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# GAS FIELD ENGINEERING

## Gas Reserves Estimation

CONTENTS

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Introduction
Reserves and Reservoir Performance Predictions
Volumetric Estimates
Material Balance Estimates

## At the end of the session, students should be able to:

Calculate Gas Reserves by Volumetric method
Calculate Gas Reserves by Material Balance
method

Introduction
Reserve Estimation Methods: more than one available.
Different methods
development.

applicable

at

different

stages

of

## Data requirement different for each method, with some

common

Predominant methods:
1.Volumetric method
2.Material Balance Method

## 3.Decline Curve Analysis

4.Reservoir Simulation

Introduction

1.Volumetric method
Early stage of reservoir development
Geology, Geophysics, Reservoir rock and fluid properties
required
Recovery Factor(RF) assigned arbitrarily
No time dependency, No production data required

Introduction
2.Material Balance Method
Later stage of development (after 20% of initial oil/gas is
produced, or 10% of initial reservoir pressure has declined)
Geological data, Reservoir rock and fluid properties,
production data required
RF is calculated
Time dependant

Introduction

## 3.Decline Curve Analysis

Later stage of development, when production rate
undergoes natural decline
Mostly production data required
RF is calculated

Time dependant

Introduction
4.Reservoir Simulation

Can be applied at any stage but more useful and reliable for
matured reservoirs
Geological data, Rock and Fluid properties, Production data
required
More useful as reservoir management tool

## Uncertainties associated with each method

More than one method should be used when applicable
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Introduction
Natural gas reservoirs are reservoirs in which the contained
hydrocarbon fluids exist wholly as a vapor phase at pressure
values equal to or less than the initial value.
Unlike saturated crude oils and condensates, natural gases
do not undergo phase changes upon reduction in reservoir
pressure.

## Performance predictions are therefore relatively simple.

Natural gas is commonly termed wet (or raw) gas.
Cumulative gas produced (Gp) means separator gas plus
vapor equivalent of the natural gas liquid (NGL) removed in the
separator.
Gas formation volume factor (Bg) and gas deviation factor (Z)
refer to the properties of a sample of separator gas and liquid.
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Introduction
Natural gas reserves are classified according to nature of their
occurrence.
Non-associated gas is free gas not in contact with crude oil
in the reservoir.
Associated gas is free gas in contact with crude oil in the
reservoir.
Dissolved gas is gas in solution with crude oil in the
reservoir.

gas reserves.

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## Gas in Place by Volumetric Equation

To make reasonable recovery predictions, estimates of the
initial gas in place in each reservoir must be made.
Volumetric equation is a useful tool for calculating the gas
in place at any time.
Reservoir rock volume is usually obtained by planimetering
the isopacheous maps of productive reservoir rock.
Gas initially in place (GIIP) is the product of three factors:
reservoir pore volume, initial gas saturation, gas formation
volume factor that converts reservoir volumes to volumes at
standard, or base, conditions 60oF, and 14.7 psia.

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(11.1)

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## Gas in Place by Volumetric Equation

If Bgi is in cu ft/scf,
(11.2)
Also:
(11.3)
Standard cubic feet of gas in place is given by:
(11.4)
Volumetric equation is particularly applicable when a field is
comparatively new, before gas have been produced to cause an
appreciable drop in reservoir pressure.
If good data are available, volumetric will probably be reliable.
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From gas laws,

Bg

pbTZ
pTb Z b

(11.5)

(14.7)(TZ )
TZ
Bg
0.0283
p[460 60]
p

(11.6)

errors

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## Material Balance Equation

The material balance is an expression of the law of
conservation of mass.
Assumptions
1. A reservoir may be treated as a constant-volume tank.
2. Pressure equilibrium exists through out the reservoir.
3. Laboratory PVT data apply to the reservoir gas at the average
pressures used.
4. Reliable production and injection data, and reservoir
pressure measurements are available.
5. Change in volume of the interstitial water with pressure,
change in porosity with pressure, and the evolution of gas
. dissolved in the interstitial water with decrease in pressure are
negligible.
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Derivation
Conservation of mass may be applied to a gas reservoir to
yield mass and mole balances (m , n):
mp = mi m

(11.7)

Cumulative gas produced = initial gas in place - remaining gas (mass unit)

And

np = ni - n

(11.8)

Cumulative gas produced = Initial gas in place - remaining gas (mole unit)

where:
mp, np= cumulative gas produced in mass and mole units
mi, ni = initial gas in place at initial pressure pi
m, n = gas remaining in reservoir at some subsequent pressure,
p
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Derivation
Using constant volume tank concept,
Let
-Vi barrels the original(initial) hydrocarbon reservoir volume at
the initial pressure pi.
-V barrels: remaining gas volume in the reservoir
-Gp scf produced gas at the surface,
-Wp stock tank barrels, produced water at the surface
-We stock tank barrels, encroached water into the reservoir,

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Derivation
-Since the reservoir being considered constant, the following
equation results:

Vi = V + We WpBw

(11.9)

V = Vi - We + WpBw
(11.10)

## - Bw : water formation volume factor in reservoir barrels per

stock-tank barrel.
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Derivation
From the Real Gas Law:

Thus,

and

## Gp = cumulative gas produced from pi to p, scf

R = universal gas constant, 10.732 cu ft-psi/lb
mole-oR.

