any error occurs
then it is very easy to understand the vulnerable point or the cause of the threat.
The technique allows the author to locate the responsibility for performing an action or
making decision correctly, showing the responsibility of each organizational unit for different
parts of a single process.
Actually today big companies dont prefer flow chart as there representation, but this
project is only a simple prototype so its efficient for us to draw the flowchart and have a look
over the flow of our project.

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Hand Detection Flowchart


Skin Color Training:

With images of various lighting
Learn lighting and coloring
Hand Location:
Create bounding box from skin color
Finger Region Detection:
Find connected regions (fingers/palm)
Pattern Matching:
Compare regions with gesture patterns
Gesture Determination:
Using surrounding frames
Figure 5:

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3.5 Block Diagram

Figure 6: Block Diagram

This simple diagram explains the classification of image .i.e. How the project classifies between
front person and background and also how its extract the person posture from image and keep
background as different or treat as waste.

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3.6 Hardware Requirements

Minimum Hardware Requirements



Pentium III 866 MHz


Recommended Hardware Requirements



Core2 Duo
4 GB or more
Any LCD or LED Color Monitor with any Inches
160 GB SATA HDD or more

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3.7 Software Requirements

Minimum Software Requirements



Windows XP Professional

Recommended Software Requirements


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3.8 Conclusion
Although several research efforts have been referenced in this chapter, these are just a
sampling; many more have been omitted for the sake of brevity.
Good sources for much of the work in gesture recognition can be found in the proceedings of the
Gesture Workshops and the International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture
There is still much to be done before gestural interfaces, which track and recognize
human activities, can become pervasive and cost-effective for the masses. However, much
progress has been made in the past decade and with the continuing march towards computers and
sensors that are faster, smaller, and more ubiquitous, there is cause for optimism. As PDAs and
pen-based computing continue to proliferate, pen-based 2D gestures should become more
common, and some of the technology will transfer to 3D hand, head, and body gestural
interfaces. Similarly, technology developed in surveillance and security areas will also find uses
in gesture recognition for virtual environments.
Thus we have studied about the analysis about the image retrieval system and we have
learnt how data flows in the program and show them in the diagrammatic form.
Therefore we also know the flow chart of our system and how to learn about them in
We also learned the different states of our system through the uses of our system through
the use case diagram.

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In this chapter we firstly discuss how the database connection of our software is
carried out.
After the development and testing has been completed, implementation of the
information system begins. This phase is required to complete the system development life cycle.
Implementation is done while developing a software. Implementation phase includes hardware
and software requirements according to the site selected.
During the user training we have to motivate the user to be familiar with the system.
Implementation also includes testing of the software in all phases till the final product is ready. It
also displays the snap shots of the GUI of how the software is actually going to look like and
work as a system.
Clients who do not have Microsoft .NET framework installed in their machines are also
provided with the installation process in this chapter. Implementation is the procedure of making
the software into existence after the softwares specification, design and requirements have been
properly and accurately defined. Here, is the coding process, the implementation of our system
and the snap shots so as to understand the steps from the very start to the end.
We created the GUI as simple as possible so that it is easy for user to operate it.
As per the testing phase we tried deploying our files into all the personal computers of the
project members as well as on some computers of our institute and wherever we could to find the
bugs and fix it.

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4.2 Database Connectivity

1. Video Database
Video Data Bank (VDB) is an international video art distribution organization and a
resource in the United States for videos by and about contemporary artists. Located in Chicago,
Illinois VDB was founded at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1976 at the inception
of the media arts movement.
VDB provides experimental video art, documentaries made by artists, and taped
interviews with visual artists and critics for a wide range of audiences. These include microcinemas, film festivals, media arts centers, universities, libraries, museums, community-based
workshops, public television, and cable TV Public-access television centers. Video Data Bank
currently holds over 2,000 titles in distribution, by more than 400 artists, available in a variety of
screening and archival video formats. It also actively publishes anthologies and curated programs
of video art.
The preservation of historic video is an ongoing project of the Video Data Bank. The
total holdings, including works both in and out of distribution, include over 5,000 titles of
original and in some cases, rarely seen, video art and documentaries from the late 1960s on. The
VDB functions as a Department of the Art Institute of Chicago and is supported in part by
awards from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Illinois Arts Council.

