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Interactive Quiz
Try the multiple choice questions below to test your knowledge of this chapter.
1. Question 1 of 14

1. What makes a research conclusion true?


The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
There is general agreement among other researchers that it is true.
Yes:
No: X

The propositions within the conclusion correspond to what is actually the case in relation to the objects or
events being researched.
Yes: X
No:

The conclusion fits in with the conclusions of other research.


Yes:
No: X

The conclusions are practically useful in relation to the objects and events that we are researching.
Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
Researchers rarely ask about the truth of the conclusions to their research. Generalyy, they are more
interested in whether the conclusions fit in with what others have found out or whether they serve the
purposes of the research. As long as the research has been carried out with due care and diligence, the
truth is left to look after itself. For the purposes of our discussion here, the truth of their conclusions lies
in whether they correspond with the reality that they describe.

Answer:
There is general agreement among other researchers that it is true.

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Yes:
No: X

The propositions within the conclusion correspond to what is actually the case in relation to the objects or
events being researched.
Yes: X
No:

The conclusion fits in with the conclusions of other research.


Yes:
No: X

The conclusions are practically useful in relation to the objects and events that we are researching.
Yes:
No: X
Next
2. Question 2 of 14

2. What makes an argument valid?


Its persuasiveness.
A general agreement among others that it is so.
The conclusions logically follow within the line of argument.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
Its persuasiveness.
Yes:
No: X

A general agreement among others that it is so.


Yes:
No: X

The conclusions logically follow within the line of argument.

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Yes: X
No:
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
Validity is a logical term and refers to the relationship between the premises, that is, the preliminary
statements and the conclusions that follow. This relationship is one of entailment. If the conclusions are
entailed by the premises, the argument is logical. There are no 'degrees' of validity either two plus two
equal four or they do not (apologies to mathematically minded readers who will tell me that even this
supposedly obvious example is not as simple as it looks).

Answer:
Its persuasiveness.
Yes:
No: X

A general agreement among others that it is so.


Yes:
No: X

The conclusions logically follow within the line of argument.


Yes: X
No:
Next Check My Answer!
3. Question 3 of 14

3. What makes data reliable?


It accurately represents the objects and events from which it is drawn.
There is agreement from the repeated observations of researchers.
It appears reasonably to be the case to others.
We are confident that the researcher has observed carefully and has always produced reliable data in
the past.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
It accurately represents the objects and events from which it is drawn.
Yes: X
No:

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There is agreement from the repeated observations of researchers.


Yes:
No: X

It appears reasonably to be the case to others.


Yes:
No: X

We are confident that the researcher has observed carefully and has always produced reliable data in the
past.
Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
The repetition of observations, questionnaire surveys or whatever, under similar conditions, either by the
same researcher or by others in a team, is a standard way of ensuring the reliability. But this, in itself,
does not make the data reliable; rather goes some way to ensuring that the data accurately represents the
objects and events from which it is drawn.

Answer:
It accurately represents the objects and events from which it is drawn.
Yes: X
No:

There is agreement from the repeated observations of researchers.


Yes:
No: X

It appears reasonably to be the case to others.


Yes:
No: X

We are confident that the researcher has observed carefully and has always produced reliable data in the
past.

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Yes:
No: X
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4. Question 4 of 14

4. What is 'positivism'?
The demand for certainty in relation to research findings.
The view that all arguments and conclusions can be reduced to specific elements that are the result of
particular observations including measurements.
The employment of scientific methodology in social research.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
The demand for certainty in relation to research findings.
Yes:
No: X

The view that all arguments and conclusions can be reduced to specific elements that are the result of
particular observations including measurements.
Yes: X
No:

The employment of scientific methodology in social research.


Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
Positivism is the view that concluding statements or judgemental propositions can be justified by
reducing them to clearly identified items of data, i.e. what is taken from observations, interviews,
questionnaires, or documentary evidence.

Answer:
The demand for certainty in relation to research findings.
Yes:
No: X

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The view that all arguments and conclusions can be reduced to specific elements that are the result of
particular observations including measurements.
Yes: X
No:

The employment of scientific methodology in social research.


Yes:
No: X
Next Check My Answer!
5. Question 5 of 14

5. What is a 'theory'?
An explanation regarding how something should work.
An explanation of how we think something does work.
A guess or inspired hunch about how something works.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
An explanation regarding how something should work.
Yes:
No: X

An explanation of how we think something does work.


Yes: X
No:

A guess or inspired hunch about how something works.


Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
At its simplest, a theory is an explanation as to why things happen as they do. It might be at its early
stages in the form of a conjecture or hypothesis and as such speculative in nature.

Answer:

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An explanation regarding how something should work.


Yes:
No: X

An explanation of how we think something does work.


Yes: X
No:

A guess or inspired hunch about how something works.


Yes:
No: X
Next Check My Answer!
6. Question 6 of 14

6. What is 'knowledge transfer'?


Bringing professional practitioners up to date in terms of recent developments in their field of
practice.
Drawing from research those findings and conclusions that are most useful to the professional
practitioner.
Providing easy and instant access to a wide range of information.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
Bringing professional practitioners up to date in terms of recent developments in their field of practice.
Yes:
No: X

Drawing from research those findings and conclusions that are most useful to the professional
practitioner.
Yes: X
No:

Providing easy and instant access to a wide range of information.


