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Instructor's Manual to Accompany

MUSIC
IN THEORY AND PRACTICE
VOLUME I
BRUCE BENWARD
University of WisconsinMadison
GARY WHITE
Iowa State University

iii

Contents
General Comments vi
1

Notation 1

Scales, Tonality, Key, Modes 6

Intervals and Transposition 12

Chords 19
How to Teach Macro Analysis 29

Cadences and Nonharmonic Tones 31

Melodic Organization 37

Texture and Textural Reduction 41

Voice Leading in Two Voices 49


Species Counterpoint 55

Voice Leading in Four Voices 69

10

Harmonic Progression and Harmonic Rhythm 77

11

The Dominant Seventh Chord 83

12

The Leading-Tone Seventh Chords 93

13

Nondominant Seventh Chords 99

14

Modulation 105

15

Secondary Dominants and Leading-Tone Chords 115

16

Two-Part (Binary) Form 129

17

Three-Part (Ternary) Form 133

General Comments
Purpose of This Text
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

Fundamentals. To ensure that students obtain a thorough and proficient knowledge of the fundamentals of
music. Mastery of fundamentals is the foundation of all further music activity and is undoubtedly the most
prized possession a music student can obtain at this stage of development. The first four chapters of the text are
devoted entirely to fundamentals.
Melody. A study of harmony without a parallel study of melody gives students a biased view of music. One
chapter is devoted entirely to melody, while an additional seven include melody as a component.
Voice Leading. A thorough knowledge of and expertise in voice leading is paramount to understanding melody
as well as harmony. Since comprehension of harmony depends on the ebb and flow of melodies forming
chords, analytical skills in voice leading are essential to a full understanding of music itself. The numerous
voice-leading assignments in this text attest to the importance placed on this critical facet of the art.
Harmony. Clear perception of the vertical aspect of music in all of its various configurations is a particular
goal of this text.
Texture. The harmonic implications of accompaniment textures are made clear by harmonic reduction of
arpeggiated and figured chords. Experienced instructors are well aware of the difficulty students encounter in
sorting nonchord from chord tones in dense textures.
Harmonic progression. All music from the baroque through the romantic periods is based on functional
harmonychord progressions representing tension (progression toward the tonic) and relaxation (achievement
of tonic). Indeed, harmonic progression is probably the most important characteristic of this music. Eight
chapters of this text are devoted to the study of chords and their relationships to one another.
Form. Chapters 6 (Melodic Organization), 16 (Two-Part [Binary] Form), and 17 (Three-Part [Ternary]
Form) address this topic exclusively, and its prominence in additional chapters sustains awareness of formal
relationships in music.
Analysis. One of the predominant goals of this text is to leave students with an efficient and broad facility for
the analysis of compositions they may study or perform during their professional life. Analysis is strongly
emphasized in almost all chapters except for those devoted to fundamentals. A significant number of assignments throughout the text involve the analysis of music literature in one manner or another.

The Approach
Information, buttressed with strategies for application, followed immediately with a sufficient number of assignments to
ensure a good working knowledge, is the basic approach of this text. Knowledge is useless if students are unable to
apply it.
Music in Theory and Practice, Volume 1, is comprehensive, emphasizing harmony but including other parameters of music that provide a broad understanding of music as a whole. Both subject matter and assignments represent a
wide range of strategies.

Terms
Terms should be employed to stimulate thought, not restrict it. The application of terms to music is a mustmemorization of definitions per se is useless.

Musical Judgment and Intuition


Students, at the beginning of the course, evidence little musical judgment. Therefore, their only recourse is to read stated
guidelines and follow them assiduously. But, with frequent application, guidelines become a part of their intuition, and
students begin to develop sophistication and useful strategies.
Most students learn by imitating the thought processes employed by the professor. Effective instructors are
those who willingly and carefully impart their modus operandi in detail. Good working models help students to cultivate
and expand their own musical judgment and intuition.

vi

The Environment
The optimum size for a music theory class is about fifteen students who continue as a group through the two-year
sequence. Students tend to learn from one another, not only in the classroom but through out-of-class group activities.
Large classes of twenty or more are often intimidating and inhibit free discussion. Unfortunately, financial restrictions
and normal attrition often make ideal conditions impossible to attain.

Academic Level
Volume 1 (this text) is designed for a first-year theory course at the university or college level.

Instructional Hints
Illustrations
The text relies heavily on illustrations from music literature. Students too often ignore the music illustrations, often
because of sight-reading deficiencies. In cases where this occurs, the instructor may wish to perform and explain
illustrations in class. If the value of the illustrations is emphasized often enough, the problem disappears.

Definitions
Terms appear in italics. While students must learn definitions, the application of terms to music literature is far more
critical.

Student Compositions
Students learn much from writing short compositions and most enjoy such assignments. Writing and maneuvering
specific devices in a musical setting is a powerful pedagogical tool. At the outset, criticism of student compositions
should be encouraging and positive but must contain sufficient information so that the next effort will be an improvement. Harsh criticism of compositions should take place outside of class because students are often sensitive about their
own compositions and consider derogatory remarks a personal attack.

vii

Schedule
The text is arranged to accommodate almost any local schedule. Some instructors may wish to rearrange the order. The
bold-faced chapter titles may be taught in a different order from that found in the text.

The Fundamentals of Music


1
2
3
4

Notation
Scales, Tonality, Key, Modes
Intervals and Transposition
Chords

The Structural Elements of Music


5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Cadences and Nonharmonic Tones


Melodic Organization
Texture and Textural Reduction
Voice Leading in Two Voices
Voice Leading in Four Voices
Harmonic Progression and Harmonic Rhythm
The Dominant Seventh Chord
The Leading-Tone Seventh Chords
Nondominant Seventh Chords
Modulation*
Secondary Dominants and Leading-Tone Chords*
Two-Part (Binary) Form+
Three-Part (Ternary) Form+

* Although the authors endorse the printed sequence, for those instructors who prefer, the order of chapters 14
and 15 may be reversed.
+ Although the authors endorse the printed sequence, for those instructors who prefer, the order of chapters 16
and 17 may be reversed.

viii

Course Syllabus, Freshman Year


Semester System

Quarter System

Semester 1

Quarter 1

Week

Chapters

Week

Chapters

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Introduction and 1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
6
6
7
8
8
9
9

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Introduction and 1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
6
6

Semester 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

10
10
11
12
12
13
14
14
15
15
15
16
16
17
17

Quarter 2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
12
12

Quarter 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

13
14
14
15
15
15
16
16
17
17

ix

Notation

Purpose of This Chapter


Although most students in an initial theory course will have studied and performed a considerable volume of music,
many will have only a cursory knowledge of current music notation and no background whatsoever concerning its
evolution. Writing music symbols is far more difficult than the casual act of reading notes. Since this text immediately
requires students to write music, the need for clear and accurate manuscript writing goes without saying.

Points to Stress
Experienced instructors are already aware of the points to stress, but for those who may be teaching the course for the
first time, these items are worthy of emphasis.
1.
Neat manuscriptby all means.
2.
Proper vertical alignment of music symbolsa problem not encountered with words.
3.
Be uncompromisingrequire utmost accuracy.
4.
Sometimes handwritten manuscript, in contrast to printed, utilizes shortcuts. Stick notes are one
example. Try to keep such quick-and-dirty devices to a minimum.

Some Helpful Procedures for Effective Presentation


1.
2.

3.

Show students examples of good manuscript writingStravinsky is a good source.


Beyond the assignments in the text, ask students to transcribe the first four measures of a printed string
quartet. Request that the four staves be reduced to two, with the two violin parts written on the upper
staff and the viola and cello on the lower.
Achievement of good manuscript writing takes time and can be acquired only through practice. Dont
expect miracles. Ensuing chapters will provide opportunities for further improvement.

Assignments
Regular written assignments that are to be monitored (graded) by the instructor are vital to the success of the course.
Constant vigil of student progress is essential.

Answers to Assignments
Answers to objective assignments in the text are provided in each chapter of this manual. Since this text allows for
individual interpretation, especially in analysis, the answers provided here represent the personal inclinations of the
authors and are not to be interpreted as inviolate. Instructors are expected to substitute their own preferences when
inevitable disagreements occur.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 1

Assignment 1.1, page 25


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A
G
D
C
E
B
B
G

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

C
G
A
F
C
E
F
G

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

C
E
A
D
C
A
A
B

25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

C
B
A
E
C
E
D
D

Assignment 1.2, page 25

1. Bach: Fugue in G Minor, BWV 542, m. 2932.

# n b
n
b

J
============================
?b c
=
n
D Bb C A B b G
G
F# G E F # D
G D Eb
C
F
F
bc

j =

=
? b===========================
D Eb C D Bb
E Bb
C
A
D
D
B b C A Bb
G
2. Bach: Fugue in G Minor, BWV 542, m. 7175.

n b


bb c

n
=
? ===========================
j
============================
=
G
C G
C
B
C
Ab F
D
G D
B
G C
G Eb
C
b

b

b
b

n k=
============================
?
G G C Eb F C Ab
Bb D Bb Eb B b G
Ab C Ab D Ab F
G B G
C
3. Bach: Prelude in C Major (Leipzig), BWV 547, m. 6872.

J
b
J b J
bb 98 b J J b J b J J b b J J n J
b j . =
============================
?
.
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
F C F A D F B B E G C E A A D F B D G G C E A C F
Assignment 1.3, page 26
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2

d1
f2
a1
g3
a

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

d3
f1
d4
a2
b#

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

F
g
d1
C
A

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

b
f1
AA
GG
e

Assignment 1.4, page 26


No. 1 and No. 9
No. 2 and No. 4
No. 3 and No. 8
No. 5 and No. 7
No. 6 and No. 10

Assignment 1.5, page 27

No. 1

5
8

No. 4

9
16

No. 2

6
8

No. 5

5
8

No. 3

4
4

and

8
8

Assignment 1.6, page 27


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Beams should connect three instead of two notes (for 6/8 meter).
Too many notes are connected to one beam.
This meter (3/4) should have two quarter rests rather than one half rest.
First two eighth notes should be beamed rather than flagged.
For 3/4 meter, this should contain two eighth notes and one half note.
To show divisions of measure in 9/8 meter, this example should contain a dotted half note tied to a
dotted quarter note.
The third and fourth notes are stemmed in the wrong direction.
This meter (6/8) should be written to show the division of eighth notes in groups of three: a quarter
note, an eighth note tied to the quarter note, and then a single eighth note.
In 4/4 meter, eighth notes should be beamed in groups of two. The eighth notes tied to dotted quarter
notes should be replaced by a half note.
The second group of eighths and sixteenths is beamed incorrectly. Each beam should contain only
three notes, and the last two eighth notes should be beamed together.
The first quarter note should have its stem extended to the middle line of the staff.
On the third chord, the A should line up with the D and F on the left side of the stem. The B should be
on the right side of the stem. (See no. 13 in this chapter.)
The two lower dots should be above the notes rather than below.
The dot following the G should be below the line.
The beam should not extend across more than one line. (See no. 4 in this chapter.)
The first quarter note should have its stem extended only to the middle line of the staff.

The following quizzes and those at the end of many of the chapters of volume 1 are intended for short (five or ten
minute) tests of fundamental skills or as worksheets for additional practice. We have made no attempt to provide a
comprehensive set of such materials. These quizzes and worksheets are a sampling of materials one of the authors (GW)
has used in teaching freshman theory. They are aimed at developing and maintaining fluency with fundamentals and do
not deal with the broader issues of the chapters. Under no circumstances should they be understood to be adequate
examinations for the material in a given chapter. Feel free to photocopy and use these materials as you see fit.

Quiz 1
Rewrite each of the following rhythms to more accurately reflect the meter.

C
& C j &
======================
=
6 6
&4
&4
======================
=
34 .
34
&
&
======================
=
44 . j .
44
&
&
======================
=
68
68
&
======================
&
=
Quiz 2
Rewrite each of the following rhythms to more accurately reflect the meter.

======================
& C j & C
=
64 64
======================
&
=
&
34 .
34
======================
&
=
&
4 . . j
4
4
======================
&
&4
=
4

Quiz 3
Label each of the following intervals, using these abbreviations:
H = half step
W = whole step
E = enharmonic

w w
w
w
w
#
w
w
#
w
w
======================
&
w
bw #w
=
w bw
#w w
w #w
w bw
b
w
w
?
#w #w=
======================
#w bw
#w #w
w w
bw bw
w
#
w
b
w
w
======================
&
=
w w
w
b
w
b
w
w
w
w
w w Bw
B w
======================
=

Scales, Tonality, Key, Modes

Points to Stress
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Assimilation of the fundamentals presented in this chapter must be complete and thoroughby the ear,
the eye, and the mind.
Materials presented here are the basis for all further music study.
While the phrase drill and practice, meaning repetitious rehearsal of common musical figures such as
scales, has been challenged recently as uneconomical and wasteful, the authors find the approach both
acceptable and useful.
Key signatures, as well as scale and mode spellings, must be memorized. Musical terms in this chapter
are so commonplace and so important that memorization is critical.
In regard to scales, students should not only learn key signatures but should also be prepared to spell
#
successive notes of scales and modes. Singing scales while indicating pitch names (D E F G A, etc.)
helps considerably.

Some Helpful Procedures and Ideas for Effective Presentation


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Beyond the assignments provided, ask students to bring compositions they are currently studying.
Use these in class to demonstrate application of the principles discussed in the chapter.
Give the class a tour of your schools music library. Encourage frequent use by class members.
Most students who have difficulty with this chapter also have problems reading musicof any kind.
Good sight-readers seldom encounter problems with this chapter. Unfortunately, teaching students to
improve facility in reading music is a long and tedious operation and should not be the sole burden of
the theory instructor.
It goes without saying that sightsinging, ear training, and keyboard harmony are perhaps more
effective in solving the problems of this chapter than the written assignments provided here.
In the end, students must learn the abstractions, patterns, etc. of this chapter directlyas abstractions.
Indirect methods such as helpful crutches and easy ways to figure out key signatures, etc. may help for
the moment but generally lengthen pattern recognition time and are sometimes difficult to abandon
when not needed.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 2

Assignment 2.1, page 47


1. F Major

2. C Minor (natural form)

w w w w
w
b
w
w
w
w
&
& w w bw w w bw bw
============================
=
w bw #w w
w
#w #w w nw nw w
b
w
w
w
w
w
w
#
w
&
& w
============================
=
5. B b Major
6. D Minor (harmonic form)
#w w
============================
& bw w w bw w w w bw
& w w w w w bw
=
7. B Major
8. E b Minor (natural form)
w
#
w
#
w
w #w
bw
? w #w #w
============================
=
? bw w bw bw bw bw bw
9. A Major
10. F # Minor (melodic form)
3. G Minor (harmonic form)

4. E Minor (melodic form)

5. B Major

6. D Minor (harmonic form)

w w bw
w w bw #w w
w
w
=
& b===========================
b
w
&
w
=
w
w
w w
7. B Major
8. E b Minor (natural form)
w
#
w
#
w
w #w
bw bw
? w #w #w
============================
=
? bw w bw bw bw bw
9. A Major
10. F # Minor (melodic form)
w
#
w
#w #w nw nw w
w w #w
============================
=
? #w #w w w #w #w
? w w #w
11. C # Minor (harmonic form)
12. A b Major
#
w
#
w
bw w w bw
w #w #w w
#
w
b
w
w
#
w
b
w
b
w
============================
=
?
?
Assignment 2.2, page 47
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

##
###
bb
bbbb
b
===========================
?
&
&
?
=
E b Major
F Minor
D Major
F # Minor
###
bb
bb
bbbb b
bbbbb
b
b
&
? bb
& b
&
?
===========================
=
b
b
b
G Minor
D Major
C Major
B Minor
A Major
####
#### ##
####
bbbb
b
#
#
&
?
&
&
? bb
===========================
=
b
#
B Major
A Major
C Major
E Major
C Minor
##
#### ##
####
b
bbbbbbb
&
&
? #
& #
?bb
===========================
=
b
#
#
b
B Minor
A Minor
G Minor
A Minor
E Major
Assignment 2.3, page 48
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

G
E b and A b
G b and D b
B and F#
F and B b

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Ab
D and A
B and F#
E and B
Eb

Assignment 2.4, page 48


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

F
D
Bb
C
D#

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C#
F
C#
A
Bb

Assignment 2.5, page 49


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

H
C
G
I
A

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Assignment 2.6, page 49


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Chromatic
Melodic minor
Pentatonic
Natural minor
Whole tone
Pentatonic

Assignment 2.7, page 50


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Dorian
Mixolydian
Phrygian
Lydian
Aeolian
Mixolydian

J
E
F
B
D

Worksheet 1
Write the key signatures:

======================
&
=
dm:
GM:
E bM:
AM:
B bM:
BM:
e b m:
======================
&
=
#
Db M:
b b m:
DM:
F M:
FM:
C bM:
a #m:
======================
&
=
g #m:
gm:
d #m:
CM:
f #m:
em:
am:
======================
&
=
b b m:
BM:
E bM:
B bM:
Gb M:
cm:
a b m:
======================
&
=
#
Ab M:
E bM:
DM:
EM:
C M:
bm:
c #m:
======================
&
=
b b m:
Gb M:
DM:
b b m:
Db M:
Db M:
fm:
======================
&
=
#
#f m:
b
b m:
em:
gm:
a m:
dm:
E bM:
======================
&
=
BM:
FM:
g #m:
b b m:
b b m:
am:
GM:
======================
&
=
AM:
DM:
Gb M:
C #M:
a b m:
EM:
b b m:

Quiz 4
Write the following major scales, placing accidentals on the appropriate notes:

======================
&
?
=
D-flat Major:
E Major:

======================
?A Major:
&G-flat Major:
=
======================
B
?
=
B Major:
F-sharp Major:

B
======================
&E-flat Major:
=
D Major:

Quiz 5
Write the following minor scales, using proper key signatures:

=======================
?
f minor, harmonic form

g-sharp minor, natural form

&
=======================
e-flat minor, harmonic form

b minor, melodic form

======================
?
=
g minor, natural form

a-flat minor, melodic form

======================
&
=
b-flat minor, natural form

10

c minor, harmonic form

Quiz 6
Writethe
thefollowing
followingmajor
major and
and minor
minor scales,
scales using
proper
signatures for each.
Write
usingthe
proper
keykey
signatures:

=========================
&
=
Relative major of F Minor

Relative minor of B Major, harmonic form

=========================
=
?
Relative major of G Minor

Relative minor of E Major, natural form

=========================
&
=
Relative major of F-sharp Minor

Relative minor of D Major, melodic form

=========================
=
?
Relative major of C-sharp Minor

Relative minor of A Major, harmonic form

Quiz 7
Name the following major scale key signatures:

##
####
#### # b b b
#### # bb b
bb
bb b
b
#
bb
b
# bbbb =
======================
&
#### ## b
###
####
bbb
b
bbb b #
b
b
b
#
#
b
?
b
======================
=
Supply the correct key signature for the following major scales:

======================
&
=
#
b
Ab
C
F
B
D
A
Bb
E
?
=======================
F#
Cb
Eb
Ab
B
D
Gb
G
11

Intervals and Transposition

Points to Stress
1.