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Derivation
Substituting in Eqn. 11.8 gives: np = ni n (11.8)

Or,
(11.11)

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Derivation
Therefore, expressing Vi in terms of GIIP and substituting gas
formation volume factors Bgi and Bg at pressures pi and p, Eqn
11.11 becomes:

(11.12)

## Gp = Cumulative gas produced.

GIIP = Gas Initially In Place

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Derivation
For reservoirs with no water influx and no water
production: Eqn 11.11 and 11.12 become, respectively:
(11.13)

and
(11.14)

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APPLICATION
APPLICATION
Material balance equation applied to estimate
initial gas in place, determine existence and estimate
effectiveness of any natural water drive, assist in
predicting performance and reserves.
It may also verify possible extensions to a partially
developed reservoir where gas in place calculated by
material balance equation is much larger than a
volumetric equation estimate and water influx is thought
to be small.
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## Reserves and Reservoir Performance

Predictions
Energy required for gas production is usually derived
either from gas expansion or a combination of gas
expansion and water influx.
Volumetric estimation, and decline curve are
methods which may be used to estimate gas
reserves in place.
But in actual practice, estimation requires predicting
abandonment pressure. This is the pressure at
which further production will no longer be
profitable.
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## Reserves and Reservoir Performance

Predictions
Abandonment pressure is determined by economic
conditions

## - future market value of gas

- cost of operating and maintaining wells
- cost of compressing
- transporting gas to consumers.

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Volumetric Estimates
Volumetric equation is useful in estimating gas in place at any
stage of depletion.
During the development period, it is convenient to calculate
gas in place per acre-foot of bulk reservoir rock.

## Multiplication by estimate of bulk reservoir volume then gives

gas in place for the lease, when reservoir volume is defined and
performance data are available, volumetric calculations
provide valuable checks on estimates obtained from material
balance methods:
GIIP (scf/acre-ft)

(11.16)

## Bulk reservoir volume = (Ah) acre-ft

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Volumetric Estimates
For Volumetric reservoirs,

(11.17)
The recoverable reserves can be calculated by

(11.18)
Where
RG = gas reserves to abandonment pressure, scf/acre-ft
Eg = recovery factor, fraction of initial gas in place to be
recovered
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Volumetric Estimates
Some gas pipeline companies use an abandonment pressure
of 100 psi/1000ft of depth.
If the abandonment pressure is known, recovery factor can
be calculated.
For water drive reservoir:

Eg
Eg = recovery factor, fraction of initial gas in place to
recovered

be

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Example 11.2
A proposed gas well is being evaluated. Well spacing is 640
acres and it appears that the entire 640 acres attributed to this
well will be productive. Geological estimates indicate 30 ft of net
effective pay, 15% porosity, and 30% interstitial water
saturation. The initial pressure is 3000 psia and reservoir
temperature is 150o F. The abandonment pressure is estimated
to be 500 psia. The gas gravity is expected to be 0.60. Base
temperature and pressure are 60oF, and 14.65 psia
respectively. An estimate of the gas reserve is required.

Solution
The first step calculation of Bgi which requires pseudo-critical
T and P, pseudo-reduced T.
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Using Eq. 11.5
pbTZ
Bg
pTb Z b

(11.5)

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## Second step is to calculate the recovery factor, Eg. Abandonment

pressure being 500 psia, pseudo-reduced pressure = 500/668 =
0.75. Using this value together with the pseudo-reduced
temperature. Za is found to be 0.94. Hence from Eq. 11.19:

Eg 1

pa Z i
pi Z a

(11.19)

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(11.18)

## Final step is to multiply the above figure by the net acre-feet;

hence estimated reserve:

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## Material Balance Estimates

In some cases the porosity, connate water, and/or effective
reservoir volumes are not known with reasonable precision,
and volumetric method may be used to calculate the initial gas
in place.
However, this method applies only to reservoir as a whole.
Accurate pressure-production data
reliable material balance calculations.

are

essential

for

## Most likely source of error is estimating average reservoir

pressure, especially during the early history period.

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## Material Balance Estimates

Eqns 11.12 and 11.14 may be written as:

(11.21)

(11.22)

in place.

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## Material Balance Estimates

If there is no water encroachment, only information required is
production data, pressure data, gas specific gravity for
obtaining Z factors, and reservoir temperature.
However, early in the producing life of a reservoir the
denominator of right-hand side of material balance equation is
very small, numerator is relatively large.
A small change in the denominator will result in a large
discrepancy in the calculated value of initial gas in place.
Therefore, material balance equation should not be relied
upon early in the producing life of the reservoir.
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Example 11.3
(a) Calculate the initial gas in place in a closed gas reservoir if,
after producing 500 MMscf, the reservoir pressure had
declined to 2900 psia from an initial pressure of 3000 psia.
Reservoir temperature is 175oF., and the gas gravity is 0.60.
(b) If the reservoir pressure measurement were incorrect and
should have been 2800 psia instead of 2900 psia, what would
have been the true value of initial gas in place?
Solution
(a) Using a gas gravity of 0.60 and referring to the Z-factor
correlation charts (Figs. 2.4 and 2.5), Z at 3000 psia is
computed to be 0.88 and Z at 2900 psia is determined to be
0.87.
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## Next step is to calculate the two values of Bg;

(11.23)

Note: Eq. 11.23 is in bbl/scf, Eq. 11.6 is in cu ft/ scf; The factor
which differentiates the two equations is 5.615 cu ft/bbl

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(11.22)

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## (b) If the pressure measurements were incorrect and the true

average pressure is 2800 psia, then the material balance
equation will be solved using the true pressure. Z-factor at 2800
psia is determined to be 0.87:

equation:

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Q&A

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Thank You
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