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GUIDEBOOK

Pressure differential systems

Awards

THE AUTHORS:

Pawe Holewa, Grzegorz Kubicki, Grzegorz Sypek,


Jarosaw Wiche, Robert Zapaa
COVER AND LAYOUT DESIGN, DTP:

Karol Filas
PUBLISHER:

SMAY Sp. z o.o.


ul. Ciepownicza 29, 31-587 Krakw
www.smay.pl

Pressure Differential Systems


in High-rise Buildings

GUIDEBOOK

Table of contents
Pressure Differential Systems (PDS) by SMAY introduced innovations
1.

Issues connected with design and operation of the Pressure Differential Systems

2.

Legal grounds of Pressure Differential Systems design

11

3.

Fire ventilation in multi-storey buildings

15

3.1.

Classification of multi-storey buildings

15

3.2.

Protected spaces in the buildings

18

3.3.

High-rise building as an object of hydraulic connections

19

3.4.

Fire ventilation systems for multistoried buildings

24

4.

Pressure differential solutions offered by SMAY company

4.1.

Idea of operation of forced airflow system SAFETY WAY

24
26

4.2.

SAFET WAY system application in industrial buildings (PM)

30

4.3.

Pressurization of fire-fighting lobbies

31

5.

Air exhaust/release systems

35

6.

Current procedures of testing pressure differential kits

39

6.1.

Functionality and reliability

39

6.2.

Electronic components tests

42

7.

CFD simulations

43

8.

Acceptance testing of pressure differential systems

45

9.

More still to come

47

10.

Data sheets of iSWAY series devices


Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS)

49

Operating Conditions Monitoring Device (MSPU)

59

Compact pressurization units tested in laboratory and real scale buildings:


iSWAY
iSWAY-FC

tested in real scale building during research and implementation project

67

with electronically controlled by-pass

81

with multiple pressure control system

99

with reversible axial flow fans intended for high-rise building

117

iSWAY-FCD
iSWAY-FCR

Pressure Differential Systems (PDS) by SMAY introduced innovations


Modern construction industry includes among other installations and systems providing safety to the users.
Wide range of fire protection solutions has to undergo strict requirements in terms of effectiveness
and reliability. SMAY company, actively participating in the development of this segment, after a dozen
or so months of experiments co-financed by the European Union, has developed an innovative on the european
scale active controlled pressure differential system SAFETY WAY. The experimental stage of the research
and implementation project was carried out in cooperation with the scientists of the Warsaw and Krakow
Technical Universities and experienced fire protection experts. Prime aim of the whole project was to develop
and implement new solution that would increase safety level of evacuation in case of fire.
Proper operation and effectiveness of pressure differential system becomes crucial in case of high-rise
buildings where rescue and evacuation action from the outside is hindered of even impossible.
The overall idea of pressure differential systems for smoke and heat control is to generate and maintain fixed
value of pressure difference between escape routes and fire floor (pressure criterion) or directed airflow through
the open door during evacuation (airflow criterion) in order to keep escape routes free of smoke regardless
of actual ambient conditions (e.g. ambient temperature, wind speed and direction). Similar solutions concern
the schemes for lowering pressure but at the moment overpressure systems are the vast majority of applied
pressure differential systems. Generally pressure differential systems are applied to the staircases, elevator
shafts and fire-fighting lobbies but it is also possible to control pressure gradient within horizontal escape
routes. Except of selection the best available technical solution it is also required to fulfill number of additional
requirements which are often ignored by architects and designers leading directly to faulty operation of pressure
differential system. At the design stage of the project it is absolutely necessary to determine exact ductworks
routes as well as air inlets or outlets locations moreover it is obligatory to ensure air release paths at the fire floor.
The conclude properly designed pressure differential system shall fit building construction taking into account
other HVAC installations which may influence its operation.
The past year has also brought lots of changes resulting from European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
working progress which aim is to prepare novelized versions of EN 12101-6 Smoke and heat control systems.
Specification for pressure differential systems. Kits and 12101-13 Pressure differential systems (PDS) design
and calculation methods, acceptance testing, maintenance and routine testing of installation european
Standards. Listed documents shall concern all the issues connected with pressure differential systems design
with special focus on problems underestimated so far such as stack effect, airflow resistance and wind forces
influence. SMAY company basing on the experiences resulting from a variety of pressure differential systems
designed actively supports this initiatives. Out of concern for safety level in case of fire SMAY company as a first
european manufacturer has thoroughly tested offered solutions according to the latest procedures in Institute
of Industrial Aerodynamics GmbH at the Aachen University of Applied Sciences (I.F.I.) and Building Research
Institute (ITB) in Warsaw.
Performed tests have confirmed all declared functional and reliability parameters which is significant advantage
as regards pressure differential systems. It has to be noted that tests results together with positive opinions
of German fire protection experts are the best recommendation of the solutions offered by SMAY company. Within
next few months we may expect introduction of standardized and more strict acceptance tests procedure which
I wish to myself and You!

Pressure Differential Systems (PDS) by SMAY introduced innovations


SMAY company has developed two groups of solutions for protecting both vertical and horizontal escape routes
against smoke and heat in case of fire:
iSWAY series compact pressurization units, which owing to its compact design can be installed in almost
any place in the building. Depending on the chosen design standard it is intended for the buildings not higher
than:
30 m (according to the EN 12101-6 Standard);
55 m (according to the ITB Instruction 378/2002);
65 m (according to the NFPA 92A Standard).
The SWAY /iSWAY solutions are unique on the Polish scale as it fulfills three requirements that are
indispensable to carry out a safe rescue action in a fire-seized building:
SAFETY WAY (SWAY) forced airflow system intended for buildings where from the point of view
of pressure stabilization inside the staircase stack effect plays an impact role, which is triggered by the
temperature difference between internal air and the ambient. This system may be applied to the wide range
of buildings including industrial buildings with increased heat gains. Depending on the chosen design
standard it is intended for the buildings higher than:
30 m (98 ft.) (according to the EN 12101-6 European Standard);
55 m (180 ft.) (according to French National Regulations, quoted in the ITB Instruction 378/2002);
65 m (213 ft.) (according to NFPA 92A Standard).
achieving and maintaining a stable overpressure in reference to the fire floor in the main part of the staircase
and the fire-fighting lobbies;
maintaining the minimum velocity of directed airflow through the open door between the staircase or firefighting lobby and the corridor (or exit doors at the access level);
controlling overpressure value in the protected spaces so that maximal force required to open evacuation
door has not exceeded 100 N (i.e. 65 Pa of pressure difference across the door).

The most significant advantage of SAFETY WAY active controlled system is that all given requirements are
literally met regardless of the building height and location.
Since November 2008 until October 2010 SAFETY WAY system proper operation has been continuously
controlled and updated. On the one hand projected CFD simulations were carried out at SMAY Research and CFD
Simulations Department. At the same time there were introduced unique on the national scale testing ground
real scale experiments in the high-rise building staircase (23 floors, 90 m high). Developed numerical models
have been verified and validated against real scale measurement data and used to extend the range of analysis
later on.

Pressure Differential Systems (PDS) by SMAY introduced innovations


All the tests were performed with a use of the latest measurement techniques of all up-to-date standards and
that are based on the highest class measurement equipment application. These tests have not only allowed
to develop overall structure of the installation but also what is even more important to work out the measurement
and control system self-adopting to the ambient parameters and evacuation scenarios dynamic changes.
The issue of highest priority was to ensure the highest degree of effectiveness and reliability required pursuant
to the following documents:
ITB Instruction 378/2002. Designing Fire Ventilation Installation for Escape Routes in High Rise Buildings;
NFPA 92A - Standard for Smoke-Control System Utilizing Barriers and Pressure Differences;
EN 12101-6 Standard Smoke and Heat Control Systems. Part 6: Specification for pressure differential
systems Kits.
A special impact was put on fulfilling all the requirements appointed for the pressure differential systems by EN
12010-6 European Standard. The SAFETY WAY system, as the only one in Europe, literally complies with all the
requirements of this Standard as regards of high-rise buildings and polish winter ambient conditions.
The achieved results have enabled to design and implement an innovative pressure differential system supported
by tests carried out in realistic conditions by a panel of experts which effectiveness is confirmed by a number of
acceptance tests in real buildings. The SMAY company as the only one in Poland provides full support at each
stage of the project including: design, CFD simulations assembly as well as on-site start-up and calibration
procedures.
We are warmly encouraging You to learn more about us and our offer in this document. It not only contains the
issues associated with the iSWAY/SWAY systems, but also vital information concerning fire ventilation and air
extraction systems, as well as the regulations that need to be met to implement, assemble and use fire
ventilation systems.
The SMAY company, as one of the most modern production companies in the ventilating industry in Poland has its
own design office, testing laboratory, as well as the Research and Development Department. Among its
employees are four PhD's. Last but not least, it has signed contracts for cooperation with the Technical
Universities in Warsaw, Krakow, Gliwice and Wroclaw. Finally, as far as pressure differential is concerned, it has a
representative in European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Engineers Association (ASHRAE).