Intervals

As with chapter 2, individual intervals must be quickly identified in context, written without hesitation, and recognized
instantly by ear. While students must be brought beyond the counting level (requiring painstaking counting of lines
and spaces with a pencil), this may indeed be the starting level for many. It is impossible to overemphasize the necessity
for continuing the study of intervals beyond this chapter.
2.

Instruments and Transposition

The study of instruments and transposition adds another vital dimension to the study of theory and musicianship. In
order to make the assignments more interesting and relevant to students, many of the following assignments that follow
suggest arrangements for instruments played by class members.

Some Helpful Procedures and Ideas for Effective Presentation


1.

Ask students to bring to class copies of music they are studying. Discuss both melodic and harmonic intervals
found in this body of familiar literature.

2.

Saturate all available classroom time with the singing, reading, listening, and playing (on a piano or students
own instruments) of intervals. This approach through all parameters of musical endeavor will allow one tactic
to reinforce others and provide maximum classroom intensity.

3.

Include instrument transposition, especially when class members bring their instruments. The study of intervals
will be enhanced with the hands-on study of transpositions. Piano, vocal, and percussion students will gain
insight into the unfamiliar world of transposing instruments.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 3


Assignment 3.1, page 63

#w
ww
w
bw
# ww
# ww
bw
ww
w
w
## w
w
============================
&
w
b ww
bw
1.

2.

3.

M3

P4

4.

m6

5.

6.

P4

M7

7.

M6

8.

P5

9.

M2

10.

M3

A4

w
w
# ww
b ww
ww
bw
w
## ww
bb ww
w
w
b
w
?
#w
============================
## ww
11.

m2

12

12.

m7

13.

14.

A4

15.

m3

m6

16.

17.

P5

18.

P4

19.

d5

20.

M7

A4

Assignment 3.2, page 63


2.
3.
7.
8. w
9.
10. w
w 4. ww 5. b w 6.
ww
#
w
w
## ww
bw
ww
ww
b b ww
============================
&
w
1.

P4

m3

P5

M6

m7

M2

M3

m6

m2

M7

#w
bw
ww
w
#w
w
b
w
b ww
w
w
w
w
bw
============================
? w
w
w
# ww
11.

12.

m6

13.

M7

14.

15.

m3

P5

16.

P4

17.

18.

M6

M2

19.

m7

20.

P8

P1

Assignment 3.3, page 63


3.
4.
5.
8.
9.
10.
# w 6. # ww 7.
b
w
#
w
w
w
b
w
#
w
bw
#
w
#
w

w
============================
&
b b ww
w
b
w
w
bw
1.

2.

P4

m3

P5

M6

m7

M2

M3

m6

m2

M7

12.
13.
15.
16.
17.
ww 18. w 19. w 20. b ww
ww 14.
w
w
#
w
b
w
#w
#w
bw
bw
bw
? w
============================
w
bw
11.

m6

M7

m3

P5

P4

M6

M2

m7

10 11 12

13 14

m2

M3

Assignment 3.4, page 64

1. Bach: Fugue in G Minor, BWV 542, m. 2932.


1

2 3 4 5

15

16

17

18

# n b
n
b

J
============================
?b c
n =
19 20

M3 M2 m3 m2 m3 P8 m2 m2 m3 M2 M3 P4 P4 m2 m3
P5
21 22 23
24 25 26
28
29
30 31 32 33
34
27

P8 (m3)

bb
j =
?
==========================

m2 m3 M2 M3

P4

P4 M2

m3

P5

P8

M3

M2 m3 m2 m3

2. Bach: Fugue in G Minor, BWV 542, m. 7175.


1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

n b


bb c

n
=
? ===========================
j
============================
=
P4

P5

P4

m2

m2

M3

m3 m3

P4

M3 P4 P4 M3 m3
31 32 33 34 35 36
37 38 39
P4

m3

(P5)

b b n
b

k=
============================
?
18

19 20 21 22 23 24

P8 P5 m3 M2 P4 m6

25 26 27

28 29 30

m7 M3 M3 P4 P4 M6 P1 M7 M3 M3 A4 A4 M6 P1 m7 M3 M3 P4

3. Bach: Prelude in C Major (Leipzig), BWV 547, m. 6872.

98 J b J J b b J b J J
1

2 3

4 5

40

8 9

b J

13

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

J n J

J b J

P4

P5

P4

m2

m2

M3

m3 m3

P4

M3 P4 P4 M3 m3
31 32 33 34 35 36
37 38 39
P4

m3

19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30
b
b n

18

Assignment 3.4, (continued)


P8 P5 m3
d5 M2 P4 m6

(P5)
40

m7 M3 M3 P4 P4 M6 P1 M7 M3 M3 A4 A4 M6 P1 m7 M3 M3 P4

3. Bach: Prelude in C Major (Leipzig), BWV 547, m. 6872.

b J
J b J
9 J b J J
b J J b b J J n J
8
b

=
? ===========================
b j . =
.
1

2 3

4 5

P5 P5 m3 d5 m3 P5

8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

P8 P5 M3 P5 m3 P5 P8 d5 m3 d5 m3 P5 P8 P5 m3 P5 M3 P5

Assignment 3.5, page 65

Handel: Chandos from Te Deum

bb 2

. j n
n

& 4
============================

P1
M2 ___
M3 ___
M2 __
P1M2
M6 ___
P5 __
A4__
M2 ___
m6
m7 ___
M6
P8
Intervals: ___
___
__ ___
___
___
___
nm3
M6
___

b 24
b
?
============================

2
b
?b 4
============================
Inverted
interval
P8
predictions: ___

m7 ___
M6
___

m6 ___
m3
___

m7
___

P8 __
m7 ___
m3
__

P4
___

d5 __
m7 ___
M3
__

M2 ___
m3
___

P1
___

b2
===========================
?b 4
=

Assignment 3.6, page 65


Strict canon, invertible at the double octave

#3
.

============================
&

P4 ___
m3 ___
m3
Intervals: ___

M2 ___
M3
___

M6
___

m7 ___
m6 ___
M6
___

m3 ___
M3 ___
M6
___

P8
___


# 34
.

============================
?
#3

============================

& 4
Inverted interval
predictions:
P5 ___
M6 ___
M6
___

m7 ___
m6
___

m3
___

M2 ___
M3 ___
m3
___

M6 ___
m6 ___
m3
___

P1
___

# 34
?
============================

14

Assignment 3.7, page 66

nw
w
# ww
bw
# ww
#w
w
b
b
b ww
w
b
w
w
#
w
#
w
bw
w
============================
&
w
bw
1.

2.

3.

A5
___

d3
___

4.

A2
___

5.

d7
___

6.

A4
___

7.

M7
___

8.

A5
___

9.

m2
___

10.

d8
___

P4
___

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
# w 13.
b
w
#
#
w
w
b
w
#
w
bw
bw #w
w
#w
# b ww
bw
bw
b# ww
bw
============================
w
? w
11.

m2
___

12.

M6
___

A3
___

d4
___

A5
___

d5
___

A2
___

A7
___

A6
___

d3
___

Assignment 3.9, page 66

# # #
#
#

44
#

==================
& b
=
1.

A Clarinet

Alto Sax.

Tenor Sax.

. J b .
#

J # . J b .
4
b .
. j
=======================
j # . J
j
?4
& # . J
3.
Eng. Horn
B b Trumpet
Oboe
Piccolo
b #
b #
b #
34

b # =
=======================
&
4.
Tuba
Trombone
Cello
String Bass
# b #
32 # b
b
b

=======================
=
?
# #
# #
#
2.

Contrabassoon

Harp

Trombone

Baritone Sax.

Horn in F
B b Clarinet
Flute
. b .
.

.
b
.
.
.
128
#
# . . # . b .
. # . b .
.
=======================
B
&
# . =
5.

Viola

# b #

#
64
# b
# b #

#
=======================
=
&
# b # ?
# #
6.

Horn in F

Bassoon

String Bass

Cello

Assignment 3.10, page 67

Eng. Horn
Horn in F
B b Trumpet
Flute
Piccolo
#
bb
b
b
b
b
bb
===========================
&
=

1. Actual Pitch Alto Sax.

Baritone
(treble clef)

####
#### #
###
###
###
###
###
#
#

===========================
?
&
B
?
&
?
=
2.

Trombone

Viola

String Bass

Baritone Sax.

Tuba

15

Quiz 8
Write the following intervals ABOVE the given note:

w
w
w
#w =
======================
& w
w
w
w
P5
P4
M3
m6
M7
m6
m2
m3

#w
w
bw
#w
w
w
b
======================
?
w=
w
m2

P4

M2

m7

P5

m3

M6

M2

#w
#w
#w
&
======================
w
w
bw =
w
bw
P5

P8

m6

m2

M2

P5

m7

M7

#w
w
w
bw =
w
bw
======================
? #w
bw
M3

M7

P5

P4

m7

m3

M6

M3

Quiz 9
Write the following intervals BELOW the given note:

w
w
w
#w
w
w
w
w
======================
&
=
P5

P4

M3

m6

M7

m6

m3

m2

#w
#w
w
bw
w
w
w
b
w=
======================
?
m2

P4

M2

m7

P5

m3

M6

M2

P8

m6

m2

M2

P5

m7

M7

m7

m3

M6

M3

bw
w
w
#w
bw
#w
#w
w
&
======================
=
P5

w
#w
#w
bw
w
w
bw
bw
======================
?
=
M3
16

M7

P5

P4

Quiz 10
Write the indicated interval ABOVE and BELOW the given note:

w
w
w
bw
w=
w
bw
w
w
=========================
&
bw
M3

m3

P5

M2

P4

M6

m2

M3

M7

M2

#w
#w
w
w
w
b
w
w
w
w
b
b
#
?
w
=========================
=
P4

A2

d5

m3

m6

P4

m2

P5

m2

m7

bw
bw
w
bw
#w
#w
#w
w
=========================
& w
=
#w
M2

A4

M3

m6

m3

M7

M2

m3

M6

d5

bw
w
w
#w
bw
w
w
w
b
w
bw
?
=========================
=
P5

M6

m7

m6

M3

A5

m3

M7

M3

m2

Quiz 11
Write the following intervals ABOVE and BELOW the given note:

w
w
w
#w
w
w
w
w
======================
&
=
P5

P4

M3

m6

A2

d5

m3

m2

w
#w
w
bw
w
w
#
w
w
b
======================
?
=
d7

A4

d5

m7

P5

m3

A4

M2

#w
w
w
bw
w
bw =
#w
#w
&
======================
P5

A3

m6

m2

A2

d5

m7

M7

#w
w
bw
w
w
bw
bw
#w
======================
?
=
m3

M7

P5

P4

m7

m3

A2

M3
17

Quiz 12
Transpose the following melodies to the keys indicated on the blank staff to the right:

## 4

### 4


=========================
& 4
& 4
=
DM:

AM:

#3
b 34 n n .
b
b
=========================
?
? #4
=
cm:

bm:

b6
b 6
b
=========================
& 8 .
=
? b bb 8
b
A M:
B bM:
b4
bbb 44 j n
b
b
?
=========================
=
& 4

n w
fm:

18

gm:

Chords

Points to Stress and Some Helpful Ideas


1.

Students without previous theory study are seldom prepared to view a chord as a gestalt (a single entity rather
than a combination of various individual pitches). In addition, assessing chord quality or position requires far
greater peripheral vision than does reading the words of a language, especially when chords are in four-voice
arrangements. Both learning to examine chords as a unit and sensitizing peripheral vision takes considerable
time, so dont expect miracles. Practice in identifying and writing chords should continue throughout the study
of both volumes of this text.
As with other music fundamentals, writing and identifying chords (by sight) should be carried out in a musical
environment that includes simultaneous ear training, sightsinging, and keyboard harmony studies.
The use of competency tests with or without the aid of CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) is effective.

2.
3.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 4


Assignment 4.1, page 81
Major Triad
1. Ex.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Minor Triad
11.
12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Diminished Triad
21.
22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

b www
## www
ww
## www
b ww
w
www
# www
#
#
b
w
b
w
b
#
w
w
w
w
#
b
# w
&
============================
w
b ww
ww
ww
b b www
# ww
## www
w
b www
www
w
#
b
w
w
#
w
#
w
#
w
w
b b ww
# w
============================
?
#w
ww
b ww
b www
w
b b www
b
w
w
b
w
b
w
w
w
w
# www
w
#
w
b
w
============================
&
w
w
w
b
w
#w
b w
Augmented Triad
31.
32.

33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
#
w

w
#
w

w
#
w
w
w
ww
w
ww
b b www
## www
## ww # w
# ww
b
bw
============================
?
# www
## www

Assignment 4.2, page 81


1. E

3. E

4. D /D

2. C

5. D

# n

6. G

# n

7. E /E
8. F

9. E

b
#

10. G

19

Assignment 4.3, page 82


2.
3.
4. w
5.
6.
7. w
www
ww
b
b
b
w
b ww
w
w
w
# ww
ww
============================
& # ww
b b ww
=
DM: I
dm: VI
FM: vi
E bM: V
C bM: iii
BM: IV
e b m: V
1. (Ex.)

9.
10.
12. # w
13.
14.
b www 11. b b www
# ww
# ww
# ww
#
b
w
b
#
w
#w
www =
============================
& b b ww
D b M: ii
F # M: ii
E b M: IV
b b m: ii
g # m: III
a# m: i
B b M: iii
8.

## www
# www
# www
# www
www
w
#
w
w
#
w
bw
============================
&
=
w
d # m: VI
bm: vii
f #m: i
cm: III+
am: iv
AM: I
gm: VII
15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

23.
24.
25.
26. # w
27.
28.
www
b www
ww
# ww
b ww
ww
b
b
w
#w
#w
============================
&
b b b www =
CM: vi
GM: vii
A bM: I
em: ii
c # m: i
G bM: vii
a b m: iv
22.

Assignment 4.4, page 82


2.

I in A major
IV in E major
V in D major
V in D minor
#
VI in C minor

3.

I in E major
IV in B major
V in A major
V in A minor
#
VI in G minor

3.

ii in A major
iii in G major
vi in D major
i in B minor
#
iv in F minor

3.

vii in A major
ii in F harmonic minor
b
vii in A harmonic minor
b
vi in B melodic minor
b
vii in A melodic minor

Assignment 4.5, page 83


2.

ii in B major
b
iii in A major
b
vi in E major
i in C minor
iv in G minor

Assignment 4.6, page 83


2.