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Repetition testing involves doing the same operation over and over. This could be as
simple as starting up and shutting down the program over and over. It could also mean
repeatedly saving and loading data or repeatedly selecting the same operation. You might find a
bug after only a couple repetitions or it might take thousands of attempts to reveal a problem.
The main reason for doing repetition testing is to look for memory leaks. A common software
problem happens when computer memory is allocated to perform a certain operation but isn't
completely freed when the operation completes. The result is that eventually the program uses up
memory that it depends on to work reliably. If you've ever used a program that works fine when
you first start it up, but then becomes slower and slower or starts to behave erratically over time,
it's likely due to a memory leak bug. Repetition testing will flush these problems out.
Stress testing is running the software under less-than-ideal conditions low memory, low
disk space, slow CPUs, slow modems, and so on. Look at your software and determine what
external resources and dependencies it has. Stress testing is simply limiting them to their bare
minimum. Your goal is to starve the software. It is a type of boundary condition.
Load testing is the opposite of stress testing. With stress testing, you starve the software;
with load testing, you feed it all that it can handle. Operate the software with the largest possible
data files. If the software operates on peripherals such as printers or communications ports,
connect as many as you can. If you're testing an Internet server that can handle thousands of
simultaneous connections, do it. Max out the software's capabilities. Load it down.

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Hand Gesture Recognition


Preparing IR report:
The IR report is used to supply information about the outcomes and success of the

Step 1 of IR:
Project Information:
Project Id: CM11P07

Step 2 of IR:
Summary of Project:
In todays world major programs are made in .NET due to its portable feature so
this tool provides simplicity in execution of the modules and so is very useful. So editors are
needed to simplify the work of programmers. Hence many problems are solved with this.
Problems such as:1.

Time to create a System

Time to Test the System
Check the System for no error
Rectifying the error
Replacing some faulty component

These problems were very huge and hence needed to be resolved some of the
system. The best way to resolve the above problems are simplified version of Editors.
Objectives of our solution:

Easy GUI to create a digital design.

Way to pack a created design and reuse it any application
To create a distributed System
To provide built in tutor
Easily upgradable
Tested software which provides accurate outputs
Providing handy tools for designing circuits

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Hand Gesture Recognition

Step 3 of IR:
Outcomes of Key Project Area:




Man Hours


100 Per Day*250 =

RS 25,000


RS 2,000


RS 4,000


RS 31,000

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Hand Gesture Recognition






1 1\2 month


2 month

Development Phase

1 month

Testing Phase

2 month


1 1\2 month

This is the complete time period taken by all the phases in our project and thus now its
ready to be deployed.
As our software was created only for a final year project, we need not needed the entire
complex executable file, hence our project was deployed to a Microsoft .net solution file which
can be executed on any machine where .NET framework is present.
As per the testing phase we tried deploying our files to all the project members as well as
on some computers of our college.

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Hand Gesture Recognition


The software will definitely undergo change once it is delivered to the customer. There
can be many reasons for this change to occur. Change could happen because of some unexpected
input values into the system. In, addition the changes in the system could directly affect the
software operation. Thus, we have created our software which can handle external changes. This
is achieved in our project with the help of .NET being an independent to the entire platform.
We have even provided our software group e-mail id so that if the user finds any bugs or
wants any support regarding the working of the product, then he/she can contact us via e-mail or
call on the helpline number provided in the About Us part on Home Screen GUI of the product.
And even Help File is provided with the software product which provides offline help to
the End User if he/she finds any problem with the working or does not know the working of the
Feature or the product as a whole.

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Hand Gesture Recognition

4.4 Snap Shots

1. GUI of Project

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Hand Gesture Recognition

2. When we select file menu we can select 3 option in that i.e. Open Local Camera, Open
Video and Exit Option... We can also use shortcut menu for local camera and video.

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Hand Gesture Recognition

3. When we select Help menu we get a about us option in that the description of about is in
shown in next snap shot.

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Hand Gesture Recognition

4. When we click on About Us it gives us the name of our project with the version no. of the
project and the developer of the project with an email id so that if you have any query
you can mail us.

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Hand Gesture Recognition

5. When we use Dynamic Image the description about the image is given that at what
position the hand is..

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Hand Gesture Recognition

6. When any video is being played it give where the position of the hand is..:

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Hand Gesture Recognition

4.5 Conclusion

In this phase we implemented our software with all the requirements. We created the
entire GUI as simple as possible so that it is easy for user to operate it. We have many colors for
our screen to improve the user interaction and make it more attractive.
Later on we carried out the testing part that comprised of testing to check the program for
correct results and error freeness. We also saw which all testing techniques we used in our
projects that were as follows: Performance testing, Stress testing, User training.
The post implementation review was also carried out that evaluated whether the whole of
the project was running or not and it also checked whether all the specified goals and
specifications were achieved or not.