Marek Maj, SMAY

Issues connected with design and operation of the Pressure Differential Systems
Modern building constructions shall comply with strict requirements regarding safety level in case of fire.
Key issue is to ensure safe evacuation of all people from the building on the basis of evacuation scenario. Since
the most significant threat during evacuation is the risk of toxic fumes inhalation and sustaining burns key issue
is to control temperature and keep all escape routes free of smoke. It is possible assuming that fire ventilation
installations are properly designed and balanced.
The most common installations applied in multi-storey high-rise buildings are pressure differential systems.
Major aims of this solutions regardless of the technical details are to depending on the actual criterion:
generate and control fixed value of pressure difference between selected spaces in order to control smoke
movement inside the building e.g. staircase in reference to the fire floor;
generate directed and controlled airflow through open evacuation door between protected space
and the corridor or open-space.
Overpressure in protected spaces is generated by supplying airflow rate corresponding to the total air leakage
rate of given space. Depending on the protected space type and cubature air can be supplied in different manner:
multiple injection air is supplied to the staircase through the ductwork and multiple inlets located along
the staircase. According EN 12101-6 air inlets shall be located at least every third floor;
concentrated air supply usually with single air inlet located at the bottom or at the top of the staircase.
NOTE: Location and number of air inlet points don't influence significantly static pressure distribution during
pressure criterion within the range of air velocities typical for pressure differential systems.
In order to provide proper operation of pressure differential system it is indispensible to control pressure
difference precisely which is necessary to maintain nominal pressure gradient. According to EN 12101-6
European Standard nominal value of pressure difference depends on the type of the escape route and ranges
between 5 and 50 Pa.
Naturally design process of pressure differential systems becomes more complex as regards of high-rise
buildings. Following phenomena can significantly influence proper pressure differential system operation:
stack effect triggered by proportional to the temperature air density difference between internal air and the
ambient. This phenomenon results in vertical upward or downward movement of air inside the staircase
or elevator shafts. Due to the stack effect stabilizing pressure distribution in pressurized space may
be significantly hindered and application of active controlled pressure differential systems may be necessary
especially as regards of high-rise buildings.
airflow resistance both pressurized staircase and elevator shafts may be considered as a large size ducts.
Regardless of actual ambient parameters during pressurization pressure gradient occurs proportional to the
air supply rate, staircase geometry and building total height. According to the experimental data standard
pressure loss ranges within 2 5 Pa per floor.
wind forces - pressure distribution at the building facade resulting from wind pressure and suction.
NOTE: Properly designed pressure differential system shall be capable to overcome negative influence
of phenomena listed above.
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Issues connected with design and operation of the Pressure Differential Systems
Due to the problems listed above high-rise buildings pressurization design becomes more complex an often
requires additional analysis which may be performed with a use of analytical calculations, zone-models or CFD
simulations that confirms effectiveness of selected solution.
Mentioned problems and market analysis performed by SMAY company were main reasons for developing
innovative active controlled pressure differential system SAFETY WAY which is intended for high-rise and
industrial buildings application. Overall idea of system operation as well as its structure is simple and based
on generation of fully controlled and directed airflow inside pressurized space. Intensity of an airflow
is proportional to the actual value of pressure gradient resulting from stack effect. Key components of the system
are reversible axial flow fans controlled with frequency inverters and a set of pressure controllers equipped with
Belimo fast-acting actuators. System operation is fully automatic additional advantage is that in many cases
system can be assembled as a ductless solution.
Basing on CFD simulations results SMAY company HVAC engineers can select fans as well as suggest locations
of air inlet and outlet points taking into consideration building characteristics and additional requirements.
After initial coarse control carried out with frequency inverter a fine control of set pressure difference is carried
out by means of multiblade dampers equipped with fast actuators operating as pressure controllers. The most
important component of the automation system is URBS (Belimo Smay Control Device) controlling all other
devices. URBS is described in details in next chapters. Innovation of SAFET WAY system is also with application
of electronic devices of top quality. That enabled development of reliable active controlled pressure differential
system following-up ambient parameters and evacuation scenarios changes. Additional default component
of fully functional SAFETY WAY system is Control Module (MS) which sets airflow direction inside the staircase
basing on measured value of temperature difference.
Proper balance of stack effect and airflow resistance pressure gradient taking into account staircase total
leakage rate at given overpressure it is possible to obtain stable pressure distribution inside protected staircase.
Correctly designed and calibrated SAFETY WAY system fulfills literally EN 12101-6 Standard requirements
during both pressure and airflow criterion:
pressure stabilization in a range +/- 10% of nominal value;
directed airflow with minimal velocity in a range 0.75 2.00 m/s;
maximal force required to open evacuation door i.e. 100 N.
Furthermore applied devices ensures that system can change volumetric airflow rate and reduce pressure jump
resulting from opening or closing evacuation doors within normative 3 seconds.
After opening the door and in result of corresponding pressure drop inside the staircase air exhaust rate
is reduced to zero and all air supplied flows to the fire floor corridor. In case of high-rise buildings due to a large
total air leakage rate it may be necessary to apply additional fans located at technical floors in order to increase
total air supply rate.
After closing the door system automatically switches to pressure criterion involving both air supply and air
exhaust fans.

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Issues connected with design and operation of the Pressure Differential Systems
For buildings with total height up to 30 m (55 m or 65 m depending on the standard EN 12101-6, ITB 378/2002,
NFPA92A) where both stack effect and airflow resistance influence is less significant SMAY company has
developed compact pressurization units of iSWAY-FC series. Owing to quite small dimensions and compact
construction iSWAY-FC units can be located in any place in the building moreover assembly and start-up
procedures are simplified. Before starting-up pressurization units it is required to ensure required air supply
rate, power supply and pressure difference measurement between protected space and the reference.
iSWAY-FC series units are manufactured in different versions depending on number and type of pressurized
spaces, location in the building (internal or external) and inspection panels access side. Technical sheets
of SMAY company pressurization units and control systems with detailed description can be found in last sections
of this Guidebook
To ensure proper operation of pressure differential system it is necessary to provide air extraction or release from
the fire floor. Otherwise dynamic changes in temperature and pressure distribution while opening evacuation
doors may result in infiltration hot smoke and gases to protected spaces and contamination escape routes.
Such problem can be detected during acceptance tests when it is not possible to obtain nominal air velocity
at evacuation door at given floor. In practice elimination of such problem after finishing all construction works
in a real building is extremely hard or even impossible. In case when air release or exhaust rate is not sufficient
pressure difference between adjacent spaces decreases gradually until pressures equalize. Airflow direction
may be opposite to the required due to local pressure raise connected with fire development. It is crucial to start
up air release or extraction installations simultaneously with pressure differential system.
Following air release/extraction installations can be listed:
gravitational openings located in building envelope such as motorized windows (susceptible to wind forces
influence);
gravitational ductworks equipped with fire dampers (to ensure proper operation large dimensions may be
required);
mechanical ventilation ductworks ensuring precise balancing of airflows and less susceptible to wind forces
influence;
smoke extraction installation.
Common mistake at concept stage of the design is to analyze given installation operation without taking into
consideration another systems in the building which may seriously influence its operation. In fact whole building
shall be treated as a set of hydraulically connected spaces in terms of airflows and pressure distribution.
Phenomena which influence pressure distribution and airflow patterns in the building are described in further
sections of this Guidebook.
It has to be noted that SMAY company solutions has been consequently tested and improved for over last two
years basing on real scale experiments and acceptance tests results moreover applied components were often
specially designed to fulfill strict requirements of standards and regulations currently in force. Main goal of the
optimization procedures was to reduce total number of necessary electronic devices and sensors such
as pressure and temperature sensors.
SMAY company except research and development activities as a first European manufacturer has voluntarily
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Issues connected with design and operation of the Pressure Differential Systems
tested described solutions in independent laboratories Institute of Industrial Aerodynamics GmbH at the Aachen
University of Applied Sciences (I.F.I.) and Building Research Institute in Warsaw (ITB). All testes have been

10

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Legal grounds of Pressure Differential Systems design


The problems concerning protecting escape routes against smoke in buildings is defined by the Regulation of the
Minister of Infrastructure dated April 12 2002 on the technical criteria to be met by buildings and their location
(The Journal of Laws nr 75/2002 item/position 690 and later amendments). The regulation hereto defines escape
routes and states the requirements concerning their protection in case of fire.
In accordance with the Regulation's 236.1 paragraph From the rooms intended for people there should be
ensured a possibility of evacuation into a safe place outside the building or to adjacent fire zone, directly by means
of general communication routes, later named "escape routes". In accordance with further entries of the
quoted regulation, proper protection of vertical and horizontal escape routes is required:
245. In buildings:
1) low rise (LR), that hold ZL II fire zone,
2) of medium rise (MR), that hold ZL I, ZL II, ZL III or ZL V fire zones,
3) low rise (LR) and medium rise (MR), that hold PM fire zone with the fire density load 2 of 500 MJ/m or the room
with explosion hazard, encased staircases with closing doors should be applied, as well as smoke control
and smoke removal devices.
246. 2. Staircases and fire-fighting lobbies that are escape routes in high rise (HR) buildings for ZL II fire zone
and in multi-storey (MS) buildings for fire zones other than ZL IV, should be equipped with smoke control
devices.
3. Staircases and firefighting lobbies that are escape routes in high rise (HR) buildings for ZL I, ZL III, ZL V or
PM fire zones and in multi-storey (MS) buildings for ZL IV fire zone should be equipped with smoke control
devices and automatic smoke removal devices triggered by means of smoke detection system.
247. 1. In high rise (HR) and multi-storey (MS) buildings, in fire zones other than ZL IV, there should be applied
such technical and construction solutions that protect against smoke the horizontal escape routes.
Definitions, principle of operation, technical requirements for smoke protection systems (fire ventilation) are
most clearly stated by the ITB (Building Research Institute in Warsaw) Instruction 378/2002 for Designing Fire
Ventilation Installation for Escape Routes in High-rise Buildings. It states that fire ventilation (that means the
system of smoke protection) is aimed at:
counteracting against smoke and hot fire gases distribution outside the fire affected floor and along
the staircases;
enabling the evacuation of people from the endangered zone and facilitating efficient fire action by preventing
excessive visibility constraint and drop in oxygen concentration below the life hazard level in horizontal
escape routes and fire-fighting lobbies on the fire affected floor and in the staircases,
reduction of property damages owing to smoky gases activity and high fire gases temperature.
One of the technical solutions for smoke protection, which is also the SWAY case, is the pressure differential
system. Such system is the of fire ventilation installation that generates positive pressure in the staircases and
fire-fighting lobbies that are escape routes and intensively exchanges air in the protected space of horizontal
escape routes (corridors) with the constantly maintained positive pressure.