20

vii in D major
ii in B harmonic minor
vii in D harmonic minor
vi in E melodic minor
vii in D melodic minor

Assignment 4.7, page 84


Chord No. 2
Chord No. 3
Chord No. 4
Chord No. 5
Chord No. 6
Chord No. 7
Chord No. 8
Chord No. 9
Chord No. 10

G
D
D
E
B
A
D
E
#
C

1st
Root
2nd
1st
2nd
2nd
1st
1st
Root

in F major: ii 6
in A major: IV
6
in F major: vi 4
in B harmonic minor: iv 6
6
in A natural minor: ii 4
6
b
in B harmonic minor: vii 4
in B harmonic minor: III+ 6
#
in G harmonic minor: VI 6
#
in F major: V

minor
major
minor
minor
diminished
diminished
augmented
major
major

Assignment 4.8, page 85

Schumann: Volksliedchen (Little Folk Song) from Album for the Young, op. 68, no. 9, m.124.





#
b
c

============================
&
=
. .
p
fp


g j j

# #
============================
? b c & gg j g # j g j g j g #j
g gg # =

g
g g
. .
g
(Doloroso =92)

Chord numbers: 1

V6

dm: i

VI

iv 6 V

8
iv

9
10
iv 6 V

11

12

. .
. # . .

#
b
e
e

============================
&
. . =
fp
^

j
#

=
& b g j g j g #j

============================
g
g

#
#

g g
g
g
. .
g
Lustig Gaio

13

14

15

iv 6 V

16

17

VI

21

18
ii

19

22

20

III+6 i

V6

DM: I

. .
.
. #
.
#
. . . #. . #.

b
n

============================
& e
> =
#
n
j

#
#

&b
============================
=
g #
g #j

#
g
g
.
# .
23

24

25
IV 64

26
I

27
vii

28
I6

29
ii 6

30
V

21

Assignment 4.8 (continued)

n . . .
. # . # .
. # . ^
#

#
b
e
e
============================
&
=
. .
^
#
j
j j n

=
#
============================
&b

g #
g #
g #
g #
g
g
g
g
31

32

33

V6

34

35
IV 6

V6

I
Wie im Anfang
Come in principio
( )

36

37
vii 6

38
I6

. .

. . #. . #.

#
n
g n #
g #
#

============================
=
&b
g
g
>
fp
(p )

#

============================
& b


#
. . =

iv
.
# .

( F espr.)
40

39

ii 6

41

43

42

dm: i 64

ii

44

45

46

47 48 49
iv 6 iv


. . U
#

#
b


============================
=
&
p
fp
U
b

#
============================
&


# =
#

.
.
50

52

51
V

I 64

I 64

53
iv

55

54
V

56

57

58

i6

ii

59

60

III+6

Assignment 4.9, page 87

22

Measures:
Beats:
No. 2:

1
1

Measures:
Beats: up
No. 3:
No. 4:
No. 5:

1
1

2
6
5

2
1
6

2
6

2
6
6
6

2
1

6
6

6
6
4

3
1
6

2
6
4

4
1

Assignment 4.10, page 88


1. Ex.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

# www
# www
b www
www
# www
www
#
b bb www
b
w
w
b
w
#
w
w
w
============================
&
w
bw
w
b
b
b
#
D___
G
Db
A___
E
B
G
A___
F
C___
___
___
___
___
___
___
+

MI

m
MI

( 5)

MI

MI

MI

( 5)

MI

b www
b bb www
www
b www
b www
# www
b
w
# www
w
b
b
w
b
w
#
#
w
w
w
w
w
============================
?
b
b
b
b
# b
D___
C
A
E___
B___
F
Gb
A___
D___
Eb
___
___
___
___
___
11.

12.

13.

MI

14.

15.

( 5)

MI

16.

MI

( 5)

17.

18.

MI

19.

MI

( 5)

20.

MI

( 5)

Assignment 4.11, page 88

1. Ex.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

w
b www
# www
ww
b ww
b www
b ww
w
w
bw
w
b
#
# www =
w
===========================
&
### www
b ww
b ww
w
Ab
E b
F
D
G
Bb
C#
Eb
Db
B
MI ( 5)

MI

MI

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
20.
w 18. # ww 19.
#
w
www
w
w
b
w
#
#
w
#
w
w
ww
b ww
w
b bb wwww ### www =
# ww
# wwww
===========================
& ## w
w
w
#
F
D
B
E
C
G b
A
C#
Db
F#
11.

MI

MI ( 5)

MI

23

Worksheet 2
Spell major triads with the given note as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

w
w
w
bw
w=
bw
w
w
w
=========================
&
bw
R

#w
#w
w
w
b
w
w
b
b
w
#
w
w
=========================
?
w
=
3

Spell augmented triads with the given note as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

bw
w
bw
bw
#w
#w
#w
=========================
& w
w
=
#w
R

bw
w
w
#w
bw
w
w
w
b
w
?
=========================
bw
=
5

Spell minor triads with the given note as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

#w
w
#w
w
b
#
w=
w
w
#w
=========================
& #w
bw
R

w
w
#w
#w
bw
w
w
#
w
b
w
bw
=========================
?
=
3

w
w
#w
w
w
b
b
w
#
w
#
w
w
w
#
=========================
&
=
R

Spell diminished triads with the given note as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

w
bw
#w
#w
w
b
w
b
w
w=
w
w
?
=========================
3

w
#w
#w
b
w
w
w
#
b
#
w
w
#
w
w=
=========================
&
5

24

Worksheet 3
Analyze the following chords using the correct form of roman numerals:

www # ww bbb ww ### www bb ww ##### www bbbb b n www


b
b =
w
w
w
======================
&
dm:
GM:
E bM:
AM:
B bM:
BM:
e b m:
ww ## ww #### # w b b ww b ww #### ## www b b b n ww
bb
w
b
bbbb =
# ww b b b w
#
w
w
w
======================
& bb
DM:
F #M:
FM:
C bM:
b b m:
Db M:
a #m:
#### # w
### ww #
#### w b ww
w
w
w
w
# ww b w=
w
ww
#
w
w
w
======================
& # w
#w
#
#
d m:
CM:
f m:
em:
am:
g #m:
gm:
#### w bb
bb
b w bbbb n w bbbb b ww bb b b w
www
b
b
#
w
w
b ww
b w b b b n=
ww
w
ww b ww
======================
&
cm:
a b m:
Gb M:
B bM:
BM:
E bM:
b b m:
#### ## w ## ww b b w ####
####
bb ww ## ww
www
ww
b
b
#
#
w
w
w
b
w
w=
w
ww
======================
&
EM:
C #M:
bm:
c #m:
Ab M:
E bM:
DM:
## www b w b b
## ww b b b w bb b ww
bbb ww
w
b
b
b
ww b b ww
w
w b b b ww b b w=
======================
&
fm:
DM:
B bM:
Db M:
Db M:
Gb M:
bm:
##
###
ww b
w b b n www # www # #### www b www bbb www bbbbb www
======================
&
=
#f m:
b
#
cm:
a m:
dm:
em:
b m:
E bM:
# # w
##
www bbbbbb www # ## ww
www bbbbb n ww # ## www # www
b
======================
&
=
w
#
b
b
e m:
am:
FM:
g m:
b m:
BM:
GM:
###
## w bb b w b b b w #### ## ww b b b
#### w
www
ww
b b ww b b b ww
# w b b b b ww
ww
======================
&
=
w
b b m:
AM:
DM:
Gb M:
C #M:
EM:
a b m:

25

Quiz 13

Spell Major triads with the given tone as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

w
w
#w
w
w
w
w
w
======================
&
=
R

w
#w
w
bw
w
w
#
w
b
w
======================
?
=
Spell Minor triads with the given tone as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

5
3
R
5
R
3
Spell diminished triads with the given tone as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

5
3
R
5
R
5
Spell Augmented triads with the given tone as root (R), third (3), or fifth (5).

#w
w
w
bw
w
bw =
w
#
#
w
&
======================
R

#w
w
bw
w
w
bw
bw
#w
======================
?
=
5

Quiz 14
Complete the following triads with the given note as root, third, or fifth. (M = major triad, m = minor triad,
A = augmented triad, d = diminished triad)

w
w
bw
#w
#w
bw
w
#
w
w
b
w
?
=========================
=
Given note is the fifth:

Given note is the root:

w
w
#w
w
bw
bw
#w
#w
w
#w
=========================
&
=
d

Given note is the third:

w
bw
#w
#w
w
b
w
b
w
w=
w
w
?
=========================
M

26

Quiz 15
Analyze each of the following chords in major keys. Be sure to indicate the keys in the blanks provided.

www
#### ww
www
w
w
w
w
w
w
b
w
ww
======================
? w
&
=
:

www
www
w
## w
w
w
w
b w
ww
w
ww
======================
&
?b b w
=

(key)

www
www
bb
w
bbbb ww
w
www
ww
w
======================
? w
&
=
w
www
ww
#### w
ww
ww
#
#
w
w
w
ww
======================
& # ww
?# w
=

Quiz 16
Analyze each of the following chords in minor keys. Be sure to indicate the keys in the blanks provided.

www
#### ww
ww
w
w
w
w
#
w
#
w
w
ww
======================
? b # ww
&
=
:

# www
www
## w
w
ww
w
w
b w
w
# ww
#w
======================
&
?b b w
=

(key)

www
w
b
n www
w
bbbb n www
www =
www
w
======================
?
&b
www
www
#### w
w
# # www
#
w
w
w
w
#
ww
======================
& # w
?
=
27

Quiz 17
Write the chords indicated in simple position.

##
bbbb
======================
?
&
=
DM:

ii

vii

fm:

III +

iv

VI

b
b
b
======================
&
? b
=
FM:

IV

iii

cm:

ii

iii

gm:

ii

vii

III +

iv

####
####
======================
?
& #
=
EM:
vi
IV
V
g # m:
i
V
ii
###
b
======================
&
?b
=
AM:

28

vii

How to Teach Macro Analysis

The authors suggest presenting the steps to learning macro analysis in the following order.

Step I - Introduce and/or review the three main tools involved in macro analysis.
1.

2.
3.

Letter namesMajor triads are represented with upper case letters, minor triads are represented with lower case
letters, diminished triads are represented by lowercase letters followed by a " " sign, augmented triads are
represented by upper case letters followed by a "+" sign.
Roman numeralsThis system of analysis employs the standard system of roman numerals, including
inversion numbers.
Slurs1Slurs are used to connect all progressions that move by ascending fourth or descending fifth.

Step II - Using the tools of macro analysis


1.

2.
3.

Analyze the entire portion of music with LETTER NAMES ONLY first. When examples are short or straight
forward, this seems like an extra step to some students, but as examples become longer or more complicated
this step is very helpful. From a pedagogical standpoint this step of the system is by far the most critical; often
tremendous improvement in both speed and accuracy occurs for students having difficulties when they
incorporate this step into their analysis.
Then go back and determine roman numerals. Once the students are looking at a letter name representation of a
chord it also helps them to identify secondary dominants and modulations.
Add slurs, and/or any other required analysis2 to show forward motion.

Step III - Helpful suggestions


1.

2.

Suggest to your students that they think of the system in two parts:
The upper line of the analysis represents the non-traditional portions of the analysis and includes letter
names, slurs, and any other markings that you require. The lower line of the analysis incorporates traditional
analysis, including roman numerals and inversion numbers.
It is often helpful to explain to the student that both lines of the analysis each provide separate information not
included in the other.

The roman numerals illustrate the tonic, and the position of every other chord in relation to the tonic. The letter names
give the specific pitch that each chord is built on. The slurs illustrate forward motion from one chord to the next. As an
example, if you looked at measure 56 in an analyzed piece of music and saw a roman numeral iii, you would know at a
glance that is was a minor triad, but you would have to look at the actual notes themselves to know that it was an e minor
triad in the key of C. By including both lines of macro analysis all of that information would be available without
looking at the score itself.
If you would like more information on any aspect of macro analysis including instruction please contact the Macro
Analysis Creative Research Organization at 1-800-564-9237.
1

Ideally your students will already have covered letter names and roman numerals in the context of other topics in the
textbook. The student then only needs to add knowledge of how to use the slurs to make the system complete.
2

The Macro Analysis system is specifically intended to be very flexible. You may wish to have your students also mark
various other progressions, such as those that move by thirds, or step progressions. The system allows the instructor to
tailor the analysis to the specific needs of the student and/or to the instructor's own requirements for analysis.

29

Cadences and Nonharmonic Tones

Points to Stress and Suggested Ideas


1.

Although this chapter contains some material in the general category of fundamentals, the introduction
of nonharmonic tones leads somewhat beyond. Scales, intervals, and simple triads lend themselves
easily to rote learning, may be memorized, and can be mastered through diligent drill, but nonharmonic
tones often require a more cognitive approach and are influenced by other nearby musical patterns.
Students must now learn to make studied musical decisions and exercise good judgment, probably the
most difficult task in the study of music. Although the decisions are generally quite easy at this point,
instructors must be alert to spot instances of poor choices.
Failure to keep track of dissonance may cause an accented passing tone to be labeled incorrectly as a
chord tone, harmonic rhythm to be wrongly bracketed, and a half cadence (I V) in C major to be
identified as a plagal cadence in G major.
Watch out for pencil analysis. Students often fail to realize the true sound of a certain musical
passage and render an analysis that defies logic.
Be sure to stress the difference between unaccented and accented dissonance (see pages 96 and 101 in
the text.)

2.

3.

4.
5.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 5


Assignment 5.1, page 107
1. imperfect authentic 2. deceptive

3. perfect authentic 4. half

5. half

#
#

bbb
b

============================
&
#



=




#
#
bbb

b
?
============================
=
V
I
V VI CM: ii
V
I Eb M: I
IV
V
ii
V
GM: IV
em: i
FM: I
6

6. plagal

7. imperfect authentic 8. imperfect


authentic

9. perfect authentic

10. half

bm: iv

A M: I

## ###
bbb
##
bbb

&
============================





#
#

#
#
#

bb
bbb
#
#
#

b
b
?
============================
=
b

E M: vi

IV

6
DM: I

vii

AM: I

IV 6 V

31

Assignment 5.2, page 107


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Escape tone
7-6 suspension
Upper neighboring tone
Anticipation
Accented passing tone

4-3 suspension
Appoggiatura
Changing tones
Changing tones
Double passing tones

Assignment 5.3, page 108

1. Allein Gott in der Hh' sei Ehr' (Only to God on High Be Glory!), BWV 104, m. 12.

U Imperfect Authentic
### c

PT

======================
=
&
PT

PT
PT




### c

======================
?
PT

PT

AM:

IV 6

I6

ii

2. Mach's mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Gt' (Do with Me as Thy Goodness
Prompts Thee), BWV 377, m.12.

U Half
### c

======================
&
PT


PT

PT

PT

PT

### c PT PT

======================
?
I

DM:

IV 6

V6

I6

ii

Imperfect
Authentic

3. Christus, der ist mein Leben (Christ Is My Life), BWV 282, m. 14 (modified).

NT
# 3
..

============================
& 4
=

PT
. PT

# 3


4
=
============================
?
NT

GM:

32

IV

I6

I 64

Assignment 5.3 (continued)

4. Ermuntre dich, mein schwacher Geist (Rouse Thyself, My Weak Spirit), BWV 43, m. 2022.
Perfect Authentic
# 3
.
j

.
..
J
==========================
& 4
=

4-3 SUS

.
j

# 34

.
==========================
?
.
=
GM:

I6

IV

IV 6

5. Nun danket alle Gott (Now Let Us All Thank God), BWV 386, m. 12.

U
Plagal
### c

===================
&
=

PT

PT
### c

===================
?
=
AM:

I6

IV

IV 6

33

Assignment 5.4, page 110

1. Bach: Als Jesus Christus in der Nacht (When Jesus Christ in the Night),
BWV 265, m. 12.
4-3

SUS
U

b
c

=
=====================
&
9-8

7-6

SUS SUS
.

=====================
?b
=
FM:

V6

vi

vii

I6

ii 65

PT
I

2. Bach: Ach bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ (Ah, Stay With Us, Lord Jesus Christ),
BWV 253, m. 810.

PT
NT
### c


==========================
&

.
J

.
NT

PT

PT
SUS
### c NT

..
==========================
?
4-3

PT

PT

AM:

vi

IV 6

vi 6

I6

vi

3. Corelli: Sonata for two violins and violone/archlute, op. 3, no. 1 in F Major, II (Allegro), m. 3437.

w
============================
&b c

4-3
4-3
PT
7-6
SUS

SUS

4-3

SUS

J J J SUS

w
PT

b
c


============================
&
.
PT

J


?b
L============================
w
1.
FM: vi

34

2.
iii

3.
IV

4.
I

5.
V

6.
iii 6

7.
IV 6

8.
ii 64

9.
V7

10.
I

6
4

11.
V

12.
I

Quiz 18
For each chord in the following examples write the proper roman numeral on the blank below. Identify each
nonharmonic tone by drawing a circle around it and write the specific name of the nonharmonic tone on the blank below
the roman numeral analysis.

