You are on page 1of 115

ERWARTUNG BY ARNOLD SCHOENBERG,

A NEW TRANSLATION AND PROPOSED PRODUCTION

by

{CATHERINE ELIZABETH HARDER


B.Mus., University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS FOR"~THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF MUSIC

in
THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES
(Department o f Music, University of B r i t i s h

We accept this thesis as conforming


to the required standard

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA


A p r i l , 1979

Katherine Elizabeth Harder, 1979,

Columbia)

In p r e s e n t i n g
advanced

an
the
I

Library

this

degree
shall

f u r t h e r agree

for

thesis

scholarly

in p a r t i a l

fuIfi"ment

o f the requirements f o r

at the U n i v e r s i t y

of British

Columbia,

make

it freely

that permission

purposes

this

written

thesis

for financial

of

University

Mus i c

of British

2075 Wesbrook P l a c e
V a n c o u v e r , Canada
V6T 1W5

Date

gain

A p r i l 25, 1979

Columbia

copying

of

and
this

shall

that

copying

that

study.
thesis

by t h e Head o f my Department

is understood

permission.

Department
The

It

f o r reference

for extensive

may be g r a n t e d

by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .
of

available

I agree

or

or publication

n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my

ABSTRACT

Arnold Schoenberg's "monodrama i n one act," ERWARTUNG opus 17


(1909), was written during the composer's expressionist
period (1908-1913).

compositional

ERWARTUNG (EXPECTATION) was Schoenberg's f i r s t

completed stage work; however, i t did not receive i t s stage premiere


u n t i l 1924.

This monodrama i s an atonal work, a revolutionary s t y l e

of composition which Schoenberg created during the early twentieth


century.

ERWARTUNG became the main generating

force which encour-

aged the composer's contemporaries to attempt to create new musical


and dramatic compositional

styles.

In studying the importance of ERWARTUNG as an "expressionist


music drama," i t was also necessary t o examine the expressionist
movements i n art and l i t e r a t u r e .

These movements greatly influenced

Arnold Schoenberg's compositional

s t y l e , as can be seen i n the harmonic

and dramatic structure o f ERWARTUNG.

Their influence, s p e c i f i c a l l y

that of the expressionist l i t e r a r y movement, can also be seen i n the


character study of the sole protagonist, "the Woman."
Foremost i n this project was the writing of a singable English
t r a n s l a t i o n f o r ERWARTUNG, (Appendix I.)

A proposed production

including stage d i r e c t i o n and l i g h t i n g , costume design, and p u b l i c i t y


posters completed this study.

The production was designed for a

t y p i c a l proscenium stage, s p e c i f i c a l l y the Frederick Wood Theatre


at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I
II

III
IV
V
VI

PAGE
INTRODUCTION

ERWARTUNG AS AN EXPRESSIONIST MUSIC DRAMA, AND ITS


LINKS WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EXPRESSIONIST MOVEMENTS
IN ART AND LITERATURE

THE DRAMATIC AND HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF ERWARTUNG

/20

THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMAN

28

LIGHTING

34

PUBLICITY

40

BIBLIOGRAPHY

48

APPENDICES:
I

II

XEROX COPY OF SCORE INCLUDING TRANSLATION AND KEY TO


SYMBOLS USED IN STAGE DIRECTION

52

ACTING AREA GRID

100

LIGHTING GRID

101

IV

INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE

102

LIGHTING CUE SHEET

106

VI

COSTUME DESIGN

108

VII

LIGHTING'PLOT

CnPclS

LIGHTING SECTION.

"

W e i * ! Co)

III

VIII

iii

Co(|c^

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PLATE

PAGE

Woodcut of the cover o f the Blue Rider Almanac

II

Photographs o f galaxies as should be projected


on the cyclorama

41-42

Posters

45-47

III

iv,

13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would l i k e to thank the following people who have been o f much


assistance i n preparing this thesis:
Prof. Donald Brown
Mr. Jeffrey Holmes
Mr. Ian Pratt
Mrs. Mary Ann Quiring
Prof. French Tickner
Dr. Richard Wilcox

PICTURE CREDIT
V a s i l y Kandinsky (1866-1944): Woodcut f o r cover o f Blue Rider
Almanac. 1912.

From: Vergo, Peter.

E.P. Dutton, 1977.

vi

The Blue Rider.

New York:

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Arnold Schoenberg was born September 13, 1874, i n Vienna.


Although a self-taught musician, Schoenberg did not decide u n t i l he
was sixteen years of age that music would be his l i f e ' s work. At
this time he was introduced to Alexander von Zemlinsky from whom he
received his only formal i n s t r u c t i o n , counterpoint. The two became
good friends, and i n 1901 Schoenberg married Zemlinsky's s i s t e r ,
Mathilde.
In

1903, already established as a prominent musician and

composer, Schoenberg began h i s long teaching career.

Among h i s f i r s t

students were Anton von Webern and Alban Berg, soon to become r e spected musicians themselves.

His teaching was carried on mainly i n

Vienna and B e r l i n u n t i l he moved to the United States i n 1933.


S e t t l i n g i n C a l i f o r n i a , he continued to teach and compose, u n t i l
his

death i n 1951.
Afnold Schoenberg

(1874-1951) composed the one-act mono-

drama ERWARTUNG opus 17 i n a fury of i n s p i r a t i o n , completing the


reduced version i n a t o t a l of seventeen days, August 17 to September 12, 1909, and the orchestral score by October 4, 1909.
ERWARTUNG was Schoenberg's

f i r s t completed stage work.

He had

previously started but never completed the composition of an opera


based on Gerhard Hauptmann's play Uiid Pippa Tarizt.
1

2.
Anton Webern described the score of ERWARTUNG i n the f o l -

c
lowing fashion;
The score of the monodrama i s an unheard-of event.
In
i t , a l l t r a d i t i o n a l form i s broken with; something hew always
follows according to the rapid change of expression.
The same i s true of the instrumentation: an interrupted
succession of sounds never before heard.
There i s no measure
of t h i s score which f a i l s to show a completely new sound
picture....And so this music flows onward,...giving expres^
sion to the most hidden and s l i g h t e s t impulses of the emotions.
The year 1909 was

a very p r o l i f i c one f o r Arnold Schoenberg.

In addition to completing DAS BUCH DER HANGENDEN GARTEN opus 15,


a song cycle based on poems written by Stefan George, and the mono-'
drama ERWARTUNG opus 17, he composed two instrumental works -THREE PIANO PIECES opus 11, and FIVE PIECES FOR ORCHESTRA opus 16,
both written during the f i r s t eight months of

1909.

With ERWARTUNG Arnold Schoenberg reached the point stated


in Style and Idea: he "discovered how

to construct larger forms

2
by following a text or a poem."

In ERWARTUNG, as well as his

subsequent works, Schoenberg did not attempt to impose any known


form or forms on the l i b r e t t o .
ERWARTUNG opus 17, often termed an expressionist music
drama, i s about h a l f an hour i n length, and i s composed f o r female
voice (soprano) and large orchestra.

The orchestra consists of

4,4,5,4;4,3,4,1; harp, celesta, percussion and s t r i n g s .

This work

i s an "atonal" work or "pantonal" one, as Schoenberg preferred i t


to be c a l l e d .

He considered the term "atonal" to suggest the r e -

jection of past compositional s t y l e s .

Unlike "atonal-; " "pantonal"

expressed his b e l i e f that h i s work was not based on a rejection, but


1

Anton Webern, Schoenberg's Musik, pp.-45-46.

Arnold Schoenberg, Style and Idea, p.-217.

rather on the acceptance, extension,

and renovation

Century German t r a d i t i o n a l method of composition.

of* the Nineteenth


ERWARTUNG, then,

includes revolutionary uses of consonance and dissonance as well as


a complex structure of textual and musical symbolism, a l l of which
w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l i n the following

chapters.

With this important aspect of Schoenberg's new


tionary compositional

and revolu-

s t y l e came the new practiceoof "composer

collaborating with h i s l i b r e t t i s t . "

Schoenberg presented Marie

Pappenheim, his l i b r e t t i s t , the outline he wished her to follow i n


writing the text of ERWARTUNG.

This collaboration between the com-

poser and l i b r e t t i s t shows the beginning of the tendency which led


Schoenberg to write h i s own

l i b r e t t i for the subsequent operas

DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND opus 18 (1910-1913) and MOSES UND

AARON (1932),

of which only two acts were completed.


It i s important to r e a l i z e that i n expressionist works such
as ERWARTUNG and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND, Schoenberg's main concern
was

to make i t c l e a r l y understood that the characters were not so

much individuals as universal human types.


ular, Schoenberg was

In ERWARTUNG i n p a r t i c -

interested only i n projecting a h y s t e r i c a l woman'

"stream of consciousness" i n word and music.

The general outline of

the score as well as i t s d e t a i l s were governed completely by the


content of the

libretto.

The English t r a n s l a t i o n of ERWARTUNG included i n Appendix


I i s my own,

completed i n December of 1978.

part, a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n , expressing
meaning of the German text.

It i s , f o r the most

as closely as possible the

My preoccupation

i n writing the trans-

4
lation was to convey the r e l e n t l e s s expressiveness o f the German
poetry by means o f the English language, and to retain a l l the subtle
and the r a d i c a l changes of mood o f the sole protagonist, "the Woman."
Several attempts were made to bring about a production of
ERWARTUNG, but i t was not accomplished u n t i l 1924.

Its stage

took place at the musical f e s t i v a l i n Prague on June 6, 1924,


Alexander von Zemlinsky conducting.
was

premiere
with

The character o f "the Woman"

f i r s t created by Marie Gutheil-Schoeder; producer, Louis Laber.

The f i r s t American production o f ERWARTUNG td&k place on December 28,


I960, i n Washington with Robert Craft conducting.

Helga Pilarczk

portrayed "the Woman;" the general manager o f the production was


Bliss

Hebert.
One must r e a l i z e that by the time ERWARTUNG f i n a l l y received

i t s f i r s t stage premiere i n 1924, expressionism was already losing


significance as an a r t i s t i c movement i n central Europe.

Therefore,

in considering the h i s t o r i c a l importance o f ERWARTUNG, one must study


the musical scene i n Germany i n 1909 when i t was written rather than
in 1924 when i t was f i r s t produced.
Wagnerian drama was, heedless to say, extremely
i n Germany at the turn o f the century.

influential

Richard Strauss (1864-1949)

had recently emerged as an important composer.

Schoenberg's two

works f o r the stage, ERWARTUNG and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND, coincide


with the years i n which Richard Strauss turned from the highly
dramatic expression of ELEKTRA to the more restrained and elegant
style o f DER ROSENKAVALIER.

Claude Debussy's (1862-1918) impres-

s i o n i s t i c and symbolic approach tGocomposition

as seen i n his work

5
for the stage PELLEAS ET MELISANDE was s t i l l new.

Two other very

important and i n f l u e n c i a l composers were Pietro Mascagni (18631945)

and Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) o f the I t a l i a n v e r i s t i c school

which flourished i n Italy at the end of the nineteenth and beginning o f the twentieth centuries. The expressionist movement during
the early twentieth century was most c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the
operas o f Arnold Schoenberg and his p u p i l , Alban Berg (1885-1935).
Arnold Schoenberg's stage works, p a r t i c u l a r l y ERWARTUNG,
were the main generating force which encouraged h i s

contemporaries

to attempt to create t o t a l l y new, fresh musical and dramatic s t y l e s


of composition.

Without this v i t a l stimulus, the early operas o f

Kurt Weill (1900-1950) such as AUFSTIEG UND FALL DER STADT MAH0G0NNY
and those o f Ernst Krenek (b.1900), whose ORPHEUS AND EURYDIKE
c l e a r l y follows Schoenberg's compositional s t y l e , would not have been
conceivable.

Paul Hindemith's (1895-1963) three one-act operas

were also strongly influenced by Schoenberg's works f o r the stage.


Perhaps Schoenberg's strongest influence was on his contemporary
Alban Berg whose opera WOZZECK i s considered the dramatic masterpiece of the Viennese school o f composers.

CHAPTER TOO
EWARTUNG: AN EXPRESSIONIST MUSIC DRAMA, AND ITS LINKS WITH
PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EXPRESSIONIST MOVEMENTS IN ART AND LITERATURE.

Expressionism, a term adopted from v i s u a l a r t s , applies to


music written i n a subjective and introspective s t y l e .

Moreover,

musical expressionism describes works which s o l e l y express the composer's thoughts, feelings, and visions.

From the interplay of the

composer's imagination and knowledge o f compositional techniques,


we learn to recognize his unique compositional s t y l e .
Schoenberg'stated

Arnold S

that there i s only one overriding goal toward

which the a r t i s t s t r i v e s , that o f expressing one's s e l f .


In Germany i n the years 1910 to 1925, a new burst of a c t i v i t y
in the arts, including l i t e r a t u r e and drama, carried with i t a new
set of attitudes which today i s referred to as expressionism.

With

expressionism came the eruptive breakup of conventional esthetics. A l l


a r t i s t s s t r i v e d t o create new, fresh standards and ideas on which to
base t h e i r works.

Schoenberg also stated that art i s not derived from

"can," but from "must."

Musical expressionism, then, defied the laws

of what had been accepted as beauty and brought forth new conceptions
of melody, harmony, rhythm, t o n a l i t y , and form.
In ERWARTUNG and a l l his works to follow, Schoenberg was preoccupied with the musical representation o f the inner mind.
in an a r t i c l e :

He stated

7
Science aims at presenting i t s thoughts f u l l y and i n a
way that no question remains unanswered. A f t , on the contrary, i s s a t i s f i e d with a complex presentation from which
the thought emerges unambiguously, but without being expressed d i r e c t l y . Thus, a back door i s l e f t open to l e t i n imagination (that i s as f a r as knowledge goes).3
In addition to the representation of the inner mind i n music,
the composer was also concerned with the problem of relationships
between a r t i s t i c creation and freedom within that creation.

Schoen-

berg states i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l work Harmonielehre that any harmonic


progression i s possible; however, there are certain conditions on
which the use of s p e c i f i c dissonances depend.