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11

Legal grounds of Pressure Differential Systems design


The key function of pressure differential system is ensuring people's safe evacuation from the fire affected zone
with the simultaneous enabling rescue teams safe work.
The overall definition of pressure differential system is stated by the EN 12101-6 Standard: Smoke and Heat
Control Systems. Part 6: Specification for pressure differential systems Kits:
The objective of this document is to give information on the procedures intended to limit the spread of smoke
from one space within the building to another, via leakage paths through physical barriers (e.g. cracks around
closed doors) or open doors.
Pressure differential systems offer the facility of maintaining tenable conditions in protected spaces, for example
escape routes, firefighting access routes, firefighting shafts, lobbies, staircases, and other areas that require
to be kept free of smoke. This document offers information with regard to life safety, firefighting and property
protection within all types of buildings. It is necessary to determine not only where the fresh air supply
for pressurization is to be introduced into a building but also where that air and smoke will leave the building
and what paths it will follow in the process. Similar considerations apply to depressurization schemes, i.e. the
route for the exhaust air, plus consideration for the inlet replacement air and the paths it will follow. The aim
therefore is to establish a pressure gradient (and thus an airflow pattern) with the protected escape space at the
highest pressure and the pressure progressively decreasing in areas away from the escape routes.

air relase

staircase

Fig. 2.1. Pressure criterion 50 Pa according to EN 12101-6 or 20 80 Pa according to ITB Instruction 378/2002

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air relase

Legal grounds of Pressure Differential Systems design

staircase

Fig. 2.2. Airflow criterion at open evacuation door according to EN 12101-6 for means of escape.

air relase

staircase

Fig. 2.3. Airflow criterion at open evacuation door according to EN 12101-6 for means of escape and firefighting.

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13

Fire ventilation in multi-storey buildings

The SAFETY WAY system developed by SMAY company solves a number of problems that appear in the fire
ventilation of multi-storey (MS) buildings. This chapter presents the specifications of such buildings in terms
of selecting appropriate fire ventilation systems.

Classification of multi-storey buildings


The first criterion that makes it necessary to use a proper fire ventilation system is the building's total height.
In accordance with the building regulations smoke protection system must be applied in medium-rise, tall
and high-rise buildings. In medium-rise buildings both smoke extraction and pressurization systems
are permissible. In tall buildings, in case of ZL IV residential buildings and industrial and warehouse buildings
PM, there is an option of applying smoke extraction or pressurization systems and for the remaining ZL classes
pressure differential systems shall be applied. In case of high-rise buildings it is obligatory to apply pressure
differential systems.

[m]
residential buildings
from 9 up to 18 floors

55

building total height

3.
1

residential buildings
from 4 up to 9 floors

25

residential building
up to 4 floors

12

low

medium-rise

tall

high-rise

Fig. 3.1. Building classification in terms of the total height.

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15

3.
1

Classification of multi-storey buildings


General construction regulations indicate the necessity of using the following fire ventilation systems depending
on the building height:
in low-rise buildings that comprise ZL II category vertical escape routes shall be equipped optionally
with smoke extraction or pressure differential system;
in medium-rise buildings that comprise the ZL I, ZL II, ZL III or ZL V category vertical escape routes shall be
optionally with smoke extraction or pressure differential system;
in tall buildings except for ZL IV and PM vertical escape routes shall be equipped with pressure differential
system;
in high-rise buildings it is obligatory to apply pressure differential system protecting escape routes against
smoke infiltration.
Life Hazard category (ZL category)
Most medium-rise and high-rise buildings comprise the ZL category. These are buildings with various functions,
where their purpose may be strictly defined or they may combine different functions on their premises. In the first
case the building classification is clear and is concluded from the Regulation of the Minister of Infrastructure
dated April 12 2002 on the technical criteria to be met by buildings and their location (209 p. 2).

ZL 1

Buildings that comprise rooms that can contain more than 50 people at the same
time that are not regular users and they are not predominantly aimed at people
with limited walking capabilities

ZL II

Buildings predominantly intended for people with limited walking capabilities,


such as hospitals, day-care centers, kindergartens and retirement homes

ZL III

Public usability buildings, unqualified for either ZL I or ZL II

ZL IV

Residential buildings

ZL V

Residential buildings, unqualified for either ZL I or ZL

Table 3.1.

Building classification in terms of Life Hazard category (ZL category)

The rules included in the regulations only describe general requirements concerning fire ventilation for each
of the mentioned categories, with special attention to ZL II and ZL IV categories. In the first case, owing to the
specific features of buildings for people with limited walking capabilities (disabled), stricter criteria for fire
protection systems are applied. Residential building are less strictly treated and for this category, even in case
of high-rise buildings, in accordance with the regulations the fire prevention installation is permissible. It is far
more difficult to precisely define requirements for a building with parts that belong to different ZL categories.
Combining in one building office, hotel and living functions is commonplace. In case as such technical solutions
should be applied for the whole building that are categorized for the least favorable building class (with the
highest requirements in terms of fire protection). Separate groups of buildings in terms of fire protection
requirements (including fire ventilation systems) are multi-storey industrial buildings. In such buildings there

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3.
1

Classification of multi-storey buildings


is usually no obligation for legal applying special fire installations, however implementing escape routes
securities is caused by the necessity of securing the crew, especially in case of factories with a high risk of fire
explosion (e.g. pylons in heat and power plants).
It is also obligatory to apply pressure differential system system in PM buildings if fire load exceeds 500 MJ/m2
or there are rooms endangered by explosion.

Category

Building height

Obligatory fire
ventilation system

Building description

Medium-rise

Smoke extraction
system

Usually large cubature buildings with open galleries


equipped with smoke extraction systems.

Tall and high-rise

Pressure differential
system

ZL I usually in separate zone with independent fire


ventilation installations

Medium-rise

Smoke extraction
system

Tall and high-rise

Pressure differential
system

Medium-rise

Smoke extraction
system

Tall and high-rise

Pressure differential
system

Medium-rise

No requirements

Tall

Smoke extraction
system

High-rise

Pressure differential
system

Medium-rise

Smoke extraction
system

Tall and high-rise

Pressure differential
system

ZL I

ZL II

ZL III

ZL IV

ZL V

Table 3.2.

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All the buildings in fire resistance class of at least "B"


-practically there are no high-rise buildings (A resistance class)
Owing to the specific features of ZL II buildings there is an option
of longer time for evacuation. This is why there should be designed
the zones of safe evacuation at each and every floor.

Usually the best monitored group of buildings, in which working


people are and who are able to evacuate themselves.
Statistically, the lowest risk of fire endanger.

Buildings in a high-risk fire group, where sleeping people might


be or with limited walking capabilities. Owing to this in all the
ZL IV high-rise buildings there should be recommended
fire protection systems in vertical escape routes and closing
devices in doors.

Buildings in high-risk groups in terms of fire where sleeping


people may be. Such buildings are often monitored and equipped
with permanent fire extinguishing devices and room doors
of at least EI 30 class.

Requirements concerning fire ventilation systems for different building categories.

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3.
2

Protected spaces in the buildings


In buildings equipped with fire protection systems there are separate protected spaces serviced by this
installations:
-

encased and door separated staircases;

fire-fighting lobbies;

elevator shafts;

corridors.

Depending on the building classification and applied architectural solutions, the protected space may be one
of the spaces mentioned above, however air exhaust (release) shall take place in the lobby, corridor or fire-seized
room as well as part of the communication system in the building.
Requirements for the protected spaces in the building are listed below:
Staircases vertical escape routes which join building floors with the final exit level. In high-rise buildings where
evacuation from outside is usually limited or impossible staircases are only become only ways of escape.
Designing smoke protection and pressure differential systems in high-rise buildings special consideration shall
be given to protecting staircases as only ways of safe evacuation.

REMARKS
CONCERNING
STAIRCASES
CONSTRUCTION THAT
ARE VITAL IN TERMS
OF FIRE VENTILATION
SYSTEM SELECTION

staircase location in the building (internal, core section, adjacent to external wall or on the
building facade) and staircase structure (reinforced concrete, totally closed, partly or totally
glass-paned) have a significant influence on the initial pressure distribution in this space;
- architectural layout (geometry) of the staircase is particularly important for the airflow
and pressure distribution.

Dimensions of fire-fighting lobbies should be at least 1.4 m x 1.4 m. They have to be made in accordance to EI60
fire resistance class and ventilated, at least gravitationally. In pressure differential systems in escape routes
it is required to provide air supply installation and air transfer to the adjacent lower pressure zone or fully
functional air supply-exhaust ventilation. Fire-fighting lobbies shall be independent on the pressurization
system each lobby shall be equipped with at least one air inlet.

REMARKS CONCERNING
FIRE-FIGHTING LOBBY

Assuming minimal dimension of the lobby often doesn't allow installing required
pressure differential systems components e.g. fire dampers, air transfer dampers
or air supply shafts.

3.
2

Protected spaces in the buildings


Escape corridors - shall be equipped with mechanical smoke extraction or pressurization systems. Currently
selection of design solution is based on CFD simulations results depending on door opening time and evacuation
scenario.
Fire-fighting shafts for rescue operations in ZLI, ZLII ZLIII and ZL V category high and high-rise buildings that
need to fulfill requirements set in regulations. In accordance with these regulations at least one elevator in each
fire zone shall be suited to the needs of rescue team (shall meet in this scope the requirements of the Polish
standards). Access to the elevator shall lead through the fire-fighting lobbies made in accordance with the above
principles. Fire-fighting shaft should be protected with use of pressurization systems.

Pressurization in order to achieve positive pressure shall be applied to all the elevator shafts, as long as they are
not protected on particular floors with lift lobbies that meet the requirements for fire-fighting lobbies. Should
such lobbies exist, there is no obligatory need to apply pressurization systems in elevator shafts apart from the
fire-fighting shafts for rescue teams.

3.
3

High-rise building as an object of hydraulic connections


It is vital to identify the hazard as to the efficiency of security systems that are caused by physical phenomena
responsible for airflow and smoky gases movement in a building. It has to be noted that ambient conditions such
as air temperature or wind speed and direction may seriously influence operation of smoke protection and
pressure differential systems.
The phenomena responsible for the airflows and smoke movement in a building include: stack effect, natural
convection, thermal expansion, wind forces, airflow resistance in the staircase, piston effect, day-to-day
ventilation installation operation. It is vital to analyze listed factors together as they all shall be taken into account
when designing fire ventilation system.