#
## bb ## #

=========================
&

=





#
#
#
#
#

# bb
?
=
=========================
CM:
DM:
B bM:
AM:
GM:
##
# #
b
bbb
b
b

=========================
&
=

#
bb
b # ##
b
b
b
?
=========================
=
cm:

dm:

em:

gm:

bm:

Quiz 19
Analyze each of the chords by placing roman numerals in the blanks below. Identify the cadence type and write the
specific name on the blank below the roman numerals.

###
##
####
bbb

b
b

==========================
&

###
####
##

bbb
b

==========================
?
=
b
AM:
A M:
EM:
FM:
DM:
bb #
bbb
b
bbbb

=
#

==========================

n
&

bb
bb
b

b
b
b
b
==========================
=
?
gm:

cm:

am:

dm:

fm:

35

Quiz 20
Analyze each chord in the following phrases using the appropriate roman numerals. Be sure to show the inversions using
the appropriate figured bass symbols.

bbb 44


==========================
&

ww =



ww

bbb 44

==========================
?
=

E b M:
### 3

==========================
=
& 4
#
# ..

..
### 3

==========================
=
?

f m:

36

Melodic Organization

Points to Stress
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

The logical growth of melody from a motive through the various stages to a complete composition.
The various configurations of melody such as sequence and phrase extension.
The important role played by the tonic triad. As demonstrated by the illustrations in the text chapter, a
majority of melodies are enmeshed with pitches of the tonic triad. Awareness of this common phenomenon is critical to the understanding of melody. Students will be surprised at the number of circled
^ ^ ^
pitches representing notes of the tonic triad (scale degrees 1 3 5 ).
The shape of melody. Most melodies contain an ascent and a descent. In the ascent the melody rises
to a high pitch (climax) in the first part of a phrase. Following the upward surge is a descent that
returns the phrase to a lower pitch. If the highest pitch is comparatively unimportant (lacks dynamic or
agogic stress), select another nearby tone that carries greater musical significance.
Step progressions. In a majority of melodies step progressions help to shape either the ascent or
descent (or both) and often include structural tones ( 3^ 2^ 1^ or 5^ 4^ 3^ 2^ 1^ , or occasionally
^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1).
Structural tones. Also known as the fundamental line (of the melody) and consisting of scale tones
^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^
3 2 1 , 5 4 3 2 1 , or 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1, these are the linchpins of most melodic lines of the
17th to 19th centuries.

No attempt is made in this text to discuss the details of structural tones. The basic concept is sufficient for freshman
theory students who comprehend the principle without difficulty.
Remember that in the fundamental line (structural tones) all tones must be present and in proper order.
^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^
2 3 1 and 5 3 2 1 cannot be considered structural tones 2 3 1 is not the correct order for 3 2 1 structural tones,
^ ^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
and 5 3 2 1 lacks the 4th scale degree for 5 4 3 2 1.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 6


Assignment 6.1, page 127
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes

parallel
half cadence
half cadence
parallel
parallel
contrasting
contrasting
half cadence
parallel
contrasting

37

Assignment 6.3, page 130


Example 1: Mozart: Sonata in A Major, K. 331, I, m. 118.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

1-8
1-2, 5-6
1-8
17-18
the cadence
9-12

Example 2: Schubert: Impromptu, op. 142, no. 4, D. 935, m. 1736.


Phrase 5

Phrase 6

17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24

New Material

Parallel to phrase 5

Phrase 7

Phrase 8

25 26 27 28
Melody a repeat of
Phrase 5 an octave
higher.

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Measures 31-34 are an extension of
the phrase. Measures 29-30 and 3536 create parallel construction to
phrase 7 (octave displacement in
measures 35-36).

Measures

Phrase
Number

Phrase
Relationship

Period
Number

Period
Relationships

17-20

New material

Period 3

21-24

Parallel to Phrase 5

25-28

Phrase 5 Modified

Period 3 Modified

29-36

Parallel to Phrase 7
(also extended)

Assignment 6.6, page 134

1. Ex: Haydn: Sonata in C Major, Hob. XVI:3, III, m. 3134.

b3
#

============================
& 4
^

2. Star Spangled Banner, last phrase.

#3
J

.
.
============================
& 4 .
=
^

38

Assignment 6.6 (continued)

3. Folk Song: "I've Been Working on the Railroad."

#4
J w
.

j . .
=============================
& 4 .
^

4. Folk Song: "Row, Row, Row Your Boat."

## 6

j j .
=============================
& 8 . . j . j j .
^

5. Folk Song: "Long, Long Ago" (last seven measures).

2
.

=============================
&b 4
^

6. Folk Song: "In the Gloaming" (last eight measures).

(no ascent)

2 .
J
.
J
.
j


=============================
&b 4
^

7. Mozart: Sonata in D Major, K. 284, III, m. 1417.

## C

=============================
&
^

8. Mozart: Sonata, K. 282, II (Menuetto I), m. 2832.


b 3 . .
.
.
b
=============================
& 4
^

9. Haydn: Sonata, Hob. XVI:13, III.

#3

=============================
& 4 #
#
^

10. Haydn: Sonata, Hob. XVI:14, II.

## 3



=
4
============================
=
& ===========================

11. Haydn: Sonata, Hob. XVI:9, I.

b2

============================
& 4
=

^

39

Texture and Textural Reduction

Purpose of This Chapter


This chapter provides an introduction to basic texture types and provides a simple analysis system for designating
textural elements. In addition, there is considerable stress on deriving the harmonic implications of arpeggiated accompaniment textures, a task that beginning students generally find difficult. The list of fundamental texture types is not
intended to be exhaustive, but represents only those textures most common in the music represented in this text. Other
texture types such has heterophonic texture, polythematic texture, and polyrhythmic texture may be introduced if you
desire.

Points to Stress
In homophonic texture there are often polyphonic elements. These may be clearly subordinate or quite prominent. For
consistency of terminology we usually speak of such textures as homophonic textures with polyphonic elements rather
than polyphonic textures with homophonic elements. In fact, there is no hard-and-fast line to be drawn between these
two textures, and examples can be found that can be viewed in either way. These texture types can also be combined:
accompanied fugues are a good example.
In analyzing textures there will certainly be differences of opinion and these differences should be discussed in
an open way. Students will gain more understanding of the complexity of music by thoughtful discussion than by being
informed of the right answer. Whenever possible, try to illustrate the difference between competing analyses through
performance.
Students will find doing the harmonic reductions more difficult than you will anticipate. Work through several
examples in class before they are asked to do them on their own. If a student has enough keyboard technique to play the
example, playing will often help in deciding where chords change and what is not a part of the chord. This skill will be
further developed in later chapters.

Some Ideas for Effective Presentation


Fundamental texture types should be illustrated in a variety of styles. This may be done at the piano but an even more
effective method is taped excerpts. Make a tape using short segments from a wide variety of music (nonwestern music,
popular music, and jazz make effective examples) to play in class as you discuss fundamental texture types. A quick
verbal analysis of each texture can be made without reference to printed music, since the elements can be heard clearly
once they are pointed out.
Have students select examples of the various texture types from music familiar to them. Each student can
present the example and do a textural analysis.
Make textural analysis a part of all later analysis. It will generally take only a few moments to discuss a
composition from the textural perspective.

41

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 7


Assignment 7.1, page 149

1. Palestrina: In Festo Transfigurationis Domini


PM
C

============================
&
o

cu - los
PM

in

al

cu - los

tum

============================
&
w
w
-

in

PM

C w
w


L============================
&
8

cu

- los

in

al

tum

tol

Texture type _____________


polyphonic

2. Bach: Suite no. 1 in G Major for Violoncello Solo (Corrente), BWV 1007, m. 12.

PM


# 34 J

============================

Texture type _____________


monophonic

3. Chopin: Mazurka in B-flat Major, op. 17, no. 1.

>
.. # n J v b
bb 3

n .


& 4
.
============================
.
f S


>

bb 34


?
============================

HRS
*

*
PSM

PM

Texture type _____________


homophonic

4. Bach: Sinfonia no. 4 in D Minor, BWV 790, from Fifteen Three-Part Inventions, m. 12.
PM

# # .

n
b c #
#
&

============================
PM

n
SM
#

?b
============================
Texture type _____________
polyphonic

42

Assignment 7.1 (continued)

5. Schubert: Die schne Mllerin (The Miller's Beautiful Daughter), op. 25, no. 2, Wohin?
(Where To?), m. 34.

# 2 PM
.
J
J
J
J
j

============================
& 4
{
Ich____

hrt'

ein

Bch

lein

rau

schen

wohl______

3
6
6
6
6
#2

4
============================
&
{

HRS

SS

# 2 j
j

j
j

{
============================
? 4
Texture type _____________
homophonic

6. Haydn: String Quartet, op. 76, no. 6, Hob. III:80, I.

K
K
bb 2

J
n

.
.
J
& b4 K
============================
PM

SM

bb 2
b
b
4
n n=
L&===========================

Texture type _____________


polyphonic

7. Beethoven: Minuet no. 3 from Six Minuets, WoO 10.


PM

bb 3


.

b
& 4 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
============================
HRS ff



bbb 34

?
============================
PSM

HRS

Texture type _____________


homophonic

8. Debussy: La Cathdrale engloutie (The Engulfed Cathedral) from Preludes, Book I, no. 10,
m. 2832.
Sonore sans duret
PM

..

..
3
ww
.

..
2

&

ww
============================

PSM
ff
...

..
www
.
32


..

w
?
============================
w.
w.
w.
w.
SS
Texture type ___________________
expanded monophonic

43

Assignment 7.1 (continued)

9. Schmidt: "Try to Remember," from The Fantasticks.


TO REMEMBER - Tom Jones & Harvey Schmidt Copyright 1960 by Tom Jones & Harvey Schmidt.
9. TRY
Chappell & Co., Inc., owner of publication and allied rights. International Copyright Secured. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

# 3 PM .

J
============================
& 4

.
j

Try

to re

mem - ber

that

kind

of Sep - tem - ber when

life

was



# 3 ..

J
.
j

============================
& 4
PSM





# 3
.

4
.
.
============================
?
HRS
Texture type _____________
homophonic

Assignment 7.2, page 151

1. Beethoven: Sonata no. 25 in G Major, op. 79, III (Vivace), m. 7275.


PM

#2

============================
& 4

# 24

============================
?

HRS

# 24

============================
?
2. Bach: Prelude no. 2 in C Minor, BWV 847, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I, m. 14.
PM

etc.

bb c

b
============================
&
n
bb c
b
============================
?
HRS

bb c w
b
ww
============================
&
ww
w
ww
bb c www
w
b
============================
?
44

Assignment 7.2 (continued)

3. Mozart: Bastien and Bastienne, K. 50, no. 1, m. 1114.


PM

34

============================
&
Mein

lieb - ster

Freund

hat

mich

ver -

las - en,

PM

34

============================
&

34

============================
?
HRS

34

============================
&

34

============================
?
4. Liszt: Au Lac de Wallenstadt (At Wallenstadt Lake), no. 2 from Annes de pelerinage, premiere
anne, Suisse (Years of Pilgrimage, First Year, Swiss), m. 3538.
PM

bbb 3 .

& 8
============================




bb b 38

? b
============================
3
3
3
3
HRS
..
...
..
..
.

.
b b 38 ..
.
.
b

.
b
?
============================
5. Beethoven: Piano Sonata no. 5, op. 10, no.1 in C Minor, I (Allegro molto e con brio), m. 5663.

.
bb 3

=
b
J
.
.

============================
& 4
PM

SS

etc.


bb 34
============================
? b
=
SM

.
...
...
...
bbb 34 ..
============================
?
=
Tn
.
.
45
J b
bbb .
.

============================
&
=

.
...
...
...
bbb 34 ..
============================
?
=
Assignment 7.2 (continued)

T
.
n
.
J b
bbb .
.

&
============================
=

bb
b
?
============================
=
..
.
...
...
.
b ..

.
b
============================
? b
=
6. Mendelssohn: Songs Without Words, op. 19, no. 6, m. 711.
PSM PM

j
bb 6 J j # J j

& 8
============================
=
j . . .
>
HRS cantabile


bb 68

=
?
============================
SS

..
.
...
...
...
bb 68 ..
.

============================
?
=
.
.
.
7. Schubert, Sonatina for Violin and Piano, op. 137, no. 3, D 408 in G Minor, III, m. 3942.


b 3

b
b
4
=======================
&
=
p dolce
bb 3 HRS
b

=======================
& 4
=


p
3
b

=======================
?bb 4
=

PM

HS

b 3
=======================
& b b 4 ..
=
...
..
...
.
.
b 3 .
.
.
=======================
=
?bb 4
..
8. Mendelssohn: Songs Without Words, op. 53, no. 3.
46

PM

b 6 ..

...
J
J
& b 8 .
======================
HS

& b b 4 ..
.

...

..
.

..
.

.
.
bbb 34 .
..
=======================
=
?
Assignment 7.2 (continued)
8. Mendelssohn: Songs Without Words, op. 53, no. 3.
PM

b 6 ..
...

J
J
&
======================
HS



bb 68
.
?
======================
J
J .
HRS

.
...
bb 68 ...
..
.
?
======================
. # .
b .
. .
j
j
#
b

J
#
&
======================
p



bb
?
======================
J .
# J .
. ..
...
bb
.
.
.
?
======================
# .

47

Voice Leading in Two Voices

Why Two-Voice Species Counterpoint?


While counterpoint is almost always taught as a separate course from harmony, students in freshman and sophomore
theory courses suffer severely from the strong emphasis on the progression of chords. Students are very soon plunged
into counterpoint that is camouflaged as voice leading. Most often students are not even warned about the melodic flow
of a phrase, and end up with a mish-mash of small prepared patternswhen connecting V with I keep the common tone
and move the thirds or sixths in parallel. These chord-to-chord formulae for moving from one chord to the next have no
bearing on the various voices (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) as they wind out and around through the length of a phrase or
more.
Beginning with species counterpoint, two-voices in first species is ideal to explain the relationship between a
chorale melody and its harmonized bass. After a thorough introduction to first species in two voices, the shift from
modality to tonality and the sometimes bouncing bass can be smoothly shown. The fact that the eighteenth-century bass
tends occasionally to skip more often than in modal counterpoint is easily understood.
Then, when the two outer voices are thoroughly prepared, the alto and tenor (inner voices) can be fit in and
between two outer voices. Students will find out what many eighteenth-century composers already knew: occasionally
the inner voices settle for less interesting melodic flow.
With this firm initiation (chapters 8 and 9), modulation and dissonant chords will fit in very easily in the
ensuing chapters. In some instances, stretching species counterpoint is necessary.
If you prefer a more complete introduction to species counterpoint, an alternate chapter 8 follows this section.
This chapter may be reproduced and distributed to your students.

Answers to Objective Assignments in Chapter 8


Assignment 8.1, page 163
The errors in each of the three examples are provided below. If you find some other mistakes, include them along with
those we found.
The best way to approach this assignment is to make a copy of the following pages, and put them on an overhead projector. Failing that, copy on the black board so students may discuss the possibilities.
Another source of error type exercises is to make copies of the two examples on page 162. Insert errors as
you wish, and let students correct them.
Another source is assignment 8.2. in this instructors manual. Use some of the examples and insert errors as you
wish.

1.

Skip of a 7th is
not in the style.
See figure 8.6 on
page 157.

Melody should change


direction before and after
a skip. See figure 8.6 on
page 157.

w w w
w w #w =
w
=
& ==============
w
Range too large and outlines
a dissonant interval.

Do not use chromatic


melody. See page 159.

===============
& w w w w w w w w
=

Similar motion to a
perfect interval is
prohibited. See
page 161.

49
This sequence is twonote. OK.

Tritone (F to B) outlined
in melody. See page

perfect interval is
prohibited. See
page 161.

This sequence is twonote. OK.

Tritone (F to B) outlined
in melody. See page
158, figure 8.9.

2.

w w w w w w w #w
===============
&
=
P4th (G to C) cannot be
used in first species. See
page 159, figure 8.13.

===============
& w w w w w w w w =
Hidden 5ths. See page
161, figure 8.20.

3.

w w w w w w w w
===============
&
=
8

10

w w w w w w w
===============
& w
=
G F E (melody) repeated is not in
style. See page 157, figure 8.8.

Assignment 8.2, page 164


Suitable counterpoints are available for each of the four Cantus Firmi. Some could be improved while others are about as
error free as it is possible to produce.
These examples could be used in a variety of ways. If your students are having difficulty with species counterpoint, take some of the examples here, remove some of the counterpoint notes, give this to your students to complete.
Partially completed exercises that you can make up on your own are easier than whole counterpoints for students to
produce.
You will probably note that a number of prepared tests, like the Graduate Exam, often contain questions that
include information based on species counterpoint. The authors cannot impress users strongly enough the importance of
species counterpoint.
Cantus I

& w w w w w w w w w w=
============
1

3 3

8 6

w
w w w w w
w w w w
?
============
=
Cpt.
Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w w
&
============
=
8

3 3

6 6

============
& w w w w w w w w w w=
Cantus I
Cpt.

