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What is Cellular Respiration?

Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing


food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide
and water.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O 12H2O + 6 CO2
The energy released is trapped in the form of
ATP for use by all the energy-consuming
activities of the cell.
The process occurs in two phases:
glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose to
pyruvic acid
the complete oxidation of pyruvic acid to
carbon dioxide and water
In eukaryotes, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol.
(Link to a discussion of glycolysis). The
remaining
processes
take
place
in
mitochondria.
Mitochondria
Mitochondria
are
membrane-enclosed
organelles distributed through the cytosol of
most eukaryotic cells. Their number within the
cell ranges from a few hundred to, in very
active cells, thousands. Their main function is
the conversion of the potential energy of food
molecules into ATP.
Mitochondria have:
an outer membrane
that
encloses
the
entire
structure
an inner membrane
that
encloses a fluid-filled matrix
between the two is the intermembrane
space
the inner membrane is elaborately folded
with shelflike cristae projecting into the
matrix.
a small number (some 510) circular
molecules of DNA

This electron micrograph (courtesy of Keith R.


Porter) shows a single mitochondrion from a
bat pancreas cell. Note the double membrane
and the way the inner membrane is folded
into cristae. The dark, membrane-bounded
objects
above
the
mitochondrion
are
lysosomes. The number of mitochondria in a
cell can

increase by their fission


(e.g. following mitosis);
decrease by their fusing
together.
The Outer Membrane
The
outer
membrane
contains
many
complexes of integral membrane proteins that
form channels through which a variety of
molecules and ions move in and out of the
mitochondrion.

The inner membrane contains 5 complexes of


integral membrane proteins:

NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I)


succinate dehydrogenase (Complex
II)
cytochrome c
reductase (Complex
III; also known as the cytochrome bc1 complex)
cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV)
ATP synthase (Complex V)

The Matrix
The matrix contains a complex mixture of
soluble enzymes that catalyze the respiration
of pyruvic acid and other small organic
molecules.
Here pyruvic acid is

NADH

decarboxylated producing a molecule


of
o

carbon dioxide (CO2) and

a 2-carbon fragment of acetate


bound to coenzyme A forming
acetyl-CoA

The Citric Acid Cycle

The Inner Membrane

oxidized
by
NAD+ producing
+ H+

This 2-carbon fragment is donated to a


molecule of oxaloacetic acid.
The resulting molecule of citric acid (which
gives its name to the process) undergoes
the series of enzymatic steps shown in the
diagram.

The final step regenerates a molecule of


oxaloacetic acid and the cycle is ready to
turn again.
The electron transport chain consists of 3
complexes of integral membrane proteins
the NADH dehydrogenase complex
(I)
the cytochrome
c
reductase complex (III)
the cytochrome c oxidase complex
(IV)
and two freely-diffusible molecules
ubiquinone
cytochrome c
that shuttle electrons from one complex to
the next.
The
electron
transport
chain
accomplishes:
the stepwise transfer of electrons from
NADH (and FADH2) to oxygen molecules to

GRADE 9-

form (with the aid of protons) water


molecules (H2O);
(Cytochrome c can only transfer one
electron at a time, so cytochrome c oxidase
must wait until it has accumulated 4 of them
before it can react with oxygen.)
harnessing the energy released by this
transfer to the pumping of protons (H+) from
the matrix to the intermembrane space.
Approximately 20 protons are pumped
into the intermembrane space as the 4
electrons needed to reduce oxygen to water
pass through the respiratory chain.

APPRENTICE

SUBMITTED
TO:
MR. REYNOLD BERMUEL JR.

The gradient of protons formed across the


inner membrane by this process of active
forms a miniature battery.
2 types of cellular respiration
Aerobic respiration
Requires oxygen in order to generate ATP.
Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are
consumed as reactants, it is the preferred
method of pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis
and requires that pyruvate enter the
mitochondrion in order to be fully oxidized by
the Krebs cycle. The products of this process
are carbon dioxide and water, but the energy
transferred is used to break strong bonds in
ADP as the third phosphate group is added to
form ATP (adenosine triphosphate), by
substrate-level
phosphorylation,
NADH
andFADH2.

REFFERENCES
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/B
iologyPages/C/CellularRespiration.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respir
ation

Anaerobic respiration
Is used by some microorganisms in which
neither oxygen (aerobic respiration) nor
pyruvate derivatives (fermentation) is the final
electron acceptor. Rather, an inorganic
acceptor such as sulfate or nitrate is used.
Such organisms are typically found in unusual
places such as underwater caves or near the
lava shoots at the bottom of the ocean.

CELLUL

CIRILO
ROY

AR
RESPIR
ATION

SUBMITTED BY:
MARY LYNN KRISHNA I. MACARAYON

MONTEJO
NATIONAL

HIGH SCHOOL