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3.
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High-rise building as an object of hydraulic connections

STACK EFFECT

NATURAL CONVECTION

THERMAL EXPANSION

WIND FORCES INFLUENCE

AIRFLOW RESISTANCE
OF THE STAIRCASE

PISTON EFFECT

DAY-TO-DAY VENTILATION
OPERATION

6
5

2
6
1

Fig. 3.2. The phenomena responsible for pressure distribution in high-rise buildings.

Stack effect
A factor of particular importance that influences pressure distribution in high-rise buildings
and selecting methods of effective protection of escape routes is stack effect. Stack effect is a pressure
difference resulting from a difference in density between two interconnected columns of air at different
temperatures (internal air and the ambient). It results in vertical air movement in staircases, lift or installation
shafts and natural static pressure gradient between top and bottom floors. Static pressure difference
is proportional to the actual value of temperature difference and building height.
The problem can significantly influence pressure distribution in buildings over 30 m high and may often result
in faulty pressure differential system operation.
If the airflow is from down up it is normal (normal stack effect). Normal stack effect is best visible in the winter,
with low ambient temperatures. Supplying cold outside air to warm staircases causes substantial increase
of pressure gradient inside the staircase or elevator shaft. It results in low pressure zone at the bottom floors
level and high pressure zone at the top floors level.
If the air flow directed from up down it is reverse stack effect. Reverse stack effect is best visible in the summer,
with high ambient temperatures. Supplying warm outside air to cooler staircases causes substantial increase
of pressure gradient inside the staircase or elevator shaft. It results in low pressure zone at the top floors level
and low pressure zone at the top floors level.
Due to a large heat capacity of staircase or elevator shaft envelope it is not possible to stabilize pressure
distribution with intensive ventilation its cubature within reasonable time.

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3.
3

High-rise building as an object of hydraulic connections


The stack effect phenomenon is not only associated with seasons of the year, faults in the work of pressurization
system but they are also visible within the time of 24 hours. Set in particular periods (e.g. one day) environment
conditions do not always guarantee that at a particular hour there will be a given pressure distribution inside
a building. Even small ambient temperature changes e.g. caused by weather breakdown may cause that in a very
short time there will appear or worsen substantial pressure stratification in the staircase, on particular floors.
In case of fire the stack effect poses two fundamental risks resulting from uncontrolled pressure distribution
in protected space:
-

maximum force required to open evacuation door may significantly exceed normative 100 N value due
to the increased pressure differential across evacuation door in high pressure zone;

smoke infiltration to the pressurized space due to the pressure differential drop in low pressure zone.
This problem is especially important since even relatively small amounts of smoke may contaminate air
in the protected space and seriously evacuation.

NEUTRAL
PLANE

Fig. 3.3. Smoke movement inside the building resulting from stack effect.

Convection
The phenomenon is connected with temperature difference resulting from fire. It is responsible for 'leaking'
of toxic combustion products through the leakage paths of the buildings structure to the floors above the fire
affected space. To prevent smoke infiltration at the floors above the fire floor it is possible to supply fixed air
volume via day-to-day ventilation ductwork.

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3.
3

High-rise building as an object of hydraulic connections


Thermal expansion
It's a phenomenon that is caused by volumetric expansion (thermal) of hot gases during fire. Small pressure
change corresponds to significant temperature growth.
Wind forces
The wind outside the building generates a characteristic pressure layout around the building facade. On the
windward wall the pressure rises (positive pressure). On the opposite leeward wall the pressure drops (negative
pressure). The wind influence on the fire ventilation installation performance poses a serious problem in case
of planned (e.g. window opening) or accidental (e.g. window cracking) increased air leakage throughout the
building envelope. The resulting pressure distribution inside the building may significantly influence how the fire
ventilation installations work. Depending on the wind direction and speed, building shape as well as location
of the openings, attention must be paid to the possibility of occurring the phenomena of blowing in or sucking out
mixture of air and smoke. In buildings with complex roof shape and for high-rise buildings it is required
to determine pressure distribution in vicinity of air release or air intakes and smoke exhaust openings with a use
of CFD simulations.

WIND DIRECTION

high pressure zone in the vicinity of windward building facade

low pressure zone in the vicinity of leeward building facade


Pressurization system

Fig. 3.4. Risk of blowing in smoke onto the escape routes owing to wind influence.

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3.
3

High-rise building as an object of hydraulic connections


Airflow resistance of the staircase
Pressure differential system operation in the staircase always results in airflow and pressure drop in its
cubature. Staircase may be compared to the large size vertical duct transporting air with additional elements
such as stairs and landings. Pressure gradient mostly depends on air supply rate, staircase geometry and its
total height. According to measurement data typical staircase airflow resistance per single floor is in the range
3 5 Pa for class B system of EN 12101-6 European Standard. In result stabilization of pressure distribution
inside the staircase may be difficult by means of passive pressurization systems based on mechanical
overpressure dampers application. This problem is best visible in high-rise buildings moreover this problem will
occur regardless of the current ambient conditions.
Piston effect
It is a phenomenon assisting elevator car movement in the shaft. During car movement transient pressures are
produced. A downward-moving elevator car forces air out of the section below the car and into the section of shaft
above the car. In case of upward-moving car airflow patterns are opposite to the described. Elevator shaft usually
connects all floors in the building so elevator operation can significantly influence pressure distribution in the
building. The phenomenon is particularly visible in case of fast moving elevator cars. The resulting danger
is about pumping smoke by moving lifts. To eliminate this danger, at the moment of fire detection all the cars
should automatically go down and be blocked (with doors open). Fire-fighting elevator shaft shall be pressurized
in order to prevent smoke movement through the hoistway.

low pressure zone in the vicinity of leeward building facade

high pressure zone in the vicinity of windward building facade

WIND DIRECTION

Pressurization system

Fig. 3.5. Sucking in smoke due to wind forces.

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3.
4

Fire ventilation systems for multistoried buildings


In case of tall and high-rise buildings two principle fire ventilation systems can be listed: smoke extraction and
pressure differential systems. They differ in terms of possible technical solutions, functions they play
in a building and ensured fire safety level.

THE SYSTEMS OF FIRE VENTILATION IN MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS


Concerns: staircases, fire-fighting lobbies and corridors

SMOKE EXTRACTION SYSTEMS

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS

GOAL:
Removal of smoke and fire gases
produced during the fire out of the building

GOAL:
Protecting escape routes against smoke
and fire gases infiltration by achieving
fixed value of overpressure in reference to fire zone

APPLICATION:
low and mediumrise buildings certain
tall buildings (PM and ZL IV only)

APPLICATION:
All categories of multi-storey buildings
with allocated zones of safe evacuation

EVACUATION POSSIBILITIES:
No or substantial hindering
of safe evacuation

EVACUATION POSSIBILITIES:
Protecting escape routes, safe evacuation
via pressurized escape routes enabled

RESCUE AND FIRE


ACTION PERFORMANCE:
Enabling firefighting access
below the fire source

RESCUE AND FIRE ACTION PERFORMANCE:


Enabling firefighting access below the fire
source and rescue action at floors over fire source.
Additionally manually triggered smoke
extraction from pressurized space

Fig. 3.6. Basic features of smoke extraction and pressure differential systems.

Pressure differential solutions offered by SMAY company


SMAY company offer covers whole range of pressure differential solutions from simple compact pressurization

units iSWAY series to complete pressure differential system SAFETY WAY . To provide highest quality of and
highest safety level in case of fire SMAY solutions include precise active control and measurement devices URBS
and operating conditions monitoring MSPU that enables visualization of selected parameters and fault
detection. It is particularly important that SMAY company goal is continuous improvement of offered solutions
and development of new complete systems i.e. car parks ventilation or smoke extraction systems.
SMAY company provides support at all stages of the project conception, design, CFD simulations, system
assembly and calibration and assistance during acceptance tests.
Please find complete data sheets of devices listed below at the end of this Guidebook.

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Pressure differential solutions offered by SMAY company


Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) is a static pressure regulation system within selected space by means
of volumetric airflow rate control that pertains an integral component of smoke and heat control system
of iSWAY units and SAFETY WAY system. Device has been tested in Fire Detection, Alarm, Fire Automatics and
Electrical Installations Laboratory of Building Research Institute in Warsaw (Report No. NP.-03723/P/2009/JC),
Technical Approval ITB AT-15-8564/2011. page 51
Operating Conditions Monitoring Device (MSPU) complements SMAY company pressure differential systems
offer. MSPU can be applied to monitor data transmission circuits and operation parameters of actuating devices
in simple SAFETY WAY or vast iSWAY pressure differential systems. MSPU monitoring device pertains integral
component of pressure differential systems manufactured by SMAY company. page 61
iSWAY series compact pressurization units dedicated to protect vertical and horizontal escape routes against
smoke and fire gases infiltration in case of fire.
iSWAY unit intended to protect large cubature vertical escape routes e.g. staircases and elevator shafts. Single
stage pressure regulation by means of mechanically and electrically coupled motorized multiblade dampers
equipped with fast-acting Belimo actuators. page 69
iSWAY-FC, -FCD, FCR - units ensure two stage pressure difference regulation, initial by means of frequency
inverter and precise one by means of pressure controller. Such solution ensures precise pressure difference
control and protect the system against uncontrolled oscillations resulting in pressure jumps and drops during
evacuation.
iSWAY-FC unit intended to protect staircases, elevator shafts and fire-fighting lobby. Eventually iSWAY-FC
devices can be applied to protect horizontal escape routes i.e. corridors. page 83
iSWAY-FCD unit intended to protect small cubature spaces e.g. fire-fighting lobbies in wide range of buildings.
Additionally this unit can be used to supply constant air volume to the space equipped with mechanical smoke
extraction system by means of electronically controlled air transfer regardless of evacuation door position.
Advised to apply in buildings where it is required to pressurize a number of small spaces with a use of single
pressurization unit. page 101
iSWAY-FCR pressurization of tall, high-rise and industrial buildings staircases. It is possible
to design fully functional SAFETY WAY system with a use of two iSWAY-FCR pressurization units equipped with
reversible axial flow fans. Application of iSWAY-FCR units also enables intensive ventilation of the staircase and
manually triggered extraction of small amounts of cold smoke after evacuation. page 119

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4.
1

Idea of operation of forced airflow system SAFETY WAY

Forced airflow system SAFETY WAY - developed to protect vertical escape routes in buildings against smoke
infiltration in case of fire. SAFETY WAY system shall be applied in tall and high-rise buildings staircases
and additionally in industrial buildings with large heat gains where it can operate in the ventilation mode
e.g. power plants. In such application iSWAY-FCR units are equipped with additional filter modules located at
the air intake. Depending on the chosen design standard it is intended for the buildings higher than:
30 m (98 ft.)