These relationships

between freedom and a r t i s t i c creation comment on Schoenberg's


sense of form.

He had taken a revolutionary step over the l i m i t s o f

t o n a l i t y into atonality, thus implying that the tonal functions of


tonic and dominant no longer existed.

ERWARTUNG as an atonal work

i s discussed i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Three, "The Dramatic and


Harmonic Structure of Erwartung."
In dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with the l i b r e t t o of ERWARTUNG we
f i n d i t to be a psychological study o f the subconscious mind. It
i s a product of imagination and i n t e l l e c t and foreshadows the modern
dramatic idioms that were to come.

The idea of the mohodrama was

Schoenberg's own. With the detailed knowledge o f his requirements,


Schoenberg asked Marie Pappenheim, a poet and medical student, to
write him an opera-text. She produced what Schoenberg termed an
"Angsttraum" or anxiety dream monodrama heavily influenced by the
techniques o f psychoanalysis.

The sole protagonist i s "the Woman,"

who wanders through a dark forest seeking her lover and ultimately

Josef Rufer, Aspekte der Neuen Musik, p.-53.

8
finds only h i s corpse.

In the short time space o f t h i r t y minutes,

the Woman goes through several states o f mind experiencing feelings


of love, hate, exaltation, depression, fear, horror, anguish, and
distraction.

Her subconscious

states, as well as her h a l l u c i n a t i o n ,

are revealed i n quick succession.

In t h i s monodrama the

audience

i s l e f t with the question, "Did the Woman k i l l her lover, or i s


ERWARTUNG a hallucination of her disordered mind?."
was not o f primary importance to Schoenberg.
was i n penetrating the Woman's subconscious

This question

His main interest


and i n unifying t h i s

visual aspect with the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the objectives i n sound.


The symbolism i n ERWARTUNG i s as much a form of expression
as i s i t s dissonant harmonic structure. According t o Carl Gustav
Jung, "A symbol i s an i n d e f i n i t e expression with many meanings,
pointing t o something not e a s i l y defined and therefore not

fully

k n o w n . T h e r e are three symbols i n p a r t i c u l a r that are repeatedly expressed i n the text of ERWARTUNG: f i r s t , the r e f e r r a l toe
the "black object dancing" and to other shadows; second, the v i s i o n
of "a hundred hands;" and t h i r d , the v i s i o n of "the garden."
Carl, Jung, the world-renowned Swiss psychologist who has
contributed immensely to our knowledge and understanding o f the
human mind, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d o f the importance o f symbolism as revealed i n dreams, has theorized that "shadows" represent
the hidden, repressed, and unfavorable aspects of the personality.
For most people this negative aspect o f the personality remains
a part o f the unconscious

mind.

Taking t h i s theory and applying

i t to the character of the Woman i n ERWARTUNG, we can assume that

Carl Jung, The Collected Words o f C.G.

Jung, Vol. V,p. 124.

9
each time she sees shadows, we are a c t u a l l y looking at the dark '
or negative side of her personality.

Our sole protagonist

obviously

r e a l i z e s that the shadow does indeed e x i s t ; however, she does not


succeed i n coming to terms with i t . Understanding t h i s , one can
see the potential strengths

of her r e a l i z a t i o n of the negative side

of her personality turn into a destructive power, r e s u l t i n g i n the


1

Woman s dement i a.
According to Carl Jung, the hallucinations involving v i v i d
images are intimately connected with the psyche.

The image of '"a

hundred hands" seen by the Woman i n ERWARTUNG represents,


simple terms, the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of her. personality.

i n very

The visions

of "a hundred hands" reveal by t h e i r shapes and functioning

intel-

l i g i b l e clues to the character o f the Woman, i n t h i s case her progressive state of dementia.
Our protagonist's

v i s i o n o f the garden with i t s constant

state of t r a n q u i l i t y i s somewhat more complex.


that the garden represents

Suffice i t to say

contentment and happiness and,

protection and security from outside forces.

above a l l ,

This, of course, i s

a fantasy land, an i l l u s i o n existing only i n the mind of the protagonist.

This symbol, l i k e a l l other symbols, i s more than we

can understand at f i r s t encounter.

One does well to remember Carl

Jung's words, "A symbol does not disguise; i t reveals i n time.""'


To understand f u l l y the expressionist movement i n painting
and how i t influenced Arnold Schoenberg, one must understand how
the movement originated.

The f i r s t signs of a nev; movement i n '

painting i n the twentieth

century appeared i n Paris i n 1905.

Carl Jung, The Symbolic L i f e , Vol. XVIII, p. 212.

In

10
that year, a group of young painters led by the a r t i s t Henri Matisse
held an exhibition of paintings characterized by s i m p l i c i t y of
design and the use of b r i l l i a n t colours.

A shocked c r i t i c described

the a r t i s t s as "fauves" (wild beasts), hence the derivation of t h e i r


name, the Fauves.

The Fauves were influenced by the newly-discovered

exotic arts which conveyed more personal forms of expression.

Im-

p l i c i t i n the works of the Fauves and fundamental to expressionism


i s the philosophy that the a r t i s t s ' presentations should represent
t h e i r own emotional reactions to the subject through bold colours
and strong l i n e a r patterns and should be completely free of t r a d i t i o n .
The Fauves helped contemporary a r t i s t s open the door to the use of
colour as an expressive end i n i t s e l f , freeing colour of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l role as the description of the l o c a l tone of an object.

Henri

Matisse put the matter of expressionism c l e a r l y and concisely i n the


words:
What I am after, above a l l , i s expression....1 am unable
to distinguish between the f e e l i n g I have f o r l i f e and my
way of expressing it....The whole arrangement of my picture
i s expressive....everything plays a part. Composition i s
the art of arranging i n a decorative manner the various
elements at the painter's disposal for the expression of
his f e e l i n g s ^ . . . A l l that i s not useful i n the p i c t u r e i s
detrimental.
The Fauve movement, never a successful organization, was
short-lived; however, i t s influence was

almost immediately

felt

outside France, especially i n the German schools of art i n the


early twentieth century.

The element of immediate personal expres-

sion strongly appealed to a r t i s t s i n Germany.

Two

f r a t e r n i t i e s of

German a r t i s t s organized into two i n d i v i d u a l societies--DIE BRUCKE

Robert Goldwater, A r t i s t s on Art, pp. 409-410.

11
(The Bridge), i n Dresden, and DER BLAUE REITER (The Blue Rider),
in Munich.
art

These two f r a t e r n i t i e s symbolize that renewal of German

which occurred during the years immediately before World War I

when German a r t i s t s extended the techniques o f the Fauvists.

In

German expressionism the a r t i s t ' s subjective feelings toward objective r e a l i t y and the realm o f imagination were revealed.

Their

powerful canvasses were p a r t i c u l a r l y expressive of intense human


feeling.
Arnold Schoenberg's most i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d i n the f i e l d o f
German a r t was V a s i l y Kandinsky (1866-1944).

Kandinsky and his

companions founded, i n 1909, an exhibiting society c a l l e d the "Neue


Kiinstler Vereinigung Munchen" (New A r t i s t ' s Association o f Munich)
whose aims were to promote exhibitions, lectures, p u b l i c a t i o n , and
other related events i n Germany and abroad.

The most important

art book to appear during that time was The Blue Rider Almanac,
published by Reinhard Piper.

The Almanac was i n i t i a l l y

Kandinsky's

idea, and h i s o r i g i n a l aims f o r the a r t book were c l e a r l y stated


in a l e t t e r to Paul Westheim, e d i t o r o f the p e r i o d i c a l Das Kuristblatt:
...to compile a book....in which the a r t i c l e s would be
written exclusively by a r t i s t s . I dreamed of painters and
musicians at the front rank. The harmful separation of
one art from another, o f Art from folk a r t of children's
art from "ethnography," the stout walls which divided what
were to my mind such closely related, even i d e n t i c a l phenomena, in a word t h e i r synthetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l l t h i s
gave me no peace. Today, i t may appear remarkable that f o r
a long time I was able to find no collaborator, no resources,
simply no support f o r such a project.
The Blue Rider was f i r s t conceived as a yearbook, although
only the f i r s t number actually was publicized.

Peter Vergo, The Blue Rider, p. 5.

Horse and r i d e r were

12
common motifs i n the early paintings of Kandinsky.

A l l h i s pre-

liminary drawings f o r the cover of the Almanac include the figure


of a r i d e r with f l y i n g cloak, hence the o r i g i n of the book's name,
The Blue Rider.

The f i n a l design i s reproduced on page 13.

S p e c i f i c a l l y , Vasily Kandinsky, along with h i s collaborator


Franz Marc, set the new
ulated.

standard f o r art that Kandinsky had form-

Kandinsky explained i t i n d e t a i l i n h i s essay "Ubes das

geistige i n der Kunst.", His main concern i n painting was


sentation of the inner nature of things.

the pre-

Instead of making state-

ments about the nature of things.in pictures, one was

to f e e l that

nature was speaking to the viewer through the pictures.

In this

way one would not be distracted by the outer appearance which hides
and i n some cases f a l s i f i e s the true meaning of nature.

In

1912,

Kandinsky wrote, " I t has no significance whether the a r t i s t uses


g
a real or an abstract form.

Both are inwardly equal."

At the same time, Schoenberg, independent of Kandinsky, was


led by h i s musical imagination i n a s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n .
gave p r i o r i t y to the unconscious

Schoenberg

i n the creative process.

" I f more

things happen than one can think of, they must happen unconsciously."
Both men

rejected the rather vague notion of beauty as a standard

of value of a r t .

Rather, they preferred the notion of truthfulness

in a l l phases of a r t .
Arnold Schoenberg began to paint i n 1907.

Between 1908

and

1910, he painted i n short bursts of c r e a t i v i t y two-thirds o f h i s


ninety pictures, most of which are now

i n the hands of his h e i r s .

To Schoenberg painting was not forced by a s p e c i f i c set o f rules


8

Peter Vefgo, The Blue Rider, p. 9.

Josef Rufer, Aspekte der Neuen Musik, p. 52.

i.

VASILY

KANDINSKY

(1866- 1944): Woodcut for the cover of the 'Blue Rider Almanac'. igi2

14
but rather by h i s personal a r t i s t i c s e n s i t i v i t y .
to,

Painting.began

i n Schoenberg's words, "make music with colours and forms.


In an essay t i t l e d Die Dilder, Kandinsky

c l e a r l y states

Schoenberg's exact philosophy o f a r t : "Painting, for him, i s the same


as music, a way to express himself, to present feelings, thoughts,
and other impressions."'''''"

This i s p r e c i s e l y what Kandinsky meant

when he stated that the inner nature o f things could be simply and
immediately r e a l i z e d i n music--in i t s tones, sounds, and rhythms.
He demanded that the p i c t o r i a l a r t i s t turn toward music and t r y
to f i n d the same means f o r his a r t .
It i s important to remember that during the years when
Schoenberg's painting a c t i v i t y reached i t s peak (1908-1910), he
composed several atonal works including h i s f i r s t two works for the
stage--the monodrama ERWARTUNG (1909) and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND (19091913).

Schoenberg c a l l e d many o f his paintings and drawings " v i s i o n s "

and used the same word to describe the musical d e t a i l and insight
into the nature of the Woman i n ERWARTUNG. Understanding

t h i s , one

can c l e a r l y see the connection between expressionist a r t and the


expressionist compositions Schoenberg wrote during the same period
of

time.
We are not given a precise date as to when Kandinsky and

Schoenberg f i r s t met; however, from t h e i r exchange o f l e t t e r s i t


i s believed to have been around the year 1906. Their relationship
culminated five years l a t e r i n Schoenberg's help with the almanac
Per Blaue Reiter.

He f i r s t presented an essay about song compo-

s i t i o n called"The Relationship "to the Text,"one o f the most import-

10

Ibid.. p. 52.

11

Ibid!., p. 52.

15
ant o f a l l Schoenberg's t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s .
wrote t h e song Herzgewachse@(for soprano,
harp) on December 9, 1911,

he

c e l e s t e , harmonium, and

f o r t h e Almanac; and f i n a l l y , he c o n t r i b u t e d

a reproduction of h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t
One

In f a c s i m i l e ,

(1910).

can f i n d s t r o n g t i e s between the e x p r e s s i o n i s t movement

i n t h e l i t e r a r y w o r l d , s p e c i f i c a l l y German e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama,
and the e x p r e s s i o n i s t music drama due t o p a r a l l e l i n t e l l e c t u a l t r e n d s i n
the a r t s g e n e r a l l y .

L i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n i s m , i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the

e x p r e s s i o n i s t movements i n a r t and m u s i c , r e p r e s e n t e d a r e v o l t a g a i n s t
t r a d i t i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a r y s t y l e s , and f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y
f i f t e e n y e a r s from 1910

t o 1924

dominated German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y .

I t i s imperative t o understand

t h a t t h e s e y e a r s were a time

o f g r e a t u n r e s t i n Germany, a p e r i o d which i n c l u d e d t h e Great


The n i g h t m a r e o f a n x i e t y caused by t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l

War.

unrest

i n Germany i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a f f e c t e d e v e r y p a r t o f t h e
a r t i s t ' s l i f e i n a p o i g n a n t and p o w e r f u l way.

The

artist

realized

t h a t the t h e n c u r r e n t l i t e r a r y phase o f t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ,
neo-romanticism,

was

n o t a t a l l concerned w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f

life

and l a c k e d i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l needs o f the t i m e .


The e x p r e s s i o n i s t movement q u i c k l y became t h e new

v i s i o n , the

new

energy i n German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , assuming a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the


i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f the country.

H a t r e d o f war, hope f o r a b e t t e r

w o r l d , and concern

f o r human l i f e became the t h r e e c e n t r a l i d e a s

i n expressionism.

With these i d e a s came the emphasis on i n n e r v i s i o n ,

p a r t i c u l a r l y the c r e a t i v e powers o f the w r i t e r .


o f a new,

We

f i n d the b i r t h

much more i n t e n s e s u b j e c t i v i t y which d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o

16
destroy the conventional picture of r e a l i t y i n order that "expression"
could become the dominant aspect of l i t e r a t u r e .
To understand c l e a r l y the relationship o f German expressionist
drama to the l i b r e t t o of the monodrama ERWARTUNG, i t i s necessary to
discuss the formal features of expressionist drama.

