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P630 INTRODUCTION

2006

Page 1 of 71
Issue A.3
3 November 2006

PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATION:
MICOM P630 PROTECTION RELAYS
Location: Q:\P630_Tutorial\P630_intro.doc

OBJECTIVES:
To gain familiarisation of the menu structure, the setting files and programmable scheme logic of
the MiCOM PX30 relays
To provide a step by step guide to configuring and testing the differential function for a small
transformer.

T&D
Automation & Information Systems - St Leonards Avenue Stafford ST17 4LX England
Tel: +44 (0)1785 223251 Fax: +44 (0)1785 212232
AREVA T&D UK LTD. Registered Office: St Leonards Avenue Stafford ST17 4LX
Registered in England: 4955841

P630 INTRODUCTION
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Issue A.
3 November 2006
Table of Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................4

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.

SCOPE ............................................................................................................................4
QUICK START: I NEED TO KNOW ................................................................................4
SECTION ABSTRACTS ..................................................................................................4

2.

LOCAL CONTROL .........................................................................................................5

2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.2.
2.2.
2.2.1.
2.2.2.
2.2.3.
2.2.4.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.
2.3.4.
2.3.5.
2.3.6.

FRONT PANEL ...............................................................................................................5


LCD & Keypad.................................................................................................................5
LED Indications ...............................................................................................................5
MENU STRUCTURE & NAVIGATION ............................................................................6
Structure Top Level ......................................................................................................8
Structure - Parameters ....................................................................................................8
Structure - Operation .....................................................................................................10
Structure - Events..........................................................................................................11
MODIFYING PARAMETERS ........................................................................................12
Selecting Parameters ....................................................................................................12
Changing Parameters Edit Mode ...............................................................................13
Default Condition: The Cold Restart..............................................................................14
Clearing the Alarm LED ...............................................................................................15
Clearing the Trip LED ..................................................................................................15
The Out of Service LED ...............................................................................................16

3.

S&R-103 SETTING SOFTWARE..................................................................................17

3.1.
3.1.1.
3.1.2.
3.1.3.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.6.1.
3.6.2.

COMMUNICATING WITH THE RELAY ........................................................................17


Connections ..................................................................................................................17
Launching the Software.................................................................................................17
Checking Communication Settings................................................................................17
IDENTIFICATION OF THE DEVICE .............................................................................18
SETTING FILE EXTRACTION ......................................................................................19
DATA MODEL EXTRACTION .......................................................................................20
MODULE IDENTIFICATION..........................................................................................21
MODIFYING PARAMETERS ........................................................................................22
Selecting Parameters ....................................................................................................22
Changing Parameters ...................................................................................................22

4.

SETTING CONFIGURATION........................................................................................24

4.1.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.
4.3.5.
4.3.6.
4.4.
4.4.1.
4.4.2.

STARTING POINT ........................................................................................................24


ENABLING PROTECTION............................................................................................25
Select function from the available list of functions.........................................................25
Enable function from the selected functions..................................................................26
Enable master protection enable...................................................................................27
CONFIGURING OUTPUT RELAYS ..............................................................................28
Mapping protection outputs as inputs to trip commands ...............................................29
Mapping trip command outputs to output relays............................................................30
*** Test Point 1 *** .........................................................................................................31
Minimum duration, latching and resetting of trip commands .........................................31
*** Test Point 2 *** .........................................................................................................32
Mapping the WATCHDOG contact................................................................................32
CONFIGURING OPTO-INPUTS ...................................................................................34
Mapping opto inputs as inputs to blocking commands ..................................................35
Mapping blocking command outputs to function inputs.................................................36

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4.4.3.
4.5.
4.5.1.
4.5.2.

*** Test Point 3 *** .........................................................................................................36


CONFIGURING LEDS ..................................................................................................37
Mapping LEDs to function and command outputs.........................................................37
*** Test Point 4 *** .........................................................................................................38

5.

SCHEME LOGIC...........................................................................................................39

5.1.
5.2.
5.2.1.
5.2.2.
5.2.3.
5.2.4.
5.2.5.
5.2.6.
5.2.7.
5.3.

PSL EDITOR .................................................................................................................39


CONFIGURING LOGIC.................................................................................................39
LOGIC Configuration.....................................................................................................40
Map an Opto-Input to a LOGIC input signal ..................................................................40
Map the LOGIC input signal into a LOGIC function.......................................................41
Mapping LOGIC function outputs to protection function inputs .....................................42
Mapping a LOGIC function output into a Trip Command ..............................................42
*** Test Point 5 *** .........................................................................................................43
Timer Stage Pick-Up, Drop-Off and Duration .............................................................43
VERIFYING THE LOGIC...............................................................................................44

6.

FAULT RECORDER .....................................................................................................45

6.1.
6.1.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.

CONFIGURING THE FAULT RECORDER...................................................................45


Configuring the read key ...............................................................................................46
EXTRACTION OF FAULT DATA ..................................................................................47
CLEARING FAULT RECORDS.....................................................................................48
Clearing Fault Records from the Display.......................................................................48
Clearing Fault Records from the Relay Memory ...........................................................48

7.

OPERATION, OVERLOAD AND FAULT PANEL ........................................................49

7.1.
7.2.
7.3.

THE OPERATION PANEL (DISPLAYING MEASURMENTS) ......................................49


THE OVERLOAD PANEL..............................................................................................50
THE FAULT PANEL (DISPLAYING FAULT MEASURMENTS)....................................51

8.

CONFIGURATION OF CYCLIC MEASUREMENTS ....................................................52

9.

FILE COMPARISON AND CONVERSION ...................................................................54

9.1.
9.2.

FILE COMPARISON .....................................................................................................54


FILE CONVERSION......................................................................................................55

10.

CONFIGURATION AND TEST OF A DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION SCHEME........58

10.1.
10.1.1.
10.1.2.
10.1.3.
10.1.4.
10.1.5.
10.1.6.
10.1.7.
10.2.
10.2.1.
10.2.2.
10.2.3.

SETTING THE DIFF PROTECTION SCHEME ...........................................................58


Enable the DIFF function...............................................................................................58
System & Transformer Parameters ...............................................................................59
CT and VT Ratios ..........................................................................................................59
Differential Settings .......................................................................................................59
Configure the Trip Commands ......................................................................................60
Configure an Output Trip Relay, LEDs & Watchdog Contact ........................................60
Configure the Fault Recorder and the Operation & Fault Pages...................................60
TESTING THE DIFFERENTIAL BIAS CHARACTERISTIC ..........................................61
Reference Currents and CT Matching Factors..............................................................61
Spot Testing the Relay Settings ....................................................................................63
Testing the Differential Characteristic using Harmonised Relay Settings .....................66

11.

MISCELLANEOUS .......................................................................................................69

11.1.
11.2.

ZERO SEQUENCE FILTERING....................................................................................69


VECTOR GROUP MATCHING FACTORS ...................................................................70

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1.

INTRODUCTION

Protection devices in the MiCOM 30 Series are described in detail in the respective technical
manuals, as regards their technical merits, functional characteristics, and handling during
installation, connection, commissioning, and operation.
However, the technical manuals are very comprehensive due to the innumerable features of
MiCOM 30 Series devices. Unfamiliar users may have a hard time with learning how to operate a
device.
1.1.

SCOPE

This document is intended to help those users get started. The intention is to accompany the user
through the initial stages of communication and setting support.
By learning those basic operating procedures, it is hoped that the user will be able to continue in
confidence, using the full technical manual for reference and this document for support.
1.2.

QUICK START: I NEED TO KNOW

I have never used a Px30 relay: Start at the beginning and work though the whole document.
I have used Px30 relays before, but not the P630 range: Start at section 10, which will help
you configure and test the differential function. Use the rest of the document for reference.
I dont have the communications software, but I want to change some settings: Section 2
describes operation via the relay front panel. Your ability to make more than trivial changes will be
limited.
The P63x relay is already set-up I just want to test it: Start at section 10.2, which will guide
you through the test procedure.
What data model is my relay: See sections 3.2 and 9.2 to determine what the relay model and
data model is, or look under the flap on the front of the relay.
1.3.

SECTION ABSTRACTS

The following is an abstract of each of the following chapters:


Section 2:
Section 3:
Section 4:
Section 5:
Section 6:
Section 7:
Section 8:
Section 9:
Section 10:
Section 11:

Details the local control of the Px30 relay, the menu structure and navigation and
how to modify parameters via the relay front panel.
Details the communication and setting support software.
Explains how to
communicate with the relay and change parameters via the communication port.
Step by step guide on setting up a protection function (IDMT1), including opto input,
output relay and scheme logic assignments.
The use and operation of the Scheme Logic feature. Configuring an intertrip signal
is used as an example.
Explains the configuration of the Fault Recorder, including the extraction and
deletion of fault records.
How to set up the default relay display panel, by configuration of the Operation,
Overload and Fault panels.
Use of Cyclic Measurements through the setting software.
The setting file utilities of comparison and conversion, which enable setting files to
be converted to different data models and comparisons made between setting files.
Step by step guide to configuring and testing the Differential function by applying it
to a small transformer.
Miscellaneous information.

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2.

LOCAL CONTROL

2.1.

FRONT PANEL

The front plate of the relay is as shown in Figure 2-1.


2.1.1.

LCD & Keypad

20-character by 4-line alphanumeric liquid crystal display (LCD)

7-key keypad comprising 4 arrow keys (


key (
), and a read key (
).

17 LEDs; 4 fixed function LEDs on the left-hand side of the front panel and 13 programmable
function LEDs.

A 9-pin female D-type front port for communicating with a PC locally to the relay (up to 15m
distance) via an EIA (RS) 232 serial data connection.

2.1.2.

and

),an enter key (

), a clear

LED Indications

Trip LED (Red) - This indicates that the relay has issued a trip signal. It is reset when the fault
is removed from the relay and the front panel cleared.

Alarm LED (Yellow) - Flashes to indicate that the relay has registered an alarm. It is reset when
the associated alarm is cleared from the relay.

Out of service (Yellow) - Indicates the relay protection is not active, either the relay has had its
protection disabled or there are communications in progress.

Healthy (Green) - Indicates that the relay is in correct working order, and should be on at all
times. It will be extinguished if the relays self-test facilities indicate that there is an error with
the relays hardware or software. This indication is also available via a dedicated watchdog
output relay.

Edit Mode (Red) - The relay settings are being modified via the front panel.

MiCOM

OUT OF SERVICE
HEALTHY
EDIT

CLEAR

READ

ENTER

H4
H3
H2
H1
H0

G
C

ALARM

TRIP

H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10
H11
H12
H13
H14
H15
H16

Figure 2-1 Relay Front Panel

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2.2.