(according to the EN 12101-6 European Standard);

55 m (180 ft.)

(according to French National Regulations, quoted in the ITB Instruction 378/2002);

65 m (213 ft.)

(according to NFPA 92A Standard).

SAFETY WAY system consists of at least two independent pressurization units iSWAY-FCR located usually
at the top and bottom floors of the building. In buildings where such locations are not available it is possible
to place both units at the roof level and provide air supply/exhaust ductwork to the bottom floors of the staircase.
Key components of SAFETY WAY system are reversible flow axial fans controlled with frequency inverters
equipped additionally with braking resistors. After initial regulation of fan capacity with frequency inverters
precise second stage control is realized by means of multiblade air dampers operating as a pressure controllers.
All air dampers applied are equipped with fast-acting Belimo actuators. All system components are controlled by
Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS). Application of electronic devices enabled development of active controlled
pressure differential system which adjust operating parameters such as air supply and exhaust rates basing
on continuous pressure difference measurement taking into account ambient temperature, wind speed and
direction changes. By default integral component of SAFETY WAY system is Control Module (MS) which allows
to determine required airflow direction basing on internal and ambient air temperature difference
measurement.
Moreover application of SAFETY WAY system doesn't require any additional pressure control devices such
as mechanical barometric dampers. In case when such device locations are not possible it is necessary
to provide air inlets/outlets in the top and bottom zones. Whole year can be divided into three conventional
periods depending on standard internal and ambient temperature difference:
winter period when ambient temperature is lower than air temperature inside the building. During this
period due to the stack effect high pressure zone at the top floors and low pressure zone at the bottom floors
occur in reference to the barometric pressure. iSWAY-FCR pressurization units supply air to the bottom
floors zone and exhaust it from the top floors zone.
summer period when ambient temperature is higher than air temperature inside the building. During this
period due to the stack effect high pressure zone at the bottom floors and low pressure zone at the top floors
occur in reference to the barometric pressure. iSWAY-FCR pressurization units supply air to the top floors
zone and exhaust it from the bottom floors zone.
Natural pressure gradient value is proportional to actual value of temperature difference and total building
height.
Interim period when internal and ambient air temperatures are approximately equal. During this period
no pressure gradient should occur. Significant problem in terms of pressure differential design is pressure
drop connected resulting from staircase airflow resistance.

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4.
1

Idea of operation of forced airflow system SAFETY WAY

Idea of operation of SAFETY WAY pressure differential system for winter and summer periods is presented
below. For interim period system operates in similar way to the winter period with reduced airflow rates.
iSWAY-FC

iSWAY-FCR

iSWAY-FCD

iSWAY-FCD

Fig. 4.1. Pressure distribution stabilization inside


heated staircase during winter period
iSWAY-FC

iSWAY-FCR

iSWAY-FCD

Fig. 4.2. Pressure distribution stabilization inside


air-conditioned staircase during winter period

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4.
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Idea of operation of forced airflow system SAFETY WAY


iSWAY-FC

iSWAY-FCR

iSWAY-FCD

Except pressure criterion SAFETY WAY system


ensures possibility of airflow criterion can be fulfilled
in terms of required air velocities at open evacuation
doors. Opening evacuation door results in immediate
pressure drop inside the pressurized space. In such
situation exhaust airflow rate is reduced to zero and
air supply rate is increased to the nominal value
required to achieve nominal air velocity at given
evacuation door.

iSWAY-FCD

Fig. 4.3. Example of SAFETY WAY system operation


during an airflow criterion

Application of compact pressurization units of iSWAY-FC series allowed to simplify SAFETY WAY system
structure and reduce overall price of complete pressure differential system. Additionally number of independent
components has been reduced as well i.e. control system components and wiring.
During airflow criterion in high-rise building staircase depending on selected system class and total air leakage
rate additional air supply units may be required to provide stable pressure distribution all along the staircase
as well as nominal air velocities at open evacuation doors. By default it is assumed to provide one air supply inlet
per each ten floors of the staircase. Additional air volume is supplied with iSWAY-FCD unit with pressure
controller calibrated in that manner to maintain 25-30 Pa of pressure difference between protected space and
the reference.

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Corridor

Fire-fighting lobby

Staircase

Static pressure

Staircase

Air release opening in the building envelope

Fire-fighting lobby

Static pressure

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

measurement point inside air supply duct

Idea of operation of forced airflow system SAFETY WAY

measurement point inside air supply duct

4.
1

KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 4.4. Pressurization of high-rise building staircase with SAFETY WAY system with additional air supply
unit iSWAY-FCD application.

PLEASE NOTE: Proper operating parameters such as fan capacities and air inlets/outlets location
for SAFETYWAY system are provided by SMAY company basing on building design details, pressure
differential nominal operating parameters. For high-rise buildings exact values of listed parameters are
determined basing on CFD simulations results.
To place an order for complete SAFETY WAY system design it is necessary to provide:
-

dimensioned views and sectional views of the staircase;

overall description and schematic diagram of pressure differential system in analyzed building;

dimensions and locations of air supply shafts;

pressure differential system operating conditions and nominal parameters required by fire protection
expert;

Ordering party receives complete CFD calculations report in printed and electronic version as well
as guidelines required at all stages of the design.

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4.
2

SAFET WAY system application in industrial buildings (PM)


Pressure differential systems design in high-rise building may become a problem but the real challenge both for
the designer and most of all manufacturer is the variety of industrial buildings with a range of different
requirements. SAFETY WAY system may be also safely well applied in buildings where due to the technological
process increased heat gains may occur. In such application SAFETY WAY system operates in two modes:
standard mode when protected space is continuously ventilated with a fixed value of overpressure
maintained. This ensures both heat gains removal (temperature control) as well as protection against dust
contamination. iSWAY-FC or iSWAY-FCR pressurization units are additionally equipped with Filtration
Modules (FM) located at the air inlet duct with pressure controllers allowing to determine dust filter
condition;
fire mode when protected space is pressurized in order to achieve fixed nominal parameters terms
of pressure difference and air velocities.
Due to the construction applied iSWAY-FC series units can be used in constant operation mode. After receiving
Fire Alarm Signal (SAP) from fire alarm control and indication equipment devices automatically switches to fire
mode. In this mode air is supplied to the staircase or other protected spaces via additional ductwork branch
omitting Filtration Module (FM).

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4.
3

Pressurization of fire-fighting lobbies

An example of industrial buildings application of SAFETY WAY system are staircases intended to ensure safe
evacuation from central boiler plants buildings. Such staircases are adjacent to the room where power boiler
is located where large heat gains and dust emission occur. Due to its structure and special control algorithms
SAFETY WAY system ensures constant pressure difference between boiler room and the staircase regardless
of boiler operation mode and ambient parameters. Additionally in such applications all fire-fighting lobbies shall
be pressurized since they are all adjacent to the single fire zone.
Fire-fighting lobbies connect horizontal and vertical escape routes. Nominal value of overpressure inside the
lobby depends on the selected overpressure inside the adjacent staircase e.g. pressure differential of 5Pa
between the staircase and the lobby. According to the European Standard it is assumed that fire can occur only at
one floor at given time. Fire-fighting lobby is pressurized at fire floor only. In special cases simultaneous
pressurization of all fire-fighting lobbies may be required. Air is supplied to all lobbies via single shaft.
For standard pressure differential system balancing of such installation may be difficult. Pressurization system
dedicated to fire-fighting lobbies operates in two modes analogical to the staircases (pressure and airflow
criterion).
Buildings currently designed are often equipped with mechanical smoke extraction system in order to protect
horizontal escape routes. Since according to the European regulations it is forbidden to apply frequency inverters
to control smoke extraction fans capacities it is required to provide constant air volume supplied to the corridors
to control pressure difference across evacuation doors regardless of their position. SMAY company has
developed solution enabling electronically controlled air transfer from the fire-fighting lobby to the corridor.
Each fire-fighting lobby is equipped with independent set of two mechanically and electronically coupled
pressure controllers with fast acting Belimo actuators NMQ24A-SRV-ST. Idea of operation is quite simple both
air dampers operates backward in that manner that opening angle of each air damper is inversely proportional.
Air damper located in the fire-fighting lobby operates as a pressure controller. While evacuation doors are closed
excess air is transferred to the corridor via the by-pass damper and the pressure control damper is almost fully
closed. After opening the door by-pass damper closes and pressure control damper opens and required nominal
air volume is supplied to the corridor through evacuation door.

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4.
3

Pressurization of fire-fighting lobbies


Optionally SMAY company offers standard solution based on mechanical air transfer dampers located in the wall
between fire-fighting lobby and the corridor. Often due to the limited size of the lobbies it is not possible to apply
mechanical air transfer dampers in the wall due to the large size required especially for class B pressure
differential system according to the EN 12101-6 European Standard.
Advantages of electronically controlled air transfer:
reduction of air transfer elements dimensions;
precise control of pressure difference across evacuation door;
constant monitoring of pressure differential system operating parameters i.e. pressure difference
and possibility of failure detection.
NOTE:
In case of systems designed in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is advised to apply
electronically controlled air transfer due to the small nominal pressure difference between fire-fighting lobbies
and the staircase. In case of systems designed in accordance with ITB Instruction 378/2002 mechanical air
transfer dampers may be applied.
Basing on the practical experiences resulting from acceptance tests SMAY company recommends special
calculation methodology that assumes air supply rate to the fire-fighting lobby shall be sufficient to obtain
nominal air velocity at the door between protected lobby and the corridor e.g. 2.0 m/s. Such approach allows
to eliminate common problem with balancing airflows between hydraulically connected pressurized spaces.