50

w w w w w w w w w w
============
&
=
8

3 3

6 6

One repeated note

w
============
=
8

3 3

6 6

============
& w w w w w w w w w w=

Assignment 8.2, continued


Cantus I
Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w w
============
&
=
8

3 3

6 6

============
& w w w w w w w w w w=
Cantus I
Cantus I

============
& w w w w w w w w w w=
1 3 5 8 10 5 6 3 3 1
w w w
w w w w
w w w
?
============
=
Cpt.

Cantus 2

================
&
w w w w w w w w =
w
w
w
w
w
w
1 5 3 3 5 6 6 10 6 3 8 3 3 1
w w w w w w w w w w w w #w w
?
================
=

"Horn fifths"

Cpt.

Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w #w w
================
& w w w
=
8 3
6 10 6 3 5 3 6 6 5 6 6 8
w w w w w w w w
w
w
w
w
w
w
?
================
=

One repeated note

Cantus 2

w w w w w w w w w #w w
================
& w w w
=
8 6 6 10 6 6 8 3 6 8 6 6 6 8
w w w w w w w w
w
w
w
w
w
w
?
================
=
Cpt.

One repeated note

Cantus 2
Cantus 2

w w w w w w w w =
================
&
w
w
w
w
w
w
1 6 6 3 5 6 6 10 6 3 5 3 3 1
w w w w w w w w w w w w #w w
================
?
=

One repeated note

Cpt.

51

Assignment 8.2, continued


Cantus 3

==============
& w w w w w w w w w w w =
w
1

6 6 10 8

6 3

w w w w w w
w w w #w w
w
==============
=
?
Cpt.
Cpt.

w w w w w # w w One repeated note


==============
& w w w w w
=
8

6 3

6 6

w w w w w =
==============
&
w w w w w w
w
Cantus 3
Cantus 3

w w w w w =
==============
&
w w w w w w
w
1

6 10 10 6

6 3

w w w w w
w w w #w w
w
w
==============
= One repeated note
?
Cpt.
Cpt.

w w w w w w # w w One repeated note


==============
& w w w w
=
8

8 5

3 6

==============
&
w w w w w w =
w w w w w
w
Cantus 3

Cantus 4

==============
& w w w w w w w w w w w w
1 5 3 5 6 10 8 5 3 3 3 1
w w w w
w w w w w
w w w
?
==============
Cpt.

Cantus 4

==============
& w w w w w w w w w w w w
1 6 8 10 6 10 8 5 6 6 3 1
w w
w
w w w w w w w w w
One repeated note
==============
?
Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w w w w One repeated note


==============
Cpt.

52

6 3

5 8

6 6

w w w w w w w w w
==============
w w w
Cantus 4
Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w w w w

One repeated note

w w w w w w w w
w w w
w
1 6 8 10 6 10 8 5 6 6 3 1
w w
w
w w w w w w w w w
One repeated note
==============
?
Assignment 8.2, continued
Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w w w w One repeated note


==============
&
Cpt.

==============
& w w w w w w w w w w w w
Cantus 4
Cpt.

w w w w w w w w w w w w One repeated note


==============
&
8

10 6

==============
& w w w w w w w w w w w w
Cantus 4

Below are three short cantus examples that are a bit easier and shorter for your students who still might be swimming.
You can use these for a test, an example in class where you remove some of the counterpoint, or let your very best
students use these or parts of them as special extra grades.
1.

Cantus
1
2

============
& w w w w w #w w =
6

w w w w w w w
============
?
=
Cantus

2.

============
&w w w w w w w =
1
3
6
8
3
3
1
w w w w w #w w
============
?
=
3.

Cantus
1

=============
&w w w w w w w w =
8

w w w w w w w w
=============
=
?

53

Voice Leading in Four Voices

This chapter should be relatively easy if you constantly insist that:


1.
The bass and soprano voices be completed first.
2.
The alto and tenor voices are added after the bass and soprano voices are completed.
Be very strict regarding the quality of the soprano and bass. The melody must be of considerable quality in
each voice (with some freedom in the bass to accommodate chord roots on occasion). If the quality of at least two or
three melodies is excellent, allow lenience regarding the fourth. It is sometimes impossible to make all voices of equal
quality.
Some of your best students will eventually transcend the rules and will reach a plateau that allows them to write
in style without need for so-called rules.
Although not a rigid rule, each chorale should have a majority of circle progressions.

Purpose of this chapter


To show how the voice leading principles of species counterpoint have influenced the four-part chorale writing of the
eighteenth century.
As you have already noted, there are two levels of voice-leading guidelines:
a.
b.

Inviolate. These so-called rules are not to be violated under any circumstances. Most are rules
of species counterpoint.
Occasionally Broken. These are directions which are generally not precise. They are inexact
guidelines that usually hold, but may not apply in all circumstances.

The occasionally broken directions are the most difficult for students to understand. With experience, students
will become more and more at ease with this type of musical situation. If some students feel uncomfortable with these
flexible directions, avoid them altogether until students become more experienced.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 9


Assignment 9.1, page 175

2. This one is by Bach. Perfect authentic


cadence possible.

1. Not by Bach!


w #c
.
c

======================
&


All skips. See chapter 8, p. 157.

Bass has no direction.

w # c .
c
======================
?
No cadence.

3. This one is by Bach.

Bass has four skips, but


otherwise is musical and
does belong to Bach.
4. Play this one on the piano and you will
know why it is not by Bach.

U #
#c
# 44


======================
4 9

# c ## 44
======================

69

Bass has no direction.

w # c .
c
======================
No cadence.

Bass has four skips, but


otherwise is musical and
does belong to Bach.

Assignment 9.1 (continued)


3. This one is by Bach.

4. Play this one on the piano and you will


know why it is not by Bach.

U #
#c
# 44

======================
&

4 9

# c ## 44
======================
?
Soprano melody is excellent. Bass
line is OK, but modulates to D
major. (Better not mention
modulation unless you are ready to
explain the concept.)

Notes in square create dissonances


and cannot be harmonized. Soprano
and bass melodies lack ascent and
descent from a climax tone.

5. This one is by Bach.

6. Obviously not by Bach.

3
. c

======================
&4

34 . c
======================
?
Soprano voice is excellent with a
climax on E.

Skip of a 7th
is not possible
in chorales.

Parallel 5ths and


no cadence
possible.

Assignment 9.2, page 176


In the written directions, students are not required to fill in the alto and tenor voices. The object of this assignment is to
compose musical soprano voices. You can have sudents add the alto and tenor if you like, but make sure students have
the two outer voices (bass and soprano) completed before adding the alto and tenor.
Remember that these added melodies (below) are only one way to complete the soprano. It is expected that
students will produce a number of other acceptable melodies.

U
#c



=============
&
1.

6 8

6 6

(Some intervals reduced


by an octave.)

#c
=============
?
GM:

2.

70

3.

U
U
#c
#c


====================
3 6

8 5

5 8


#c
=============
GM:

Assignment 9.2 (continued)


2.

3.

U
U
#c
#

c

=


====================
&
3

#c
#c

=
====================
?
GM:

GM:

4.

5.

U #
U
bc
#
c
b

#
====================
&

=
3

b # ## c
=
====================
?b c
gm:

Requires a
6 chord.
4

DM:

Assignment 9.3, page 177


Each exercise is a chorale phrase with the tenor and alto omitted. Students are to complete a four-voice setting in chorale
style using the principles printed in chapter 9. Occasionally, a section from chapter 8 will be noted.
At the beginning, students look at the written rules as obstructions to free composition. As time goes by,
students who are in the apprentice period slowly begin to note that the rules are actually useful guidelines to music of
the classical period of musical composition.
If you want your students to play these examples on the piano, allow students greater freedom. Of course, rules
that are never broken remain such when students play directly on the piano (without the inner voices written out). But
part of the purpose of playing these on the piano is to hear them at a moderate tempo. If the students are too wary of
errors, they cannot enjoy the music, and the whole purpose of playing the examples on a piano is lost.
The following are examples of correct procedure. Other correct examples are also possible.

U
### 4

4
=====================
&

### 44

=====================
?
2.

AM:

IV

U
bb 4

4
#
===================
&
=

bb 44

===================
?
=
3.

gm:

iv

71

Assignment 9.3 (continued)


4.

U
b c
b
b

=
===================
&

bbb c

===================
?
I
vi
IV
V
I
I
V
E b M:
U
### c

===================
&
#
#

### c

===================
?

5.

f m:

iv

U
## c

=
===================
&

6.

## c

===================
?
DM:

vi

ii

bb c

=
===================
&

bb c

===================
?
=
I
vi
V
V
vi
ii
V
B b M:
7.

72

Assignment 9.4, page 179


Parallel 8ves. 10th between tenor and alto.
1.

Doubled leading tone.

c
==========
& =

c
=
==========
?

Tenor voicetoo many skips.

Lacks a 5th factor.

Parallel unisons.

U
c
==========
& =


c
==========
? =
2.

Poor melody in tenor.


Does not stay in tenor range.
Crossed voices.
Parallel 5ths.

Parallel unisons.
More than an octave between
adjacent voices.

3.

3rd factor missing.



c
==========
& # # =
Poor inner voices.
#


c
==========
=
? #
Doubled leading tone

Assignment 9.5, page 179

44

===================
&

b
4
===================
?
1.

FM:

IV 64

IV 6

I 64

2.

.. =
===================
& b 4

..

b
4

===================
?
=

73

4
b 4
I

FM:

IV 64

IV 6

I 64

Assignment 9.5 (continued)


2.

.. =
===================
& b 4

..

===================
?b 4
=
FM:

IV 64

ii 6

I6

I 64

U
## c

===================
&

## c

===================
?
=
3.

I6

DM:

IV

vii

I6

bb c

=====================
&

4.

b c

b
=====================
?
=

B M:
M

I6

IV

IV 6

I 64

Assignment 9.6, page 181

1. Herzlich lieb hab ich dich, o Herr (Dearly I Love Thee O Lord), BWV 174,
m. 1819 (modified).
U

##

======================
&

## c

======================
?
6

DM:

I6

IV

IV 6

V6

6
4

I 64

2. Freu' dich sehr, o meine seele (Rejoice Greatly, O My Soul), BWV 32,
m. 34 (modified).

74

U
#

=====================

&

# c

=====================
?
6

6
4

6
6

## c

======================
=
? =====================
6

Assignment 9.6 (continued)


I6
DM:

IV

IV 6

V6

6
4

I 64

2. Freu' dich sehr, o meine seele (Rejoice Greatly, O My Soul), BWV 32,
m. 34 (modified).

U
#

&

=====================

# c

?
=====================
6

GM:

vi

6
4

V6

IV 6

I 64

3. Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gotts-Sohn (Lord Christ, the Only Son of God),

BWV 164, m. 34 (modified).

bb c
.

======================
&
.

..
bb c

======================
?
Bb M:

vi

ii

I6

4. Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr (Not So Sadly, Not So Deeply), BWV 384,

m. 34 (modified).

bb c

======================
&

bbb c

()
======================
?

E M:

vi 6

vi

ii

I6

75

Assignment 9.7, page 182

U
##

====================
&

=
1.

## c

====================
?
=
6

DM:

vi 6

vi

I6

ii

2.

b c

n
b
b

========================
&

n
b

========================
? b b c n
n
n
n
6
6
6
6
cm:

V6

vii

i6

i6

======================
&b c

======================
?

6
#
3
4
#
6
3.

dm:

iv

VI

ii

i 64

4.

b c

======================
&

bb c

======================
?

B M:

76

I6

IV

IV 6

V6

6
4

I 64

10

Harmonic Progression and Harmonic Rhythm

Points to Stress
1.

In almost all music of the common practice period (roughly 1650-1875) circle-of-fifths (descending perfect
fifths) progressions help to mold and give shape to individual phrases. At first, students should harmonize
melodies with a saturation of circle progressions. An example is:
I vi ii V I or iii vi ii V I
Later, decorations of the circle progressions, for musical purposes, is advised. A good example is the chorale,
Punish Me Not in Thy Wrath, by Bach, page 185 of the text:
I

IV6
V
Decoration

iii6

vi

ii 65

Also, Praise God, Ye Christians, All Together, page 185:


V6

2.

3.

4.

V 43

I6

vi

I6
Decoration

ii6

Effective musical harmonization is one of the most difficult tasks students are asked to accomplish. Indeed,
it is also one of the most formidable to teach. Problems develop when students attempt to devise harmonizations strictly on paper without hearing the result. If students would only work at a piano, their efforts would be
considerably improved.
Another problem is the seat of the pants approach where class members disregard all suggestions and try to
write something that sounds good. Generally the results are abysmal. A session in class devoted to the
harmonization of a particular melody helps to illustrate the procedure, chord by chord, and gives students a
working model to follow.
Despite the initial failures students may experience, this chapter can create many class discussions from which
students (and instructors as well) gain invaluable insights.

77

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 10

Assignment 10.1, page 197


3.

2.

#3
##

c

.. =
============================
&

..
# 34
## c

============================
?

GM:

vi

ii

DM:

iii

vi

ii

5.
U
### c
## c


..

============================
&



.


### c
#

. # c
============================
?
4.

AM:

iii

vi

ii

DM:

iii

vi

ii

Assignment 10.2, page 198

1.

IV 6

I
D5
___

___
2.

IV
D5
___
ii 6

4.

i
D2
___

5.

78

A2
___

___
D3

D5
___

___
IV

ii
___
D3

D5
___
iv

D5
___

___
A2

D5
___
ii
D5
___

___
A2
ii 6
D5
___

___
I

VI

vi

D5
___

D5
___

___
A2

I 64

D5
___

___
A2
ii 6

vi

ii 6

I
D5
___

D5
___

V
D5
___

___
A2

___
A5

___
D3

ii

V6

iii 6

i6

vi
___
D3

A2
___

D5
___
vii

I6

___
A2

I
D5
___

___
A2
vii

D5
___
3.

V6

i 64

D5
___
I 64

D5
___

___
V

___

IV

Assignment 10.4, page 199


2.
U
U
#
bbbb c

c
============================
&




1.



# c
bbbb c

============================
?
A b M:
I
V
ii
vi
ii
V
I
GM:
V
ii
vi
iii
IV
I
V
U
bbb c
b


& b
=================
=

? b bbb c
=================
=
b
D M:
I
IV
I
V
ii
vi
V
I
3.

Assignment 10.5, page 200

U
U
###
bbb c
b

c


============================
&

1.

2.




### c

b
c

bb


============================
?
AM:
I
IV
V
vi
ii
V
I
A b M:
I IV V
I
vi
ii
V vi
U
U 4.
#### c
b

b 4


============================
&

3.

#### c

b 34
b
============================
?
EM:
I
vi
ii
V
I
IV V
B bM:
V
I IV V
I
ii V
I

79

Assignment 10.6, page 200

U 2.
U
bb c

c
b


============================
&
1.

b
c
c

bb

============================
?

CM:
V
iii
I
vi
ii
V
I
E b M:
vi
ii
V
I
vi
IV
V
U

bb 3

============================
& 4

3.

b 34

b
============================
?
B bM:
I
vi
IV
V
iii
I
IV
V
I
Assignment 10.9, page 202

1. Steh' ich bei meinem Gott (If I Stand By My


God), BWV 503, m. 12 (modified).

#c

#

==============
&

#
# c #

==============
?
6
#
#
6
V6

em:

ii

2. Jesu, meines Herzens Freud (Jesus, Joy of My


Heart), BWV 473, m. 12 (modified).

U
c
#
&

==============

#
c

? #
==============
#

am:

80

V6

iv

#
i

Assignment 10.9 (continued)

3. Befiehl du deine Wege (Entrust Thy Ways Unto Him),


BWV 271, m. 12 (modified).

U
##

================
&
=




## c

================
?

=
DM:

IV

I6

IV 6

ii 6

4. Nun ruhen alle Wlder (Now All the Forests Are at Rest),
BWV 44, m. 12 (modified).

b


=
&bc
================


b
?b c
=
================
B bM:

IV

vii

V6

IV 6

IV

5. Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hlt (Had God the Lord
Not Remained with Us), BWV 258, m. 12 (modified).

U
## c



( =
)

&
================


( )


## c

?
================
=
6

DM:

vi

I6

IV

ii 6

81

Assignment 10.10, page 204

1. (Lass, O Herr, dein Ohr sich neigen)

bb c #
#
ww
===================
&
=


w

bb c

w
===================
?
=
#
6

gm:

i6

V6

ii

2. (Das heil'gen Geistes reiche Gnad)

b 3

& 4
=====================
=
..
#

..

b
4

?
=====================
=
6

dm:

V6

iv 6

iv

3. (Wie schn leuchtet der Morgenstern)

U
## c

&
=
================



## c
=
?
================
6

6
6

DM:

I6

IV

vii

ii 6

4. (Christ lag in Todesbanden)


#
& c
=
================

=
?
================
6
4

am:

82

iv

i6

iv

i 64

11

The Dominant Seventh Chord

Points to Stress
1.
2.