MENU STRUCTURE & NAVIGATION

The menu structure of the Px30 incorporates a comprehensive package of individual functions, in
order to permit an extensive and universal scope of application. This results in a huge number of
data points (setting values, signals, measured values, etc.) which are arranged in two ways.

Function Groups:
All data points are grouped into function groups according to the function they are associated
with. These groups have an related acronym for example MAIN, DIFF, IDMT etc...

Folders/Branches:
The data points within the function groups, are organised into different folders, based on the
logical control requirements. Folders can contain data points from a variety of function groups.

For a typical protection function, for example IDMT1 (over current protection 1), data points
associated with the IDMT1 function group may appear in many folders, dependant on the logical
nature of that setting. For example a configure parameter will appear in a different folder to a time
delay setting. It is the layout of these folders that forms the menu tree.
The description of all data points in this menu tree, is called the data model.
The values associated with each data point, is called the settings file.
To logically view a settings file you need the data model. Fortunately this can be extracted from
the relay directly, if it is not available in the setting software, see section 3.4.
The menu tree begins with the device type at the top and then branches out below into the three
main folders entitled, Parameters, Operation and Events, which form the first folder level. Below
this first folder level are two more folder levels, so that the entire folder structure consists of three
main branches and a maximum of three folder levels. After this the logical structure falls naturally
into the function groups, which forms the lowest logical organisation of data points.
This structure is shown in Figure 2-2.

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Figure 2-2 Front Panel Menu Structure

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2.2.1.

Structure Top Level

The structure of the settings is best observed through the S&R-103 software detailed in section 3.
A typical menu tree is as shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3 Typical Menu Tree


An informal description of each folder from a users point of view follows:
Parameters
This branch contains all setting parameters, including relay identification data, the
configuration parameters for adapting the relay protection to the system and the function
parameters for adapting relays functions, for example input/output to the protection
scheme. All values are stored in non-volatile memory.
Operation
This branch contains all the information regarding operation, such as measurement
operating data and signal states. This information is updated periodically and consequently
not stored.
In addition there are various control parameters, for example those to reset counters,
memory storage and displays.
Events
This branch is reserved for recording of events and fault records captured during operation.
They can be accessed through this folder at a later stage.
2.2.2.

Structure - Parameters

Parameters
The structure of the parameters menu tree is shown in Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-4 Parameters Menu Tree


Parameters contains three folders:

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DeviceID
This branch contains all the information regarding the relay type and version , for example
software, language and hardware versions.
Config.parameters
This branch contains two types of settings, contained within individual function groups.
i.

Settings to enable configuration of relay I/O, comms and the fault recorder.

ii.

A complete list of protection and control functions that contain a single configuration
status that can be enabled or disabled. This makes the corresponding settings for
that function visible in the Function parametersGeneral functions branch.

Function parameters
The menu structure of this branch is shown in Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5 Function parameters Menu Tree


Function parameters contains six folders:
Global
This branch contains settings that act upon all enabled control or protection functions.
General functions
This branch contains all the enabled functions configured in the Config.parameters
branch. The settings available are presented in function groups and are the common
settings for the functions presented in each Parameter subset X1.
Parameter subset X 1
These branches contain the subset (setting group) specific function settings. This enables
functions to be configured differently for each subset.

X represents the subset number.

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2.2.3.

Structure - Operation

Operation
The structure of the operation menu tree is shown in Figure 2-6.

Figure 2-6 Operation Menu Tree


Operation contains three folders:
Cyclic measurements
The menu structure for this branch is shown in Figure 2-7.

Figure 2-7 Cyclic measurements Menu Tree


Cyclic measurements contains three folders:
Meas.operating data
This branch contains the measurements that are taken by the relay. As more protection
functions are enabled, then any bespoke protection measurements become available
(organised in their function groups).
Phys. state signals
This branch contains the state of all the physical signals that are present in the relay. This
can be hardware dependant but will consist (as a minimum) of LEDs, inputs and outputs.
Log. state signals
This branch contains the logical signal states. This consists of for example, the state of the
blocking inputs to the enabled protections and command inputs to the general relay control
functions. The list becomes greater as more functions are enabled.
Control and testing
This branch contains settings that allow the control and testing of certain functions. For
example the testing of individual output relays and the control of the event recording (i.e.
resetting/deleting).
Operating data rec.
This branch displays the condition of the monitoring and operating data recorders.

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2.2.4.

Structure - Events

Events
The structure of the events menu tree is shown in Figure 2-8.

Figure 2-8 Events Menu Tree


Events contains three folders:
Event counters
This folder displays the number of events that have taken place.
categorised by the function group that the counter belongs to.

The events are

Measured Fault Data


This folder contains the actual data recorded during a fault condition. The categorisation
depends on the function group.
Event records
This folder contains details of the types of events that have occurred. Once again the
categorisation depends on the function group.

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2.3.

MODIFYING PARAMETERS

This section details the process of selecting and changing parameters and contains some useful
functions that users may want to undertake.
2.3.1.

Selecting Parameters

All data points (setting values, signals, measured values, etc.) are selected using the menu tree.
As the user navigates through the menu tree, the first two lines of the LCD display always show the
branch of the menu tree that is active, as selected by the user.
The data points are accessed at the lowest level of a menu tree branch. They are displayed with
their plain text description. The value associated with the selected data point, its meaning, and
their units of measurement are displayed in the line below.
The desired parameter (e.g. MiCOM Px3x/Parameters/Config.paramters/LOC/Decimal delimiter)
can be selected by pressing the keys Left, Right, Up and Down:
Note: In the case that the scrolling default is displayed, please press the ENTER key first in order
to access the menu tree.
Note: If the display text is not present and numerical cell references are visible then press, the
CLEAR key and the LEFT ARROW together to change the display mode.

MiCOM Px3x

MiCOM Px3x
Parameters

Par/
Device ID

Par/
Config.parameters

Par/Conf/
LOC

Par/Conf/LOC
Language (tongue)
English

Par/Conf/LOC
Decimal delimiter
dot

Figure 2-9 Selecting Parameters

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2.3.2.

Changing Parameters Edit Mode

Although it is possible to select any data point in the menu tree and read the associated value by
pressing the keys, it is not possible to switch directly to the Edit mode. This safeguard prevents
unintended changes in the settings. To access edit mode the password has to be entered.
Changing a parameter (e.g. MiCOM Px3x/Parameters/Config.paramters/LOC/Decimal delimiter):
Note: Edit mode can be left without changing a parameter by pressing the CLEAR key instead of
the ENTER key.

Par/Conf/LOC
Decimal delimiter
Dot

Enter the input mode


Par/Conf/LOC
Decimal delimiter
Dot
********

Enter the password


and confirm
Par/Conf/LOC
Decimal delimiter
Dot

Change the parameter value


Par/Conf/LOC
Decimal delimiter
Comma

Leave the input mode


by accepting the change
Par/Konf/VOB
Decimal delimiter
Comma

Figure 2-10 Changing Parameters

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2.3.3.

Default Condition: The Cold Restart

The actual settings status is difficult for the user to quickly establish and this can cause problems.
It is often easier to restore the relay to its default condition; this is achieved via a cold restart.
Prior to initialising a cold restart, ensure that the device protection is disabled.
(MiCOM Px3x/Parameters/Function.parmeters/Global/MAIN/Protection enabled):
Par/Func/Glob/MAIN
Protection enabled
No (=off)

If the device is disabled, a cold restart can be initialised


(MiCOM Px3x/Operation/Control and Testing/MAIN/Cold restart):
Oper/CrtlTest/MAIN
Cold restart
don't execute

Change the value to execute by the procedure described in section 2.3.2.


Oper/CrtlTest/MAIN
Cold restart
execute

Then press the ENTER key and the device will reboot:
********************
**** REBOOT
*****
********************
********************

TEST
>>>>>>>>

After a cold restart any non default settings have been deleted and all records have been cleared.
All parameters are set to their default value.

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2.3.4.

Clearing the Alarm LED

Once the relay has rebooted, the Alarm LED will be on, this is because of the deliberate distortion
of the parameter checksum, which has been used to initiate the desired cold restart.
To clear the alarm the corresponding entry has to be readout of the monitoring signal memory.
(MiCOM Px3x/Operation/Operating data rec./MT_RC/Mon. signal record.):
Oper/Rec/MT_RC
Mon. signal record.
p

Mon. signal record.


01.01.97 08:43 SFMON
Checksum error param

Mon. signal record.


01.01.97 08:43 SFMON
Cold restart

In order to switch off the ALARM LED, clear the monitoring signal memory.
(MiCOM Px3x/Operation/Control and Testing/MT_RC/Reset recording):
Oper/CrtlTest/MT_RC
Reset recording
2

Change the value to execute by the procedure described in section 2.3.2.


Oper/CrtlTest/MT_RC
Reset recording
2
execute

Press the ENTER key. The number of entries in the monitoring signal memory will be changed to
0 and the ALARM LED will go off:
Oper/CrtlTest/MT_RC
Reset recording
0

2.3.5.

Clearing the Trip LED

If the relay has tripped, the Trip LED will be on. If the fault condition is still present, the LED will
remain illuminated. However if the fault condition is no longer applied, then the trip LED can be
reset by clearing the display. Press the CLEAR key twice, at the default display.
If you are having difficulty with the default display once a trip has occurred, refer to section 6.3.1.

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2.3.6.

The Out of Service LED

After a reboot of the relay the Out of Service LED may be on. In order to switch off the LED and
return the relay to an enabled state. The corresponding parameter has to be modified.
(MiCOM Px3x/Parameters/Function.parameters/Global/Main):
Par/Func/Glob/MAIN
Protection enabled
Yes (=on)

Note:

i.

The Out of Service LED, may occur for the following reasons there have to be corrected
before the LED can be extinguished.
Output relays must not be blocked:
Par/Func/Glob/OUTP
Outp.rel.block USER
No

ii.

The device must be enabled generally as described above:


Par/Func/Glob/MAIN
Protection enabled
Yes (=on)

iii.

Trip commands may not be blocked:


Par/Func/Glob/MAIN
Trip cmd.block. USER
No

The Out of Service LED may occur due to the self-monitoring function, which has detected an
internal fault of the device. In that case the ALARM LED is also energised. Readout the
corresponding entries in the monitoring signal memory, as described in section 2.3.4 and rectify
the situation.

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3.

S&R-103 SETTING SOFTWARE

MiCOM Px30 series devices can be operated via the S&R-103 software, within the MiCOM S1
suite of software.
3.1.

COMMUNICATING WITH THE RELAY

3.1.1.