0Pa

50Pa
45Pa

Fig. 4.5. Idea of operation of electronically controlled air transfer during pressure criterion (no evacuation)

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Pressurization of fire-fighting lobbies

2,0 m/s

6Pa

Fig. 4.6. Idea of operation of electronically controlled air transfer during airflow criterion (evacuation)

Fig. 4.7. Schematic diagram of fire-fighting lobby pressurization with mechanical air transfer to the corridor
in accordance with ITB Instruction 378/2002 (D
pmax = 20-80Pa)

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4.
3

Pressurization of fire-fighting lobbies


In case when fire-fighting lobby is connected to the corridor with two doors it is recommended to apply double
electronically controlled air transfer. Solution presented below ensures possibility to obtain nominal airflow at
both doors e.g. 2.0 m/s. Additionally enables precise predefined pressure differential control across the
evacuation door.

0Pa
45Pa
50Pa

0Pa

Fig. 4.8. Idea of operation of double electronically controlled air transfer during pressure criterion (no evacuation)

2,0 m/s

6Pa

2,0 m/s

Fig. 4.9. Idea of operation of double electronically controlled air transfer during airflow criterion (evacuation)

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Air exhaust/release systems


So that the smoke prevention systems can work properly in high-rise buildings, it is indispensable to implement
the installation of air release. In case of work of the installation that pressurizes the zone of overpressure, with
the simultaneous lack of installation that carries away or removes smoke, both smoke and fire gas shall be
blown into the protected space after the door that separates this space has opened. In result escape routes may
be cut off. Besides, smoke and other toxic combustion products may spread at a large distance from the fire
source.

SMOKE AND FIRE GASES

Fig. 5.1. Mixture of air and smoke flow


in the situation
of pressurization without
providing air release path.

The installations of air reception should work automatically at the moment the system of pressurization starts
to work. It means that on the floor seized by fire a flow needs to be opened that will direct the smoke-filled air
directly or with the use of smoke shafts outside the building. The following solutions may be applied as the
installations of air reception:
Pivoting windows or other openings in the inside walls, equipped with actuators they need to be installed
on each floor, in each separate room that is connected with escape passage. Should the staircase exit lead to the
open-space room, it is possible to limit the number of pivoting windows. Correctly selected windows active area is
enough to fulfill the requirements concerning the air flow requirements. The conditions for the use of pivoting
windows as a system of air reception include: they should be placed in the area adjacent to the one protected by
overpressure and equip windows with certified actuators that enable their automatic opening with the
simultaneous triggering of the pressurization system. This is a fairly easy solution. It does not require technical
space that is necessary to make the installation for smoke reception. The wind forms a serious limitation in the
use of pivoting windows and it is especially dangerous for high rise buildings. Bad weather conditions (opening
windows to windward) may result in blowing the smoke inside the building, making the pressurization to no avail.
High negative pressure that is formed on the leeward surface of the wall in the presence of strong wind may also
seriously disturb the pressure system inside the building. A solution to this problem may be installing pivoting
windows on two different walls of a building (the so called doubling the system) and proper control set depending
on the current wind direction (anemometer).
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Air exhaust/release systems


Gravitational ducts for air exhausting (equipped with fire dampers)
The air intake is secured with motorized fire dampers. Each fire damper is normally closed. When the fire
ventilation system turns on, the fire dampers on the fire-seized floor open, whereas the remaining fire dampers
stays closed. The gravitational ducts make use of the overpressure triggered in the area of smoke reception
by the work of installing security measures against smoke. This phenomenon is additionally supported by
higher pressure that appears together with the air that flows through the open door between the staircase and
the escape passage. Gravitational ducts should be mounted in vertical position on all the floors (just like in case
of the ducts of gravitational ventilation). It is a simple and cheap solution; it enables carrying away smoke from
space, where the method of fire breakout through windows or smoke dampers is hard or even impossible
to realize. The weak point of a gravitational duct is its large intersection owing to large air flow required (the
calculation was made based on air balance that gets into the zone of smoke removal from the area protected
by overpressure). Apart from that, the ducts needs to be placed directly in the zone where smoke reception takes
place. A solution as such requires neat finishing of inside surface to limit resistance of flow and it is limited to high
buildings.
The ducts of mechanical smoke reception (that exhaust air and which are equipped with certified fans
for smoke exhaust)
The air intake to air exhaust ducts takes place through the fire dampers in accordance with the rule that was
described in the previous point. When the pressurization of the areas of the buildings protected by overpressure
commences, fire dampers get open on the fire-seized floor, as well as the fans for smoke exhaust. Capacity of the
fans should be calculated based on air balance that gets on the building floor from the area of overpressure.
The system works properly on condition the solutions are applied that ensure the constant air flow on the fireseized floor from the area protected by overpressure, no matter what the current position of emergency door is.
Both the balanced supplied and removed volumes allow avoiding the phenomenon of negative pressure in the
zone where smoke ventilation works, which significantly facilitates the regulation of parameters of the work
of pressurization installation. The described effect may be achieved by applying different kinds of air transfer
from the pressurized zone to the zone of smoke exhaust.
Smoke extraction installations
The smoke extraction installation should first and foremost absorb all the smoke that is produced during fire and
remove it outside the building. Last but not least, the smoke removing installation should on horizontal escape
routes separate vertically between the zone of hot smoke and the 'clean' zone where people are.

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Air exhaust/release systems

Smoke extraction system

Pivoting windows
or other openings
in building envelope

Gravitational smoke
removal ducts

Mechanical smoke
reception ducts

Mechanical smoke
extraction
installations

Location

Benefits and drawbacks

External walls in the


rooms directly
adjacent to the
overpressure protected
zone.

Benefits:
- low investment costs;
- easy assembly;
- high smoke removal efficiency.
Drawbacks:
- highly sensitive to weather conditions.

In the area directly


adjacent to the
overpressure protected
zone

Benefits:
- low assembly cost;
- simple construction;
- low sensitivity to weather conditions.
Drawbacks:
- large technical zone required;
- neat assembly indispensable;
- no option of connecting horizontal ductworks.

In any place on the


premises of a building
the inlet in the zone
directly adjacent to
the overpressure zone

Benefits:
- no limits as to the building's height;
- smaller need for technical space than in case of gravitational ducts
- high smoke removal efficiency;
- option of connecting horizontal ductworks;
- possibility of using general ventilation installation on condition
it is specially made.
Drawbacks:
- additional cost of smoke control fans with the guaranteed power supply
and wiring;
- high assembly costs;
- necessity of precise air stream balancing.

In any place on the


premises of a building
smoke removal
installation in escape
passages.

Benefits:
- there is no limit as to the height of the building;
- high efficiency in smoke removing;
- possibility of connecting horizontal ductworks
- possibility of using general ventilation installation on condition
it is specially made.
Drawbacks:
- negative pressure may be created in the escape passage versus the protected;
- high investment costs.

Tab. 5.1. Smoke extraction systems benefits and drawbacks

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6
6.
1

Current procedures of testing pressure differential kits

Functionality and reliability


EN 12101-6 European Standard since it was introduced stirs up controversies both in Poland and other European
countries. Many of serious issues has not been well defined and explained. Special attention has been paid to the
functional requirements that pressure differential systems shall fulfill but issues connected with detailed design
procedures as well as with testing key components and whole sets of devices has not been described at all. Since
no official procedures has been developed and introduced 12101-6 European Standard couldn't been recognized
as an official reference document in terms of issuing Technical Approval for a complete pressure differential
system by certifying units (notified bodies) in each country.
This problems have been identified by European Committee for Standardization (CEN) TC191/SC1. Currently
within Working Group WG6 works are in progress in order to prepare novelized versions of EN 12101-6 and EN
12101-13 European Standards. Both documents are under development and they should be officially issued
by 2012.
In novelized EN 12101-6 European Standard special attention was paid to the issues connected with laboratory
tests of pressure differential systems. Special unified procedure has been developed both for mechanical
(passive) and electronic (active) pressure differential kits. All tests so far was carried out in independent
Laboratory of Institute of Industrial Aerodynamics GmbH at the Aachen University of Applied Sciences (I.F.I.).
All Working Group WG6 members have agreed that fundamental issue of pressure differential system
application is to ensure normative parameters regardless of the actual ambient parameters and building height.
As a result additional requirements has been also defined as regards of acceptance test procedures with special
consideration of high rise buildings.
Taking into consideration actual legal status and in order to provide highest possible quality of offered solutions
SMAY company as a first European manufacturer has tested iSWAY-FC and SAFETY WAY according to the latest
version of normative testing procedure. Performed test have confirmed that SMAY company solutions can
literally fulfill strict EN 12101-6:2007 European Standard requirements.
Testing procedure schedule:
Functionality tests 20 cycles pressure regulation accuracy and time of achieving 90% of new volumetric
airflow or reducing pressure difference to 60 Pa or less;
Reliability tests 10 000 cycles of opening and closing evacuation doors;
Durability test 20 cycles in order to determine mechanical wear of system components and influence
of long-time operation at functional parameters values;
Oscillations test 10 series 20 cycles each in order to determine stability of pressure regulations during
different stages of evacuation.

