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Original Title: Gas Reservoir Engineering

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CONTENTS

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

Introduction

Reserves and Reservoir Performance Predictions

Volumetric Estimates

Material Balance Estimates

Calculate Gas Reserves by Volumetric method

Calculate Gas Reserves by Material Balance

method

Introduction

Reserve Estimation Methods: more than one available.

Different methods

development.

applicable

at

different

stages

of

common

Predominant methods:

1.Volumetric method

2.Material Balance Method

4.Reservoir Simulation

Introduction

1.Volumetric method

Early stage of reservoir development

Geology, Geophysics, Reservoir rock and fluid properties

required

Recovery Factor(RF) assigned arbitrarily

No time dependency, No production data required

Introduction

2.Material Balance Method

Later stage of development (after 20% of initial oil/gas is

produced, or 10% of initial reservoir pressure has declined)

Geological data, Reservoir rock and fluid properties,

production data required

RF is calculated

Time dependant

Introduction

Later stage of development, when production rate

undergoes natural decline

Mostly production data required

RF is calculated

Time dependant

Introduction

4.Reservoir Simulation

Can be applied at any stage but more useful and reliable for

matured reservoirs

Geological data, Rock and Fluid properties, Production data

required

More useful as reservoir management tool

More than one method should be used when applicable

8

Introduction

Natural gas reservoirs are reservoirs in which the contained

hydrocarbon fluids exist wholly as a vapor phase at pressure

values equal to or less than the initial value.

Unlike saturated crude oils and condensates, natural gases

do not undergo phase changes upon reduction in reservoir

pressure.

Natural gas is commonly termed wet (or raw) gas.

Cumulative gas produced (Gp) means separator gas plus

vapor equivalent of the natural gas liquid (NGL) removed in the

separator.

Gas formation volume factor (Bg) and gas deviation factor (Z)

refer to the properties of a sample of separator gas and liquid.

9

Introduction

Natural gas reserves are classified according to nature of their

occurrence.

Non-associated gas is free gas not in contact with crude oil

in the reservoir.

Associated gas is free gas in contact with crude oil in the

reservoir.

Dissolved gas is gas in solution with crude oil in the

reservoir.

gas reserves.

10

To make reasonable recovery predictions, estimates of the

initial gas in place in each reservoir must be made.

Volumetric equation is a useful tool for calculating the gas

in place at any time.

Reservoir rock volume is usually obtained by planimetering

the isopacheous maps of productive reservoir rock.

Gas initially in place (GIIP) is the product of three factors:

reservoir pore volume, initial gas saturation, gas formation

volume factor that converts reservoir volumes to volumes at

standard, or base, conditions 60oF, and 14.7 psia.

11

(11.1)

12

If Bgi is in cu ft/scf,

(11.2)

Also:

(11.3)

Standard cubic feet of gas in place is given by:

(11.4)

Volumetric equation is particularly applicable when a field is

comparatively new, before gas have been produced to cause an

appreciable drop in reservoir pressure.

If good data are available, volumetric will probably be reliable.

13

From gas laws,

Bg

pbTZ

pTb Z b

(11.5)

(14.7)(TZ )

TZ

Bg

0.0283

p[460 60]

p

(11.6)

errors

14

The material balance is an expression of the law of

conservation of mass.

Assumptions

1. A reservoir may be treated as a constant-volume tank.

2. Pressure equilibrium exists through out the reservoir.

3. Laboratory PVT data apply to the reservoir gas at the average

pressures used.

4. Reliable production and injection data, and reservoir

pressure measurements are available.

5. Change in volume of the interstitial water with pressure,

change in porosity with pressure, and the evolution of gas

. dissolved in the interstitial water with decrease in pressure are

negligible.

15

Derivation

Conservation of mass may be applied to a gas reservoir to

yield mass and mole balances (m , n):

mp = mi m

(11.7)

Cumulative gas produced = initial gas in place - remaining gas (mass unit)

And

np = ni - n

(11.8)

Cumulative gas produced = Initial gas in place - remaining gas (mole unit)

where:

mp, np= cumulative gas produced in mass and mole units

mi, ni = initial gas in place at initial pressure pi

m, n = gas remaining in reservoir at some subsequent pressure,

p

16

Derivation

Using constant volume tank concept,

Let

-Vi barrels the original(initial) hydrocarbon reservoir volume at

the initial pressure pi.

-V barrels: remaining gas volume in the reservoir

-Gp scf produced gas at the surface,

-Wp stock tank barrels, produced water at the surface

-We stock tank barrels, encroached water into the reservoir,

17

Derivation

-Since the reservoir being considered constant, the following

equation results:

Vi = V + We WpBw

(11.9)

V = Vi - We + WpBw

(11.10)

stock-tank barrel.

18

Derivation

From the Real Gas Law:

Thus,

and

R = universal gas constant, 10.732 cu ft-psi/lb

mole-oR.