Connections

Power the relay, ensuring that the appropriate auxiliary voltage has been selected. Plug in the
serial connection lead between the computer and the 9-pin port on the front of the relay. This is
shown in below in Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1 Communication Connections


3.1.2.

Launching the Software

Select the MiCOM S1 software and launch the application.


Select the Front Port
Communications Interface and navigate up one option to PX30. Select the Settings Software
S&R-103 on the left-hand side.
3.1.3.

Checking Communication Settings

Prior to attempting communication with the device, open the dialog box Communications>Communication Settings. Verify that the following settings are selected, see Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2 Communication Settings Options

Link Type - Direct

Serial Interface the correct COMM port is selected

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3.2.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE DEVICE

To commence communications with the relay, open the dialog box Communications->Identify
Device, shown in Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3 Identify Device


Ensure that the settings of Baud Rate, Bay Address and Parity are equal to the settings of the
device. Also verify that the following configuration parameters on the relay are as follows, if
communication cannot be established.

Par/Conf/PC
Name of manufacturer
ALSTOM D

Par/Conf/PC
Bay address
1

Par/Conf/PC
Device address
1

Par/Conf/PC
Baud rate
19.2 kBaud

Par/Conf/PC
Parity bit
Even

Par/Conf/PC
Spontan. sig. enable
None

Par/Conf/PC
Transm.enab.cycl.dat
Without

Once these settings have been confirmed press the Identify button and the S&R-103 will start
communicating with the relay. The S&R-103 will scan each baud rate looking for the relay.
If communication is successful, the following screen shown in Figure 3-4 will be displayed.

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Figure 3-4 About the Device


3.3.

SETTING FILE EXTRACTION

To extract the settings file, use the Setting File button shown in Figure 3-4. The extracted setting
file will then be displayed as shown in Figure 3-5.

Figure 3-5 Extracted Setting File


This file can then be modified accordingly.

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3.4.

DATA MODEL EXTRACTION

If an older version of MiCOM S1 is being used, it is possible that the data model that the relay is
using is not present in the S&R-103 software.

Figure 3-6 Data Model Not Found


If this is the case, then it is possible to extract the data model from the relay, Communication>Read Data Model. Save the data model in the default folder specified.

Figure 3-7 Data Model Extraction


A new settings file can then be created manually, File-New.

Figure 3-8 New Settings File


Select Setting File and then select the correct relay model and data model type, according to the
relay model, shown by performing an identify device, see Figure 3-4, or from the relay model
number on the device. If you choose an incompatible model type then you might be able to
convert it at a later time, see section 9.

Figure 3-9 Data Model Selection

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3.5.

MODULE IDENTIFICATION

The number of available inputs and outputs of any MiCOM PX30 device varies on the optional
modules that are fitted. If the settings file has been opened from a default data model, then the
S&R-103 software will display the maximum, because the design version of the particular device is
unknown.
It is always recommended that the design version is extracted from the relay to avoid the possibility
of assignment to hardware that is not present in the actual relay. If this is not possible then the
number of inputs and outputs can be selected manually by selecting the Definition button, shown
in Figure 3-10. If the model configuration is not known, then only use relays and opto inputs on the
power supply module, which will obviously always be present.
To extract the detail of the fitted modules, open the dialog box by accessing Tools->Design
Version. Then select the Update button to configure the settings file.

Figure 3-10 Design Version

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3.6.

MODIFYING PARAMETERS

This section explains how to modify settings via the communication interface.
3.6.1.

Selecting Parameters

To select different setting parameters, navigate the directory tree by left clicking the folders. At the
lowest point on the menu tree, the function group will be visible and then the function point can be
selected in the right window pain.
Using the example in 2.3.1, the Decimal Delimiter data point has been selected, as shown in
Figure 3-11.

Figure 3-11 Selecting a Data Point


3.6.2.

Changing Parameters

To change a data point, double click on the setting and a dialog box will appear as shown in Figure
3-12.

Figure 3-12 Setting Dialog Box


Select the new setting from the available list of options and click ok.

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The dialog box will disappear and the setting window will show a red star next to the setting to
indicate that is has changed from the original setting file. This is shown in Figure 3-13.

Figure 3-13 Changing a Data Point


To send the new setting to the relay, right click the setting and the options shown in Figure 3-14
will appear.

Figure 3-14 Right Click Options


Select send to relay and the setting will be downloaded to the relay. If the file is saved the red star
will disappear.
If you make setting changes and forget to download them, then you can right click any folder in the
left hand window and send the entire folder to the relay. If you right click the highest level folder
MiCOM P63X, then the entire setting file will be downloaded to the relay.

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4.

SETTING CONFIGURATION

The configuration options of the PX30 range of relays is vast and extremely flexible. However this
adds to the complexity of the relay and reduces the simplicity of the user interface. It is therefore
highly recommended to attempt setting configuration and changes via the communication port
using the S&R-103 software.
In this section a single function will be enabled and configured to drive an output relay, with an opto
input configured as a block. These functions cover the primary operations that a user may wish to
accomplish.
The function that will be enabled is over current protection (IDMT1).
4.1.

STARTING POINT

The most suitable starting point is a default starting point, achieved by performing a cold restart,
see section 2.3.3, which will place the relay into its default settings, or start with a new default
settings file. If the relay is available, update the hardware configuration by performing a Module
Identification, see section 3.5.
The relay should be reset, resulting in only the Healthy LED remaining illuminated. If this is not the
case, refer back to section 2.3.

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4.2.

ENABLING PROTECTION

The following steps are required to enable a protection function.


4.2.1.

Select function from the available list of functions

Locate the function group IDMT1, select the With option and send to the relay.

The function group should now be visible in the following two locations:

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4.2.2.

Enable function from the selected functions

Activate the function in each of the following two locations.


Locate General enable USER, select Yes and send to the relay. Leave the selected input at End
a (the HV side).

Locate Enable PS1, select Yes and send to the relay. This is where the individual setting group
protection settings can be configured. The function default is No in the remaining subsets 2-4.

Locate the setting Min. trip t. P. This is the minimum trip time; change the setting to zero for
instantaneous operation.

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4.2.3.

Enable master protection enable.

Check the Out of Service LED status. If making setting changes via the front port then this setting
must be disabled off. However, we are making changes via the communications so the setting
can be enabled on. If the out of service LED is illuminated then enable the protection by
following section 2.3.6, also described below.
Locate Protection enabled, select Yes and send to the relay. If the Out of Service LED was
enabled, it should be extinguished.

The protection function is now enabled; however the protection function outputs need to be
configured.

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4.3.

CONFIGURING OUTPUT RELAYS

There are different ways to configure output relays.


i.

Directly map a protection/control function output to an output relay.


disadvantage is that only one input can drive the output relay.

The

ii.

Map a protection/control function output into a Tripping command and then map
this to an output relay. This is normally perfectly adequate for most applications and
will be described within this section.

iii.

Use the LOGIC feature. This is more flexible for complex implementations; this
function will be described in section 5. LOGIC should not be used for mapping trip
outputs, see section 5 for further information.

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4.3.1.

Mapping protection outputs as inputs to trip commands

To map protection outputs to trip commands, locate Fct.assign.trip cmd.1. Configure the
required outputs from the protection, as inputs to trigger trip cmd.1. There are three stages,
positive and negative sequence current and a residual current stage. Choose the positive
sequence stage IDMT1 tIref, P> elapsed. If other protection functions were enabled then their
outputs would also be available for selection as inputs to the trip command function.

Press ok and a red star should appear next to the setting.

Now the trip command output needs to be mapped to an output relay.

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4.3.2.

Mapping trip command outputs to output relays

We will use output relay 01 (K901) on the power supply module (might be K2001). The contact is
normally opened.

Locate Fct. assignm. K901. The following relevant assignment options could be applied.
Assignment Option

Description

MAIN Gen. trip command 1

Output of trip command 1 with the application of timing functions


if required see section 4.3.4.

MAIN Gen. trip signal 1

The direct output of trip command 1, will ignore any timing


functions applied to the trip command.

MAIN Gen. trip signal

The logical OR of all trip signals (1-4).

Choose MAIN Gen. trip command 1. Notice that it is possible to assign the protection output
directly.

The protection function is now configured to an output relay.

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4.3.3.

*** Test Point 1 ***

The function can now be tested.


Slowly increase the three phase current (up to 1A) on the HV side, until the output relay is heard to
operate and the trip indication LED is illuminated. Slowly decrease the current until the output
relay is heard to reset. Press the CLEAR key twice on the front panel to reset the trip LED.
4.3.4.

Minimum duration, latching and resetting of trip commands

The trip commands can be latched or assigned a minimum duration (shown below). We will assign
a minimum duration. (Note that this could also be achieved through the protection settings, section
4.2.2.

To assign a minimum duration locate Min. dur. trip cmd. 1. Select 1s and send to relay.

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4.3.5.

*** Test Point 2 ***

Apply an over current condition and now the relay can be heard to remain operated for 1 second
for any fault condition applied for to 1 second.
4.3.6.

Mapping the WATCHDOG contact

It is always good practice to map a watchdog contact to enable the relay to indicate its healthy
condition to a monitoring (SCADA) system.
Locate the following relay K908 (might be K2008), which is the relay nearest the power supply
inputs. Assign this contact to MAIN Blocked/faulty.

The watchdog contact is conventionally a normally closed contact, which is energised closed by
the relay, hence if the relay powers off or there is an auxiliary supply problem then the contact will
naturally open communicating a problem. Therefore modify the corresponding relay contact
setting.

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The relay can also monitor its output contacts to verify that operation has taken place, when the
relay logic commands an operation.
Locate MAIN Fct. assign. fault. Assign this contact to the trip relay output and any other relay
outputs as necessary. There are also settings for the current circuit supervision and failures of
complete hardware modules.

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4.4.

CONFIGURING OPTO-INPUTS

There are different ways of configuring opto inputs.


i.

Directly map an opto input to a protection/control function. The disadvantage is that


only one relay input can drive the protection function.

ii.

Map an opto input through the Blocking command. This is normally perfectly
adequate for most applications and will be described within this section.

iv.

Use the LOGIC feature. This is more flexible for complex implementations; this
function will be described in section 5.

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4.4.1.

Mapping opto inputs as inputs to blocking commands

We will use opto input U901 (might be U2001) on the power supply board, however any available
input would be acceptable.
Locate Fct.assign.U901. Select MAIN Blocking 1 EXT and send to the relay.

This has mapped the opto input as an input into this blocking command. Any other opto inputs can
also be mapped to this command. Notice that it is possible to assign the opto input to
protection/control inputs directly, such as IDMT1 Block Iref, P> EXT, which can be used to block
the IDMT1 positive sequence over current protection.
Next we have to decide if this input is active high or active low, these settings are in the same
location.