Yes:
No: X

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The answer that you gave was incorrect.


This term has come into common parlance among researchers and normally refers to the process of
drawing from research those findings and conclusions that are most useful to the professional practitioner.
In this sense it refers to the practically orientated process of generating and disseminating 'useful'
research findings that have immediate practical application.

Answer:
Bringing professional practitioners up to date in terms of recent developments in their field of practice.
Yes:
No: X

Drawing from research those findings and conclusions that are most useful to the professional
practitioner.
Yes: X
No:

Providing easy and instant access to a wide range of information.


Yes:
No: X
Next Check My Answer!
7. Question 7 of 14

7. What is 'quantitative' research?


Systematic and objective research.
Research that is logical in character and does not admit of different interpretation.
Research in which the data is primarily centred on measurement and quantification.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
Systematic and objective research.
Yes:
No: X

Research that is logical in character and does not admit of different interpretation.
Yes:

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No: X

Research in which the data is primarily centred on measurement and quantification.


Yes: X
No:
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
Quantitative research is sometimes associated with notions of 'scientific research' and 'objectivity'. In fact
'quantitative' simply refers to a kind of evidence, that which is gathered from measurement or counting,
namely evidence of quantities.

Answer:
Systematic and objective research.
Yes:
No: X

Research that is logical in character and does not admit of different interpretation.
Yes:
No: X

Research in which the data is primarily centred on measurement and quantification.


Yes: X
No:
Next Check My Answer!
8. Question 8 of 14

8. What is 'qualitative' research?


Research on situations in which different interpretations are possible.
Research into peoples' feelings.
Research that is subjective with conclusions that depend on the particular inclinations of the
researcher.
Research into human choices.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
Research on situations in which different interpretations are possible.

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Yes: X
No:

Research into peoples' feelings.


Yes:
No: X

Research that is subjective with conclusions that depend on the particular inclinations of the researcher.
Yes:
No: X

Research into human choices.


Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
As with the term 'quantitative', 'qualitative' also refers to certain kinds of data. Qualitative data is that
pertaining to peoples' values, ideas and expressions of preference. The number of people visiting the
Tower of London and Regent's Park Zoo in any one day is quantitative data. The views of those people
on which of the two makes a better visitor attraction, is qualitative data.

Answer:
Research on situations in which different interpretations are possible.
Yes: X
No:

Research into peoples' feelings.


Yes:
No: X

Research that is subjective with conclusions that depend on the particular inclinations of the researcher.
Yes:
No: X

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Research into human choices.


Yes:
No: X
Next Check My Answer!
9. Question 9 of 14

9. What are the major methodologies of qualitative research?


Interviews and observations of discussions.
Interpretive analysis within a holistic and integrative approach.
Ethnography (the study of people in their natural settings), action research (research focused on
development) and case study (the investigation of a single individual, organisation or event).
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
Interviews and observations of discussions.
Yes:
No: X

Interpretive analysis within a holistic and integrative approach.


Yes:
No: X

Ethnography (the study of people in their natural settings), action research (research focused on
development) and case study (the investigation of a single individual, organisation or event).
Yes: X
No:
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
Interview and observation are research methods that may provide qualitative or quantitative data,
depending on what is being asked or observed. Interpretive analysis within a holistic integrative approach
may well be one procedure used by the researcher within the qualitative approach but it is not a
methodology. A methodology is a collection of research methods that are used in the context of broadly
defined qualitative (or quantitative) objectives. In this case ethnography, action research and case study
are examples of ways in which sets of methods might be gathered together in the interests of particular
qualitative research objectives.

Answer:
Interviews and observations of discussions.

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Yes:
No: X

Interpretive analysis within a holistic and integrative approach.


Yes:
No: X

Ethnography (the study of people in their natural settings), action research (research focused on
development) and case study (the investigation of a single individual, organisation or event).
Yes: X
No:
Next Check My Answer!
10. Question 10 of 14

10. What are the major methodologies of quantitative research?


Measurement and statistical analysis.
Survey and experimental research.
Research that reduces its object to its key variables of factors and analyses them for causal
relationships.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
Measurement and statistical analysis.
Yes:
No: X

Survey and experimental research.


Yes: X
No:

Research that reduces its object to its key variables of factors and analyses them for causal relationships.
Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.

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Measurement and statistical analysis are certainly key processes along with the reduction of situations
and events to key variables with consequent analysis. The methodologies that bring the different
processes together are survey and experimental research.

Answer:
Measurement and statistical analysis.
Yes:
No: X

Survey and experimental research.


Yes: X
No:

Research that reduces its object to its key variables of factors and analyses them for causal relationships.
Yes:
No: X
Next Check My Answer!
11. Question 11 of 14

11. What is 'triangulation' ?


The use of more than one method or procedure to establish the reliability of a particular finding.
The use of a second researcher to confirm the data derived from a questionnaire or observation.
The attempt to achieve a spatial/geometric understanding of a social situation.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
The use of more than one method or procedure to establish the reliability of a particular finding.
Yes: X
No:

The use of a second researcher to confirm the data derived from a questionnaire or observation.
Yes:
No: X

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The attempt to achieve a spatial/geometric understanding of a social situation.


Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
The use of a second researcher using the same methods to confirm ones findings, is the process of
replication. Presenting concepts of social situations in geometric form is purely a metaphorical process
that some find helpful to aid understanding. Triangulation is the use of different methods, e.g.
questionnaire followed by interview or observation, or different sources within the same organisation,
e.g. asking the same question of the head teacher and class teachers in a school, in order to establish the
reliability of our findings.

Answer:
The use of more than one method or procedure to establish the reliability of a particular finding.
Yes: X
No:

The use of a second researcher to confirm the data derived from a questionnaire or observation.
Yes:
No: X

The attempt to achieve a spatial/geometric understanding of a social situation.


Yes:
No: X
Next Check My Answer!
12. Question 12 of 14

12. What is the 'mixed methods' approach in research ?


The use of both survey and experimental design within a research project.
To use a case study within the context of a broader ethnographic research project.
The use of both quantitative and qualitative data in the context of a research question.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
The use of both survey and experimental design within a research project.
Yes:

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No: X

To use a case study within the context of a broader ethnographic research project.
Yes:
No: X

The use of both quantitative and qualitative data in the context of a research question.
Yes: X
No:
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
Survey and experimental design are both methodologies of quantitative research. Using these two
methodologies is fine but this would be to remain within the quantitative methodological paradigm.
Similarly, case study and ethnographic research are both qualitative methodologies. Mixed methods
approaches would be to use both quantitative and qualitative methods and data in a project, e.g. a survey
of mainly quantitative information might be accompanied by a case study dealing with qualitative
responses to changing circumstances.

Answer:
The use of both survey and experimental design within a research project.
Yes:
No: X

To use a case study within the context of a broader ethnographic research project.
Yes:
No: X

The use of both quantitative and qualitative data in the context of a research question.
Yes: X
No:
Next Check My Answer!
13. Question 13 of 14

13. What is 'multi-level design' as a framework for mixed methods research?


The use of quantitative data-gathering processes at different levels within an organisation.
The use of interviews to follow up on a questionnaire.
The juxtapositioning of qualitative and quantitative data taken at different levels within an

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organisation: pupil and class, citizen and social context and so on.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
The use of quantitative data-gathering processes at different levels within an organisation.
Yes:
No: X

The use of interviews to follow up on a questionnaire.


Yes:
No: X

The juxtapositioning of qualitative and quantitative data taken at different levels within an organisation:
pupil and class, citizen and social context and so on.
Yes: X
No:
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
The use of interviews to follow up questionnaires might be a mixed-methods approach but it does not
imply that these methods have necessarily been used at different levels. If you answered 'a' you were not
far off. Certainly, using processes to gather quantitative data at different levels, e.g. progress in individual
children's reading ages set against the general measured progress of a class group, would be a multi-level
approach in quantitative research. If, however, our multi-level design is to be a framework for mixed
methods, the implication is that qualitative and quantitative data will be taken at the different levels
specified.

Answer:
The use of quantitative data-gathering processes at different levels within an organisation.
Yes:
No: X

The use of interviews to follow up on a questionnaire.


Yes:
No: X

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The juxtapositioning of qualitative and quantitative data taken at different levels within an organisation:
pupil and class, citizen and social context and so on.
Yes: X
No:
Next Check My Answer!
14. Question 14 of 14

14. What, if any, is the guiding principle of mixed methods approaches?


A rejection of the epistemological dogma of the qualitative vs quantitative debate.
A pragmatic approach that sees 'qualitative' and 'quantitative' as terms that chiefly describe the nature
of data.
A more relaxed and eclectic approach to social research.
The answer that you gave was correct.

Answer:
A rejection of the epistemological dogma of the qualitative vs quantitative debate.
Yes:
No: X

A pragmatic approach that sees 'qualitative' and 'quantitative' as terms that chiefly describe the nature of
data.
Yes: X
No:

A more relaxed and eclectic approach to social research.


Yes:
No: X
The answer that you gave was incorrect.
It is certainly the case that those following mixed-methods approaches may feel some frustration at the
'paradigm wars' that have preoccupied researchers in recent years, but the rejection of one set of
approaches does not, in itself, provide guidance for another. Research may be more or less eclectic in its
approach to the gathering of data, though it is unlikely ever to be relaxed! The 'question' or 'problem-led'
pragmatic approach that seeks to use whatever kinds of data seem appropriate to the circumstances is
probably the most we can get in terms of a guiding principle for mixed methods approaches.

Answer:
A rejection of the epistemological dogma of the qualitative vs quantitative debate.

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Yes:
No: X

A pragmatic approach that sees 'qualitative' and 'quantitative' as terms that chiefly describe the nature of
data.
Yes: X
No:

A more relaxed and eclectic approach to social research.


Yes:
No: X

Yes:
No:
Next Check My Answer!

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