19

Derivation

Substituting in Eqn. 11.8 gives: np = ni n (11.8)

Or,

(11.11)

20

Derivation

Therefore, expressing Vi in terms of GIIP and substituting gas

formation volume factors Bgi and Bg at pressures pi and p, Eqn

11.11 becomes:

(11.12)

GIIP = Gas Initially In Place

21

Derivation

For reservoirs with no water influx and no water

production: Eqn 11.11 and 11.12 become, respectively:

(11.13)

and

(11.14)

22

APPLICATION

APPLICATION

Material balance equation applied to estimate

initial gas in place, determine existence and estimate

effectiveness of any natural water drive, assist in

predicting performance and reserves.

It may also verify possible extensions to a partially

developed reservoir where gas in place calculated by

material balance equation is much larger than a

volumetric equation estimate and water influx is thought

to be small.

23

Predictions

Energy required for gas production is usually derived

either from gas expansion or a combination of gas

expansion and water influx.

Volumetric estimation, and decline curve are

methods which may be used to estimate gas

reserves in place.

But in actual practice, estimation requires predicting

abandonment pressure. This is the pressure at

which further production will no longer be

profitable.

24

Predictions

Abandonment pressure is determined by economic

conditions

- cost of operating and maintaining wells

- cost of compressing

- transporting gas to consumers.

25

Volumetric Estimates

Volumetric equation is useful in estimating gas in place at any

stage of depletion.

During the development period, it is convenient to calculate

gas in place per acre-foot of bulk reservoir rock.

gas in place for the lease, when reservoir volume is defined and

performance data are available, volumetric calculations

provide valuable checks on estimates obtained from material

balance methods:

GIIP (scf/acre-ft)

(11.16)

26

Volumetric Estimates

For Volumetric reservoirs,

(11.17)

The recoverable reserves can be calculated by

(11.18)

Where

RG = gas reserves to abandonment pressure, scf/acre-ft

Eg = recovery factor, fraction of initial gas in place to be

recovered

27

Volumetric Estimates

Some gas pipeline companies use an abandonment pressure

of 100 psi/1000ft of depth.

If the abandonment pressure is known, recovery factor can

be calculated.

For water drive reservoir:

Eg

Eg = recovery factor, fraction of initial gas in place to

recovered

be

28

Example 11.2

A proposed gas well is being evaluated. Well spacing is 640

acres and it appears that the entire 640 acres attributed to this

well will be productive. Geological estimates indicate 30 ft of net

effective pay, 15% porosity, and 30% interstitial water

saturation. The initial pressure is 3000 psia and reservoir

temperature is 150o F. The abandonment pressure is estimated

to be 500 psia. The gas gravity is expected to be 0.60. Base

temperature and pressure are 60oF, and 14.65 psia

respectively. An estimate of the gas reserve is required.

Solution

The first step calculation of Bgi which requires pseudo-critical

T and P, pseudo-reduced T.

29

Using Eq. 11.5

pbTZ

Bg

pTb Z b

(11.5)

30

pressure being 500 psia, pseudo-reduced pressure = 500/668 =

0.75. Using this value together with the pseudo-reduced

temperature. Za is found to be 0.94. Hence from Eq. 11.19:

Eg 1

pa Z i

pi Z a

(11.19)

31

(11.18)

hence estimated reserve:

32

In some cases the porosity, connate water, and/or effective

reservoir volumes are not known with reasonable precision,

and volumetric method may be used to calculate the initial gas

in place.

However, this method applies only to reservoir as a whole.

Accurate pressure-production data

reliable material balance calculations.

are

essential

for

pressure, especially during the early history period.

33

Eqns 11.12 and 11.14 may be written as:

(11.21)

(11.22)

in place.

34

If there is no water encroachment, only information required is

production data, pressure data, gas specific gravity for

obtaining Z factors, and reservoir temperature.

However, early in the producing life of a reservoir the

denominator of right-hand side of material balance equation is

very small, numerator is relatively large.

A small change in the denominator will result in a large

discrepancy in the calculated value of initial gas in place.

Therefore, material balance equation should not be relied

upon early in the producing life of the reservoir.

35

Example 11.3

(a) Calculate the initial gas in place in a closed gas reservoir if,

after producing 500 MMscf, the reservoir pressure had

declined to 2900 psia from an initial pressure of 3000 psia.

Reservoir temperature is 175oF., and the gas gravity is 0.60.

(b) If the reservoir pressure measurement were incorrect and

should have been 2800 psia instead of 2900 psia, what would

have been the true value of initial gas in place?

Solution

(a) Using a gas gravity of 0.60 and referring to the Z-factor

correlation charts (Figs. 2.4 and 2.5), Z at 3000 psia is

computed to be 0.88 and Z at 2900 psia is determined to be

0.87.

36

(11.23)

Note: Eq. 11.23 is in bbl/scf, Eq. 11.6 is in cu ft/ scf; The factor

which differentiates the two equations is 5.615 cu ft/bbl

37

(11.22)

38

average pressure is 2800 psia, then the material balance

equation will be solved using the true pressure. Z-factor at 2800

psia is determined to be 0.87:

equation:

39

Q&A

40

Thank You

41

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