Students grasp the additional chord factor easily but usually fail to remember its resolution downward a step.
Stress resolution of the 7th factor.
The 7th scale degree (3rd factor of the dominant seventh) is also a problem. When in an outer voice it resolves
up to tonic. Students often confuse the two. Address this point in class:
^

7th
3.

scale degree
chord factor

up (to tonic)
^
down one scale degree to 3
6
5

The introduction of chords with four factors brings forth a new set of figured bass symbols (7,
Keep stressing that all figured bass symbols represent intervals above the bass note.

4
3

4
2

).

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 11


Assignment 11.1, page 213
3.
4.
www 5. b b ww 6.# ## w 7. b b n www
#1.# (Ex.)www 2. b # www
b
b b bbb ww # # www b b bb w=
b www
bb w
w
w
===========================
&
w
DM: V
dm: V
FM: V
E b M: V
C bM: V
BM: V
e b m: V
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
www
bbbb wwww ###### w
bbb wwww
bbbb n www ##### w ####### ww bb
b w
www
ww
www
w=
===========================
& b
b
b
#
b
#
#
b
D M: V
F M: V
E M: V
b m: V
g m: V
a m: V
B M: V
7

20.
#### # www 16.## ww 17.### w 18.bb n www 19.
### ww 21.bb w
w
w
# ww
b w
# ww
ww
# www =
===========================
& # w
# www
d # m: V
bm: V
f # m: V
cm: V
am: V
AM: V
gm: V
15.

23.
26.
# w 24.bb b w 25.#
#### ww 27.bb b b w 28.bb b b ww
www
w
# ww
b ww
b b ww b b b n ww =
www
w
===========================
&
# wwww
w
b
#
b
b
22.

CM: V 7

GM: V 7

A M: V7

em: V 7

c m:

V7

G M:

V7

a m: V7

83

Assignment 11.2, page 214

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.

Key

Chord Analysis

G major
F# minor
Ab major
Bb major
C minor
Db major
D minor
B minor
C#
melodic minor
or major
G minor

V5
4
V3
V7
V7
6
V5
4
V2
4
V3
6
V5
V7

I
i
IV6
vi
i
I6
VI6
i
IV6

Type
a
a
c
b
a
a
b
a
c

V3 i

Assignment 11.3, page 215


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

84

Tenor voice7th of chord should resolve down


Soprano and bassparallel perfect fifths
Chord 15th factor missing (sometimes acceptable)
Chord 1spacing between alto and tenor
Chord 1, tenor7th of chord should resolve down
Chord 1, bass7th of chord should resolve down one step
Chord 1, soprano7th scale step should resolve up to A
Tenor and bassparallel perfect fifths
Chord 2unnecessary tripling of chord root
Alto and tenorparallel perfect fifths

Assignment 11.4, page 216

1. Kuhlau: Piano Sonatina, op. 55, no. 4, II, m. 127.


a
Andante con espressione

- - - .. J .. J
.
. .
bb 34

.
============================
&
=


p
2
p
4
1 3
5

- - .
. .
p- - - 6


b 34

b
============================
?
=
4-3 SUS

NT

PT

NT

B M:

Half cadence
V

V7

I
Rhythmic repetition

>
NT
>
>

.
.
J .
PT
J > . .
bb .
J

#
============================
&
=
{ {
.
.
F
p
.
p
7
8
9
11 12
10


-.

b
============================
?b
=
-. . { { p
c

Perfect Authentic
V7

V7

V7

Rhythmic repetition
a

SUS
- . PT
.
PT
PT
NT
bb > . . PT

# J n . J . . J J
n b - - - .. j . =
============================
&
j.
13
14
15
16
17
18
19


- - - .

b
b
.
=
============================
?
Half cadence
V7

V7

V7

NT
Half cadence
I

(phrase extension)

.
- .. .
.

- - - .
bb
.

=

============================
&
{

. p
22
-. -. 24 . 25
20
21 23
.


26- 27.
.
..
b

b
& .
============================
? . .
=
-. . {
b

V7

V7

V7

Perfect Authentic
I
V7 I
V7

2. Haydn: Symphony no. 97, Hob. I:97 in C Major, III (Menuetto), m. 116.
a

85


enAPP
#

34 e

============================
=
APP

.
.
.
b
..

b
&
============================
=
. .
-. . {
V

V7

Assignment 11.4 (continued)

V7

V7

Perfect Authentic
V7 I
V7

2. Haydn: Symphony no. 97, Hob. I:97 in C Major, III (Menuetto), m. 116.
a



enAPP
#


&4
============================
=
f 1
2
3
4
5

## =

?4
============================

CM:

APP

V7

V7

IV

Half

vii o /ii

ii

G Major
V

V7

GM:

V7

J J J

J
J J # J

&
============================
=
S
p
7
8
9
10
6

J
J J J

J
J

?
============================
=

ii 6

vi

V7

Perfect authentic
I
CM:

vii

vii

IV vii 6/ii

c
.
#
#


J J n J

=

============================
&
S p
11
12
13
14
16
f
p

J J J

15

============================
=
?
Half
ii

G Major
V GM: I

V7

V7

vi

ii 6

V7

Perfect Authentic
I

3. Haydn: Symphony no. 97 in C Major, Hob. I:97 in C Major, I, m. 7691 (modified).

> . 4-3 SUS


PT
. # . PT. .
.
.
#

.
.

.
34 .

============================
=
&
2
3
4
p
1

#
34

============================
=
?
a

NT

NT

APP

GM:

PT

V7

Half cadence
V7

86
a

APP

PT

#
34

=============================
GM:

V7

Assignment 11.4 (continued)

APP

Half cadence
V7

PT



# =

#
============================
& .
>
5
6
7
8

#

.
.

============================
=
?
. . .
e

NT

ANT

Perfect Authentic
vi

IV

V7

> PT
>
ANT
b'
>
PT
>

#
#

============================
& # =
>
11
12
10
9
.
. .

.
.
.

. #

.
#

.
============================
?
. .
=
PT

ANT

V7

Perfect Authentic
V
I

IV

>
>
>
PT
PT

#
PT PT >
>

PT

#
# PT

============================
&
=
3
15
16 3
3
14
13
.
f
.
.

.
.
.

============================
?

PT

ANT

Imperfect Authentic
V
I

IV

Assignment 11.5, page 219

1.

2.

## 3
b3
.
. =

.
=====================
& 4
& b 4
.

.

.
## 34
bb 34
.

. =
=====================
?
?
DM:

### 3
& 4

ii 6

V7

3.

B M:

4.

bbb 34

vi

V7

87

.
.

DM:

ii 6

V7

B M:

vi

V7

Assignment 11.5 (continued)

### 3
.
bbb 34

.
4
=====================
&


.
.

..
### 34
.
b 34
b

.
b
=====================
?
3.

4.

AM:

I6

V7

E M:

5.

IV 6

V7

6.

# 3
bb 34 #

.
&

=====================
# .

.
.
# 34 #
b 34 #
..
.
b

?
=====================
em:

V 65

gm:

V 42

i6

V7

Assignment 11.7, page 221

1. O wir armen sunder (Oh, We Poor Sinners),


BWV 407, m. 12 (modified).

U
## c
=

===============
&



## c
===============
?

=
6
5

DM:

V 65

I6

IV

IV

2. Jesu, deine tiefen Wunden (Jesus, Thy Deep Wounds),


BWV 194, m. 34 (modified).

U
bb c

=
&
===============


bb c
=
?
===============
b

B M:

88

vi

6
5

I6

V 56

V7

Assignment 11.7 (continued)

3. Es spricht der unweisen Mund wohl (The Lips of the


Foolish Say), BWV 308, m. 56 (modified).

U
c
b


=
================
&

================
?b
=
FM:

IV

4
2

V 42

I6

ii

I6

V7

4. Straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn (Punish Me Not in Thy


Wrath), BWV 115, m. 910 (modified and transposed).

U
bb c
b


=
===============
&

bb b c
=
===============
?

b

E M:

ii

4
2

6
4

V 42

I6

I 64

ii 6

V7

5. O Gott, du frommer Gott (Oh God, Thou Faithful God),


BWV 45, m. 34 (modified).

U
#### c

=================
&
=


#### c

=
=================
?
6

EM:

ii 6

4
2

6
5

V 42

I6

V 65

V7

Assignment 11.8, page 223

1.

U
bb c

===============
&
.. =


..
bb c


=
===============
?

B M:

4
2

3
3

V42

I6

ii

V6

V7

89

Assignment 11.8 (continued)

##


=
================
& c



## c
=
================
?
2.

DM:

4
2

6
5

3
3

V 42

I6

V 65

IV

V7


=
================
&c
3.

================
?
6

CM:

ii 6

V7

6
5

I6

ii

V 65

4.

U
###

c

===============
&
=


### c
=

===============
?
AM:

vi

6
5

I6

V 56

V7

5.

U
c
=

==============
&


c
==============
?
=

6
5

CM:

90

V 65

I6

IV

IV

Quiz 21
Determine the major key for each of the following dominant sevenths. They are in root position and various inversions.

w
bw
w
b ww
w
w
b
w
b
w
w
w
#
w
#
w
==========================
&
b
=
w
#w
w
w
#w
w
#w
bw
# ww
b ww
bw
bw
ww
b ww
#w
w
w
w
bw
bw
w
w
#w
==========================
?
=
w
bw
#w
w
w
b
w
b
b
w
b
w=
w
# ww
#w
w
#w
w
& w
==========================
w
# ww
w
bw
bw
bw
w
w
w
w
w
ww
#w
w
bw
w
w
w
b w=
#w
? bw
==========================
bw

91

12

The Leading-Tone Seventh Chords

Points to Stress
1.

Contrast the resolution of the leading-tone seventh chord with that of the dominant seventh:
Chord
root resolves:
to:
V7
up a P4th or down a P5th
tonic
vii7 or vii7
up a m2nd
tonic

2.

Since vii7 contains one tritone and vii7 contains two, resolution of the tritone is desired in all possible instances.
However, voice-leading conditions surrounding vii7 seldom permit resolution of both tritonesone resolution
is sufficient.

3.

In resolving tritones emphasize that:


Diminished intervals resolve inward
Augmented intervals resolve outward

4.

In ear training the position of fully diminished 7th chords (vii7) cannot be determined by sound alone since
6

all positions (7, 5 , 3 , 2 ) consist of a superposition of minor 3rds.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 12


Assignment 12.1, page 233

1. Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen (Dearest Jesus, How Hast Thou Transgressed),
BWV 245, m. 13 (modified).

U
bb c

# =

#
============================
&

bb c


?
============================
=
i

gm:

iv 6

iv

V 42

i6

vii

vii

2. Jesu, meine Freude (Jesus, My Joy), BWV 358, m. 12 (modified).

U
b c

#
&
====================
=

?
====================
=

dm:

i6

vii

ii

3. Hilf, Herr Jesu, lass gelingen (Help, Lord Jesus, Send Good Speed), BWV 344, m. 912.

b 3

93

====================

i
i6
dm:
Assignment
12.1 (continued)

vii

ii

3. Hilf, Herr Jesu, lass gelingen (Help, Lord Jesus, Send Good Speed), BWV 344, m. 912.

U
bb 3


# =
#
==========================
& 4 #

3
bb 4

==========================
?
#

gm:

i6

vii

vii

4 - 3

iv

Assignment 12.6, page 235

1. Meines Lebens letzte Zeit (The Last Hour of My Life), BWV 381,
m. 12 (modified).

U
#c

&
=====================

#
#c

?
=====================

em:

vii

iv 6

2. Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen (Dearest Jesus, How


Has Thou Transgressed), BWV 245, m. 1011 (modified).

b c

&
===================
=

#
( )
bb c

===================
=
7

gm:

III

vii

ii

3. Mach's mit mir, Gott, nach deiner Gt (Do With Me as Thy Goodness
Prompts Thee), BWV 377, m. 34 (modified).

U
### c

=
&
=====================

## c

?
=====================
=

AM:

ii

vii

6
7

ii 6

94

4. Nun sich der Tag geendet hat (When Now the Day Is at an End),
BWV 396, m. 56 (modified).


### c

=
=
? ====================

I6

AM:

ii

vii

ii 6

Assignment 12.6 (continued)

4. Nun sich der Tag geendet hat (When Now the Day Is at an End),
BWV 396, m. 56 (modified).

( # )

#
#
& c
=====================

? c #
=====================
6

am:

V6

i6

6
5

iv

vii

6
5

5. Herr Jesu Christ, du hast bereit (Lord Jesus Christ, Thou Hast Already),
BWV 333, m. 34 (modified).

U
## c

======================
&

## c

======================
?
#

V7

V
bm:
i
* Double 3rd in VI after V

VI*

vii

#
i

Assignment 12.7, page 237

1.

U
b c
b

=
=====================
&
#

bb c

=
=====================
?
6
5

gm:

VI

ii

vii

6
5

i6

ii

8
8
3

2.

bb

=====================
& b b b c

bbbb c n

*
n
n
n n
=====================
? b
=
b

b m:

n
V

6
5

3
3

IV 6

V 65

vii

95

3.

n
n
bbb c
n n
=
? b====================
=
n

b m:

6
5

3
3

IV 6

V 65

vii

Assignment 12.7 (continued)

3.

=
#

====================

&

#
====================
=
?
#

am:

VI

vii

V7

#
i

U
bb c n
n

b n
=====================
& b
=

bb c

=
=====================
? b
4.

cm:

n 42

vii

4
2

n6

i6

IV

vii

5
6
5

5.

U
bb c
#

( # ) =
#
#
=====================
&

bb c

=====================
?

=
#
6

gm:

96

V6

i6

6
5

iv

vii

6
5

Quiz 22
Spell the leading tone seventh chord:

======================
&
=
DM:
b b m:
Db M:
Db M:
fm:
Gb M:
b b m:
======================
&
=
gm:
em:
a #m:
dm:
b b m:
f #m:
E bM:
======================
&
=
#
b
b
b m:
am:
b m:
FM:
g m:
GM:
BM:
======================
&
=
b b m:
AM:
DM:
Gb M:
C #M:
a b m:
EM:
Quiz 23
Determine the key for each of the following leading tone sevenths. If the chord is fully diminished, the key is minor, and
if half diminished, major. They are in root position and various inversions.

ww
w
w
ww
w
#
w
b
w
w
w

w
#
w
==========================
&
bw
=
w
w
#w
#w
# ww
bw
# ww
bw
bw
w
ww
ww
w
w
w
#
w
#
#
w
w
w
b
w
#
w
w
==========================
?
=
w
w
#w
#w
w
w
w
b
w
w=
ww
#w
# ww
#w
#w
==========================
ww
& w
w
b ww
bw
w
w
b
w
#
w
w
#
w
#
w
w
b
w
w
w
w
#w
w=
w
==========================
w
? bw
97

13

Nondominant Seventh Chords

Points to Stress
1.

Reassure students that the addition of a 7th factor does not change the basic function of chords.
Chord
ii or ii
iii or III
iv or IV
vi
VI

2.
3.
4.

Progresses to:
V
vi or VI
V
ii
V or ii

Chord
ii7 or ii7
iii7 or III7
iv7 or IV7
vi7
VI7

Progresses to:
V
vi or VI
V
ii
V or ii

Further reminders will be needed to get the point across that the 7th of nondominant 7th chords, as well as
dominant 7ths, resolve down one step.
The sound of each chord type (MM7 Mm7 mm7 dm7 dd7) should be thoroughly learned in ear training and
sightsinging, and the ability to play all positions should be a requirement in keyboard harmony.
Several of the assignments offer keyboard options. Playing as well as writing these chords is critical to the
musicianship of each student.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 13


Assignment 13.1, page 245
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

bb wwww b ww
b wwww
b
# ww b b wwww b b www # www
b ww # wwww
w
w
b
b
w
w
b b ww
=========================
& # ww
bw # w
# ww
MM

dd

dm

mm

dm

dd

mm

MM

mm

dd

#w
bw
ww
b www w
ww
b b www b ww
b www # www
ww
b
ww
ww
b
w
b
w
w
w
b
w
w
w
#
w
#
ww
b
w
w
b
w
#
=========================
?
11.

12.

mM

13.

dm

14.

MM

15.

dm

mm

16.

dd

17.

18.

dm

19.

MM

20.

mm

dd

Assignment 13.2, page 245

1. (Ex.)

2.

3.

4.

5.

##
#
####

bbb

============================
&

# #
#
####

bbb

b
============================
?
CM: iii
vi
bm: ii
V
A b M: iii
vi
em: i
iv
EM: vi
ii
6
5

6.

&

6
5

7.

####
#

4
2

8.

9.

bb

bbbbb

6
5

10.

###

99

# #

7
CM:13.2
iii(continued)
vi
bm:
Assignment

6.

ii

#
6
5

bb b
b

A M: iii 65

7.