Locate Oper. Mode U901. The default should be high.


Now the blocking command output needs to be mapped to a function input.

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4.4.2.

Mapping blocking command outputs to function inputs

Locate Fct. assign. block 1. Choose IDMT1 Block tIref, P> EXT, which is our block input for the
positive sequence over current.

If other protection functions were enabled, then any number of protection block inputs could be
assigned to the blocking command.

The opto input is now configured to the protection block input through the blocking command 1.
4.4.3.

*** Test Point 3 ***

The function can now be tested. Remove any latching or excessive minimum durations that have
been set on the trip command.
With the opto not energised, slowly increase the current until the output relay is heard to set and
the trip indication LED is illuminated. Slowly decrease the current until the output relay is heard to
reset. Press the CLEAR key twice on the front panel, to reset the trip LED.
Either energise the opto, or configure the opto to be active low and reapply the fault condition.
The protection will now be blocked and the output contact will not operate.

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4.5.

CONFIGURING LEDS

LEDs can be mapped to the output of entities such as, protection function, system indications and
blocking and trip commands. Some LEDs have fixed inputs like, Healthy, Alarm etc..
The LEDs have six functions of operation, the first set being ES (active illuminated), that either
follows the input, latches until manual intervention, latches until fault or latches until system
disturbance. The second set is NE (active off), which either follows the inverse of the input or
latches until manual intervention. We will use the default and simplest option, active illuminated
following the input.
4.5.1.

Mapping LEDs to function and command outputs

The mapping of the LEDs can be either through direct mapping into functions, through trip or
blocking commands or via the LOGIC functions.
The following assignment options could be applied.
Assignment Option

Description

IDMT1 Started Iref, P>

This is the started indication, from the IDMT function that has
been applied.

IDMT1 Iref, P> elapsed

This is the trip indication, given once the applied time delay
(either DT or IDMT) has expired.

To enable multiple driving signals to be applied, a composite signal should be mapped.


MAIN Gen. trip command 1

Output of trip command 1 with the application of timing functions


if required see section 4.3.4.

MAIN Gen. trip signal 1

The output of trip command 1, which ignores any timing


functions applied to the trip command.

MAIN Gen. trip signal

The logical OR of all trip commands (1-4).

MAIN General started

The logical OR of all start outputs.

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Select the LED Fct. Assignm. H*, (where * is 5-16) and select the input desired and send to relay.
H4 can be configured, but by default it is set to illuminate on a protection trip.
4.5.2.

*** Test Point 4 ***

Remove the opto input block signal and apply the fault condition. The LEDs should illuminate as
configured.
Try changing the LED operating modes and observe the behaviour.

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5.

SCHEME LOGIC

The scheme logic is a powerful feature that enables users to link binary signals within a framework
of Boolean equations.
It is important to remember that although the scheme logic is flexible, it can slow down signals due
the additional computation required. This means that trip signals (if at all possible) should not be
assigned through LOGIC. Output relays should be driven by trip commands and the protection
trip signals should be gated with LOGIC output, within the trip commands.
Only a basic use of LOGIC is shown here, refer to the manual for further applications.
5.1.

PSL EDITOR

The programmable scheme logic is similar to the Px40 series equivalent, except that the flow of
information can flow from left to right or right to left through the symbols. Therefore
understanding if a symbol generates or accepts a signal is required.
The constraints on signals are also not clear you cannot AND two inputs directly into an output
contact. This is not allowed in settings and therefore not allowed in the PSL, although there is not
an immediate indication of this. Therefore the PSL editor is a tool that is best used to view and
verify settings, rather than create the settings directly.
The PSL editor can be used without the LOGIC function enabled.
5.2.

CONFIGURING LOGIC

To make use of the LOGIC function it first has to be enabled.

Locate the function group LOGIC, select the With option and send to the relay.

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5.2.1.

LOGIC Configuration

The logic function consists primarily of the input & outputs shown below.

Any number of input signals can be configured as inputs with the boolean functions AND,
OR and NOT.

The logic outputs are available for use in the Trip or Blocking Command functions or any
other LOGIC functions and they can be mapped to relay outputs. The timing functions can
be used to affect the pick-up, drop-off or duration of the output signal LOGIC Output (t) in
comparison to the signal LOGIC Output.

The outputs can also be assigned directly to any internal functions such as blocking or
control signal inputs.

5.2.2.

Map an Opto-Input to a LOGIC input signal

For this example, an opto-input is required to accept an intertrip signal, map this through the
LOGIC function and OR it with the IDMT1 trip already established to operate the output contact.
However this intertrip signal will also be used to block the IDMT1 protection function.
Set U902 (or U2002) to LOGIC Input 1 EXT.

The opto-input is now configured to a LOGIC input signal.

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5.2.3.

Map the LOGIC input signal into a LOGIC function

Locate Fct. assignm. outp. 1 and set it to LOGIC Input 1 EXT.

The LOGIC input signal 1 is now mapped into the LOGIC function 1.
No locate Op. mode t output 1 and set it to Minimum time, which makes the LOGIC output
signals identical; this is required because within the trip commands, only the (t) signals are
available for mapping.

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5.2.4.

Mapping LOGIC function outputs to protection function inputs

Locate Sig. assig. outp. 1 and set it to IDMT1 Block. tIref, P> EXT.

The LOGIC function 1 signal output is now mapped to the IDMT1 protection blocking signal.
5.2.5.

Mapping a LOGIC function output into a Trip Command

Locate Fct. assig. trip cmd. 1 and add the setting LOGIC Ouput 1 (t).

When either the opto input or IDMT function operate then a trip output will occur.

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5.2.6.

*** Test Point 5 ***

This new functionality can now be tested.


Energise the second opto U902 (or U2002) and the output relay will be heard operating.
Independently verify that the IDMT1 function still operates the output relay by applying an over
current fault.
Try mapping an LED to the LOGIC Input.
5.2.7.

Timer Stage Pick-Up, Drop-Off and Duration

The LOGIC function has a comprehensive timer function which can be used to affect the pick-up,
drop-off, duration and pulse of the LOGIC output (t) signal.
Change these settings and observe the behaviour of the inter-tripping signal.

Consult with the manual to verify their behaviour.

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5.3.

VERIFYING THE LOGIC

Open the PSL editor from the View column and verify the logic that has just been configured.

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6.

FAULT RECORDER

The fault recorder can be used to record the analogue and digital channels, when a trigger signal is
received.
6.1.

CONFIGURING THE FAULT RECORDER

By default all the analogue and digital channels are suitably assigned. However the function needs
to be enabled by assigning a trigger signal.
Locate FT_RC Fct. assign. Trigger and set to MAIN Gen. trip signal and send to relay.

The fault recorder will now start recording when a trip signal is initiated.

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6.1.1.

Configuring the read key

To access fault records more quickly via the relay front panel, the read key can be assigned as a
quick access key.
Locate LOC Assignment read key and select FT_RC Fault recording 1.

Fault records can be accessed by pressing the read key at the relay default display.

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6.2.

EXTRACTION OF FAULT DATA

To extract a fault record, select Readout of Fault in the Communication column.

Select the fault record.

Follow the instructions and save the file in comtrade format for viewing.

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6.3.

CLEARING FAULT RECORDS

6.3.1.

Clearing Fault Records from the Display

The simplest method for clearing fault records from the display, is to access them using the read
key as detailed in section 6.1.1, then return to the default display by repeatedly pressing the up
arrow key.
The fault panel should then disappear and the operation panel should then be observable.
If the operation panel is not visible, press the clear and up arrow key simultaneously to toggle
between the default display and the operation panel.
6.3.2.

Clearing Fault Records from the Relay Memory

To clear the fault records, the following location needs to be accessed via the front panel or
through the communications S&R-103.
Change the setting to execute and send to the relay. Remember to change the setting back to
dont execute. (This is not necessary via the front panel)

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7.

OPERATION, OVERLOAD AND FAULT PANEL

7.1.

THE OPERATION PANEL (DISPLAYING MEASURMENTS)

The relay has numerous measurements that are available for observation. The full list of available
measurements can be seen offline at the following location.

There are various ways of observing these measurements. Via the relay front panel at the location
given above, or by configuration of cyclic measurements using the S&R-103 software as described
in section 7.2.
The relay can also be configured to display default measurements on the display. Locate Fct.
Operation Panel and select the required measurements from the list.

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These measurements will now scroll round at the default display, for the period indicated by the
setting Hold-time for Panels, after an initial duration of Autom. Return time, highlighted below.

If a current is applied to the relay, the measurement can now be seen on the front panel, however
if this current is a fault current, then the quantity displayed will read Not measured. This is
because a fault is in progress and to read these currents the fault panel requires configuration, see
section 7.3.
To activate the default display, without having to wait for the Autom. Return time to expire, press
the up arrow and the clear key simultaneously.
7.2.

THE OVERLOAD PANEL

The overload panel automatically displays in place of another data panel, when there has been an
overload. The panel remains on display until the overload ends, unless a fault occurs, in which
case the fault panel will be displayed (if it is configured).
To configure the overload panel, locate Fct. Overload Panel and select the required
measurements from the list.

The measurements will scroll round the display in an identical way to the operation panel during
the overload.

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7.3.

THE FAULT PANEL (DISPLAYING FAULT MEASURMENTS)

The fault panel is displayed in place of another panel when there is a fault, provided that at least
one measurement value has been configured. The fault panel remains on display until the LED
indicators or the fault memories are reset. Locate Fct. Fault Panel and select the required
measurements from the list.

The measurements will scroll round the display in an identical way to the operation panel.
See section 6 for details on configuring the fault recorder and clearing records.

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8.

CONFIGURATION OF CYCLIC MEASUREMENTS

Cyclic measurements is a feature within the S&R-103 software that enables a relay to be polled for
measurements. This is a very useful tool that allows measurements to be read form the relay,
without having to interrogate the relay directly.
To configure cyclic measurements, select Cyclic Readout of Data form the Communication
column.

An option box will appear; select configure and select the measurements from the list that are
required.

Select OK and then select Start and the measurements will appear.

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The list can be saved to avoid reconfiguration each time the feature is utilised.

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9.

FILE COMPARISON AND CONVERSION

The following functions can be performed on a settings file, using the S&R103 software.
9.1.

FILE COMPARISON

This function will accept two settings files and display the differences. This function is very useful
for quickly determining the differences in settings, between two seemingly identical files.
Select Tools and Compare Settings File from the menu.

Then select the reference file with respect to one that is already open.

The number of deviations will then be displayed, if any. The file can then be opened and the
deviations read.

In this example it can be seen that the CT ratios are different between the two files.