One of i t s most

s t r i k i n g features i s i t s abstraction, i t s lack of concern with projecting the i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y on the state.

Expressionism pro-

duces constant stress created by preoccupation with deep images


rather than with surface appearances.

A l l unnecessary

detail i s

eliminated, leaving one t o deal only with the most important outlines
and c r u c i a l situations i n the actions and p l o t s .
figures show no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features.

Likewise, dramatics

Rather, they represent

important p r i n c i p l e s the author v/ishes t o convey to the audience.


Often characters are simply designated as Child, Wife, or the Woman.
Expressionist writers, then,were not concerned with creating dramatic
characters i n t h e i r plays but were more concerned with representing
man's eternal and transcendental values.
One of the most outstanding formal elements found i n express i o n i s t drama was the dream.

The great psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud

opened the doors to the age of psychology at the beginning of the


twentieth century with the publication of Interpretation of Dreams.
This book was an introduction to the concept of the world of unconscious experience.

He attached p a r t i c u l a r importance

as a point o f departure from normal r e a l i t y .

to dreams

The expressionist

dramatist Arthur Strindberg (1849-1902), influenced by Freud, wrote


of h i s characterizations i n A Dream Play, "The characters s p l i t ,

17
double, multiply, vanish, s o l i d i f y , b l u r , c l a r i f y .

But one

conscious-

ness reigns above them a l l - - t h a t of the dreamer; and before i t there


are no secrets, no incongruities, no scruples, no laws.

There i s
12

neither judgement nor exoneration, but merely n a r r a t i o n . "

In

A Dream Play, Strindberg attempted to depict the disconnected but


strangely l o g i c a l quality of dreams.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1901) was
importance during this time.

another writer of c r u c i a l

In his book Thus Spake Zarathustra,

on which Richard Strauss l a t e r based h i s symphonic poem o f the same


t i t l e , Nietzsche dealt with the philosophy of man's self-awareness.
Nietzsche, with his friend August Strindberg, emphasized the extreme,
often pathological, psychological aspects of man.

This change i n

concentration from surface human emotions to the deeper aspect of


man's self-awareness
keenest

gave the expressionist l i t e r a r y movements i t s

impetus.
The r e a l beginning of t h e a t r i c a l expressionism began with

Oskar Kokoschka's play Murder HOpe Of Womankind (1907).

Walter

Sokel states, "In Kokoschka's play, the projection of psychic s i t uations into symbolic images, an essential function of the
13
conscious mind, becomes action on the stage."

sub-

With the elimination

of r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , the use of colour symbolism, and the sensual,


carnal responses of the characters i n this play and others, Kokoschka
opened the doors to a whole new

realm of l i t e r a r y expression.

The s a t i r i s t and polemicist Karl Kraus, a personal friend of


both Kokoschka and Schoenberg, started what i s most-often referred
to as the Wedekind wave i n Vienna.

Wedekind was

the f i r s t

author

to
12
13

C.L. Dalstrom, Strindberg's Dramatic Expressionism, p. 177.


Walter Sokel, An Anthology of German Expressionist Drama, p.

17.

18
to d e a l w i t h s u b j e c t s t h a t were u n t i l t h i s t i m e u n m e n t i o n a b l e
t o p i c s such as s e x , mental i l l n e s s , e t c . I n h i s own j o u r n a l D i e
F a c k e l (founded i n 1899), Kraus s t r o n g l y condemned t h e abuses" o f t h e
language o f t h e Viennese f e u i l l e t o n i s t e s

(serialists).

I n t h e ded-

i c a t i o n s e n t t o Kraus w i t h a copy o f h i s H a r m o n i e l e h r e ( 1 9 1 1 ) ,
Schoenberg s t a t e d , " I have l e a r n t more perhaps from y o u t h a n one can
l e a r n i f one i s t o remain independent."""'* ,
A f t e r t h e dream, t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r m a l element i n t h e
e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was t h e monologue.

The monologue s e r v e d as t h e

p r i n c i p a l v e h i c l e by w h i c h t h e l y r i c a l - d r a m a t i c p r o t a g o n i s t e x p r e s s e d
the

s u b j e c t i v e developments

o f t h e i n n e r man.

A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was t h e f a c t
t h a t i t s c e n t r a l f o c u s was on one p r o t a g o n i s t .

A l l other characters

i n t h e drama r e v o l v e d e n t i r e l y around t h i s one c e n t r a l f i g u r e .

The

l e a d i n g a c t o r was u s u a l l y found i n an extreme s i t u a t i o n o r c i r c u m s t a n c e


w i t h which he o r she c o u l d n o t cope.
The a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was u s u a l l y
found t o be a sequence o f scenes which f o l l o w e d each o t h e r i n r a p i d
succession.

These scenes were r a r e l y l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n an o b v i o u s ,

s y s t e m e t i c way.

This s t r u c t u r e served t o heighten the dramatic

impact o f t h e drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y the a u d i e n c e ' s awareness o f t h e


u s u a l l y unhealthy circumstance or c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f i t s lone
protagonist.
I t i s g e n e r a l l y an easy t a s k t o i d e n t i f y t h e w r i t i n g
of the expressionist dramatist.

style

He u s u a l l y employed f r e e v e r s e i n

w h i c h a l l s e n t e n c e s were t o t h e p o i n t , o m i t t i n g a l l n o n e s s e n t i a l

14

Frank F i e l d , K a r l Kraus and H i s V i e n n a , p. 25.

19
d e t a i l s from the actions and p l o t s .

One finds that even the

longer

sentence structures were broken into shorter units, characterized


by missing p a r t i c l e s .

The page was characterized by the p r o l i f e f a t i o n

of exclamation marks and dashes as well as the free use o f both the
verb and the dynamic metaphor.

Images and symbols usually abstracted

from common experience were frequently used ine-the expressionist


l i t e r a r y s t y l e to express an inner world o f meaning.
One of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of expressionist drama
was

that the play never reached a s p e c i f i c conclusion but

rather

was

open-ended, leaving the audience t o imagine and draw whatever

conclusions they chose.


In comparing the l i b r e t t o of the monodrama ERWARTUNG t o the
formal features of expressionist drama, i t i s clear that Marie
Pappenheim, with the close collaboration of Arnold Schoenberg, wrote
an expressionist drama.

Without desiring to be r e p e t i t i v e , s u f f i c e

i t to say that the stress i n ERWARTUNG (as i n other expressionist


music dramas) i s on the t h e a t r i c a l aspect of the production, not
on the esthetic worth of the text.

The text served only as a means

to an end, to provide innumerable musical p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o the


composer.

During the c r u c i a l early stage i n the development of his

mature twelve-tone s t y l e of composition, Schoenberg f e l t strongly


that "expressionism" was the only medium i n which he could
f u l l y relate his feelings to the world.

success-

His expressionist compo-

s i t i o n a l period (1908-1913), i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, proved t o be


one of the most p r o l i f i c times o f t h i s extraordinary composer's l i f e .

CHAPTER THREE
THE DRAMATIC AND HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF ERWARTUNG

ERWARTUNG i s c l a s s i f i e d as a "monodrama i n one act" and i s


divided into four scenes--the f i r s t o f t h i r t y measures' length; the
second, o f fifty-two measures; the t h i r d , of twenty-four measures;
and the fourth and longest scene a t o t a l of 321 measures.

Each scene

i s bracketed by the entrance and exit of the Woman, the sole protagonist of the work.

The three extremely short interludes might be

termed " s t a t i c music" consisting of pedal points, r e i t e r a t e d ostinato


rhythmic figures, or sustained harmonies.

A constant

level of tension

i s maintained i n the monodrama by avoiding r e s o l u t i o n o f the dissonant


chord.

ERWARTUNG i s an outstanding example o f sustained, free com-

position.
Dramatically speaking, with each new scene comes a more i n c i s i v e portrayal of the Woman's desperate circumstances.

With each

r e a l i z a t i o n there also comes a new burst of colour i n the orchestration.


One i s constantly aware of the growing i n t e n s i t y and h y s t e r i a of the
protagonist.

This constantly-increasing tension becomes almost

unbearable i n measure 190, when the Woman, f e e l i n g the impact o f the


r e a l i z a t i o n that her lover i s t r u l y dead, screams for help.

It i s

my opinion that, from t h i s point on, the Woman loses a l l contact


with r e a l i t y , f a l l i n g deeper and deeper into her state o f dementia.
Looking yet more closely at the dramatic structure o f ERWARTUNG,
20

we f i n d s i x major climaxes and s i x predominantly l y r i c sections.


The climaxes occur generally where the Woman receives a major shock.
The

l y r i c sections generally r e c a l l the Woman's past pleasures

with her lover.

shared

A l l l y r i c sections immediately precede the s i x

climactic sections.

The s i x major climaxes are:


Measures
1. 110-113
2. 154-155
3. 190-193
4. 348
5. 415-416
6. 424

The

climaxes are characterized by the u t i l i z a t i o n of the

f u l l orchestra as well as the use o f the character's extreme vocal


range.

The climaxes are also characterized by extreme rhythmic

vitality.

I t i s o f interest to note that there i s a pause a f t e r

the second, t h i r d , and fourth climaxes,

i n each case representing

a complete change o f thought and mood o f the Woman.


The

l y r i c sections are characterized by rather l i g h t e r

orchestration.

A prominent use o f the solo woodwind and s t r i n g

instruments becomes evident.

These sections are characterized by

much quieter dynamic l e v e l s , expressive

feelings, and generally

longer vocal lines which avoid wide skips.


In looking at this work i n d e t a i l , one can c l e a r l y see the
close coordination o f the music and stage action.
are c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the music.

Stage directions

In measure 104 the written stage

directions c a l l f o r a "Leichter Windstoss" or l i g h t breeze. The


l i g h t breeze i s mirrored i n the music by the thirty-second note

22
figure i n the muted v i o l i n s and contrabasses.

S i m i l a r l y , the i n -

strumental passage i n measures 385-388 c l e a r l y indicated the appearance


of dawn.

In this passage Schoenberg approaches pure impressionism

in h i s use of orchestral colour.


In discussing the harmonic structure of ERWARTUNG as the most
important work intthe development of Schoenberg's mature twelvetone style of composition, i t i s v i t a l to grasp the p r i n c i p l e that
dissonance i s the primary means of the musical expression.

Dissonance

i s simply any musical sound that must be resolved by the use of a


consonant chord or note, that i s , a musical sound that does not need
a resolution.

The harmonic system, then, i s defined by the r e l a t i o n

of consonance to dissonance.

The secondary elements of musical

expression were thought to be tone colour, accent, form, and counterpoint.

Schoneberg considered a l l these elements of importance, not

definable as primary or secondary.


In a l l h i s works Schoenberg termed the o s c i l l a t i o n between
tension (dissonance) and resolution (consonance) the complete
"emancipation of the dissonance." This "emancipation of the d i s sonance," foreshadowed by the nonfunctional harmonies o f Claude
Debussy, was the i n i t i a l step taken i n the direction of the gradual
process of the complete breakdown of t o n a l i t y .

This refusal of

resolution was the key to Schoenberg's s t y l e of composition i n h i s


expressionist period (1908-1913).

For the f i r s t time i n Schoenberg's

works of t h i s period we see expression as an element of the t o t a l


structure of the composition, a symbol of the new attitude which
prevailed i n a l l arts during the early twentieth century.

Another interesting aspect o f ERWARTUNG i s the composer's


use o f textual and rhythmic symbolism within the score.

One of

the most outstanding examples of rhythmic symbolism i s the symbol


of the waltz which t r a d i t i o n a l l y denotes pleasure and gracefulness.
The waltz rhythms are notated i n the score as eighth-note
9/8 time superimposed on 3/4 time.

t r i p l e t s of

Two clear examples of t h i s are

found i n measures 31-34 and measures 370-371.

In both instances the

musical indication i s "sehr zart" (very sweet).

An example of mus-

i c a l symbolism found i n ERWARTUNG i s the descending half-tone legato


figure, a simple figure symbolizing s u f f e r i n g or supplication found
in measure 297, " i n your drowsiness.... l i k e a name...."

Generally

speaking, highly broken textures or, i n other words, constant changes


of tone colour, rhythms, etc., i n the music symbolize

"Angst" (anxiety)

Two words which are treated symbolically i n the music are


"Nacht" (night) and "Mond" (moon).
symbolically by the use of o s t i n a t i .

Both of these words are portrayed


In measure 9 we f i n d a low-

pitched ostinato fluctuating between two notes which symbolizes the


word Nacht; i n measure 22 we f i n d an ostinato which contains two
notes a minor-third apart, symbolizing the word Mond.
symbols i s purposely incomplete
aware of this important,

This l i s t of

and i s only intended to make one

i f often-neglected, aspect of Schoenberg's

musical language.
In Chapter Two I have already b r i e f l y alluded to the fact
that ERWARTUNG i s an atonal work, i . e . , a work i n which the tonal
functions of the tonic and dominant do not e x i s t .

Schoenberg, as

previously noted, objected to the term "atonal," p r e f e r r i n g the term

24
"pantonal."

I t i s important to r e a l i z e that Schoenberg's expression-

i s t works can be viewed as a suspension of the modal system.

Though

no longer tonal, the works s t i l l imply recognized p r i n c i p l e s of the


tonal system such as i n d i v i d u a l harmonic progressions and tonal idioms.
It would be b e n e f i c i a l to discuss the general aspects of
the new world of sound and to apply them to the expressionist monodrama ERWARTUNG.

F i r s t , the dissolution o f tonal functions i s c l e a r l y

seen i n atonal works.

In ERWARTUNG there are few perfect t r i a d s that

could even suggest the tonal functions of the tonic and dominant.
Certain chordal structures do, however, create momentary sources
of s t a b i l i t y i n the work.

P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the chords i n ERWARTUNG

encompass s i x notes generally consisting of two three-note


o u t l i n i n g the seventh.

chords

This consistency helps to unify the harmonic

texture o f the monodrama.