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6.
1

Functionality and reliability

iSWAY-FC compact pressurization unit results nominal fan capacity 15 600 m /h, nominal pressure difference
D
pN = 45 Pa

Test type
FUNCIONALITY
RELIABILITY
DURABILITY
OSCILLATIONS

D
pN
[Pa]
45
45

Time required to
Time of reducing
achieve 90% of new pressure difference
volumetric airflow [s] to 60 Pa or less [s]
2.3
1.8
2.5

2.5

GRADE
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED

SAFETY WAY system results nominal fan capacity 16 000 m3/h, nominal pressure difference D
pN = 50 Pa

Test Type
FUNCIONALITY

D
pN
[Pa]
50
-

RELIABILITY
DURABILITY

50

OSCILLATIONS

Time required to
Time of reducing
achieve 90% of new pressure difference
volumetric airflow [s] to 60 Pa or less [s]
1.4
0.3
1.0

0.2

GRADE
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED

Laboratory tests that were carried out have confirmed that properly designed and configured electronically
controlled pressure differential systems can literally meet all requirements described in EN 12101-6 European
Standard. Moreover modern components of pressure regulation system meet strict requirements in terms
of reliability ensuring high safety level in case of fire.
Thanks to the carried out tests, research project realization and practical experience gathered during
acceptance tests SMAY company can be described as one of the leading European manufacturers of pressure
differential systems.
It shall be noted that the best designed pressure differential systems require professional assembly and on-site
calibration to provide declared parameters. It shall be noted that the final and the most important test for each
and every pressure differential system shall be acceptance testing carried out in accordance with normative
procedure. Acceptance testing results shall be treated as the most valuable recommendation of pressure
differential system.

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6.
1

Functionality and reliability

Fig. 6.1. The title page of I.F.I. official test report

Fig. 6.2. The title page of I.F.I. official test report

of iSWAY-FC compact pressurization unit

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41

6.
2

Electronic components tests


Additional components of Belimo Smay Control Device as a basic pressure regulation component tests were
carried out in Fire Detection, Alarm, Fire Automatics and Electrical Installations Laboratory of Building
Research Institute in Warsaw (Report No. NP.-03723/P/2009/JC) covered tests of resistance to electromagnetic
compatibility interferences, ESD static electricity discharges, influence of electromagnetic field, strength
and resistance to environmental, climatic and mechanical influence such as vibrations, surges and single
strokes.
lp.

Tested feature

Attach. 2 The Journal

Result

of Laws nr 143/2007
item 1002

Table. 6.1.

Marking and identification

p. 12.1.1.1

PASSED

Resistance to vibrations

p. 12.1.5.b

PASSED

Strength to vibrations

p. 12.1.5.c.

PASSED

Resistance to cold environment

p. 12.1.5.d

PASSED

Resistance to hot and humid environment

p. 12.1.5.e

PASSED

Mechanical resistance to single strokes

p. 12.1.5.f

PASSED

Operating parameters at the corrosive


environment

p. 12.1.5.g

PASSED

Resistance to the static electricity


discharges

p. 12.1.5.h

PASSED

Influence of electromagnetic field

p. 12.1.5.i

PASSED

10

Resistance to electrical transient state


series

p. 12.1.5.j

PASSED

11

Resistance to impulsive waves

p. 12.1.5.k

PASSED

12

Resistance to current decays

p. 12.1.5.l

PASSED

13

Resistance to electromagnetic interference

p. 12.1.5.m

PASSED

14

Resistance to supply decay changes

p. 12.1.5.n

PASSED

List of tested parameters of Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS)

As regards of pressure differential systems it is crucial to test components of pressure regulation system.
To ensure proper operation of offered solutions SMAY company has tested URBS together with multi-blade airdamper operating as a pressure controller. It shall to be noted that at the moment there is no normative
requirement to carry out any tests of barometric dampers which are one of the most popular pressure regulating
devices. It is possible that this situation will change in the near future and as a result testing procedure for this
component will be developed and introduced.
Performed lab tests have confirmed that Belimo Smay Control Devices (URBS) fulfill all the requirements set
for electronic pressure control devices applied in fire protections systems.
Basing on mentioned tests results Building Research Institute in Warsaw I.T.B. has issued the Technical
Approval ITB AT-15-8564/2011 confirming all operating parameters declared by SMAY company was issued.

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6.
2

Electronic components tests

Fig. 6.3. Title page of the Technical Approval ITB AT-15-8564/2011

Official report documents of performed tests are available to download from SMAY company official website
www.smay.pl

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CFD simulations
CFD simulations are often used to evaluate effectiveness of both smoke extraction and pressure differential
systems. Last years have brought significant changes in this field due to the improvement of calculation
capabilities of available machines. This enabled more precise analysis of vast installations in terms of heat and
mass transfer.
SMAY company amongst other services offers CFD simulations of various issues connected with ventilation
systems design and operation in the small and large scale:
-

CFD modelling of pressure differential systems in staircases, fire-fighting lobbies and elevator shafts;

CFD modelling of smoke extraction systems in horizontal escape routes, atria and car parks;

CFD modelling and structure optimization of ventilating equipment e.g. fans, VAV controllers, diffusers etc.

Simulations listed above are carried out with a use of numerical model validated and verified against real scale
measurements and provide accuracy of 10-15%. All CFD simulations are performed by SMAY engineers
employed in Research and Development Department.
Depending on the analysed problem and required accuracy Ansys Fluent or Fire Dynamic Simulator
are applied. In some cases additional numerical codes developed by SMAY company may be used.
On a special Client's request any technical problem may be analysed after all the requirements and technical
details are defined.
Moreover Research and CFD Simulations Department of SMAY company offers unique measurement
techniques that enable 3d air velocity measurements with a use of ultrasonic anemometer as well as complete
acceptance testing measurements of pressure differential and smoke extraction systems including hot
smoke tests in accordance with AS 4391-1999 Smoke management systems - Hot smoke test.

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CFD simulations

Fig. 7.1.

Examples of CFD simulations results

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Acceptance testing of pressure differential systems


12

Acceptance testing

12.1

General

Pressure differential system shall be designed to obtain design parameters of pressure differential, airflow velocity
and opening door force regardless of the building height as well as actual ambient air temperature and wind speed
and direction.
Acceptance testing shall be carried out only when the installation is complete and the pressure differential system,
and where applicable air conditioning, have been commissioned and correctly balanced. Additionally since the
pressure differential system is activated from the smoke detector, assembly of smoke detection system shall have
been completed.
All building work shall have been completed.
12.2.

Acceptance test requirements

Normative parameters must be obtained for all pressure differential systems applied.

minimum pressure differential

D
pmin =

30 Pa;

minimum air velocity

wmin

1.0 or 2.0 m/s;

maximum door opening force

Fmax

100 N;

Acceptance testing shall be carried out in accordance with the test procedure described in Clause 12.3.
Automatic activation of pressure differential system described in 12.3.1. shall be tested at each storey of the building.
Tests listed in 12.3.2. 12.3.4. shall be carried out compulsorily after activation of the smoke detectors at the bottom,
middle and top storey of the building.
Tests described in 12.3.2. and 12.3.3. shall be carried out each time only at the storey where the smoke detector has
been activated (simulated fire storey).
Tests described in 12.3.4. shall be carried out at all storeys within defined escape routes. Evacuation doors shall
be opened respectively in direction of evacuation. In case when the smoke detector has been activated at the middle
storey, the appropriate measurement shall
also be taken at this storey.
Acceptance tests described in 12.3.2. 12.3.4. may be carried out simultaneously with control of automatic activation
of the system described in 12.3.1.
12.3.

Acceptance testing procedure

Acceptance testing shall be carried out in accordance with the following procedure:
12.3.1.

Activation of the system

This test shall be to operate the automatic fire detection system (smoke detector) by injecting smoke into the detector
head. This shall in turn operate the central fire alarm panel, thus activating the pressure differential system.
During this test all key components of the pressure differential system shall be inspected.
12.3.2.

Pressure differential

This test shall be to measure pressure differential across each door separating a pressurized and unpressurized
space to the relevant accommodation on the floor levels with the pressure differential system running. The tests shall
be carried out as follows:
a) Initiate the pressure differential system operation. Allow fans to operate for 10 min to establish steady air
temperatures;
b) Measure the pressure differential between the pressurized space and the relevant accommodation;
c) Measure the pressure differential between the pressurized staircase and the relevant accommodation.
These readings shall be taken using a calibrated manometer, with appropriate tube connections.

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Acceptance testing of pressure differential systems


12.3.3.

Air velocity

This test shall be to measure the air velocity through an open door separating a pressurized and an unpressurized
space, and shall comply with the requirements in Clause 5.4. for the appropriate design objective. The tests shall be
carried out as follows:
a) Actuate the pressure differential system;
b) Measurement of flow velocity through the relevant doors shall be taken with all other doors open or closed
in accordance with the appropriate design objective described in Table 1. The doorway shall be clear
of obstructions;
c) Take at least 8 measurements, uniformly distributed over the doorway, to establish an accurate air velocity.
Calculate the mean of these measurements or alternatively move an appropriate measuring device steadily over
the cross section of the open door and record the average air velocity;
The measurements shall be taken using a calibrated anemometer providing an accuracy of +/- 5%.
12.3.4.

Door opening force

This test shall be to measure the opening door force on the doors between pressurized and unpressurized spaces.
The opening door force shall be measured as follows:
a) Actuate the pressure differential system;
b) Fasten the end of the force measuring device (e.g. spring balance) to the door handle, on the side of the door
in the direction of opening;
c) Release any latching mechanism, if necessary holding it open;
d) Pull steadily on the free end of the force measuring device, noting the highest value of force measured as the door
opens;
e) Take at least 3 measurements and calculate the mean of these measurements.