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9.2.

FILE CONVERSION

If the full model number is not known, then it might not be possible to select the correct setting file.
If for example, the only information available is P633, then it is not known what data model version
is required, but fortunately the setting files can be converted between data models. If the data
model is not known, select the latest possible German derivative and select the regional language
to be English.
For example P633 605 German
Select Tools and Program Settings form the menu.

Check that the language of the data model is set to Reference Language English

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The settings file can then be configured. If however when the file is downloaded to the relay, a
message is displayed informing that the data model is incorrect, perform a relay identification as
detailed in section 3.2. This will result in the following information with the data model version
displayed.

The setting file is 605 but the relay is 603. Close the dialog box so that only the settings file is
open and select Tools and Convert Settings File from the menu

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Select a name and location for the newly converted file. And then select the data model version
that the file is to be converted to, in this case P633 603 German.

A file compare is then performed automatically (see section 9.1) and the option to observe the
deviations is given. The new file can then be opened and downloaded successfully to the relay.

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10.

CONFIGURATION AND TEST OF A DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


SCHEME

The primary protection function on a P63x is the differential protection. This protection function will
now be configured and tested from a default file.
A P633 (3 winding transformer relay) has been used in this example. The b & c ends have been
combined to enable a simple two winding example, therefore only two winding are described.
10.1.

SETTING THE DIFF PROTECTION SCHEME

Parameter

Setting

Frequency

50Hz

VT Primary Voltage

3.3kV

HV CT Primary Current

400A

HV Neutral CT Primary Current

400A

LV CT Primary Current

3000A

LV Neutral CT Primary Current

3000A

VT Secondary Voltage

110V

HV CT Secondary Current

1A

HV Neutral CT Secondary Current

1A

LV CT Secondary Current

1A

LV Neutral CT Secondary Current

1A

Transformer HV Voltage

3.3kV

Transformer LV Voltage

0.42kV

Transformer Rating

2MVA

Transformer Group

Dny11

First stage current setting

0.1

Second stage current setting

11

Third stage current setting

11

10.1.1.

Enable the DIFF function

Enable protection functions


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalMainProtection enabled Change to yes (= on)

Make the DIFF function available


ParametersConfig.parametersDIFFFunction Group DIFF Change to With

Enable the DIFF function


ParametersFunction parametersGlobal functionsDIFFGeneral enable USER Change to yes

Enable the DIFF function in setting group 1


ParametersFunction parametersParameter subset 1DIFFEnable PS1 Change to yes

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10.1.2.

System & Transformer Parameters

Enter the system frequency


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalMainNominal frequ. fnom Set to 50Hz

Enter the transformer voltages (not CT ratios)


ParametersFunction parametersGeneral functionsMAIN
Vnom. prim., end a Set to 3.3kV
Vnom. prim., end b Set to 0.4kV
Evaluation IN, end a Set to Calculated
Evaluation IN, end b Set to Calculated

Enter the transformer parameters


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalDIFF
Reference power Sref Set to 2MVA
Vector grp. Ends a-b Set to 11

10.1.3.

CT and VT Ratios

Enter the CT and VT ratios


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalMain
Inom C.T.prim., end a Set to 400A
Inom C.T.prim., end b Set to 3000A
Inom C.T.Yprim., end a Not required, therefore leave at default
Inom C.T.Yprim., end b Set to 3000A
Vnom V.T. prim Set to 3.3kV
Inom device, end a Set to 1A
Inom device, end b Set to 1A
IY nom device, end a Not required, therefore leave at default
IY nom device, end b Set to 1A
Vnom V.T. sec Set to 110V

10.1.4.

Differential Settings

Enter the differential settings


ParametersFunction parametersParameter subset 1DIFF
Idiff> PS1 Set to 0.1 Iref
Idiff>> PS1 Set to 11 Iref
Idiff>>> PS1 Set to 11 Iref

Enter the bias settings


m1 PS1 Set to 0.3
m2 PS1 Set to 0.7

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10.1.5.

Configure the Trip Commands

Assign differential operate signal to trip command 1


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalMainFct.assig.trip cmd.1 Set to DIFF trip signal

10.1.6.

Configure an Output Trip Relay, LEDs & Watchdog Contact

Configure output relay


ParametersConfig.parametersOUTPFct assignm. K****l Set to MAIN Gen. trip signal

Configure the watchdog contact


ParametersConfig.parametersOUTPFct assignm. K**** Set to MAIN Blocked/faulty
ParametersConfig.parametersOUTPOper. mode K**** Set to NE updating
ParametersFunction parametersGlobalMainFct. assign. Fault Configure the output contact

Configure LED (of limited use in this example due to instantaneous protection function)
ParametersConfig.parametersLEDFct. assignm. H16 Set to DIFF starting

10.1.7.

Configure the Fault Recorder and the Operation & Fault Pages

Configure fault recorder by specifying a trigger


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalFT_RCFct

ssign. trigger Set to MAIN Gen. trip signal

Assign the read key as a shortcut to the fault record


ParametersConfig.parametersLOCAssignment read key Set to FT_RC Fault recording 1

Assign some useful parameters to the operation panel


ParametersConfig.parametersLOCFct. Operation Panel Configure the following for example.
DIFF Diff. current 1
DIFF Restrain. Current 1
Current IA, a p.u.
Current IA, b p.u.

Assign some useful parameters to the operation panel


ParametersConfig.parametersLOCFct. Fault Panel Configure the following for example.
FT_DA Diff. current 1
FT_DA Restrain. Current 1
FT_DA Fault curr. IP, a p.u.
FT_DA Fault curr. IP, b p.u.

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10.2.

TESTING THE DIFFERENTIAL BIAS CHARACTERISTIC

Before testing can commence the relative current and CT matching factors need to be determined.
10.2.1.

Reference Currents and CT Matching Factors

The reference currents for each winding need to be calculated.

I ref , a

I ref ,b

S ref
3 x Vnom , a
S ref
3 x Vnom ,b

2 MVA
3 x 3.3kV
2 MVA
3 x 0.4kV

349.9
2886.75

The CT matching factors are therefore.

Kam, a
Kam, b

I nom ,a
I ref ,a
I nom ,a
I ref ,a

400
349.9
3000
2886.75

1.143
1.039

However these can be extracted from the relay. Select read at the following location.
ParametersFunction parametersGeneral functionsDIFF

The values will then be read from the relay.

The relay will verify that these reference currents and matching factors are within sensible ranges.
If not then a warning will be displayed.

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 62 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
The values given above are also available using an Excel worksheet. A screen shot of the above
settings is shown below.

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 63 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
10.2.2.

Spot Testing the Relay Settings

To spot test using the actual relay settings, then a suitable tool should be used to aid computation
of the test parameters and verification of the measurements.
The simplest stability check is to apply the opposing CT matching factors as the energising
quantities. The appropriate quantities and angles are shown below.
Stability check: verify that trip operation does not occur.

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 64 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
To check the differential settings by single end injection, the vector group matching factor together
with the set vector group ID, needs to be taken into account in addition to the amplitude-matching
factor and zero sequence filtering. The vector group matching factors are given in section 11.2.

I inj

I diff u I nom , x
K am , x u K s , y , z

= Transformer end a, b, c or d.

I diff

= operate setting

I nom , x = nominal current (1A or 5A)

K am, z = amplitude matching factor


K s , y , z = vector group-matching factor, see section 11.2
Single end injection: verify the operating point on each HV phase.

I inj

I diff u I nom ,a
K am ,a u K s , y , z

0 .1 u 1
1.143 u 0.67

0.131

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 65 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
Single end injection: verify the operating point on each LV phase.

I inj

I diff u I nom ,b
K am ,b u K s , y , z

0 .1 u 1
1.039 u 0.58

0.166

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 66 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
10.2.3.

Testing the Differential Characteristic using Harmonised Relay Settings

To simplify testing the following setting modifications can be undertaken.


The first simplification is to change the transformer type from a Dyn11 to Yy0, which means that
there is no phase shift between the HV and LV sides.
ParametersFunction parametersGlobalDIFFVector grp. Ends a-b Set to 0 (also a-c if reqd)

The second simplification is to remove zero sequence filtering, see section 11.1 for an explanation
of this feature.
ParametersFunction parametersParameter subset 1DIFF
0-seq. Filt. A en. PS1 Set to No
0-seq. filt. b en. PS1 Set to No

The CT ratios can be modified, so that the CT matching factors are near identical. This is achieved
by using the reference currents as the CT ratios. This is shown below.

Enter the new CT ratios


ParametersFunction parametersGlobalMain
Inom C.T.prim., end a Set to 350A
Inom C.T.prim., end b Set to 2887A

The CT matching factors are now (very conveniently) both 1A. Which means the differential
characteristic can be verified more simply. If a P633 (3 winding) relay is being used, apply the full
current to the HV side (side a) and split the current equally between the LV sides (side b & c).

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 67 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
The characteristic can now be tested, using a single phase IA.
a) Slowly increase the current IAa from 0 in 0.01A steps until the relay operates, whilst leaving
IAb at 0 Amps. Record the operating current IAa in the table provided.
We have now assessed the minimum sensitivity of the relay. This gives an indication of the current
required to cause operation for a genuine internal fault. Notice that the relay does operate at
exactly the Idiff> setting of 0.1.
The next phase of testing a bias differential relay, is to establish that the bias characteristic
matches the relay settings. This is done by adjusting the magnitude of the two anti-phase currents
(IAa and IAb) until the relay operates. At the point of operation, the differential and bias currents can
be calculated and plotted, to see if they correlate with the relay settings
b) Apply the initial currents stated in the table and then slowly increase current IAa until the
relay operates. Enter the current at which the relay operates in the IAa Trip column, in the
table below.
Calculate the bias/restrain and differential currents and then plot them on the graph
provided.
x

Read them from the relay (section 10.2.1)

Read them from the Excel spreadsheet

Or observe the per phase bias/restrain and differential current via the front panel, if
they were configured accordingly in section 10.1.7. Press clear and up arrow key
together to toggle the view.

Initial IAa

IAb

IAa trip

Bias/Restrain Current
= (IAa trip + IAb)/2

Differential Current
= IAa trip IAb

0.0 0

0.0 -180

000...111000

000...000555

000...111000

0.3 0

0.3 -180

000...555000

000...444000

000...888000

0.6 0

0.6 -180

000...999111

000...777888

000...333111

0.9 0

0.9 -180

111...333222

111...111111

000...444222

1.5 0

1.5 -180

222...111333

111...888222

000...666333

3.5 0

3.0 -180

444...111555

333...555888

111...111555

4.0 0

3.5 -180

444...999777

444...222444

111...444777

8.5 0

5.5 -180

999...111000

777...333000

333...666000

If the test has been performed correctly, the recorded results should closely match those shown in
the following graph. The plot clearly shows that the relay increases it setting, as the through fault
current increases, thus minimising the chances of mal-operation due to CT saturation.