The chords are characterized by aggregations

of fourths, f i f t h , and t r i t o n e s .

Clusters o f seconds are also common.

There i s a d e f i n i t e avoidance of octave doublings i n ERWARTUNG as


well as i n a l l of Schoenberg's subsequent

eg-

compositions.

/V

Secondly, we f i n d the element of perpetual v a r i a t i o n i n the


musical structure of Schoenberg's expressionist works.

Schoenberg

refused ctD use t r a d i t i o n a l compositional techniques such as thematic


repetition and the transformation of motifs i n his expressionist works.

25
In a recent study t i t l e d "Studien zur Entwicklung des dodekaphonen
Satzes b e i Arnold Schoenberg," (1972) Jan Maegaard goes further t o
say that the athematic structure of ERWARTUNG i s a direct r e s u l t o f
the "absolute equivalence" and "interchange of harmony and melody."

15

There seems to be a great deal o f disagreement over the issue,


"Is ERWARTUNG athematic or not?."

Herbert Buchanan f o r example,

states i n h i s essay "A Key to Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG opus 17" that


Schoenberg quoted a portion Of one o f h i s early songs i n D minor
in ERWARTUNG (just before the end o f measure 401) . According to
Buchanan, i t appears f i r s t i n the cel'los and i s repeated in i n version i n the bass c l a r i n e t and bassoons.

Other writers such as

George Perle state that Schoenberg's l a t e r twelve-tone technique


is foreshadowed i n ERWARTUNG.

Robert Craft, on the other hand, does

not use the terms "athematic" and "atonal" at a l l .

He states that i n

ERWARTUNG there i s a constant motivic development, the p r i n c i p a l


motif being A-B f l a t - A .

H.H. Stuckenschmidt refers to the three-

note motif D-F-C sharp.


The atonal melody, independent of the harmony, follows
i t s own laws and polyphic tension.

Melody i s the most important

element i n ERWARTUNG, constantly mirroring the Woman's extreme emotions.

H.H. Stuckenschmidt points out that ERWARTUNG can be compared

in form to a "pre-Wagnerian opera f i n a l e " or to a "scena and a r i a . "


One point upon which a l l agree i s that the harmonic and melodic
aspects o f Schoenberg's atonal works (including ERWARTUNG) should be
treated as a combined unit.

A "symphonic bond" exists between the human

voice (melody) and the instrumental accompaniment

15

Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg, p. 39.

that must not be

26
broken.
Thirdly, one i s immediately aware of the new instrumental
style used i n ERWARTUNG.
chromaticism.

There i s increasingly bolder use of

With this we find a growing tendency f o r composers

to create harmonic and melodic forms for t h e i r own means o f expression.

Schoenberg's wealth of imagination brought to this score a

perpetual renewal, a constant inventiveness of idea and form.


The entire force o f the large orchestra i s selifom used i n
ERWARTUNG.

Small groups of solo instruments

chamber-music fashion.

are generally used i n

By t r e a t i n g the orchestra as a chamber

orchestra, Schoenberg created an inexhaustible source o f instrumental


colour, u t i l i z i n g d i f f e r e n t instrumental combinations.

Charles Rosen

states, "This emancipation of tone colour was as s i g n i f i c a n t and as


c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f i r s t decades o f the twentieth century as the
16
emancipation of dissonance."

Influenced by the techniques of

orchestration of Gustav Mahler, Schoenberg's innovative handling of


the orchestra brought about important

changes i n orchestration which

influenced his contemporaries as well as modern-day composers.


Closely related to the instrumental s t y l e are the revolutionary innovations i n texture found i n ERWARTUNG, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,
Schoenberg's use of rhythm and orchestral colour.

ERWARTUNG consists

of alternations of two kinds of rhythmic textures--sections o f


continuously repeating figures known as o s t i n a t i and other sections
of e i t h e r stable or continuously-changing

material.

These a l t e r n a t i n g

sections define the dramatic action of the monodrama.


control the degree of tension relayed to the audience.
16

Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg, p. 43.

They also

The wide range of orchestral colour so apparent i n ERWARTUNG


i s created by the use o f several devices.

Flutter-tongue and such

special effects as sulpponticello (bowed near bridge), col legno


(bowed with wood), harmonics, glissandi and fingered and bowed
tremelos are often c a l l e d for i n the score.
To produce the atmosphere Schoenberg wished to create i n
the orchestra and on the stage, the uses of the proper sd/namics
and tempo were e s s e n t i a l .

Dynamic markings ranging from f f f to

ppp f i l l each page of the score.

There are 111 tempo changes and

s i x t y - f i v e additional tempo controls such as accelerando and ritardano


plus numerous tempo changes indicated by markings such as J = J .

One

can quickly r e a l i z e the d i f f i c u l t y f o r the performer i n r e l a t i n g to


and connecting a l l of these tempo changes.
These elements of the new sound were to guide Schoenberg
towards the laws o f organization of new music, s p e c i f i c a l l y h i s
twelve^tone compositional s t y l e .

His chief goal was to u t i l i z e the

t o t a l resources of chromaticism to construct a new and more expressive


tonal system.

CHAPTER FOUR
THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMAN

In order to create successfully a consistent character on


stage, the actor must understand the motivation(s), the inner
thoughts and the feelings of the character of "theWWoman" i n the
monodrama ERWARTUNG opus 17.
In the f i r s t scene of the monodrama we are introduced to a
lone Woman who

contemplates entry into a dark and eerie forest.

From her f i r s t words one can c l e a r l y see the Woman suffers from
great stress and

conflict.

"Shall I go here?

One

cannot see the way..." (P/VS

The reason she suffers from such tremendous anxiety i s not

p.3)
im-

mediately known to the audience.

The Woman's great fear of her

surroundings

i n the words,

i s vivedly expressed

"How threatening the s t i l l n e s s i s . . .


the moon i s f u l l of horror..." (p.6)
Her unstable emotional state becomes very c l e a r i n the words,
"I am alone i n the heavy shadows..." (p.6)
In the second scene, we learn that the Woman has a c t u a l l y entered the forest.

I t i s very dark, and she finds h e r s e l f having to grope

with outstretched arms to guide her along the path.

In t h i s short scene

of fifty-two measures, i t becomes more and more apparent that the Woman
suffers from psychopathic

illness.

28

She i s haunted by unseen presences.

29
anxiety quickly grows to h y s t e r i a , as she imagines the r i s i n g
gentle breeze as a kind of negative force t r y i n g to suffocate
In this scene she makes references

her.

also to a "garden," to which

I had alluded previously i n Chapter Two.

The turning point in the

understanding of the Woman's motivation for entering the forest alone


i s found in her last words o f scene two.
"Oh, oh, What i s i t ?
A body...
No,

only a tree trunk." (pp. 11-12)

In these words, the Woman hints that there has been a murder, a murder
which, I suggest, she committed.
In scene three, as we watch the woman approaching a c l e a r i n g
deep i n the forest, we develop yet more insight into the
nature of the Woman's psychopathic state.

serious

Her h y s t e r i a progresses

to a stage of dementia, p a r t i a l loss o f the control of her mind.


Her hallucinations become more v i v i d .

She imagines shadows o f

many descriptions including "a black object dances...a hundred hands,"


(pp.12-13).

By free association, these shadows remind the Woman

of her lover's shadow on the wall o f the garden.

Her moment o f

tender r e f l e c t i o n i s interrupted when she imagines the shadow crawling.

Her hallucinations are symbols which help us more c l e a r l y

to understand the state o f the Woman's subconscious mind.


In scene four, by f a r the longest scene o f t h i s monodrama,
we recognize that the path through the forest leads to a house.
The Woman enters the scene, her h a i r dishevelled, and her dress torn.
From the Woman's f i r s t words, we c l e a r l y see she has retreated into a

30
deep state of depression.
"He cannot be found.
On the whole, long way nothing
and no sound..." (p. 16)

visible...

We poignantly f e e l the Woman's despair, the burden weighing heavily


on her heart.

She imagines a bench beneath a grove of trees; how-

ever, at closer range she sees the bench i s i n r e a l i t y the dead


body of her lover.

With the Woman's one great, long cry for help

(measure 190) we reach the main climax of the monodrama.


cry i s , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, her only plea f o r help.

This

At this

point i n the monodrama the Woman's mind "snaps" and hereafter the
Woman becomes t o t a l l y demented, never again re-entering the world
of r e a l i t y .

The i n d i v i d u a l micro-worlds of her love, hate, and

jealousy are developed at length.

The Woman discloses i n measures

284 and 285 that she has not seen her lover for three days.

She

also suggests for the f i r s t time i n measures 295 to 300 that there
was

another woman involved.


"Ah, now I remember...
your sighs i n your drowsiness...
l i k e a name...
You tenderly kissed the question from my

lips...(p.33)

In measures 331 to 333 she c l e a r l y states that the other woman was
the cause of the divergence

in relationship.

"Oh but how you love her, those white arms...


how hard you kissed them..." (p.36)
Her hatred turns to repulsion, a state i n which she a c t u a l l y abuses
and indeed kicks the dead body of her lover.

Almost i n s t a n t l y her

act of r e j e c t i o n and repulsion turns to utter loneliness and


(measures 349-351).

despair

31
"For me there i s no room." (p.38) In the remaining pages of the monodrama, she senses that dawn i s
rapidly approaching and that l i g h t w i l l come f o r a l l but her. At
the very close o f the work her mind withdraws again into the night
where she finds her lover a l i v e one again.
"Oh, are you there...
I sought you..." (p.47)
ERWARTUNG ends the same way i t began...that

i s , with a search f o r

peace.
It i s unclear how much o f the action i n ERWARTUNG i s r e a l i s t i c and how much o f t h i s nightmarish v i s i o n i s symbolic.

It is a

question each one must answer f o r oneself... did the Woman i n fact
murder her lover, or merely wish i t upon him?

We are faced with the

question, "What happened to the Woman a f t e r the monodrama?" An


audience i s l e f t without a comfortable f i n a l i t y .

This i s , i n t e r e s t -

ingly enough, one o f the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f modern art and


thought of Schoenberg's time.

We must remember that Schoenberg d i d

not concern himself with an answer but only with the Woman's subconscious thought patterns within the time lapse o f the monodrama.
It i s possible t o look at the Woman's whole nightmare as a
symbolic representation o f a psychoanalyist's dealings with a
patient.

Several writers have expanded t h i s idea, suggesting

that ERWARTUNG i s a Freudian music drama and that a l l the Woman's


experiences are symbolic of her "true personality." I, too, suggest that to look at ERWARTUNG i n su*6li a faKi5ii i s c e r t a i n l y
plausible; however, any relationship between Freudian theories and

32
the monodrama ERWARTUNG are purely coincidental. Arnold Schoenberg
and Sigmund Freud certainly must have heard of each other; however,
there was d e f i n i t e l y no formal friendship established between these
two men.
In delving more deeply i n t o the character o f the Woman, one
cannot help but consider her background and whether i t had an e f f e c t
on her current unstable state of mind as we f i n d her at the very
outset of the monodrama.

We know that Schoenberg wrote ERWARTUNG

during a period o f great unrest i n Germany.

The Franco-Prussian War

had been waged some years e a r l i e r , and the country was now experiencing the uneasiness

preceding the approaching Great War.

It would

be l o g i c a l to assume that the Woman had experienced hardship or


traumatic shock, possibly the loss o f a loved one or loved ones i n
war.

Since t h i s i s a l l only hypothetical, we may conclude that

because o f something in the Woman's past she has become unable


to deal successfully with her own emotions.

Her reactions to stress

and c o n f l i c t are, at the very least, immature, as seen i n her phys i c a l symptoms, her psychopathic

i l l n e s s , her h a l l u c i n a t i o n , her

h y s t e r i a , and her f i n a l dementia.


We have learned from the l i b r e t t o of ERWARTUNG that this
"murder of passion," as I have termed i t , was the result of "another
woman" coming between our protagonist and her lover.

This brings

up the question, "What caused the d i f f i c u l t i e s to arise between her


and her lover?"

I cannot help but suggest that the Woman may have

had sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s with her lover.

Some inadequacy on her part

to f u l f i l l h i s sexual needs may have caused him to look elsewhere


to s a t i s f y h i s desires.

The Woman was not able to deal r a t i o n a l l y

33
with t h i s , and her f a i l u r e culminated

i n the murder of her lover.

This brings me to my l a s t and perhaps most important

question,

"What was the major drive or goal o f the Woman i n ERWARTUNG?"

I f one

wishes to discuss the subject only s u p e r f i c i a l l y , the ansvrer would


simply be "to f i n d her lover."

I suggest a deeper meaning: the

Woman searching for absolution o f the t e r r i b l e burden of her g u i l t !


This destroying g u i l t not only included the brutal murder of her lover
but also a l l of her own deep-set inadequacies

as a woman.

CHAPTER FIVE
LIGHTING

The main objective i n designing the l i g h t i n g f o r my production of ERWARTUNG was to use l i g h t as "scenery."

With the

exception of four scrims which are painted to depict the forest,


the stage i s bare.

In the twentieth century, the use of l i g h t as

scenery has become a popular way

to illuminate a production.

Among

the many reasons f o r this procedure i s the increased use of theatre


designs other than the t r a d i t i o n a l proscenium stage.

In other

theatre forms such as thrust and arena stages, l i g h t plays a more


intense role i n the production's t o t a l visual e f f e c t l

The recent

techniques of f i l m have had an enormous impact on the theatre with


the use of f i l m projections as well as a number of other special
cinematic e f f e c t s .

Another basic reason f o r the growing popularity

of the use of l i g h t as scenery i s simply, the v i s u a l spectacle, the


new

and enchanting combination of l i g h t and sound which the audience

can experience.

The result of a l l these influences on stage l i g h t i n g

i s obviously great, and i s leading to the formation of new

attitudes

regarding the use of stage l i g h t i n g as an element of scene design.