####

vi

em:

i 42

iv 6

EM: vi 56

ii

8.

9.

10.

####
###
bb

b
bb


#
b

============================
&

#
####
#

b
b

bbb
b

#
============================
?
CM: I
IV BM:
ii
V gm:
ii
V
D b M: vi
ii
AM: vi
ii
7

6
5

6
5

6
5

Assignment 13.3, page 246

1. Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (Now Come, Savior


of the Gentiles), BWV 36, m. 12 (modified).

U
## c



================
&

#
## c

================
?
#
6
6
6
5
bm:

iv 6

i6

ii

6
5

2. Was willst du dich, o meine Seele krnken (Why Do You Wish,


O My Troubled Soul), BWV 425, m. 1314 (modified).

U
c
b

===============
&
#
.


..
c

===============
?

#
7
6
5
dm:

vii

ii

6
5

VI

3. O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort (O Eternity, Thou Word


of Thunder), BWV 20, m. 34 (modified).

b
c



================
&


================
?b c

FM:

100

vi

8
7
3

ii 6

iii 7

vi7

ii7

I6

4
3

Assignment 13.3 (continued)

4. Meines Lebens letzte Zeit (The Last Hour of My Life),


BWV 381, m. 12 (modified).

U
# c


================
&

#
# c
#

================
?

7
7
6
#
i

em:

vii

VI 7

iv 6

5. Jesu Leiden, Pein und Tod (Jesus' Suffering, Pain and


Death), BWV 245, m. 1112 (modified).

U
#### c

================
&


#### c

================
?
EM:

3
3

I6

ii

6
5

ii56

Assignment 13.7, page 249

1.

U
c

===============
&
=

===============
?
=
CM:

vi

3
3

8
6
3

IV

I6

ii7

8
7
3

6
5

I7

ii65

101

Assignment 13.7 (continued)

2.

U
bb c
#
.
===============
&


..
#
bb c
===============
?
7

gm:

vii

6
5

ii

6
5

VI

3.

U
bb c
b
b

n =
&
================




bb b c

b
?
================

=
6

fm:

ii

i6

5
5

iv 7

n
i


# c #


&
================

#
# c


?
================
#
6
6
5
4.

em:

102

iv 6

i6

ii

6
5

Quiz 24
Spell the supertonic seventh chord:

======================
&
=
DM:
Db M:
Db M:
fm:
Gb M:
b b m:
d #m:
======================
&
=
#f m:
#
b
gm:
em:
a m:
dm:
E M:
cm:
======================
&
=
c #m:
am:
bm:
BM:
FM:
g #m:
GM:
======================
&
=
e bm:
AM:
F #M:
Gb M:
C #M:
a b m:
EM:
Quiz 25
Provide a roman numeral analysis of each of the following nondominant seventh chords. Be sure to show the inversions
with proper symbols.

#
##
#
bbb w
w
bbbb
b
w
w
ww =
ww
w
==========================
&
w
w
ww
w
ww
w
##
#
#
bbbb
bbbb w
w =
w
==========================
?
GM:
fm:
DM:
A bM:
em:
####
##
b
bb
w
ww
bbb w
b
b
w
w
w
==========================
=
&
w
w
w
w
ww
ww
w
ww
####
##
bbb w
bb
bbb
w
==========================
=
?
cm:
EM:
B bM:
bm:
E bM:
103

14

Modulation

Assignment 14.1, page 261

1. (Ex.)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Given Key

Subdominant

Dominant

Relative
Major or Minor Relative
Relative
with same
Major or Minor Major or Minor
key signature
of subdominant of dominant

G Major
F Minor
b
E Major
E Minor
A Major
#
C Minor
b
G Major
b
B Minor
B Major
#
D Minor

C
b
B MI
b
A
AMI
D
#
F MI
b
C
b
E MI
E
#
G MI

D
CMI
b
B
BMI
E
#
G MI
b
D
FMI
#
F
#
A MI

EMI
b
A
CMI
G
#
F MI
E
b
E MI
b
D
#
G MI
#
F

AMI
b
D
FMI
C
BMI
A
b
A MI
b
G
#
C MI
B

BMI
b
E
GMI
DMI
#
C MI
B
b
B MI
b
A
#
D MI
#
C

Assignment 14.2, page 261

U
SUS
##
#c

#

============================
&

=
..
SUS
PT



.
## c #

# c n
.
============================
?
=
1. Chromatic

DM:

2. Chromatic

IV AM: V 6

IV 6 V 7

GM:

V 6 am: iv 6

i 64

U
#c
bbb c

# =

============================
&

b
4. Common Chord

3. Common Chord



# c #
b c

b
b

============================
? b
=
b

E M:

IV 6

A M: I 6

em:
ii 6

V7

5. Common Chord

### c

### c

AM:

IV 6

V6

ii 6

iv

vii

DM:

6. Chromatic

bbb c

bbb c

PT PT
n

E M: V 6

PT

IV 6

I fm: V 7

i
ii6

U
n

SUS

SUS

PT
105

bbb c
b

E M:

IV 6

Assignment 14.2 (continued) A b M: I 6

# c

em:
ii 6

V7

iv

vii

DM:

5. Common Chord

i
ii6

6. Chromatic

U b
SUS SUS U
### c

b b c

============================
&
#
n =
PT
PT PT PT

#
## c
bb c n
b

============================
?
=

AM:

IV 6

V6

ii 6

iv 6

f m:

E M: V 6
V7

IV 6

I fm: V 7

Assignment 14.3, page 263

1. Freu' dich sehr, o meine Seele (Rejoice Greatly, O My Soul), BWV 194,
m. 12 (modified and transposed).

U
# c

#
&

====================
=

# c

====================
=
GM:

DM:

IV

IV 6

2. Wenn mein Stndlein vorhanden ist (When My Brief Hour Is Come),


BWV 429, m. 12 (modified).

U
### c

&
======================

### c

#
?
======================
=
6

AM:

V6

IV 6

4
2

V 42

I6

vii

f m: ii

106

6
6
6

Assignment 14.3 (continued)

3. Keinen hat Gott verlassen (God Hath Forsaken No One), BWV 369,
m. 12 (modified).

U
#

=====================
&
=

# c

=====================
?
=
6
5

em:

V 65

i6

iv 6

GM:

ii6

V7

4. Wer weiss, wie nahe mir mein Ende (Who Knows How Near My End
May Be), BWV 166, m. 67 (modified).

U
bb c

n
=

=====================
&

bb c

=====================
?
=
#

gm:

n6

V6

vi

B M:

ii6

vi

5. Des heil'gen Geistes reiche Gnad' (The Holy Ghost's Abundant Mercy), BWV 295, m. 14
(modified).

U
34

.. =
===========================
&

# ..

===========================
?b 4
=

#
6

dm:

i6

V6

i
gm:

V6

i6

6. Wie schn leuchtet der Morgenstern (How Brightly Shines the Morning
Star), BWV 36, m. 12 (modified).

U
## c

======================
&

=
======================
? # c
6

DM:

V6

vi

ii 6

iii

AM: vi

107

Assignment 14.4, page 265

1. Schubert: Variations on a Theme by Httenbrenner, D. 576, Var. XIII, m. 18.


1

2 3

5 6

I V 43 I

V6

7 8 9

10

11 12 13

14 15 16

17 18 19

20

AM:

I 64

V7

### 3 .. .. # ## # .. # .
. .. =
============================
& 8 . .
NT
fp
p
fp
#

..

.
NT
. #
### 38 .
.

============================
?
=
AM:

c # m:

I
ii

VI

V6

I
VI

2. Schubert: Impromptu, op. 90, no. 1, D. 899, m. 1417.


3
4
5
6 7
8
9 10
11 12
13
14 15 16
17 18 19
.
.
.
.
.

..

b ..
..
.. K ... n n .. .. ..
============================
& b b c . .
.
. =
>
>
> .
NT
14
15 PT
16
17
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . . ..

K . ..
b
============================
?bb c
=
.
V I
V
I V
I
V I
E bM:
1

6
4

6
4

6
5

6
4

cm: III

ii

iv 7

V 42 i 6

i 64 V 7

Assignment 14.5, page 265

Bach: Nun prieset alle Gottes Barmherzigkeit (Now Let Us All Praise God's Mercy), BWV 391,
m. 118 (modified).

U
U
# 3

..
n

n
============================
& 4
=
1


n .
. PT

n
# 34

J

============================
?
=
PT

PT

GM: I

vi

IV

CM: IV

vii

I6

V7

U
U
# #

# # ..

============================
&
=
6

PT 9

PT

10

NT



n
.

# #

.
============================
?
=
DM: IV

vii

IV

V7

vi

I6

IV

V7

108

PT

.
============================
?
=
DM: IV

vii

V7

IV

I6

vi

V7

IV

Assignment 14.5 (continued)

U
#
PT

=
.
#
#
# J n
#
============================
&
11

12

13

PT

14

# n

=
============================
?
am:

I
IV

IV 42

vii

PT

vii

IV 42

i6

vii

ii

6
5

U
# . PT PTj
. PT PTj


={
============================
& { # n
15

16

17

PT

18

n . J PT PT PT

PT

={
============================
? {
GM:

IV

V6

ii

V 65

IV

ii 65

Assignment 14.6, page 267

Bach: French Suite no. 5, BWV 816 (Gavotte), m. 124.

# C

&
============================
PT

PT

2
3
1

# C

?
============================
=
GM:

V6

vi

iii

IV

ii 6

V 43

V6

V7

PT

PT

#
#w PT # ET

&
============================
={
APP PT

PT

PT NT PT #

?
============================

={
PT 5

I 64

vi

V 7 /V

V 7/V

IV

V 6 V 7/V

>
PT

#
#

============================
{
=
PT
PT
PT
9
12
11 PT PT PT
10 NT
>
PT PT
PT
PT

#
109

============================
{
=
NT PT


NT
#

#
PT
PT

============================
={
I

I 64

V 7 /V

vi

V 7/V

IV

V 6 V 7/V

Assignment 14.6 (continued)

>
PT

#
#

& {
============================
=
PT
PT
PT
9
12
11 PT PT PT
10 NT
>
PT PT
PT
PT

? {
============================
=
NT PT

V 64

V 64 V 42

I6

IV vii

vii

em: V

6
4


PT
PT PT
PT
# NT

# PT
#

============================
=
&
13
14
15
PT
16

PT
# PT
#
#

PT
PT
PT
#

============================
?
=
CT

V6

V7

i6

V7

i 64

>
>

PT
PT
CT
NT ET
# n
n

#
============================
=
&
PT PT
PT
PT

PT
PT PT
PT PT
# n # PT

============================
?
=
17 PT

GM:

I6

PT

18 NT PT

PT

V 42 /IV

IV

19

V 64

20

V7

V6

V7

PT

#
.

============================
={
&
PT
PT
21

22

PT

23

24

============================
={
?

NT

V7

110

PT

PT

PT

V7

PT

vi

ii 6

Assignment 14.9, page 271

======================
& b c

1.

c
b
======================
?
=
6

FM:

V6

vi

iii
ii 6

CM: vi

2.

U
# 3

.. =
& 4
===========================

# ..
# 34

?
===========================
=
#
6

em:

i6

V6

i
am:

V6

i6

3.

U
# c

n
=
&
=====================
#

# c

?
=====================

em:

n6

i
GM:

V6

vi

ii6

vi

4.

U
# c

#
====================

&

# c

====================
=
?
GM:

3
3

6
6

V6

vi

I6

6
5

V 65

DM: IV

V7

5.

b c

111

GM:

3
3

6
6

V6

vi

I6

6
5

V 65

DM: IV

V7

Assignment 14.9 (continued)

5.

c
=

=====================
&b
b

b
c

b
=
=====================
?

FM:

V6

IV 6

B M: I 6

IV

Assignment 14.10, page 272

Bach: Jesu, du mein liebstes Leben (Jesus, Thou My Dearest Life), BWV 356, m. 120.

U
SUS
b3
PT

#
=
============================
& 4
SUS
PT
PT

b

#
b3
n #

=
============================
?b 4
III
i
ii
V
i B bM: I
vii
I
gm: i
V
i VII
IV vii
1

10

6
5
m

11

12

13

14

6
5

15

6
5

23 24
25
26
27 28
U22
SUS
b

.

n =

============================
&b
.
{

PT
>



PT

bb

.
============================
?

{
=
17

16

V 65

vi

18

19

20

ii65

ii

21

V7

V6

FM: I

vii

I6

35 >36 37
38
39 > 40
41 42
43
U
PT
PT
NT
b



#
============================
& b n
=

PT
PT
>

PT

NT

b n
b

n

============================
?b
=
>
29

30

31
SUS

32

33

34

APP PT

IV 6 vii

112

ii65

I gm: III 6

V 65

ii

III

VI 7

ii

6
4

Assignment 14.10 (continued)


45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
U
b .

============================
& b # .

n .. =

PT

#
b ..

.. =

============================
?

PT
PT >
44

NT

III

PT

i6

V6

ii

6
5

ii

Quiz 26
Each of the chords below is the common chord in a common chord modulation. Name all the major and minor keys for
which this will be a common chord and provide a roman numeral analysis of the chord in each key. For the minor keys
consider only the chords available in the harmonic minor scale.

bw
b ww
w
#w
b
w
#w
#w
==========================
&
w
bw =
bw
ww
b ww
w
# ww
w
b
#
w
==========================
=
?
___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___M: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

___m: ________

113

15

Secondary Dominants and Leading-Tone Chords

Points to Stress
1.
2.
3.
4.

Emphasize the purpose of altered tones in secondary dominant and leading-tone chords. Demonstrate how each
altered tone is needed to convert a diatonic chord sound into a dominant or leading-tone sound.
Relate secondary dominants and leading-tone chords to the previous chaptermodulation. Demonstrate how
these chords represent mini modulations too brief to be considered a modulation.
Students sometimes forget that secondary dominants and leading-tone chords are actually diatonic chords that
have been altered to take on a dominant or leading-tone function.
Voice leading is generally not affected when converting diatonic chords to dominant or leading-tone function.
Exceptions occur when leading tones are created in the process and may require different treatment. Students
often incorrectly assume that a change in function automatically means a change in voice leading.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 15


Assignment 15.1, page 289

1. (Ex.)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

### n www
# # www
####
b w
bb
b
bbbbbb n www
b
b
w
w
w
#
w
w
w
#
w
============================
&
ww
n ww
# ww
w
w
dm: V/III
GM: V /V
E bM: V/ii
AM: V /IV B bM: V /vi BM: V/V
e b m: V /iv
7

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

#### ## ww b b b ww
#### # # ww b b www b n ww
## w
bbb n www
b
b
w
# w b b b b n ww
#
b
w
b
# ww
============================
& b
## www
D b M: V/ii
DM: V /iii
F #M: V/V
b b m: V /III FM: V /iii
a #m: V/iv
C bM: V /vi
7

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

#### # w
# www
### ww
# # www
#### www bb #n www
w
#
#
w
w
#
w
#
#
w
w
w
w

ww
============================
&
d # m: V /V
CM: V /iii
f #m: V/VI
em: V /VII am: V/iv
g #m: V/VI
gm: V /V
7

115

Assignment 15.2, page 289


2.
3.
4.
5. b w
w
w
w
w
ww
w
w
w
w
b n ww
n
w
n
w
n
w
n
w =
w
===================
&
vii /V
vii /V
FM: V/V
V /V
vii o/V
1.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

bb
b www
b www
b wwww
b b www =
& www
===================
w
w
o
gm:

V/VI

V 7/VI

vii /VI

vii 7/VI

vii 7/VI

12.
13.
14.
15.
##
ww
nw
w
w
& # www
===================
# www
# ww
# ww
# www =
o
11.

DM:

V/ii

V 7/ii

vii /ii

vii 7/ii

vii 7/ii

Assignment 15.3, page 290


Accidentals needed to change each chord to a secondary dominant have been added. In questions 6 and 7, the secondary
dominant could be half-diminished as well as diminished.
1.

2.

3.

4.

##

###
b
bb n

b
b

# =
#

=========================
&

#
##
#
bb
b
# #
=
bb

=========================
?
Without alteration: B bM: iii
vi
DM: ii
V
cm: i
f #m: ii
V
iv
b
#
With alteration: B M: V/vi
vi
DM: V /V
V
cm: V /iv
f m: V /V
V
iv
7

5.

6
5

6.

6
5

7.

8.

#### #
bbb n

b
b

=========================
&
b
=

b
n

#
#

####
bbbb

b
=========================
?

=
Without alteration: A b M: vii
CM: IV
V
FM:
I
ii
EM: iii
vi
iii
b
With alteration: A M: V /iii
CM: vii /V
V
FM: vii /ii
ii
EM: V /vi
vi
iii
7

116

4
3

Assignment 15.4, page 291

1.

Wir Christenleute
(We Christian People), BWV 40, m. 1011(modified).

U
b c

b
#

==================
&

=
n

bb c

=
==================
?
6

gm:

2.