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 68 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006

Differential Characteristic
4

3.5

Differential Current (Amps)

2.5

1.5

0.5
Expected Characteristic

0
0

Bias Current (Amps)

It should be noted, that although the equations given in the table above, will enable testing to verify
the correct characteristic has been chosen, the accuracy is not exact.
The exact operating differential current can therefore accurately be calculated at follows.

Differential Current

m1
Bias Current x m1  Idiff 1 
2

If the bias/restrain current is above IR,m2 (4A in this example) then m1 should be substituted by
m2.

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 69 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006

11.
11.1.

MISCELLANEOUS
ZERO SEQUENCE FILTERING

For earth fault transformer winding(s), zero sequence filtering is enabled by default and it is
essential to prevent tripping for external earth faults.
It is only in the case of isolated transformer windings were no filtering is required, this is because
for internal faults, no zero sequence current can flow in either side of the transformer, hence there
is no danger of mal-tripping. On the other hand, for external single phase faults, zero sequence
current when not filtered will be seen at one side, but this is the case when we do want the relay to
trip, as it is an external fault.
In case of resistive faults it is better to disable filtering, which will increase relay sensitivity by
adding Io back into the measurement quantity, which reduces the amount of phase current needed
for tripping.

P630 INTRODUCTION
Page 70 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006
11.2.

VECTOR GROUP MATCHING FACTORS

Factors for single end, one phase feed in phase A, zero sequence filtered.
Transformer end

b, c or d

Vector Group ID

0/12

10

11

DIFF: Diff. current 1

0.67

0.67

0.58

0.33

0.00

0.33

0.58

0.67

0.58

0.33

0.00

0.33

0.58

DIFF: Diff. current 2

0.33

0.33

0.00

0.33

0.58

0.67

0.58

0.33

0.00

0.33

0.58

0.67

0.58

DIFF: Diff. current 3

0.33

0.33

0.58

0.67

0.58

0.33

0.00

0.33

0.58

0.67

0.58

0.33

0.00

Factors for single end, two phase, phase opposed feed in phases B to C, zero sequence filtered.
Transformer end

b, c or d

Vector Group ID

0/12

10

11

DIFF: Diff. current 1

0.00

0.00

0.58

1.00

1.15

1.00

0.58

0.00

0.58

1.00

1.15

1.00

0.58

DIFF: Diff. current 2

1.00

1.00

1.15

1.00

0.58

0.00

0.58

1.00

1.15

1.00

0.58

0.00

0.58

DIFF: Diff. current 3

1.00

1.00

0.58

0.00

0.58

1.00

1.15

1.00

0.58

0.00

0.58

1.00

1.15

Factors for single end, one phase feed in phase A, NOT zero sequence filtered.
Transformer end

b, c or d

Vector Group ID

0/12

10

DIFF: Diff. current 1

1.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

DIFF: Diff. current 2

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

DIFF: Diff. current 3

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

Factors for single end, two phase, phase opposed feed in phases B-C, NOT zero sequence
filtered.
Transformer end

b, c or d

Vector Group ID

0/12

10

DIFF: Diff. current 1

0.00

0.00

1.00

1.00

0.00

1.00

1.00

DIFF: Diff. current 2

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.00

1.00

1.00

0.00

DIFF: Diff. current 3

1.00

1.00

0.00

1.00

1.00

0.00

1.00

P630 Introduction
Page 71 of 71
Issue A.
3 November 2006

VERSION CONTROL
Issue
A.1
A.2
A.3

Author(s)

Reason for change

Date

A Hill
C Smith
C Smith

Original
Reformat and extension of material
Corrected the watchdog settings

15-02-2005
03-05-2005
25-05-2005

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Commissioning & Maintenance of


Protective Relaying Equipment

AREVA EAI Preference

Primary injection
Secondary injection
On load tests

Primary Injection
Minimum of time consumed (once connected to bars)

If results are incorrect, secondary injection and CT


tests are required.
Unable to check :a. Accurate timing curves.
b. Directional properties (no volts).
c. Power and impedance properties (no volts).
Not suitable for maintenance tests.

Secondary Injection

Obtain correct relay characteristic for setting


values.
Reference for maintenance tests obtained.
Relay if necessary can be tested with the
system on load, due to test block isolation.

On-Load

Checks that expected C.T. / V.T. quantities are


present at the test facility
Scheme stability for external faults
Proof of correct directional characteristics

Why ?

To assure ourselves, and the interested


authorities, that the overall protective
system functions correctly

Site Requirements
Correct training (Competent Person).
Correct authorisation (Permit To Work).
Visual inspection (Safe working conditions).
Site information (Emergency telephone numbers).
Housekeeping.
Communication (inform control room of your presence)
PPE.
Respect all demarcation.
Equipment calibrated and in date.

Pre Commissioning Primary

Insulation Tests
Meggar 500/1000 Vdc
Flash Testing (LV switchgear) 2.5kV @ >1 min

Commissioning Primary

Primary injection tests


D.C. flick tests on C.T.s
C.T. mag curve tests
C.T. ratio and polarity tests
Primary sensitivity tests
Stability tests
Test results

Commissioning Secondary
Secondary Injection Tests
Visual Inspection. (remove all packing.. etc)
Check out-going contact wiring.
External resistors.
C.T. shorting and isolating switches.
Electrical checks on each basic electrical
function to prove satisfactory operation.
Prove trip and alarm circuits.
Test results (record and maintenance
purposes).

Commissioning On-Load

Line , Transformer or Generator energised


V.T. ratio and phasing tests
On load tests
Stability tests
Directional properties

Commissioning Summary

At the end of each stage ask yourself :Is there anything wrong, wiring or otherwise, that
I have not checked that may prevent correct
operation??
If so:-

CHECK IT OUT !!!!

Frequency of Maintenance

Dictated by :The site conditions.


The availability of maintenance staff and
resources.
The availability of plant outage times.
The risks involved if the protection should fail.
The type of relay construction.

Frequency of Maintenance

The proven reliability of devices under


identical site conditions.
The availability of built-in self-check features
or semi-automatic test facilities, and the
difficulties of alternative tests.
The interval of time an unexpected
catastrophic failure, component or otherwise,
that may go undetected and leave the system
unprotected.

Frequency of Maintenance
Onerous site conditions :Dusty or dirty environments.
Corrosive chemical atmospheres.
Frequent or continuous vibration.
High humidity.
High or cycling temperatures.
Consistently high levels of energising or auxiliary
quantities.
Typically maintain every 1 - 5 years under ideal
conditions and decrease frequency

Maintenance Checks

Visual inspections
At each maintenance test
After heavy fault clearance
More regularly if onerous site conditions
Calibration tests (electo-mechanical Only)
Trip testing

Current & Voltage Transformer

Flick tests
Ratio checks
Magnetizing Curve
Phasing Checks
Primary Injection

Current Transformer Polarity Check

Current Transformer Ratio Check


$

%&

" #

Testing Current Transformer Magnetizing Curve

$
"

"

"
'
$

"

*
!

" (

Voltage Transformer Phasing Check

+
,

Primary Check on Main Current Transformers

- ./
%& 0

"

%&

Sensitivity Test on Earth Fault Relay

- -

%&

Incorrectly Maintained Equipment

60MW Steam
Generator at
Uxmouth Power
Station, South
Wales. 1960.

Incorrectly Maintained Equipment

Some time later


An engineer was
working on adjacent
generator
Removed excitation of
this generator by
accident
Generator started to
speed up
Governors should have
come out but jammed
Steam valve should
have operated but
rusted solid
No other protection

Incorrectly Maintained Equipment

Here we can see


some of the
generator housing
on the beach.

Incorrectly Maintained Equipment

This is a picture of the roof


of the generator housing.
This incident was a
culmination of bad
practices & little or no
scheduled maintenance.
As a result 13 people were
injured and 1 killed.

Maintenance & Equipment Failures


- MiCOM

Maintenance

AREVA protective relays are designed for a life in excess of


20 years.
MiCOM relay is self-supervising and so requires less
maintenance than earlier designs of relay. Most problems
will result in an alarm so that remedial action can be
taken. However, some periodic tests should be done to
ensure that the relay is functioning correctly and the
external wiring is intact.
- i.e Periodic Functional Checks, locally at the Substation

Maintenance
Maintenance Checks:
LEDs
Opto Isolators
Output Relays
Measurement Accuracy:

- The values measured by the relay can be checked against


known values, which points to the analogue/digital
conversion and calculations are being performed by the
relay.

These tests will prove the calibration accuracy is


being maintained.

Problem Analysis
Equipment Errors/Faults:
The MiCOM relay is fully Numerical and performs
constant self-diagnosis. Any failure of software or
hardware elements is instantly detected. As soon as an
internal fault is detected, depending on its type (minor
or major), an alarm message is displayed as a priority on
the front panel LCD before the fault LED is illuminated
and the watchdog relay is closed (if the fault is a major
one).
Only the disappearance of the cause will acknowledge
the fault and hence reset the fault LED.

Problem Analysis

Minor Faults
Message:
"COMM.ERROR": Control communication faulty
.RAM ERROR. : Battery backed RAM faulty
.BATTERY FAIL.: Battery faulty or flat.
.COMMS ALARM CH1.: communications channel
failure detected.

Problem Analysis

Major Faults
- HARDWARE

& SOFTWARE Faults

Message:
"SETTING ERROR": Data zone in fault
"EEPROM ERROR CALIBR.": Calibration data faulty
"CT ERROR": Analogue channel faulty
.DEFAULT SETTING. : Default settings restored
.PROT COMMS FAIL. : Protection Comms. card faulty

Problem Analysis

Major Faults
- HARDWARE & SOFTWARE Faults
Action :
Restart the protection software by
interrupting the auxiliary supply for
approximately ten seconds. In the case of
the .DEFAULT SETTING. and .SETTING
ERROR. alarms the inservice settings
should be re-applied.