The twentieth century and i t s s c i e n t i f i c achievements have refined the
role of stage l i g h t i n g , allowing i t to gain stature as a v i t a l communication factor i n the theatre.
In a l e t t e r Schoenberg wrote to Ernst Legal, the Intendant of
34

35
the Kroll-Oper i n B e r l i n , dated A p r i l 14, 1930,

the composer gave

detailed directions for the performance o f ERWARTUNG..


In ERWARTUNG, these are the greatest problems:
I.

II.

III.

It i s necessary always to see the woman i n the


forest, i n order to understand her fear o f i t ,
for the whole piece can be understood as a nightmare. But, for that very reason, i t must be a
real forest, and not just an "abstract" one!
That kind of abstraction i s gruesome, but not
frightening.
In composing, I l e f t hardly any time f o r the
three scene-changes, so that they must happen on
an "open" stage.
On top o f that, the background becomes important
only i n the f i n a l (fourth) scene; then the foreground must be empty, and everything that could
impede the view must be removed.

I decided to heed the composer's f i r s t and second wishes but not the
third.

As anyone knowledgeable o f modem theatre knows, the most

f a m i l i a r way. to produce l i g h t as scenery i s , o f course, projected


scenery.

A f t e r consultation, I have chosen to use i n this production

two Pani 4000 watt HMI scenic projectors to project on the cyclorama
during the f i r s t three scenes o f this monodrama, pictures o f galaxies
such as found on pages 40 and 41.

This Strand Century projector i s

the most powerful scenic projector available, producing up to 58,000


lumens.

I t i s b u i l t to use 7-1/8" X 7-1/8" s l i d e s , and when using a

220mm f/2.8 lens, i t creates an image o f 18.5 feet at a distance o f


25 feet.

This creates the perfect size and i l l u m i n a t i o n (148 F.C.)

for this production o f ERWARTUNG, designed

f o r the Frederick Wood

Theatre at the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia.


One o f my basic preoccupations

17

i n the l i g h t i n g of ERWARTUNG

Josef Rufer, The Works o f Arnold Schoenberg, p.

36
was

t h a t t h e audience s h o u l d always be aware o f the

"expression-

i s t " c h a r a c t e r o f the work, n o t o n l y i n t h e a u r a l b u t i n t h e v i s u a l


aspect o f the p r o d u c t i o n .
c o n t i n u a l l y as i t expresses

The l i g h t i n g i s t o accompany t h e music


what i s happening on t h e s t a g e .

The

music must always dominate; t h e stage l i g h t i n g must be s u b o r d i n a t e


to i t .
To c r e a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y t h i s aspect o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f l i g h t
t o sound on s t a g e , I d e c i d e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y v i v i d s p l a s h e s o f
c o l o u r were t o appear on s t a g e w i t h each scene change, t h e f i n a l
change t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e opening o f scene f o u r when t h e

pro-

j e c t i o n s o f g a l a x i e s fade from t h e background and r e a p p e a r as an


a b s t r a c t c o l o u r p a t t e r n on t h e f l o o r o f the stage where t h e Woman
i s standing.

These continuous

stage s y m b o l i z e

a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s t r o n g e r c o l o u r s on -

t h e r e a c t i o n t o t h e c o n s t a n t l y deeper p r o b i n g o f t h e

Woman's s u b c o n s c i o u s

mind.

To a c c o m p l i s h

f i e d v e r s i o n o f the R o s e n t h a l

this, I applied a simpli-

method o f l i g h t i n g , o r what i s o t h e r -

w i s e known as t h e " j e w e l t h e o r y , " s p e c i f i c a l l y i n scene f o u r , t h e


l o n g e s t scene o f the monodrama.

The " j e w e l t h e o r y " i s s i m p l y t h e

i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the a c g o r from every p o s s i b l e a n g l e .

(See

diagram

below.)

I used two b a s i c c o l o u r p a t t e r n s t o s y m b o l i z e

t h e Woman's

37
tender r e f l e c t i v e moments during scene four, and I used the combination
of the following gels:

l i g h t amber (#2), and double pale gold (#52-

52), s t e e l blue (#17), medium amber (#4), and golden amber (#34).

To

symbolize her fear, anxiety, and l a t e r h y s t e r i a , I chose the combination:

l i g h t blue (#18), s t e e l blue (#17), s t e e l t i n t (#67),

magenta (#13), and white l i g h t (0).

The patterns which are created

on the stage f l o o r are indicated i n the diagrams below.

A l l combinations used i n the previous three scenes are s i m p l i f i e d


versions o f these two gel combinations with the addition of a turquoise gel (#62) which, i n combination with amber gels, produces
a green t i n t .

The use o f this turquoise gel helps to create the

eerie atmosphere o f a foreboding evergreen forest.


The expressionist character o f the monodrama lends i t s e l f
to the creation of many s p e c i a l e f f e c t s .

Most important i n this

production are the silhouettes, created by hanging a transparency


made of loosely woven muslin c l o t h closely behind the scrims.

When

this transparency i s illuminated from d i r e c t l y behind, the actor


standing d i r e c t l y i n front of the transparency w i l l appear as a
silhouette to the audience.

Instead o f having the actress leave

the stage a f t e r each scene, I have directed that she retreat behind
the scrim, allowing this silhouette e f f e c t to symbolize the passage

38
of time between each scene.
The "shadow" effects as well as what I term the "staring
eyes" e f f e c t are important.
94-114 o f the score.

Both take place between measures

The shadow e f f e c t i s created by placing

appropriate gobos (small, thin plates o f metal, most commonly


aluminum, out of which d i f f e r e n t patterns or designs can be excised)
in the pattern 223 l i g h t i n g instruments i n the second FOH. When
this e f f e c t i s generated correctly, allowing the shadows slowly
to creep upstage, i t may be most s t r i k i n g from the audience point
of view.

The "staring eyes" effect i s created by hanging pairs

of Christmas tree lights (yellow) behind the scrims.

To the

audience these flashing lights symbolize the p i e r c i n g eyes of the


unseen beasts the Woman imagines on page 14 i n the universal
Edition score o f ERWARTUNG.
A successful special e f f e c t i s the "dawn" l i g h t i n g which i s
used i n the l a s t pages o f ERWARTUNG.

I t i s produced by using s i x -

foot s t r i p l i g h t s equipped with red gels situated behind a ground


row i n front of the cyclorama.

Two 8-inch Lekos equipped with yellow

gels locateM on the extreme right and l e f t sides o f the cyclorama


add a great streak o f yellow just above the red haze.
the cyclorama appears black.

The rest of

This i s caused by the black Hansen cloth

scrim hanging d i r e c t l y downstage of the two scenic projectors.


The " s t a r " e f f e c t used i n scene four i s produced by pattern
123 l i g h t i n g instruments equipped with perforated aluminum templets,
(Gestetner plates work very well.)

The l i g h t i n g instruments, when

focused on the cyclorama, create tiny bright spots which are seen

39

downstage o f the black Hansen cloth scrim.


One o f the oldest and s t i l l most e f f e c t i v e special

effects

i s the use of the follow spot to serve as a special focus on the


actor as she enters and exits the stage.

In this production, the

follow spot i s located on the bridge of the theatre and i s used


to illuminate the Woman's face as she f i r s t enters area s i x i n scene
one and f i n a l l y

leaves area s i x at the end o f scene four.

The l i g h t i n g i n this production, then, i s a l l symbolic i n


nature and serves to enhance both the poetic and musical content
of the score.

The stage l i g h t i n g represents an important part of

my understanding o f the depth and scope o f the work.


The costume design and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s colour also have
an e f f e c t on the stage l i g h t i n g .
(Appendix VI) i s a combination

In t h i s case, the costume design

of two popular 1952 dress patterns.

The f a b r i c chosen for the dress i s a Dundune hemp made o f one


hundred per cent polyester.

I purposely chose beige as the colour

for the f a b r i c because o f the f l e x i b i l i t y i t allows to the stage


lighting.

40

CHAPTER S I X
PUBLICITY

P u b l i c i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f any p u b l i c p r o d u c t i o n .
Two

b a s i c media used t o p u b l i c i z e upcoming events

i n gaining

p u b l i c exposure a r e , o f c o u r s e , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n .

These media,

p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g system, a r e v e r y c o s t l y and
g e n e r a l l y too expensive

f o r low-budget p r o d u c t i o n s .

p u b l i c i t y p o s t e r remains t h e most economical


to

g a i n needed p u b l i c exposure.

Therefore, the

means f o r a p r o d u c t i o n

The more o r i g i n a l and e y e - c a t c h i n g

the p o s t e r the g r e a t e r the chance p e o p l e w i l l r e a d i t and, i n t u r n ,


a t t e n d the p r o d u c t i o n .
In

d e s i g n i n g a p o s t e r f o r ERWARTUNG, my f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was

to determine which were t h e most i m p o r t a n t elements i n t h e monodrama and t o i n c o r p o r a t e them, s y m b o l i c a l l y , i n t o the p o s t e r .

chose t h r e e symbols t o appear i n the p o s t e r : t h e f o r e s t , a s k u l l ,


and a b r o k e n , r e d r o s e .

The Woman's changes o f l o c a t i o n i n t h e f o r e s t

i n t h e f o u r scenes o f ERWARTUNG s y m b o l i z e h e r c o n t i n u o u s l y c h a n g i n g
s t a t e o f mind.

Throughout t h e monodrama, the Woman f a l l s

deeper

and deeper i n t o a demented s t a t e , c o n s i s t i n g o f a m u l t i t u d e o f


t e m p o r a r i l y obscured

t h o u g h t s , i m p r e s s i o n s , and images.

The s k u l l

r e p r e s e n t s n o t o n l y the death o f h e r l o v e r , b u t t h e death o f her


p r o d u c t i v e mind.
passion."

The b r o k e n , r e d r o s e r e p r e s e n t s t h e "murder o f

As I s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter Hour, I b e l i e v e t h e

42

43
Woman, drawn by her own dementia, r e v i s i t s the scene of the murder
she h e r s e l f committed.
My second objective was to design an " e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c "
poster u t i l i z i n g the three symbols, the forest, the s k u l l , and the
rose.

To accomplish t h i s , I chose to use photography.

With the

permission of the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia Faculty of Dentistry,


I was allowed to photograph a s k u l l .

I used a 32 ASA (American

Standards Association) Kodak f i l m which enabled me to enlarge the


p r i n t without producing unpleasant grain.

The forest scene was taken

on the University of B r i t i s h Columbia endowment lands using 400 ASA


Kodak f i l m .

The 400 ASA Kodak f i l m creates an opposite e f f e c t to the

32 ASA f i l m by causing the coarseness of the granular structure to


become v i s i b l e when enlarging the p i c t u r e .

I chose to develop these

two films on a matt surface, high contrast paper, s p e c i f i c a l l y


8x10 Kodak RC2

(resin-coated) paper.

I chose t h i s paper purposely

to increase the contrast of the p r i n t to the point where half-tones


disappear, emphasizing only the essential pattern of the picture.
In the development of the background of the poster, the
forest scene, I used a process c a l l e d " s o l a r i z a t i o n . " S o l a r i z a t i o n
i s the p a r t i a l reversing of the image on p r i n t or f i l m .

This

special e f f e c t i s produced by the action of light on the p a r t i a l l y


developed material.

Prints s o l a r i z e d during the developmental

process appear almost completely reversed.

That i s to say, the

print appears to have black highlights and white shadows.

The best

results are achieved by using rather high-contrast subjects such as


those I have used.

44
The p r i n t of the s k u l l and o f the red rose were l a t e r applied
with masking tape on to the forest scene.

The l e t t e r i n g , done with

Letraset, was the f i n a l step i n producing the poster.


was

The poster

once again photographed and appears on the following page. An

additional poster done i n the same manner i s also included.

These

posters can, o f course, be reproduced i n any desired s i z e .


The additional poster found on page 47 was designed by my
dear friend and a r t i s t Mrs. Mary Ann Quiring.

The o r i g i n a l was

done i n water colours, s p e c i f i c a l l y , Symphonic 30-17 B r i l l i a n t


Water Colours for A r t i s t s (made i n U.S.A.).

The black background

was produced by using a free flowing black ink c a l l e d Osmirodid.

The

f i n a l poster was sprayed by a Grumbacher product c a l l e d Tussilm,


which simply protects the water colours from smudging should i t be
subject to moisture.

One can e a s i l y appreciate that this poster

too i s hightly symbolic, as indicated by the a r t i s t ' s preoccupation


with the state o f the Woman's inner consciousness.
In summary, Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG opus 17 i s an expressionist
music drama.

Each aspect of t h i s work as discussed i n this paper

forms an integral part o f an understanding of the opera as a whole.


The reader, be he an observer or p a r t i c i p a n t i n a future production
of ERWARTUNG, w i l l hopefully have gained a f u l l e r appreciation of
this most i n t r i g u i n g work.

45

46

47

E R W A R T U N Q

BY

A.

SCHOLNblRG

48
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A p e l , W i l l i . H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c . Second
Cambridge: The Belknap P r e s s , 1969.
A r m i t a g e , M e r l e . Schoenberg.
P r e s s , 1971.

edition,

New Y o r k : Books f o r L i b r a r i e s

Bellman, W i l l a r d .
L i g h t i n g t h e Stage A r t and P r a c t i c e .
Second e d i t i o n , New Y o r k : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company,
1967.
C r a f t , R o b e r t , r e c o r d n o t e s f o r "The M u s i c o f Arnold Schoenberg,"
V o l . 1. Columbia Records, 1963.
C r a w f o r d , John. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Text and M u s i c i n t h e
V o c a l Works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg.
dissertation,
Cambridge: The Belknap P r e s s , 1963.
D a l s t r o m , C.L.
Schoenberg's
York: AnnArbor, 1930.

Dramatic E x p r e s s i o n i s m .

New

F i e l d , Frank. The L a s t Days Of Mankind: K a r l Kraus and


H i s V i e n n a . New York: M a c M i l l a n , 1967.
F u r n e s s , R.S.
Limited,

E x p r e s s i o n i s m . London: Methuen and Company


1973.

G o l d w a t e r , R o b e r t . A r t i s t s on A r t .
Books L i m i t e d , 1945.