V6

iv 6

6
4

6
5

i 64

V 65 /V

n
V

Was betrbst du dich, mein Herz


(What Makes You Grieve, My Heart), BWV 423, m. 1516 (modified).

bb c

=
#

&
==================
n

bb c

=
?
==================
6

gm:

3.

vii 7/V

V7

n3

i6

iv

#
i

Herr Christ, der ein'ge Gottes-Sohn


(Lord Christ, the Only Son of God), BWV 96, m. 78 (modified).

b c
b

&
======================

c
b

?
======================

b7

gm:

VII 6

III

vii 7/iv

vii 7/V

iv

3
3

VI

117

Assignment 15.4 (continued)

4.

Wenn ich in Angst und Not


(When I in Anxiety and Need), BWV 427, m. 12 (modified).

U
bb c
.

===================
&

..

b
bbb c
===================
?
=
6

E M:

5.

3
3

V 65 /IV

IV

vii

b5

Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht, weil


(I Will Not Leave My Jesus), BWV 154, m. 89 (modified).

U
## c

========================
&

## c #

========================
?
6
5

DM:

iii

6
5

V 65 /ii

6
5

V 65

ii

ii65

V7

6. Puer natus in Bethlehem


(A Boy Born in Bethlehem), BWV 65, m. 57 (modified).

U
3
#

..

=====================
&4
=

#
3
.
=====================
?4
=
6
4
3

CM:

V 43 /vi

6
5

vi

V 65 /V

7. Was mein Gott will (May What My God Wills), BWV 144, m. 1112 (modified).

118

U
## c

======================

#
#

CM:

V 43 /vi

V 65 /V

vi

Assignment 15.4 (continued)

7. Was mein Gott will (May What My God Wills), BWV 144, m. 1112 (modified).

U
##

======================
&

#
## c
#

======================
?

3
3

f m:

vii

6
5

iv

DM: vi

V 65 /V

8. Was mein Gott will


(May What My God Wills), BWV 244, m. 56 (modified).

U
### c

======================
&

n #
### c
#

======================
?
AM:

ii

6
5

V7

V 6 /vi

vi

V 65 /V

Assignment 15.7, page 295

Werde Munter, mein Gemte (Be Glad, My Soul), BWV 55, m. 14.

U
ANT U

bb c b

.


b
j =
============================
&
PT
n



n
bb c n


=
============================
?
B b M:
I
IV
I vii /ii
ii V /ii
ii
V
I
V V /IV IV
V /V V
I
PT

4
3

6
5

6
5

Jesu Leiden, Pein und Tod (Jesus' Suffering, Pain and Death), BWV 245, m. 14 (modified).

U
U
#

## c





============================
&
=
#
PT

n

### c

============================
?
=
AM:

V 42

I6

IV 6

I6

IV

V 7/ii

ii

V64 /ii

V 65 /V V

119

Assignment 15.9, page 297

Mozart: Piano Sonata, K. 311 in D Major, II, m. 130.


Andante con espressione

# 2 e .
j k e .

4
============================
&
=
. . .
p
f. 3 .
p 4
1
5
.


# 24
J

============================
?
=
GM:

V6

V 65

IV 6 I 64

I 6 vii

IV

V6

`
#
`

. . J

e
=

============================
&
10
f. 7 .
p 8
6
9


#
J k ?

&
============================
?
=
V 65

IV 6 I 64

IV

I 64

ii 6

V7

vi

` .

#

============================
& e { # e# # #
=

f
p 16
f
11
12
13
14
15



#
=



&
============================
?
{
ii 6

V7

V 7/vi

vi DM: V 7

vii 6/V

. . .
.

#
& ============================
=
17
18
19
20
# n
#

============================
& # ?
=
f
(DM:) I

120

ii 42

V6

IV 6

V 65 /vi

vi

I 64

n # n
# #
#

=============================
21

# #

22

n #

23

..

# J

24

#
#
n

?
============================
& #
=

f
ii 4

(DM:) I

V6

IV 6

V 65 /vi

vi

I 64

Assignment 15.9 (continued)

n # n
# #
#

&
============================
=
21
22
23
24

n
..
# J
# #

&
?
============================
=
V 65 /V

V 42

I6

ii 6

V 6 /V

` ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


# .
&
============================
=
25 p
26
27
28
# #
#

..
=
&
============================
#

I 64

I 64

V7

I 64

V 43

I V6

V 43

I6

V 43

#

# #
K
K
J
J =
=
& ==============
p 30
f
29 f
#
#
# j
j =
===============
&

p
I 6 vii 43/vi vi 6

vi 6 V 43 /IV IV 6

Assignment 15.10, page 299

Bach: Ein' feste Burg (A Mighty Fortress), BWV 80, (Arioso) m. 1425 (modified).
Basso

# #

#
n n J J j
J
#
#
j # J
L============================
?
Chri - sti - Geist
Continuo 14

mit

dir sich fest


15

ver-bin

16

6
5

de,

dass

#
? # #
L============================
# #

j
6

f
m:

i6

# #
L? #

vii

6
5
6

Chri - sti - Geist


17

J
mit

# # n #
L? #

6
5

V 65

IV 65

n .
j # J
m

dir sich fest


18

# #

bm:

ver-bin

# j

vi

V 65

19

J # J J
de,

mit

121
#

Continuo 14

15

#
#
L? # #

6
5

6
5

V6

6
Assignment 15.106(continued)

f m: i 6

vii

6
5

IV 65

dass

16

bm:

vi

V 65

# # #
# J # J J
# #
# J n .
J
j
#

?
L============================
Chri 17

sti

- Geist

mit

dir sich fest


18

ver-bin

19

de,

mit

# # n # #
#

L============================
?#
# j
6

4+
2

9
7

6
5

7
5#

6
5

I
f # m:
V
i
vii
i
ii
V

.
# J
n

# # .

n
#
# J J
#
J
j
#

?
L============================
V 6/V

V 42

dir sich fest


20

6
5

ver-bin

21

de, sich

6
5

fest _____________ ver - bin


22

# #
j
J # #


L============================
?
#
6

V 65 /V

vii

9
7

8
6

VI 6

vi 7

DM:

6
5

V 65

6
4

6
5

V7

f m:

U
#

#
?
L============================
23

de.

24

25


U
n n
# # #

L============================
?

7

6
5#

v6

iv 6

V7

vi

V 65

VI 6

6
5

ii

6
5

V7

Assignment 15.11, page 301

U
#c

=====================
&

1.

#c

=====================
?
=
GM:

122

ii

V6

V7

V 6 /vi

6
5

vi

V 56 /V

Assignment 15.11 (continued)

U
bbbb c

&
======================

b
n

? b bb c
======================
2.

fm:

vii

3
3

6
5

iv

V 65 /V

D M: vi

3.

U
bb c

# =
b

=====================
&
n

# n

bb c
n

#
=====================
?
=
gm:

i6

b7
n5

vii 7/iv

5
5

vii 7/V

iv

4.

U
bbbb 3
n

..

======================
=
& 4

bbbb 34

.
======================
=
?
n6

6
5

4
3

A M:

V 43 /vi

vi

V 65 /V

123

Assignment 15.11 (continued)

5.

U
b c

==================
&
#
#

=
n

==================
?
#
=
6

6
5

dm:

vii

i6

V 65 /V

6.

U
c

=======================
&

=======================
?
=

6
5

CM:

6
5

V 65 /ii

iii

6
5

V 65

ii

ii65

V7

U
##
.

.
===================
&

7.

..

## c
n
===================
?
=
6

DM:

124

I6

3
3

V 65 /IV

IV

vii

n5

Quiz 27
Spell vii7/V in the keys indicated:

======================
&
=
dm:
GM:
E bM:
AM:
B bM:
BM:
e b m:
======================
&
=
DM:
F #M:
FM:
C bM:
Db M:
b b m:
a #m:
Spell vii o7/IV (iv) in the keys indicated:

======================
&
=
d #m:
CM:
f #m:
em:
am:
g #m:
gm:
======================
&
=
cm:
c #m:
a b m:
Gb M:
Ab M:
bm:
E bM:
Quiz 28
Spell V7/V in the keys indicated:

======================
&
=
fm:
DM:
Db M:
Db M:
b b m:
d #m:
Gb M:
======================
&
=
gm:
em:
a #m:
dm:
E bM:
cm:
f #m:
Spell V7 /vi (VI) in the keys indicated:

======================
&
=
c #m:
am:
bm:
BM:
FM:
g #m:
GM:
======================
&
=
AM:
e bm:
F #M:
Gb M:
C #M:
a b m:
EM:
125

Quiz 29
Spell vii7/iv (IV) in the keys indicated:

======================
&
=
d #m:
dm:
fm:
em:
Db M:
E bM:
Db M:
======================
&
=
#f m:
#
b
G M:
DM:
gm:
FM:
a m:
cm:
======================
&
=
#
b
b
#c m:
#
F M:
b m:
G M:
g m:
am:
BM:
======================
&
=
a b m:
C #M:
GM:
EM:
e bm:
AM:
bm:
Quiz 30
Spell V7/vi (VI) in the keys indicated:

======================
&
=
d #m:
dm:
fm:
em:
Db M:
E bM:
Db M:
======================
&
=
#f m:
#
b
G M:
DM:
gm:
FM:
a m:
cm:
======================
&
=
#
b
b
#c m:
#
F M:
b m:
G M:
g m:
am:
BM:
======================
&
=
a b m:
C #M:
GM:
EM:
e bm:
AM:
bm:
126

Quiz 31
Spell the secondary dominant or secondary leading-tone chord:

======================
&
=
b
b
DM: V /vi
dm: vii/V
FM: V/V
E M: vii /ii C M: V/iii
BM: vii /IV e b m: vii/VI
7

======================
&
=
F #M: vii /iii E bM: V/vi
Db M: V /ii
b b m: vii /iv g #m: V /VI a #m: V/VI
B bM: vii/ii
7

======================
&
=
d #m: V /III
f #m: vii/V cm: V /VII am: vii /iv AM: V /iii
bm: V/iv
gm: vii/III
7

======================
&
=
CM: vii /IV
GM: V/vi
c #m: V /III Gb M: V/V
a b m: vii /VI
Ab M: vii/iii em: V /V
7

127

16
1.
2.

3.

Two-Part (Binary) Form

This chapter provides an opportunity to bring together all the analytical skills developed up to this point.
The assignments are appropriate for average students. If you wish to challenge your students with longer
compositions of increased difficulty, appropriate examples are available in the workbook that accompanies this
text.
Longer works, including entire eighteenth-century suite movements, etc., will be presented in volume 2.

Answers to the Objective Assignments in Chapter 16


Assignment 16.1, page 313

Bach: March, BWV Anh. 122 (from the Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach [1725]), m. 122.
PT
PT

## C

============================
&
=
1

PT

PT

PT

NT

NT

# C


============================
?#

=
DM:

APP

vii

APP

vii

I6

V 65

V7

.
PT
NT `
##

j
#
.
============================
={
&
ANT

NT

##


============================
={
?


I

NT

AM:

ii 6

NT

V 42

I6

ii 6

vi

PT #
##

# n n

=
============================
& {
PT

PT

PT

13

PT

V 7/IV

PT


##

============================
=
? {
10 APP

11 APP

vii

vii

12

DM: V 7

V 65

V7

PT ET
PT
n
## PT

============================
=
&
PT PT

PT
PT

PT

PT

PT

#
NT
## #

============================
=
?
14

IV

PT

15

16

IV 6

17

IV

ii

ii 6

V7

129

Assignment 16.1 (continued)

> PT
.
APP
PT PT PT
PT
##

============================
&
={
PT
NT

PT

##

={
============================
?

18

ii 6

IV

19

20

iii

vi

ii 6

21

22

Bach: French Suite no. 3, BWV 814 (Menuet), m. 136.

## 3
#
#
=
& 4
============================
1
2
3
4
5
6
#

## 34

?
============================
=
bm:

V6

i6

i6

V6

i6

iv

VII

III

PT

## PT

#
#
#
=
&
============================
7
8
9
10
13
11 # 12
NT PT

##

?
============================
=
VI

ii

V7

V6

i6

i6

V6

i6

iv

PT
## .
PT
PT

&
============================
=
{{
PT

PT

14
16
17
18
19
20
15


##

{{

=

?
============================

VII

VII 6

DM: V6

I6 V

I6

I6

V64

V 65

V64

I6

V6

mm
NT
NT
## #

# .
n . NT

.
#
&
============================
=

## # # # n #
# #

?
============================
=

ii
V
i
V
i
em: V
V
V
i i
i f #m: V V
V
f #m: iv
21

22

23

24

25

6
5

130

26

6
5

27

6
4

6
5

6
5

Assignment 16.1 (continued)

##
PT
( e) m .

============================
& PT #
={
35
36
32 PT
33 34

##

{
# # #
============================
?
=

28

bm: V

29

30
PT

V V64 V 65

31

V 65

i i 64 i

i6

ii

i 64 iv

i 6 iv ii

i6 V 7

131

17

Three-Part (Ternary) Form

This chapter covers three-part form only as it relates to shorter works. Longer compositionsincluding sonata and
symphony movementsare presented in volume 2.

Information and Points to Stress


1.

2.
3.

Emphasize the basic differences between rounded binary form (chapter 16) and three-part form. Students often
confuse the two, and although the distinction is elaborated in the text, further discussion will undoubtedly be
needed.
The assignments are appropriate for average students. If you wish to challenge your students with compositions
of increased difficulty, examples are available in the workbook.
The need for experience in analysis cannot be stressed too strongly. Although the process is time consuming,
each assignment turned in should be gone over thoroughly with the student and errors in judgment
explained in detail. Good instructors are more likely to imbue students with good judgment than are good
textbooks!

Assignment 17.1, page 327

1. Schumann: Trllerliedchen (Humming Song) from Album for the Young, op. 68, no. 3.
Nicht schnell





c
============================
&
=
p
1
2
3
4
c

============================
? & =

PED

CM:

V6

V 43

I6

V 43

V 65

IV 6

V 65

V 43

vi7

V6


============================
&
=
5

============================
& =
PED

V6

V 43

I6

V 43

V 65

IV 6

V 65


# =
============================


133

&
============================
=
PED

V6

V 43

I6

V 43

V 65

IV 6

V 65

Assignment 17.1 (continued)



& #
============================
=

11 PED

10

12

#

#
#
?
============================
=
GM: I

V6

I6

IV 6

V6

IV 6

V6

V 43

vi7

V6



=
#
#
============================
&
13

14

15

16

?
============================
=
&
(GM:) I

V6

ii7

IV

I6

IV

V7





============================
&
=
17 p
18
19
20


& PED
============================
=

CM: I

V6

V 43

I6

V 43

V 65

IV 6

V 65

V 43

vi7

V6


============================
&
=
21

22

23

24

&
============================
=

134

V6

V 43

I6

V 43

V 65

IV 6

V6

V7

Assignment 17.1 (continued)

2. Mendelssohn: Songs Without Words, op. 30, no. 3.

J
####

============================
&

=
j

2
p 1

#### c

j =

============================
?

Adagio non troppo

EM:

V7

####
. j j j n . # .. j . =

j
============================
&

. p
#

Sz 6
F
3
4
5

####
. j .

.
============================
?
=
j
IV 6

V 43 /V

I 64

V v

V7

ii 6 vii 6/ii ii

####
.
j

.
j . =

#
j n . # ...

============================
&

F
Sz
p
7
10
.. 9
8

#
.
# #
.


============================
? #
=

vi

vii 64/ii

ii 6

V7

ii 6 vii 6/ii ii

####

# .. # j ... # .. =
j

.
============================
&
.

. #
.
.
# ... # ..
11
cresc.
12
13
Sz
Sz 14
#
#

#
============================
? # # .
=

vii 65/vi BM: ii7

V 65

V7

I 64

V7

p
####
n j
. =

============================
j # j .. j # j .. Jj
135
.
.

J
J
p 17
15
16

# ##

vii 65/vi BM: ii7

V 65

V7

I 64

V7

Assignment 17.1 (continued)

p
####
n j
. =
&
============================

j # j .. j # j .. Jj
.
.

J
J
p 17
15
16

#### .

?
============================

.
V7

V7

EM: I

#### j
j
. =
j n

. # ..
j

&
============================

#
.
p
19
Sz 20
18

##

.
? ##
============================
=
IV 6

V 34 /V

V6

V7

ii 6 vii 6/ii ii

####
.
n .. #
. ## ..
j . =

============================
&
n . #
n
.

Sz
f Sz
21
22
23
p tranquillo 24

#
.
#
.
.

n .
============================
? ##
=

V 6 vii 65/V V

V 6 vii 65/V V

ii 6 vii 6/ii ii

V7

J
####

============================
&
=
j

25
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136

V7

Assignment 17.2, page 331

Mozart: Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525, III (Menuetto and Trio) (modified).

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V7

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V7

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Menuetto da Capo

V7

138

V7

vi

ii 6

ii

V7