Problem Analysis
Trouble shooting/identification tips- Error Codes
Software related:
Error Message/codes on power-up
Out of service LED lights-up on power-up
Error Code during normal operation
Error codes Via Front panel or Maintenance Records
Hardware related:
Failure of Output Contacts
Failure of Opto isolated inputs
Measurement errors of Analog signals

Error codes & meaning refer to the MiCOM Technical Guides

COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE

PCOMM014
Page 1 of 13

COMMISSIONING AND MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAY EQUIPMENT

COMMISSIONING & MAINTENANCE

PCOMM014
Page 2 of 13

COMMISSIONING AND MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAY EQUIPMENT


INDEX TO THIS SUPPLEMENT
SECTION

PAGE

SITE TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF PROTECTIVE


EQUIPMENT

4-8

Basic approach of commissioning

1.1

Mechanical inspection and ohmmeter checks

1.2

Insulation checks

1.3

General notes on measuring instruments

1.4

DC. Auxiliary Supplies

1.5

Test Equipment

1.6

Reference results for future maintenance

1.7

Faulty Relays

1.8

Commissioning flow-chart summary

1.9

A GUIDE TO RELAY MAINTENANCE

9-10

Frequency of maintenance periods

2.1

Visual inspections

2.2

Calibration tests

2.3

10

Trip testing

2.4

10

Recommended Maintenance tests

2.5

10

CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS

10

Cleaning solvents

3.1

10

Contact lubricants and other lubricants

3.2

11

Contact cleaning burnishes

3.3

11

Contact pressures and settings

3.4

11

Dust removal

3.5

11

Relay recalibration

3.6

11

Relays involving static (electronic) components

3.7

11

Modern static relays - Midos range, etc.

3.8

12

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 3 of 13
Issue B
September 1998
FIGURE 1 - COMMISSIONING TEST OPTIONS

13

INDEX TO PROTECTIVE RELAY APPLICATION GUIDE REFERENCE


SECTION

PAGE

23.13
23.14
23.15
23.15.1
23.15.2
23.15.3
23.16
23.16.1
23.16.2
23.16.3
23.17
23.17.1
23.17.2
23.17.3
23.17.4
23.17.5

397
397
397/398
397
397
397/398
398/399
398
398
398/399
399/407
399/400
400/403
403
403/404
404

23.17.6
23.17.7
23.17.8
23.18
23.18
23.18.1
23.18.2
23.18.3
23.18.4
23.18.5
23.18.6
23.18.7
23.18.8

404/405
405/407
407
407/419
407
407/408
408/411
411
412/414
414
414/416
416/418
419

TRIPPING ~ ALARM ANNUNCIATION

23.19

419

PERIODIC MAINTENANCE

23.20

419/420

INITIAL TESTS
INSULATION TESTS
CURRENT TRANSFORMER:
Polarity
Ratio
Magnetisation Curve
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER :
Polarity
Ratio
Phasing
SECONDARY INJECTION :
Equipment: Test Block & Plug
Relays: 0/C & E/F
Differential
Pilot Wire
Negative Phase
Sequence
Directional
Distance
DC. Operated
PRIMARY INJECTION:
General
Relays: O/C & E/F
Directional
Generator Diff.
Transformer Diff.
Restricted E/F
Pilot Wire
Busbar
Negative Phase
Sequence

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


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September 1998
1

SITE TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


Reference is made to Section 23 of the "PROTECTIVE RELAYS APPLICATION
GUIDE" which adequately covers the basic requirements of most main types of
protection.
Publications giving detailed commissioning tests on specific
relays/schemes are normally available on request.
The following summarises the basic approach required for commissioning and
supplements the information given in "PRAG".

1.1

BASIC APPROACH
The purpose of commissioning can be defined as:
"TO ASSURE OURSELVES, AND THE INTERESTED AUTHORITIES, THAT THE
OVERALL PROTECTIVE SYSTEM FUNCTIONS CORRECTLY".
Every basic function should be checked and nothing should be left to chance. If
doubt exists as to the correct functioning of a device, it is not good enough to
assume that it is probably satisfactory IT MAY NOT BE.
When a new installation is planned an estimated period is made available for
commissioning tests. Inevitably, the planned dates for each stage run late and the
commissioning engineer is expected to make up lost time. Undue pressure to
speed-up can be made if the protection fails to operate owing to, say, a wiring fault
that could have been found with a simple commissioning test.
Before commissioning tests are commenced one should be familiar with the overall
protective layout. The procedure to be adopted for commissioning should be
planned so that work is not unnecessarily duplicated. It is essential that tests
should not be omitted because of ill-defined responsibilities between two or more
commissioning engineers.
A number of options exist between the minimum number of electrical tests that are
necessary to satisfactorily prove the protective system, and that recommended by
our company. These are summarised in Fig 1 (page 13) attached with some of the
advantages and disadvantages with each method.
Site safety aspects cannot be too strongly emphasised. Close liaison between all
commissioning, plant and switch gear engineers is essential to ensure that circuits
are not made "live" by primary or secondary injection, closing of isolators, etc.,
without adequate concern for the safety of others. Preferably, a safety liaison
engineer should be appointed and made responsible for the safe co-ordination of
all work.
Basically, commissioning relative to protective switch gear includes the following:

1.1.1

Checks on wiring diagrams used by the erector:


Particular attention should be paid to over-lapping C.T. positions. A simplified
"key" diagram, showing basic C.T./V.T./and relay type/positions is advisable.

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 5 of 13
Issue B
September 1998
1.1.2

General Inspection of Equipment


Check for general damage, tightness of connections, correctness of wiring and
wire numbers, according to the relevant schematic diagrams and wiring diagrams.
(See Section 2 for applicable checks on relays).

1.1.3

Insulation resistance tests between all independent circuits and all circuits
to earth.
"See Section 3 for further details).

1.1.4

Tests of Main Current Transformers.


C.T. ratio, polarity and magnetism - curve checks are normally recommended.
Tests are detailed in Section 23 of "PRAG".

1.1.5

Tests of Protection Voltage Transformers.


Ratio, polarity and phasing checks are detailed in Section 23.

1.1.6

Secondary Injection Tests on Relays.


These are designed to prove the basic operation of each relay/relay scheme
independently.

1.1.7

Primary Injection Tests/On Load Tests.


These are designed to prove the scheme stability for external faults and the
effective current setting for internal faults. The directional properties of relays,
where relevant are normally proven with the system on load.

1.1.8 Checks on Tripping and Alarm circuits.


1.2

MECHANICAL INSPECTION OF RELAYS AND SIMPLE OHMMETER CHECKS


Before removing covers from relays, ensure the area is relatively free from dust - it
can easily jam bearings etc., and destroy contact reliability.
Typical checks that can be carried out prior to serious electrical testing include :

1.2.1

A basic mechanical inspection to ensure freedom from general damage in transit.

1.2.2

A check to ensure the right relay is fitted in the right case - Serial Numbers and
Model Number.

1.2.3

A general check on tightness of links, screws, etc.

1.2.4

That the correct external resistor is fitted in the right place (where relevant).

1.2.5

The C.T. shorting switches are fitted across all C.T. circuits, and function correctly
when the relay is withdrawn.

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 6 of 13
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September 1998
1.2.6

That the trip isolating switch works (lower L.H. "red" cradle latch on measuring
relays fitted to the conventional draw-out case only).

1.2.7

That unit contacts wire to the right terminals. Simple ohmmeter checks to the
relevant relay wiring diagram takes little time and may well prove worthwhile.

1.2.8

That contact pressures and follow thoughts are approximately correct. Pressures
can be carefully assessed on accessible units with a probe (screwdriver) and
compared with similar contacts on other such units.

1.3

INSULATION CHECKS
Pressure testing, for example, 2KV rms. for 1 min, has been carried out on each
individual relay on manufacture. Normally insulation checks on site are limited to
DC. insulation resistance checks only. Where pressure tests are required, possibly
by switchgear manufacturers, either static relays should be temporarily removed,
or extreme care should be taken to ensure that the voltage is not suddenly applied.
Solid connections should be made and the voltage slowly increased to the required
(2kV) level - held for a nominal time, then reduced to zero.
In practice, site checks are preferably carried out with a 500V (or 1000V) DC.
insulation tester. Where static circuitry is employed, as is often the case, a
"brushless" type of insulation tester should be used, since worn brushes on the
older forms of testers can promote spikes in excess of 5kV.
Although the resistance of circuits to earth is often only checked, ideally each
electrically separate circuit should also be checked to all other circuits. The
following approach is suggested :
Connect the accessible terminals of each independent circuit together.
Connect all circuit groups so formed together and solidly link to earth.
Isolate each circuit group in turn, removing station circuit earth links as necessary,
and test between this group and all the remaining groups still linked to earth.
Having checked the insulation of all circuits, ensure that all station earthing links
are replaced.
Insulation levels vary:- over 100 Mohms may he obtained on a small installation,
but on a few Mohms where wiring is extensive. humidity is a major influencing
factor and should be considered when the results are to be used as a reference for
future insulation checks to detect deterioration.
Care should be taken that all associated circuitry is kept clear of unauthorised
personnel during the insulation tests. It should also be remembered that cubicle
capacitance may maintain a reasonable charge even after the test has finished - a
few seconds should be left before attempting to disconnect leads.

1.4

GENERAL NOTES ON MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


Generally on site checks are not intended to be precise regarding accuracy unavailability of suitable test equipment is often a limiting factor.

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


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September 1998
Instruments:- Note that errors are expressed as a % of Full Scale Deflection - a
2% instrument can have a 20% error if used at 1/10th of its scale. Instrument
deflection should be kept as near full-scale as possible.
1.5

DC. AUXILIARY SUPPLIES


Generally relays are designed to tolerate a maximum ripple content of 12% (peak
to peak ripple as a % of the mean DC. component). Damage to the static circuitry
of some relays may result if a unsmoothed supply is used. Relays should definitely
NOT be energised directly off battery charges without the batteries being
connected.

1.6

TEST EQUIPMENT
Test equipment should give sinusoidal outputs and ideally should be a true replica
of system pre-fault and fault conditions, especially when testing the "Distance"
relays. If so, the test set can be used on any such relay with confidence,
irrespective of relay manufacturer. If it does not represent the systems, results
may be incorrect and confusing. The instructions of the relay manufacturer
recommending its use should be followed specifically.

1.7

REFERENCE RESULTS FOR FUTURE MAINTENANCE


Commissioning test results are often used as a reference for future maintenance
checks. It should be noted, however, that consistency between such sets of
results depend largely on the class of instruments that is used each time, the
suitability of the test equipment/supplies and precise test conditions. To avoid
having to change relay settings during maintenance, commissioning results should
preferably include those taken with the relay at it's final setting - this also gives the
assurance that the relay operates correctly "as left".

1.8

FAULTY RELAYS
Experience has shown that suspicions of faulty relays are often unfounded. It is
easy to make a simple mistake on testing and one should first suspect the test
equipment, it's wiring, the instruments involved and the method of test, especially
if the latter differs from that recommended. A simple substitution of the "faulty"
relay with a known "good" relay of the same type is often conclusive. Note that
precautions against ESD (Electro Static Discharge) must be taken when handling
the internal circuitry of any relay involving electronic circuitry (see Section 3.7).