New York:

G r o u t , Donald. A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f Opera.
New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,

Pantheon

Second
1965.

edition,

J u n g , C a r l . The C o l l e c t e d Works o f C.G. Jung. V o l s . 5 18,


Second e d i t i o n , London: Routledge Kegen P a u l , L t d . ,
1967.
1

L e i b o w i t z , Rene. Schoenberg arid H i s S c h o o l .


Da Capo P r e s s , I n c . , 1949.
MacDonald, Malcolm.
1976.

Schoenberg.

M a c h l i s , Joseph. The Enjoyment


Company I n c . , 1963.
Payne, Anthony.
Schoenberg.
E l y House, 1968.

London: J.M.

o f Music.

New

York:

Dent Sons L t d . ,

New Y o r k : W.W.

Norton

London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ;

49
P e r l e , George. S e r i a l C o m p o s i t i o n and A t o n a l i t y . F o u r t h
e d i t i o n , Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ,
1977.
P i l l i n , B o r i s . Some A s p e c t s o f C o u n t e r p o i n t i n S e l e c t e d
Works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg.
Los A n g e l e s : Western
I n t e r n a t i o n a l M u s i c , I n c . , 1971.
Reich, W i l l i .
Schoenberg, A C r i t i c a l B i o g r a p h y .
P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1971.
R i c h i e , J.M.
German E x p r e s s i o n i s t Drama.
P u b l i s h e r s , 1976.
Rosen, C h a r l e s . A r n o l d Schoenberg.
P r e s s , 1975.

Viking

London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h ,

R o s e n t h a l , J e a n . The Magic o f L i g h t .
A r t Books, 1972.

New Y o r k : T h e a t r e

R u f e r , J o s e f . Aspekte der Neuen Musik.


V e r l a g K a s s e l , 1968.
!---

York:

B o s t o n : Twayne

New Y o r k : The

Rosenfeld, Paul. Musical P o r t r a i t s .


Trubner $ Company, L t d . , 1922.

New

Kassel: Bernereiter-

. The Works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg.


Faber, 1962.

London: Faber

R u s s e l l , Douglas. Stage Costume D e s i g n : Theory Technique


and S t y l e . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 1973.
Samuel, R i c h a r d . E x p r e s s i o n i s m i n German L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e ,
and t h e T h e a t r e (1910-1924). Cambridge: W. H e f f e r $ Sons
L t d . , 1939.
Schoenberg, A r n o l d . S t y l e and I d e a .
London: Faber Faber, 1975.
S p i l l m a n , Ronald.
P r e s s , 1974.

E d i t e d by Leonard S t e i n ,

Darkroom T e c h n i q u e s .

S t e i n , E r w i n . Orpheus i n New
Company L t d . , 1953.

Guises.

England: Fountain

London: C. T i n l i n g and

S o k e l , W a l t e r . An A n t h o l o g y o f German E x p r e s s i o n i s t Drama.
New Y o r k : Doubleday, 1963.
S t u c k e n s c h m i d t , H.H.
A r n o l d Schoenberg.
The D i t c h l i n g P r e s s , 1959.

H a s s o c k s , Sussex:

50
Tansey, Richard. Art Through the Ages. Sixth e d i t i o n , New
York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1975.
Vergo, Peter.
Webern, Anton.

The Blue Rider.

New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977.

Schoenberg's Musik.

Munich,

1912.

51
Periodicals

H e r b e r t Buchanan, "A Key t o Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG, Opus 17",


J o u r n a l o f t h e American M i i s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y ,
XX (1967), 434-449.
A l a n Lessem, "Schonberg and t h e C r i s i s o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m " ,
Music and L e t t e r s , LV (1974)-, 429-436.
H.H.

Stuckenschmidt,
"Kandinsky und Schonberg",
XXXI (1964), 209-211.

Melos,

K a r l Worner, " A r n o l d Schoenberg and t h e T h e a t r e " , M u s i c a l


Q u a r t e r l y , X L V I I I (1962), 444-460.

DO NOT COPY
LEAVES 52-98;
PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL

52

A .

ERWARTUNG
(Monodram)
op. 1?
Dichtung von
MARIE PAPPENHEIM

Klavierauszug
(E. Steuermann)

LTD

U N I V E R S A L

E D I T I O N

53

Besetzung des Orchesters


1 kleine Flote

4 HOrner in F

3 groBe FlOten

3 Trompeten in B

(3. auch 2. kleine)

4 Posaunen

3 Oboen

1 BaB-Tuba

1 Englisch Horn

1 Harfe

(auch 4. Oboe)

1 Celesta

1 D-K!arinette

I. Geige (wenigstens 16)

1 Klarinette in B

II. Geige (wenigstens 14)

2 Klarinetten in A

Bratschen (1012)

1 Ba6-Klarinette,in B

Violoncell (1012)

3 Fagotte

Kontrabasse (810)

1 Kontrafagott
Pauken, Becken, groBe Trommel, kleine Trommel, Tamtam, Ratschen,
Triangel, Glockenspiel, Xylophon.

U.

E.

5362

ERWARTUNG
(Monodram)

Auffiihrungsrecht vorbehalten.
Droiit d'execution reserves.

Dichtung von Marie Pappenheim

Arnold Schoenberg Op. 17

I. S z e n e
S t a m m e
terte

m R a n d e

u n dd e r A n f a n g

r o t e

R o s e n

a m

eines

W a l d e s .

d e s b r e i t e n

K l e i d .

M o n d h e l l e

W e g e s

S c h m u c k .

1 +

n o c h

S t r a f i e n

h e l l .

F r a u

is M t x#n.n<j

ft. vena*

mafiige J us)

E i n e

u n d

d e r

k o m m t ;

M o e ^ i f i r

W a l d h o c h

z a r t .

w e i f i

u n d

d u n k e ' l .

gekleidet;

ljW-4 -Hx * i W

N u r d i e

t e i l w e i s e

e r s t e n
entbl'at-

**y f * * * * *

T "^
0

-H* &*.

^ * 'l'Y ** **
h

F e l d e r ;

' f

tgt,

Gesang

Klavier

F r a u

(zogernd)

Hler_

hin-ein?...

Man sleht den Weg


O u

cahoot-

nloht.

t e a

*>. <*.j

131

'if; I f

I f Hi

Wie sll
too
si

bern die Stam

schim-mern...

me

11

_=

PP

pppsehr leicht
H" bedentet H a o p t s t i m m e , N* N e b e n s t i m m e .

C o p y - r i ^ t
Renewed

1 9 2 2 b y U n i v e r s a l

Copyright

D i e G e s a n g s s t i m m e ist (we tin

E d i t i o n

1950 b y E d u a r d

wle Blr - ken!...

rf Ob. sehr zart

Universal

Edition

nichts gegenteiliges

N r .

angegeben

ist)

i m m e r HAxrptstimme.

5362.

Steuermann

TRW"* "**'
-

|CftTS"-'Ne

ttAW)eR..

(vertieft

zu

B o d e n

scnauend)

poco rail.

un -

oh_

ser Gar - ten.

Die

Blu - men

fur ihn

ifsind

si - cher

ver-

Hr.
, _ V c l .

fliefiend "CLtt 2. s*f*

b.I.

welkt.
Fl.

H~

HP I

'J: Uppity If ify P I ^ f l l If f ^ J - J

Id n4 j n4 j J J j
PPl

rascher J = 76
(in

(hurcht

plbtzlicher Angst)

Iuh

in den W a l d ,

beklomraen)

te mich... was fiirschwe-re Luft


a. ^likieu ..
vjkaA- Saltan, air

furch

Hrf.

herausschlagt..
Ii OuA twe. ..

H"

iii
#71

F g # .

B
Pos.m.D.\

7
Kb.

' 1

st

H^+ttxHs.loototout-.s/"

rit

molto rit.

(ringt d i e H a n d e , sieht z u r i i c k )

V ^ ^
Wie

> i*

?r

ji

n ^ ^

grau - en-voll

ein Sturm

ru - hig
itt

U . E .

5362.

und

4eer...

a*jL

ft

tare

Oua* r clou* .IrtteKjcci^dwoH^

]viel langsamer (J = so)

(sieht

(kauert

hinauf)

n i ^ d e r . lauscht, sieht

P
A-berhierists
A-berhier
ists we-niff-stenshell..
we-nig-stenshell..
ft** heft it

i*

U*Ue-

der
tier Mond

-bfi^A-...

WQGI\

war frii-Flier
fru "her
wu

torlier

KO

hell
hell...

So

"bri^UA-.

sehr rasch

molto rit
(auffahrend)

bei

der Mond_
tie. MJor\-

dir.

1st in der
i<> i. "*^-

(rt**l*.

Dam-me-rung.
-me-runff...
-Wi
lujrt

3F

^ 7
Kb.
U. E .

5362.

a/

57
6

-. 5 S

heftig (J.96)

wieder

J
feig

bist du

willst ihn nicht su

chen?...

ab(pt

langsamer

Mrtn

U.S.

ftWr\-to

So still) doch hiur

11

H"
Trp.A

*
A

7
Fl

fc-l^b-fP

1
KbAcl.am

Vcl.Kb.

JSlrit

- .

^ ^ { w e n d e t

sich

gf-g^n

d e n W a l d )

-langsam

abrupt 4urm t>. S .

U.

E .

5362.

Sleg

Hj.

59
g

U . S z e n e CT
wieder etwas langsainer
iefstes

,
,
jnoch

U.S. o f O w C d l f )

, .
_,
hinter der

5lou3l

Dunkel, breiter W e g ,

x
Szene;

hohe., d i c h t e B i i u m e . S i e

tastet vorwarts)

153 wieder viel rascher

( b u c k t s i c h , e r e i f t rait d e n
i
. . . i ,

Handen, aufschreiend)
K _
.

**** ow**. JJ.itK

w a l k <Ut>

K*~A , ic/e*~u

D.VcWot
Ist dasnochder Weg?..
Xs -4.t sktt+ke uiaij?--

>

1
bubble.
(zitternd

auf>

versucht

Hier ist es e
Hfe'(t is pirn* -

Was?

laii los!...

lj

esoress.

KF3

/Po .
s

control (*uut%

ihre

Hand

zu

betrachten)

(wild, greift

sich

ins

Gesicht)

a6
Ein - ge-klemmt?.. Nein

Tschligt

ist was ge -'kro - chen...

mit

den

Handen

U.

E .

urn

sich)

5362.

'

Und hier

60

J=

45

C^eht w e i t e r , n u t v o r y e s t r e c k t e n

(sehr

wieder ruhig

Es war
a

ft*

so
Sc.

still

"hin-ter den Mau-ern des Gar

so

fliefiende J

Armen)

tens..

ruhig)

Kei-ne Sensen mehE.kein Ru-

nfc loom &yWi><*^t<y(k4{,.. no CiJ-

J[i

U.

E.

5362.

61
10

Hq| rit. J = 56 langsamer J


1

rit.

60

pj) subilo_

etwas drangend J= 69
(traurig)

langsamer J = 54

(stehen

bleibend)

3
far

b e n

b e r

d u

bist

nicht

n c -ver.

Co - loufS- Trp.

k;

g e - k o m

d.dL

men....

e*ft

W e r

in. D.

Kb.

Hr.

w e i n t

WI.O er.C*
n klagend &\

(wieder

(nifendj sehr

leise,

etwas langsamer

angsUich)

(wartet)

(lauter)

lauschendj

naru-

( . s i i ^

<

; ^

da?..
1st
M l . - |

h i e r

" j e - m u n d ?

1st

h i e r

j e - m a n d ?

N i c h t s . .

a - b e r das w a r

(ic?Ar rasch)
PPP^j

Pos.

=5
TO
U.

E .

5362.

doeh..

'

62

75

rascher werdend von J= 60 bis J= so


Jetzt rauscht es

It

fliichtend)

- ben-

n
(vol]

schliigt_

snhi>iirt.

it

(Schrei
(tobendf

eines

Nachtvogels)
J -

84

seitwarts

CT'GSC
s
es

rustl '3

Entsetzen

J.ki Stip
_^

qsU

K.WJM- *

&U*

v o n
A s t . i"zu
/ n
von
Ast

Ast..

Es

U.

E .

5362.

J) =

84

etwas drangend

U.

E .

5362.

65
14

v i e l rascher J = 7 6

A iaM-^u^u^iut,
(LeichterWindstoB

A - bend 1st es so

( S i e sieht w i e d e r h i n j

lang .

- ber derSchat-ten krlecht

nicht rascher, aber heftiger i m Ausdruck

quel -

Kein
No

lend..

wte an

Stie

**^X^ (Jii^-sf"

Tier,_

lie -ok^i

len

S|'lA^'

ber
Gott, keln
deafi <Sat*, , w

U. E .

5362.

( L a u t des

Wie
Hsu3

Schauderns)

es glotzt...
i t . Srt.(SS

Tier...
t*ast.

doch!..

66

ich
. _ I

ha - be

c o

sol - che Angst.. Lieb -

ka*. -

15

J = 84.

it

4ta.r LDV -

ster, mein
tt

Lieb -

t t - \ov

ster,

e<JU ,

hilf
help

Siir

4^*
PPP

'3i

3 -

IT
Ve rwan d I u n g

'PP staec.

ppstacc.

<" " ' ' *


SJ

M i

f r p i

immer stacc.

*v# "
etwas beschleunigend

etwas verlangsamend, aber doch flieBend J = 72

U.

E .

5362.

f r u s ^

67
16

IV Szene

( M o n d b eschienene, breite Strafie, rechts


abwechselndj. Etwas
siehtman
Fenster
G e w a n d

die Strafie

mit dunklen
ist

TFve

L a d e n

zerissen, die
p a t K

r\ou>

125

nach

links

verliert

freiliegen. Dort

aus d e m W a l d e
sich

geschlossen. E i n
Haare

l o u t s

+o

auch

W i e s e n

i m Dunkel

ein W e g , d e r von

Balkon

einem

aus weifiem Stein. Die

verwirrt. Blutige
a

k o m m e n d .

die Strafie w i e d e r

miindet

Risse

an

Gesicht

u n d

u n d

F e l d e r (gelbe

hoher
Hause
Frau

u n d

Baumgruppen.
herunterfuhrt.

kommt

langsam,

griine

Streifen

Erst

g"anz

In

diesem

erschopft.

links
alle
Das

Handen.)

house-

ruhig, aber flieBend J = 6 9

(utnschauend)

Istauchnicht

. Laut...

da...