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Hand Gesture Recognition




Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Polytechnic


Hand Gesture Recognition


Improvement could be made on McConell idea of orientation histogram. There are other
approaches that could be used to perform classification using Neural Network.
Example, Euclidean distance is a straight forward approach to it.

Next improvement is making the system able to recognize more gesture signs. Since this
system only able to recognize 8 types of gesture signs, small modification to the coding,
the system able to recognize more than 8 type gesture signs.

Another improvement could be made is the background of images. Since this data sets
background are deliberately made it black, future improvement could develop an
algorithms which could ignore the background color as background color is static.

Last improvement is change the database image into real live video database. Real live
video input could straight recognize the gesture sign without having to take picture.

Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Polytechnic


Hand Gesture Recognition



5.2.1 Books & Journals

1. Gallaudet University Press (2004). 1,000 Signs of life: basic ASL for everyday
conversation. Gallaudet University Press.
2. Don Harris, Constantine Stephanidis, Julie A Jacko (2003). Human Computer
Interaction: Theory and Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
3. Hans-Jeorg Bullinger (1998). Human-Computer Interaction.
4. Kim Daijin (2009). Automated Face Analysi: Emerging Technologies and Research.
Ideal Group Inc (IGI).
5. C. Nugent and J.C. Augusto (2006). Smart Homes and Beyond. IOS Press. Minsky and
Paperts 1989 book, Perceptron
6. Allianna J. Maren, Craig T. Harston. Robert M. Pap (1990). Handbook of Neural
Computing Applications. Michigan: Academic Press.
7. Sergios Theodoridis, Konstantinos Koutroumbas (2006). Pattern Recognition. 3rd
edition. Academic Press.
8. Klimis Symeonidis (2000). Hand Gesture Recognition using Neural etwork. University of
9. D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, A multi-scale retinex for bridging the gap
between color images and the human observation of scenes, IEEE Trans. Image
Process., vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 965976, Jul. 1997.
10. D. J. Jobson, Z. Rahman, and G. A. Woodell, Properties and performance of a
center/surround retinex, IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 451462, Mar.

Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Polytechnic


Hand Gesture Recognition

11. J. S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, 1990.
12. R. C. Gonzales and E. Woods, Digital Image Processing. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1992.
13. The Colour Image Processing Handbook, S. J. Sangwine and R. E. N. Horne, Eds.
London, U.K.: Chapman & Hall, 1998.
14. S. Wolf, R. Ginosar, and Y. Zeevi, Spatio-chromatic image enhancement based on a
model of humal visual information system, J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., vol. 9,
no. 1, pp. 2537, Mar. 1998.
15. A.F. Lehar and R. J. Stevens, High-speed manipulation of the color chromaticity of
digital images, IEEE Trans. Comput. Graph. Animation, pp. 3439, 1984.
16. S.-S. Kuo and M. V. Ranganath, Real time image enhancement for both text and color
photo images, in Proc. Int. Conf. Image Processing, Washington, DC, Oct. 2326, 1995,
vol. I, pp. 159162.
17. Bockstein, Color equalization method and its application to color image processing, J.
Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 735737, May 1986.

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Hand Gesture Recognition

5. 2.2 Websites

1. (1/5
2. (5/5/2009)
3. (10/5/2009)


5. (13/5/2009)
6. (14/5/2009)
7. (20/5/2009)
8. (1/6/2009)
9. (4/6/2009)
12. (27/6/2009)

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Hand Gesture Recognition



The objectives and goal of this project are achieved successfully. This project
successfully implemented pattern recognition using Neural Network in .NET, able to obtain
static image as input through webcam on spot and provide user friendly application. What
important is there is no extra hardware to perform pattern recognition other than webcam and a
laptop itself.
But this project is not robust and safe enough as it each time the network retrain, the
results is not guaranteed to be same. Apart from not stable enough, there are a lot factors that
need to be consider such as number of layers and number of neurons. This setting has no straight
forward explanation.
The approach developed by McConnell (orientation histogram) may not good enough to
allow the network classify each gesture correctly especially with different databases. Further
improvement could be continued to enhance this pattern recognition approach.

Shah & Anchor Kutchhi Polytechnic


Hand Gesture Recognition


Figure No:

A Child being detecting hand location and movement

Page No


Perceptron Schematic diagram

Perceptron Signal Flow Graph
Network Testing
Hand Detection Flow
Block Diagram


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Hand Gesture Recognition


Table No

Version of C#
Summary of Version of C#

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Page No