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 8 of 13
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September 1998
1. 9

COMMISSIONING FLOW-CHART SUMMARY


Commissioning of Protective Relays
To assure ourselves and the interested authorities, that
the overall protective system functions correctly.
Study of wiring diagrams and protection requirements.
Careful delegation of responsibilties to reduce
duplication of effort and ensure all the following aspects
are covered.
Insulation Tests
Secondary Injection
(Relays tests)
Ensure clean dust free area
Mechanical inspection
Outgoing contact wiring
External resistors
C.T. shorting switches
Trip isolating switch
Contact follow thro. & pressures
Electrical tests on each basic
protection function to prove
satisfactory opeation

Primary injection
D.C flick tests on CTs
C.T. Mag. Curves
C.T. Ratio & polarity
Primary sensitivity
Stability tests
Test results

Line / Trans / Gen Energisation


V.T. ratio and phasing

Prove operation of trip and


alarm circuits Test results

On load tests
Stability tests
Directional properties

AT THE END OF EACH STAGE ASK YOURSELF :


"IS THERE ANYTHING THAT MAY BE WRONG, WIRING OR OTHERWISE,
THAT I HAVE NOT CHECKED THAT MAY PREVENT CORRECT OPERATION?"
- IF SO, CHECK IT OUT!

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 9 of 13
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September 1998
2

A GUIDE TO RELAY MAINTENANCE

2.1

FREQUENCY OF MAINTENANCE PERIODS


Any relay manufacturer, would be unwise to lay down specific recommended
intervals between maintenance outages. Such recommendations in the past have
put an unacceptable onus on the customer, who have sometimes been unable to
comply with even an infrequent maintenance requirement.
Generally, the need, and recommended frequency of regular maintenance is
dictated by:
a)

The site condition

b)

The availability of maintenance staff, and resources.

c)

The availability of plant outage times

d)

The risks involved if the protection should fail

e)

The type of relay construction - electromagnetic or static.

f)

The proven reliability of devices under identical site conditions.

g)

The availability of built-in self-check features or semi-automatic test


facilities, and the difficulties of alternative tests.

h)

The interval of time an unexpected catastrophic failure, component or


otherwise, may go undetected, and leave the system unprotected.

"The site condition" requires further explanation. The following will increase the
need for frequent maintenance:
1)

A dusty or dirty environment

2)

Corrosive chemical atmospheres

3)

Frequent or continuous vibration

4)

High humidity

5)

High or "cycling" temperatures

6)

Consistently high levels of energising/auxiliary quantities

Generally, electro-mechanical relays are more susceptible to 1, 2 and 3 above,


than static relays.
Typically, we may well recommend the average relay, under ideal site conditions,
to be subjected to a maintenance test every 12-18 months. As individual site
experience and confidence grows, the interval may well be increased, but the risk
of a failure going undetected for a long period also increases. No equipment can
be 100% reliable, and an acceptable compromise has to be reached.
2.2

VISUAL INSPECTIONS
A close visual inspection should be carried out at:
(i)

The commissioning test stage.

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 10 of 13
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September 1998

2.3

(ii)

At each maintenance test.

(iii)

After any serious system fault.

CALIBRATION TESTS
These should be carried out at every maintenance outage, or more regularly if
automatic or semi automatic test facilities exist.

2.4

TRIP TESTING
The integrity of the complete trip circuit, including circuit breaker should be
checked on at least every maintenance outage, but generally as regularly as
practical, or though advisable by the appropriate authorities. The use of trip-circuit
supervision relays reduces the risk of failure being undetected.

2.5

RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE TESTS


Generally recommended maintenance tests are little more than a repeat of the
"secondary injection tests" recommended in the appropriate relay commissioning
instruction. These instructions are generally readily available for all but the
simplest of relays. Maintenance should include the following:

1)

A careful recording of all in-service relay settings.

2)

A visual inspection to check for obvious signs of damage, looseness of


components, etc.

3)

Secondary injection tests, carried out at an appropriate test facility


inter-face, to check each main protection function for correct operation, the
results being referred back to previous results.

4)

A check on the integrity of each outgoing contact. Provided a low voltage


source ohm-meter indicates less than a few ohms, contact cleaning
should not be necessary.

5)

A careful check that the relay is returned to service with all the correct
in-service settings.

6)

A check at the common-interface test facility to check that the expected


CT/VT quantities are present when the system is returned on-load.

CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS.


If the maintenance tests prove incorrect, remedial action may be warranted.
Reference should be made to the appropriate "Servicing/Maintenance" instruction,
where applicable. Generally the course of action will depend on the type of relay
involved, "electro-mechanical" or "static" (electronic construction). The following
notes are for general guidance only.

3.1

CLEANING SOLVENTS
Many solvents are commercially available, but extreme care should be exercised.
Damage to some of the many materials used in the relay construction may result.
Although appearing to solve the immediate problem, long-term chemical reactions

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


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September 1998
may be promoted and these may easily lead to complete catastrophic failures.
Many solvents MAY BE suitable, but unless LIFE tests, or ACCELERATED LIFE
tests have been carried out on the particular range of relay components, no
guarantees can be given. One solvent has been used on relays for many years at
GECAM. It goes under the chemical name "TRICHLORTRIFLUOROETHANE",
commonly know under the trade names of; "ARKLONE" (ICI), "FREON" (Dupont
Industries), "FLUORISOL" and "SUPERSOLVE". Final "rinsing" should always be
carried out with a CLEAN solution, using a LINT- free cloth or chamois to restrict
the deposit of foreign materials. The solvent may be safely used on thermoplastics,
contacts, electronic components, and all known relay materials.
3.2

CONTACT LUBRICANTS AND OTHER LUBRICANTS


These are not recommended. Any form of lubricating film will promote the build-up
of dirt and dust that eventually may lead to the complete failure of the contact or
bearing. Relay surfaces should be left dry. Dry lubricants are occasionally used
on some electro-mechanical relays.

3.3

CONTACT CLEANING BURNISHERS


The contact burnisher found in the tool-kit available from the company is
recommended. Many contact burnishers commercially available are very abrasive
and leave relatively deep groves in the contact surface (when viewed under a
microscope). the grooves trap dust, and an unreliable contact results. Although
their use may be warranted on a badly pitted "industrial use" type of contact, the
contact should be finally "polished" using the recommended burnishers.

3.4

CONTACT PRESSURES AND SETTINGS


These should be considered critical for correct reliable contact operation. All
adjusted contact settings should remain in the "tolerance bands" laid down for the
particular type of unit. (See servicing data for the particular relay).

3.5

DUST REMOVAL
Compressed air can be used with extreme care. It should be clean and dry (test
on sheet of clean white paper). Ensure that it never gets directed towards delicate
springs or mechanisms. A clean "DUCKS FEATHER" is very useful for wiping or
"flicking" dust off relay surfaces, especially from inverse-time disc relays.

3.6

RELAY CALIBRATION
One should first question the reason why the re calibration is necessary. If
successive maintenance tests have shown a progressive trend, it may be that a
component is at the end of its useful life and is gradually failing. The cause may
however be dust or dirt on bearing surfaces that should be removed before re
calibration is undertaken. The suitability and accuracy of the test equipment must
also be queried.

3.7

RELAYS INVOLVING STATIC (ELECTRONIC) COMPONENTS


Reasonable care should be exercised when handling static components or
circuitry. Although such relays normally prove highly reliable because of the
design and production techniques employed on manufacture, "ELECTRO-STATIC

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September 1998
DISCHARGE" (ESD) can occur and promote premature failure. In exceptional
circumstances (e.g. walking across a nylon carpet in a dry air environment), the
human body can get statically charged to voltages approaching 35,000 volts. In
more realistic relay environments, 5,000 volts may well be considered a more
practicable maximum. If an internal relay component is touched, the static
electricity discharges through the component circuitry and can promote a gradual
deterioration of that component. Ideally, therefore the engineer should be at earth
potential whenever HANDLING THE INTERNAL CIRCUITRY of such relays.
Special wrist straps are commercially available that discharge the static to earth,
normally via a 1 Mohm resistor.
3.8

MODERN STATIC RELAYS - MIDOS RANGE, ETC.


Modern static relays require virtually no maintenance. An electrical operational
check is often only possible. Even output relays are of miniature sealed
construction that require only an operational check.
Most well designed static relays are very reliable unless maltreated, but
occasionally the odd inevitable component failure may occur. The increasing use
of microprocessor techniques make the fault finding on site down to component
level almost impossible. such fault finding may promote further component failure
and cannot be recommended. Fault finding instructions are therefore generally
limited to the isolation of a faulty printed-circuit board only. On removal, the
suspect board should be immediately protected by placing it in a special
conducting (ESD proof) plastic bag, before returning it for repair.
It is
recommended that in each main protection area authority, a spare relay of each
type is kept in order to minimise plant outage times. Additionally, depending on
relay types and quantities, a replacement pcb of each type may be advisable. It
should be remembered that, on any pcb replacement, protection against ESD
should be taken.

COMMISIONING & MAINTENANCE


Page 13 of 13
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September 1998
To assure ourselves and the interested authorities, that the overall
protective system functions correctly.
Consider each of the following test options :-

Primary Injection Tests


C.T. Ratio
C.T. Polarity
(+ C.T. Mag. Curve)

Secondary Injection Tests

C.T's still connected to the relay

C.T. Mag. Curve

True Primary Sensetivity Tests


(incl. mag. losses of C.T's in idle shunt)

True primary sensetivity easily equated by


multiplying by C.T. ratio.

Min. of time consumed if results correct

If results not as expected, both isolated relay


tests and C.T. mag. curve tests are still
necessary.

If results not as expected, sec. injection


& C.T. checks still necessary.
Unable to check :Adequate timing curve, directional power and
impedance relays.
Not suitable for maintenance checks.

Secondary Injection Tests

Ref. for maintenance obtained, but relays


should be tested with system off load.
Primary tests on C.T. ratio & polarity still
required on commissioning.

On-load test

Relay isolated by test facility

Proof of correct charcteristic as an isolated


unit.
Ref. for future maintenance tests. such tests
can be carried out with the system on load
(back-up protection being relied on)

Will include :Checks that the expected C.T. & V.T.


quantities are present at the test facility
interface.
Scheme stability tests for external load / faults

Full primary injection and on-load tests


carried out on initial commissioning only.

Recommended preference :-

Fig 1. Commissioning test options.

Proof of correct directional characteristics.

Sec. injection (relay isolated)


+ Primary injection tests (incl. c.t. ratio,
phasing & mag. curve)
+ On-Load tests (as necessary)