Die wei

Auf der gan-zen,lan-gen Stra - Be

tenblassenFel-der iind oh-ne A - tern,


CittoLi-

po-W ~

Cig.Br.Fl.

ert

irtaH.- ,

nithtsLe-ben-di - ges... und kein

wie er-stor-ben., kein Halm


.no Stock-

as. '<Q dOaHL.

noch etwas langsamer J = 50

look I'K dutefto*. of roooi


(sieht

die Strafie

entlaner)

VV

riihH sich

i -

^ _

3.

Noch im - mer

die

tadt..

H5

Flii-gel-schat-ten ei -tiesNacht - vo-gels am

E .

le
-

PPP

185

V.

fah
al

PP

Flag.

Fl.

k e i - n e W b l - ke, nicht der

und die-ser

5362.

Him - mel.

68
(Sie

bleibt

sehwankend

stehen)

rascher J.ss
Ij^Sie h a t s i c h b i s i n

die Nahe

der B a u m g r u p p e n

(links) gtschleppt, unter denen

es

voil-

J=54
<* *TS U l wKviK i t ta <<>( a u k
standig

dunkel

Viel ruhiger

ril.

ist)

(miide, unentrichlossrn; schnsiichti^)

4Ap

Ei-neBank..

ichmuB

A-ber so

aus-i-uhn..

wieder rascher J r eo
(Sie

kommt

unter

die

Batons,

stiitlt

rait

dem

Futf an
r uu

nuuiranu e m

etwas)

an etwa.i>v

(Mit

dem

FUJ

tastend,

Fr.

lung

Nein,

ion ihnlucht
ihjvmcht ge
hub ioh
ge-sehn.
&< c ION*
^

Vcl.

das
das

ist
ist nicht
nichtderSchattentier
derSchatten tierBank!
Ban!
Gg- j

mm
B.K1.

iP i

U. E.

5362.

ill

-6-9t * j N f i t v^y,
erschrocken)

(Beugt

l<tt^.

sich nieder, hurcht)

(Sie

tastet

t^o oat e( 4k aKoelouas ,vV>'-H^ Maoihli^t-

8
(Sie

tritt a u s d e mSchatten

hinunter)

(Versucht

ins Mondlicht)

seJir aufgeregt, aber pp

m i t entaeLz-

Kr.

Esglanzt rot..
rot...
D- looks r e d . .

Ach,
Ach, mei-ne Han-de
Haiilde sindwund ge-ri:
ge-ris-sen...
Mi ,^

- a/a. b l o o d y

aAd. Soft

Nein,

es istnochnaii,
it is still

do
es ist von
vondort.
H fe -ftmHOifc.

. 104
licher

Anstrengung

V'^i'oa

urntoat

d e n Gegenstand

hervofzuzerren)

~h> tscaftg h o o V c o n s t a r t s

i u *Cdux.^* (V+o p.*. schok

Ich kann

nicht

Kb.'v
(Biickt sich^mjt farchtbarem S c h r e i )

I\A -V> W w (05.


( S i t sinkt nieder)

tei-ii'

70

langsam(!a/%: J= 60)
p.

(Erhebt

sich

halb,

aodaB

ihx Gesicht

den

Baumen

zugewendet

ist. V e r w i r r t )

(sieht unverwandt hin)

JUL

das istderschreckU-che Kopf...

das Ge-spensl...

wenn es nur end-Uch verschwande...

wie das Im

Ml
Wuld...
Used*

Etn Baumschatten.

.ein
a.

la-cher-li-cherZweig...
ri-oiic-a-lo*s Weh...C*L

U. E

5362.

Der

Mond Ist tuk-kisch...

71
poco rit.

20

etwas langsamer
(mit

weil

er blut-leer ist...

malt er

ro -

Nioht hin-sehn...Nichtdrauf ach"tun... Es

DoA-t look iW.. Do >ot-

*A>kd

ausgestreckten

zer-geht

it-.-

Fingern

tesBlut...

hinweisend, fliisternd)

A-ber eswirtlgleichzerflie

en...

si-cher...

#
Mf- j

(Flag.g/u*.,

PP

(Sie wendet sich m i t gezwungener


Ruhe ab, gegen die
Strafie z n )

ffliss.

lr.

(Sie wendet sich j a hurn,


aber nicht vollstandig)

_._-+

.
[ ! ( M t W

( S c h w e [gen,
Unbeweglichkeit)
s;W*

(Fast iauchzend)
. w i t i
X.^\u

Fr.

Ichwill fort...
t^to

wie das imWald..

ichmuCihn fin-den... E s m u f i s c h o n s p a l s e i n . M
JC-Swujoe-ol. K.V... x-^s oAWvi
\ a * s .

, Es ist nichtmelir

. - %

lo/

langsam

rit. .
_

'

J.

112

(Sie hat sich weiter gewendet, erblickt plotzlich wieder d e n

Gegenstand)

^3
Fr.

da...

Es ist noch

Ich wufi - te..

X*. -

U. E. 5362.

7 2
Xk

H * . <a*v. o f

collars*

S^i-J* e / e w

(ihr Oberkorper fallt nach vorn, sie scheint


abr sie k n e c h t mit g-esenktem H a u p t bis

(Sie

beugl

sich ganz

zur

Seite, als

wollte

sie i h m

ins Gesicht

sehen)

,c

<$ >fa-

zusammenzusinken,
hin, tastet^

21

7,3

pppi

K.^rf,bw<jrop(hiYi'>*>etwas
1

(Entsetzt, beugt

U E .

sich ganz)

5362.

PP

zuriickhaltend J =
( a t e m l o s ) -t>i4Hil5S

100

74
J - 84

sofort im Tempo (m'dpige


zum

H a u s e

23

J)

195

hiaaufj

Um Got - tes

wil-Tlen

ra8ch!...

hort

(schaut

look back

mich denn
no

etwas langsaraer
verzweifelt u m sicE)

^u.***,*

^ *

Izuruck unter d i e B a u m e ;

^/""^ K*'""
'

~ ;

OAC

nie-mand ?...
hedr me.?...

(onn

fliefiend J = so

205

Fr.

Pi
tot

be

rit.. -molto_riL.
sein... ich

dead... X.

lie

Ii

(zartlich, eindringlich)
=

6 6

- be dich
h K'
so...

you. SO

IUIUX--'

nJn-ser
Jn-ser Zimnler
Zimraer i;
ist halb Our
civA^be^
+iov0*^ i
E.H.

ppzart

JTj

E . 5362.

75
24

langsamer J = 50
rit.

.
X

^ J *

hell...

*p H"

Al - les

war - let..

Was soil ich

tun

' J n J

J)

Die Blu - men

p nJ> 1

duf-ten "so

Was soil ich nur tun,,

stark...

dafi 'er
er

auf-wacht?...
auf-wacl

"L

langsamer J = 58
(Sie

greift ins Dunkel

faflt s e i n e

H a n d )

(Sie

zieht die H a n d

schiichtern,

hinein,,
(zusammenzuckend,

fragend)

a n sich, kufit sie

schmeichelnd)

76

J = 9 2

Oje+ofroue)! r , , i

- p r h Kan4 o l a p

lebhaft (nicht zu rasche J )


(ausbrechendj^

teg

maBig J = so (wesentlich langsamer)


poco rit

Fr.

\jl

JpHf .

( f ^ - f ^ V :
*^ mir?

DieSon

"Ipf
M:

negliiht
Pas. B.Tb.

Hi

j/1 - /

uf uns...
a

iff- "

W 'IB .
ian
dei-ne ]

in
iiff- a
yr^yjT*
-

de

lie-g jnauf

mir... dei

Y.

- ne

26

[2301 niolto r i t . .

breit J

S i e h

m i c h

d o c h

a n ,

L i e b

ster.

leh

l i e -

g e

' ne - b e n

d i r

? r**~)

So

sieh

So

'r'

look-

f-

b o r f

'

'

o u n k i n a U i . l o o k a-V- h

'

langsam

J-

(sieht i h n a n , e r w a c h e n d )

m i c h

d o c h

a n

w i e

A h ,

Starr...

w i e

l u r c h

t e r - l i c h

hoo dncA - ^ul-l^

Gg. am Steg

Kl.i

(sehr

8 0

d e i - n e

A n -

eoW-

traurigj

gen'sind...

a/- you' eytsKl.

Simp

II

pp

J=

Pos. m. U.

'sehr langsam J .
Fr.

d r e i

T a

*W

- iSrj^-J-

g e
0

H"

'

60

etwas w e n i g e r l a n g s a m _

50

w a r s t

!
d u nicht

W > ( c . nrt

w-

b e i
uwtt.

A - b e r
3A-

m i r . .
M .

h e u
^

te..
**)

*kflr,.Ki,

so
a h .

s i

Su.ee.

c h e r . .
I j -

wieder langsamer (J = J) % -

J. =

40

rit.

27

i - f = ,

Fr.

der

A-bend war

so

voll Frie

U-bef die Gar - ten-mail - er dir


Over

^ * r ^ d e j ^ ^

wM

- "den...

ent-ge
a

+P w t A

U . E . 5 3 6 2 .

Ich schau - te

gen..

undwar
undwar. -

so nie -

tetfTe..
tePfe.

drig ist sie..

fliefiender J = so
E

- ben noch

E-veftou

Hauch

im

do\ _ ne
np
dei

Wald..._

+1^

auf mei-ner

-ft,

fitim
mp
Stim _- me

rt

Wan -

WKCI

ge...

dei

U. E . 5362.

ne

n
so

nflh
nah

So

oloM. "to

Hand

;in "mei-nem
"mpi.npm Ohr,
Ohr - 1m an
~ j

auf

"*Kfr'-

hiei - nein

80
langsamer J = 63

29

noch langsamer J = 60

me
bog sich doch e- ben nocn
nocli un-ter mei-nen
KUs

Mund

TO ait*
*

pp

WJT^
1

lT>

< j

1 l

C ^'f'

1
<j

'J

mpespr"

fa

in Blut

Cel.PPP

ftp

lip

'p-.

tropft

noch

jetzt

^
3

mit

Vour

(Sie

beugt

sich

BluL

"blood*

tief

iiber

ist
i+

noch le - ben
Ml
- litft.

lei -"sum
-'semSchlag

dig..

ihn)

Pespr.
U. E .

5362.

i i

Dein

3 0

noch langsamer J 4 0

richtet

M c h halb

auf)

Q i e b k o s e n d ) ^

(In

d e r

Fr.

Al-lesLicht kam ja ausdei-nen Au

rtmb*/ la*fi*ti>f.St"**]&*dly
Erinnerung

kiili

iir- oh\jLinHfil .ln.u'pnn ichdich


ich Hiph an-sah...
n Jwnh
mirschwindel-te,wenn
Nun

gen...

klSS h i m

|270|

liichelnd, geheimniiivori, ziirtlich)

Ich mich an dir zu

To

U.

K.

5362.

82

ininier noch langsam J = 54

31

(Sie sieht ihn unverwandt an.' Nach einer Pause pliitzlich, verwundert)

pp espr.
~<r>-

l>
selt

sam

^ist
are

dein
yew

Au

ge.

Wo

*F
-

hin

u-n.

Cel.

275 Etwas bewegter J-. J = 60


sehaust '

du?

vioi+(v
(heftiger)

Srt-up

took areuxd
dutcttrr. o-f
Csieht sich um.. nach dem Balkon)

U. E. 5362.

in:

1-3
(wieder

zuriick. die H a n d

an

d e r

Stirn)

280

(Gesang noch immer ruhig, also etwas schleppendj

plotzlich viel langsamer J

(immer

(angestrengt

vertiefter)

i n der E r i n n e r u n g

8S

suchend)

wieder rascher J- = 60
(immer

und plotzlichbezwangst du dich...

klarer

werdend)

Und drei

285

Ta -

ge warst du nichtbei mir...


dap you
"'^

1,4

steigernd
kei-ne Zeit... so
a*a KB -H'fvMi...

oft

^c&T**

hast du kei-ne
kei-neZeit
Zeit ge-habt in die-sen letz-ten
letz-tenMo-na-ten
Mo-na-ten...
MKL tiaw. KanL no h'wt. 4ar m m HKatf tot- t u m r h . . .

of-hir.

U E. 5362.

wonutA>

84

Br. H r f . C e l . X y l .

E.

5362.

.85
langsamer J .= 76

B.Kl.Fg.

etwas breiter J
at>rp1- H e a d

4t*r

S-K.

(in rasender

Angst)

= 72

(bewegte

J)

,86
(aufschreiend, w i e sich a n k l a m m e r a d )
Sc-Mcu*'

Nein,.

ein - zig

nein...

Ge "Ua

On-

no...

35

molto rit. -

315

3E
i

langsamer J = so

nochlangsamer J = 56
(zitternd)

4^

FY.

schwankt...
Swcup ...

ich
X

kann
Catv

nicht
not

se -

hen..

'> M <

^
mich
<x"t

y J

d
ooch

P P >

u.

r*^^^!
rit'.I n

Y'r

p p p _ ^ ^ ^ P P P

> ^ # i r

*/

Schau.

a?

V verrimetta ~

mafiige a). (J = too)


took* i"o /*.. o f i < < * < o < \ ' f * * n u < *
,

pespr.

Hr.

-Hi

U. E. 5362.

F l

r-il

87

Sehr rasch J. = eo

36
[325

(rast

plotzlich)

Wo ist

^J^jj*

Dusiehst wie-der

wieder sehr lebhaft

, Rasch J=J

(hohnisch)

molto rit..

_ die wei-Ben Ar

sie denn

* V d u

sie

V.

E.

rot

5362.

WBU.

<J.=56

88

und

U. E .

5362.

ich war-

89

- te-te...

Ich will sie

s z

4f

tfS

S.L

Wo ist sie

an den Wei-Ben Ar-men

hin -

her -

lau-fen als du im Blut


4o

OA

schlei-fen

you. Vis

lagst?...
m

r,wfc*<*y

/>/>5E. H . -

U. E. 5362.

-bloe^t,?..

-9 039

S e h r mafiig

(Schluchzt auf)

lapu am*

fliefiendeJU

olto rit.

-p***

Adagio)

J=

ion

nicht ein Rial Idie


Kt
not e-ve

Oh!

OKI

S.Gg.

H"Br.

ppsehr zaftespress.

Gna <

i g f f e z

fl It.

de, mit
,
-b

Sir
btrt

ster dit ,

ben
die

'i'rv

if-

T
~=

zu

w y

==~^.-r~~\

= 92

(sinkt n i e d e r ,

^
fen...
ar*s- .

w PPP

ppsehr zart

aiir your

= H

^
weinend)

J = 104

etwas fliefiender

360
WcK

ich

dich

ka\lt

ge -

habt

, h a d '

-for
c

(in Traumerei

s i u . o f h i Quae.

. bab'...

Al - len

' . *f0u,-
IT. H .

"
1

fflr

J3J

U. E. 5362.

versinkend)

Din - gen fer - ne

91

40
|
l A -1
k

(1
1
^Mr*
i

leb

4=
le icl

you....

fr emd

k * l e - <fOa*- ,

=_

VV

^
- .

\e

nichts

als

Since. - * k t r s t +IIAC.- v/OU. - t o d t -

noch etwas langsamer J

r~

' " H B w R*
seit du zumer-stenMaimei-neHandnahmst...
Hog. ^ r r d

TfiQl

- "\1
^
Icl

i wuB

die-ses gan-ze Jahr


^ i s -

al

'
dich...

1,
vr
- Ie n

I...

rit. .

_ 365

my

so warm..

Kaivd- J L .

6 0

" ^

zngenid

rit.
3*

Fr.

lie fru4ier"lieb4e ich je-man-aen


nie
niefrii-her"lieb4e
ie-man-aen so...

Dein Lii - cheln

und dein

*P1

ill
/W>

-5X
8

sehrlangsame J. , *

U m

(Stille und

"
Schluchzen)

U. E .

Re - den...

5362.

PP

ichhat-tedich so

92
Softly 3iic*i<&ly
t

(leise,

sich

41

aufrichtend)

PPPP,
'/J

Mein

Lie

Hy

loy -

ber...

mein

ein

""^

Of...

WTf^tt

5 ~F=N

H > i

noch etwas langsamer


.
J

wah-rend ich vorSehn-sucht


ver-ging...
orSehn-sueht ver-ging...
loK'ilg M>( b4y &i.<y.eA wi'N. yen/m

Du

J,

ieb-Iin
<
zi - ger LiebTing...
hast du sie ral gge-kiiflt?...
1^
^ - lov/(a** you-fwo ofk*. khtid?-

or,

- rit. ,

ja...
y...

hast du
nast
du
Have you

lachelstschmerzlich

^i--

sehr
sehr

IB

motto esyr.

noch etwas langsamer (J) = 6o)


(stiller,

ge -- iiebt?
Iiebt?
ge

Sag
Sag

fr

nicht:
nicr

\ielIeichthastduauchge-liUen..vielleichtriefdeinHerznachihr:.
perkajJs youhajt S n ^ f A a U o - fsrkof* your Kearf callft*-roj^fKer .

3_
f

^ i ^ ^ f r

sie
sie

fapforiMfy
(flehendj

warm)

U E. 5362.

93

ruhige V i e r t e l ( J . 60)

42

lich...

- ber dein Mit


leid mach-te mich gliick
you* Cowvrpa* - W
r*Ms me Nap

16

Co.i

ich

glaub

te,

war i m OlLickWas ^frf*"vt+4.


r

(StiUe.; D a m m e r u n g i m O s t e n , tief a m H i m m e ] W o U c e n , v o n s c h w a c h e m
durchleuchtet, gelblich schimmernd
wie Kerzeniicht)

Soft-^ car
#ce
K i 6

Schein

Hj" T
S.Gg.

(Sie

stent
"

auf)

Fl"

VPf-

PPP

J*

66

ruhig flieftende J

(ruhig, fast freundlich I ohne Leidenschaft)


Fr.

Lieb

ster,

Lieb - ster,

der

Mor

kommt...

gen

Ob.

H"

H"
Fl.

U . K .

5 3 6 2 .

Was soil

ich "ul

m p / t o esp/T

94

(J.J) rit.

molto rit.

Fr.

al - le

und

du warst..

oil

^ D U J ? ...

Hn

Far -

ben der Welt

Co - lourt o( **

bra-chen

world.

we*4

aus dei - neu Au

mutated.

iV\

e^oi

seAr warm

QPJSehr langsam (J = 42)

J.J

Fr.
f*
B

neve.

e n

"

sehr ruhig
rf

boeK

CUrciHtj I L S . C .

ft-

Das
TV*.

Licht
wird fiir
al le kom \>oyt
k,-,U
co~t
-&>/ a l l

95

- breiter A 72

Mor-gen tiennt uiis...im

merderMorHA

E H

'

OiKed

gen-.
So schwer. kiiCt du zum Ab-schied
">9i--- SoSo rShp^li)
you. feegi4iWQzrt-iwj

11-/.

etwas langsamer

J = 46

Ifflfliefiender

J.

P# V
Wie-derein e-wi-gerTag des War-tens... oh
du \v - wachst janichtmehr...
A> ^x>>~efrcv^l ^x^| c4 UalVi'*^ ... oU.
^ow. bho will
no

Fg.Bkl

U.E. 5362.

:
li+aywj

*>f

97

46

Sehr langsam J. = 36 (J- ios


1

Es istdunkel... deinKufi
14- is d o / k - ...

wie ein

you., I M C

f,l(

Flam - men - zei - chen


-fwr>

In meinerNacht...

ej^bf

l&nj rn^k+...J9.\f!:

Si
I S
Hrf. (ev. SV.a bassa)

n
Fr.
mel-ne Lip ..m~(.....fipit

penbren - nen
.ft<g...ft..-..Maint

nnH leu'ch
lnimh
und

-_

*<in
ten..

"Wi^
dir~

" . ani_
ent-ge
a * t a/t- bcclcoft.r^

7 7 'V

Hp

tf>

Ifjprlf ^ j r
U. E . 5362.

JLTfg.f

98

Sehr langsam (i mafiig)

F
igen...
to you....

SlouMf w a l k U.S.

47

($oc*.

a^iewt)

Waldheim-Eberle.

Wien

VII.

99

KEY

TO SYMBOLS USED

IN STAGING

DS

Downstage

US

Upstage

SL

Stage

left

SR

Stage

right

USC

Upstage

centre

101
APPENDIX

I I I

102
APPENDIX IV
INSTRUMENT

SCHEDULE

Numaee

CAroP

NOTES

&rs tooo w.

ARe*. 1 WASH

ECT loco W.

lf

tt

SffcCiAl W26AA WASH

II

s
to

7
8

11

A . JH-AStt

"

II

[T

ll

It

. ... -

ft

1*

r,

to

It

If

i\

fl

It

Af?A 3 WASH

AReA

I WASK

1'

11

II

i\

osR &:*ifA

SPECIAL Afee&A W>SK

I*

>

AU- LEKOS
q>coppo iJ>rH
S*mTTeRS
* .

11

i'

34

47

>T

.......

5o

5")

.H

. .

53

/7

54

SI

n
'&

SS

17

to

II

llo

ii

FifZSr P'P^

tt.
o

ti

901 ip to rrw 4o6t>

AfeA..3> WASH
DSi_ Scfti rr>

'

BTu 5bo

'1

u*SH
AtfEA 5" WASH

ALU F6tSi*Ei-S

3
n

20

17

2/

AA

if

if

1'

It

II

it

'l

II

II

Aefc

U VJIVSH

.t

ii

ii

. 7.5n

II

5.3

^
3

II

"

2C

i'

17

103

0U

U9CATfoJ

IO

PiSr Pipe
ElCTRicJ
ii

IX

II

ii

ii

ft

it

II

H
<4
e>

.A.

n
18

20
XI

n
i

i
Z

r
/

I
I
/

ii

1'

I1

II

it

II

l>

i"

3o

3i

53

>7

34

kz

3?

3i

31

38

, n
SPeci^L AREA A Sise
UtMTifJi.

sX

,i

3EXVJO Pipe
H

II

II

ii

Ii

II

II

if

Az

<rZ

/8

/<f

/8

14

/8

1*

&Z

/t

/8

/5

US? ScC,rv\

LPT
*1 8coH SrwS
Rl<.HT
TStRo Pipe..

fvRfeAl

S I D E

eex iopo w.

51

sz

tl

is.
8

ELforrRiCll
II

IB . <B

II

8" LKO

*/o
4/

ioc>ov>).
II

t." LKO

ux.

II

fl

t," P5n L

2?.

51

**

II

II

8 L E K O

II

28

II

l|

l>

II

L F T

& T L SOOW..

uiswr

Age*, "7 WASH

ii

<1

S R K J M . ,VREA A cowr4

Din>rt\fc

tz

'3.

<i>"'=> WITH f

6VA)C WITH T

104

UJtATiOM

Hitne&l

THIRP
II

(. LKO

II

II

li

II

lo

II

It

tl

Ii

4." LKo

II

L,
1

S P E C I A L A#EA A B * C K

&F

i
II

I,

Ii

(0

13

'!

u&^TV/Jfi

it

rVeK T

SACK

Ufenroife

\o

II

IZ

tf-

cz

II

II

6ri_ Seoio.

It

i,

it

If

It

ii

Ii

"

II

If

ll

it

tl

it

II

II

II

ll
ll

to

ll

ISOA/CL.

ll

3.

Ii

II

6" LK

II

<l

it

H
0

'1

I
0-t<l-5TVmA-5

T<6d. UOfTS

i50tO.

<i
if

looovO.
it

1
'

WiTH I O

tOfTH l|

&AA*<i

"
tl

A*tiwiTVl9

It

Sfta^ AeA A B*c*

MOTES

18

It

TSOui.

i<

2-

it

^ S>:

ecu

S0014.

Feuf?nt PiPe

2.

BTL

II

II

ii

AteAi 4 WASH

Af3A-

LAMP

tc

PIPC

PuPoS

>

Z-

..

&<VM& toiru 2-

l(= Pbss<8i-6
GAAIG.

l-IO

I F Pto-vsiBt-a

105

LOCATToisf

Repose

LAMP

6u

otnvigg

SMAU- P b u ^ x J
SftrT

fe5

H
PAH*

HCCO

Urtr Steele.

O C UweU. StPlrW

NOTES

106
APPENDIX V

LIGHTING

MEASURE

CUE

SHEET

CUE
1

Accompanist
l i g h t s on

House out

Dimmers 5,6,14,15,19,57,66 i n . F o l l o w s p o t
on b r i d g e f o c u s s e d on a c t r e s s USC above
a r e a 6.
As a c t r e s s e n t e r s a r e a 6 dimmers
23,24, and 33 a r e s l o w l y b r o u g h t up.

Dimmer 66 out when a c t r e s s r e a c h e s


o f a r e a 6.

15

Dimmers

22

Dimmer

26 o u t .

Dimmer

32

Dimmer

27 o u t .

Dimmers

35

Dimmers 8,21,22,23,24,26,33 o u t . Dimmers


20,45,46,54 i n .

43

Dimmers

13,20 o u t .

Dimmers

49,50,56 i n .

46

10

Dimmers

49,50 o u t .

Dimmers

51,55 i n .

71

11

Dimmer

51 o u t .

76

12

Dimmer

81

13

Dimmers 45,46,49,50,52,53,54,56,60 s l o w l y
f a d e o u t . Dimmer 16 i n .

87

14

Dimmer 16 o u t . Dimmers 12,32,35,36,37,


39,40 i n . As a c t r e s s e n t e r s a r e a 7 dimmers
35,36,40 s l o w l y f a d e o u t .

94

15

Dimmers 61,62 i n , i n c r e a s i n g
to measure 114.

105

16

Dimmers

32,37,39 o u t .

106

17

Dimmers

63,64,65 i n .

(or o r c h e s t r a )

conductor's

middle

21,22,26 i n .

55 o u t .

Dimmer
Dimmers

27 i n .
8,13,26 i n .

49 in.50,52,53,60 i n .

in intensity

Dimmers

30,31,38 i n .

107

MEASURE

CUE

114

18

Dimmers 61,62,63,64,65,out. Dimmers


7,35,36,40 i n . As a c t r e s s a r r i v e s b e h i n d
u p s t a g e r i g h t s c r i m , dimmers 12,30,
31,35,36,38,40 f a d e o u t .

122

19

Dimmers 5,6,7.out.
32,37,39in.

20

As a c t r e s s a r r i v e s at s p e c i a l
dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n

146

21

Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 o u t .
29,43,44,48,59 i n .

151

22

Dimmers

9,21,22,27 i n .

154

23

Dimmers

9,21,22,27 o u t .

169

24

Dimmers

9 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 27 i n .

173

25

Dimmers

9 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 2 7 o u t .

190

26

Dimmers

45,46,54 i n .

197

27

Dimmers
Dimmers

11,29,43,44,45,46,48,54,59 o u t .
10,28,41,42,47,58 i n .

273

28

Dimmers
Dimmers

10,28,41,42,47,58 o u t .
11,29^43,44,48,59 i n .

349

29

Dimmers
Dimmers

11,29,43,44,48,59 o u t .
10,28,41,42,47,58 i n .

383

30

Dimmer 1 s l o w l y f a d e o u t .
Dimmers
2,3,4.in,

4003

31

Dimmers 24,34,43,44,66 i n .
Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 s l o w l y f a d e out
as a c t r e s s s t e p s u p s t a g e o f s p e c i a l
a r e a A.

32

As a c t r e s s s t e p s
dimmers

426

Dimmers

1,12,17,18,

area

A,

Dimmers

11,

upstage

of area 6

24,34,43,44 s l o w l y

33

Blackout

34

House up t o FULL

fade out.

108
APPENDIX VI