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More still to come


All described products after laboratory tests are implemented in the wide range of real buildings.
So far SAFETYWAY system has over 30 reference buildings with residential and office buildings, power plants
and football stadiums among them i. e. CB VINCI office building in Krakow.
The innovative character of the SMAY solutions was also appreciated by the business environment.
Namely SWAY won the Innowacja Roku 2009 (Innovation of the Year 2009) competition, organized under the
auspices of the Ministry of Regional Development and The FIRE Innovation Centre by Forum Biznesu (Business
Forum). On March 2010 iSWAY was selected to be The Most Interesting Product of the Year 2010 during Forum
Wentylacja 2010 Exhibition organized by Polish Ventilation Association in Warsaw. Owing to the system's unique
character, the SMAY company ensures exceptional base and know how, like individual ideas for each building,
computer designing CFD simulations and acceptance testing, visualization and full system control, as well full
monitoring and remote control. The designers may deepen their knowledge about the system and acquire
practical skills by participating in the Comfort and Safety System in Buildings seminars organized in different
towns all over Poland. SMAY is definitely a company with ambitions. We will keep on trying to go forward
and to improve our solutions as well as to diversify our offer. Please keep that in mind that we are not only PDS
manufacturer we can support You in the field of smoke extraction systems, jet fan installations as well
as ventilation of the laboratories (SmayLab(r)). We offer full support in acceptance testing and CFD simulations
with a use of advanced techniques of measurement i. e. ultrasonic 3d anemometer. We kindly invite you
to cooperation, together we can achieve much, much more.
With regards SMAY company team

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Belimo Smay Control Device

URBS
Technical Approval ITB
AT-15-8564/2011

SMAY Sp. z o.o. / Ciepownicza St. 29 / 31-587 Krakw


tel. +48 12 680 20 80 / fax. +48 12 680 20 89 / e-mail: info@smay.eu

URBS - Belimo Smay Control Device


Legal grounds
Pursuant to decision of European Commission No. 96/577/WE dated 24 June 1996 concerning methods
of declaring conformity of construction products (in accordance with Council Of Europe directive 89/106/EEC)
and Mandate M/109 of European Commission concerning Fire Alarm/Detection, Fixed Firefighting, Fire and
Smoke Control and Explosion Suppression Products Minister of Infrastructure has issued a Regulation dated
11 August 2004 concerning methods of declaring conformity of construction products and marking them with
building industry brand according to which control panels applied in fire protection systems shall hold Technical
Approval.

Application
Control Panel in URBS configuration is a static pressure regulation system within selected space by means
of volumetric airflow rate control that pertains an integral component of smoke and heat control system

SAFETY WAY (iSWAY ). URBS control device pertains integral component of pressure differential systems
manufactured by SMAY company.

Structure and available models


Removed front
panel view

Key:
1 - Housing IP66
2 - VRP-M Belimo controller
3 - Pressure sensor VFP-100 Belimo
4 - Mounting plate
5 - Cable gland

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of URBS/1

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Structure and available models - continuation
Removed front
panel view

Legenda:
1 - Housing IP66
2 - VRP-M Belimo controller
3 - Pressure sensor VFP-300 , (VFP-600), (VFP-2000) Belimo
4 - Mounting plate
5 - Cable gland

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of URBS/2 (3) (4)

Drawing 2. Schematic diagram of URBS/2 (3) (4)

5
2

Key:
1 URBS 1
2 URBS 2
3 Fan
4 Frequency inverter
5 Air damper with fast acting Belimo actuator
6 Merawex power supply unit

Fig. 3. Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) application

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URBS - Belimo Smay Control Device


Technical description and idea of operation - continuation
URBS intended to control frequency inverters operation
Basing on actual value of static pressure difference measurement between the air supply duct and the
reference pressure transducer VFP generates measurement signal transmitted to the VRP-M controller.
This analog signal can be picked off at VRP-M controller connection U5 as a 0 10 V or 2 10 V signal. Actual
value of analog signal is being subsequently transferred to the built-in controller of frequency inverter
(feedback). Basing on measured static pressure difference proportional to the analog signal value PID
controller algorithm of frequency inverter controls frequency of fan power supply and it's rotational speed
as a consequence. Air supply fan capacity depends on actual value of static pressure inside the air supply
duct. When static pressure inside the air supply duct increases frequency inverter reduces frequency
of power supply of the fan to maintain value set at VRP-M controller. Consequently static pressure drop
inside the air supply duct results in increasing fan capacity to the value required to maintain set value
of differential static pressure value.
URBS intended to control multiblade air damper actuator
Basing on actual value of static pressure difference measurement between the pressurized space and the
reference pressure transducer VFP generates measurement signal transmitted to the VRP-M controller.
Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) in such solution is connected with an actuator NMQ24A-SRV-ST.
Actuator is powered and controlled by VRP-M controller. When static pressure inside the pressurized space
increases VRP-M controller generates signal resulting in closing the damper and reducing air supply rate
to the value required to maintain value set at VRP-M controller. Consequently static pressure drop inside the
pressurized space results in opening the damper and increasing air supply rate.
Single Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) can control two fast-running actuators NMQ24A-SRV-ST, first
actuator is powered by URBS while second one requires external 24V power supply. Both actuators are
electrically coupled (backward operation, reverse direction of rotation). Such solution is applied to large air
dampers, air dampers assembled in batteries or pressure differential systems of fire-fighting lobbies with
electronically controlled air transfer.

Connections and wiring


URBS intended to control frequency inverter
Removed front
panel view

Fig. 4. Connections of URBS intended to control frequency inverter

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Connections and wiring continuation
To ensure proper operation of Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) it is necessary to connect pneumatic PVC
tubings to enable static pressure difference measurement. All tubings shall be conducted inside
electroinstallation tubes to prevent tubings from damage and reduce solar radiation influence. 24V AC/DC
power supply (line 2) shall be conducted with fire resistant cable if it crosses different fire zones. Within single
fire zone standard electrical screened cables can be applied. Frequency inverter control signal can
be conducted analogically as power supply (line 3).
VFP pressure transducer shall be connected with VRP-M controller inside the URBS with a use of cables
supplied by Belimo. If URBS is monitored with MSPU additional wire of MP-Bus is required (line 4).
URBS intended to control air damper actuator
Removed front
panel view

Fig. 5. Connections of URBS intended to control air damper actuator

To ensure proper operation of Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) it is necessary to connect pneumatic PVC
tubings to enable static pressure difference measurement. All tubings shall be conducted inside
electroinstallation tubes to prevent tubings from damage and reduce solar radiation influence. 24V AC/DC
power supply (line 2) shall be conducted with fire resistant cable if it crosses different fire zones. Within single
fire zone standard electrical screened cables can be applied. Frequency inverter control signal can
be conducted analogically as power supply (line 3).
VFP pressure transducer shall be connected with VRP-M controller inside the URBS with a use of cables
supplied by Belimo. If it is not possible to locate URBS in the vicinity of air damper actuator cables shall
be lengthen in accordance with Belimo regulatory guides. If URBS is monitored with MSPU additional wire
of MP-Bus is required (line 4).

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URBS - Belimo Smay Control Device


Detailed schematic diagrams of electrical connections
MP BUS
MSPU

24V emergency
power supply

Actuator
Pressure controller
NMQ24A-SRV-ST

Belimo wires

Belimo wires labels


A - HTKSH FE180/E90 ekw 1x2x0,8 (YTKSY ekw 1x2x0,8)
B - HDGs FE180/E90 2x1,5 (YDY 2x1,5)

VRP-M
controller

Belimo wires

VFP pressure sensor

NOTE:
Maximal length of B wires shall not exceed 50 m (165 ft.)
Maximal length of power supply conducted through hot zone
(over 30oC) shall not exceed 30% of a total cable length
for E90 class cables
Maximal voltage drop shall not exceed 10%

Fig. 6. Schematic diagrams of electrical connections of URBS intended to control air damper actuator
MP BUS
MSPU

feedback signal
24V emergency to the frequency
power supply
inverter

Belimo wires labels


A - HTKSH FE180/E90 ekw 1x2x0,8 (YTKSY ekw 1x2x0,8)
B - HDGs FE180/E90 2x1,5 (YDY 2x1,5)
E - HTKSH FE180/E90 ekw 1x2x0,8 (YTKSY ekw 1x2x0,8)

VRP-M
controller

Belimo wires

VFP pressure sensor

Fig. 7.

54

NOTE:
Maximal length of B wires shall not exceed 50 m (165 ft.)
Maximal length of power supply conducted through hot zone
(over 30oC) shall not exceed 30% of a total cable length
for E90 class cables
Maximal voltage drop shall not exceed 10%

Schematic diagrams of electrical connections of URBS intended to control frequency inverter

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Detailed schematic diagrams of electrical connections
Actuator
Pressure controller
NMQ24A-SRV-ST

Actuator
Pressure controller
NMQ24A-SRV-ST
Belimo wires

MP BUS
MSPU

Belimo wires

24V emergency
power supply

Belimo wires

Belimo wires labels


A - HTKSH FE180/E90 ekw 1x2x0,8 (YTKSY ekw 1x2x0,8)
B - HDGs FE180/E90 2x1,5 (YDY 2x1,5)
E - HTKSH FE180/E90 ekw 1x2x0,8 (YTKSY ekw 1x2x0,8)

VRP-M
controller

Belimo wires

VFP pressure sensor

NOTE:
Maximal length of C, D wires shall not exceed 25 m (83 ft.)
Maximal length of B wires shall not exceed 50 m (165 ft.)
Maximal length of power supply conducted through hot zone
(over 30oC) shall not exceed 30% of a total cable length
for E90 class cables
Maximal voltage drop shall not exceed 10%

Fig. 8. Schematic diagrams of electrical connections of URBS intended to control two air dampers actuators

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URBS - Belimo Smay Control Device


URBS operation parameters monitoring system

MP Bus connection MSPU

MP Bus connection MSPU

RS 485 Bus connection

Moxa A53
converter

Fig. 9. Schematic diagram of monitoring system

SMY controller can monitor operation parameters of up to 8 Belimo Smay Control Devices (URBS) via MP-Bus
connection (MP1-MP8). If it is necessary to increase total number of URBS additional SMY controllers
connected via RS 485 Bus are applied. Converter transmits RS 485 Bus signal directly to the PC with appropriate
software installed. With a use of PC it is possible to display and monitor selected operation parameters such as:
actual value of pressure difference measured by VFP pressure sensors or position of the control damper.

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Tests performed in Building Research Institute ITB in Warsaw
Tests were carried out in Fire Detection, Alarm, Fire Automatics and Electrical Installations Laboratory
of Building Research Institute in Warsaw (Report No. NP.-03723/P/2009/JC) covered tests of resistance
to electromagnetic compatibility interferences, ESD static electricity discharges, influence of electromagnetic
field, strength and resistance to environmental, climatic and mechanical influence such as vibrations, surges
and single strokes.
Performed lab tests have confirmed that Belimo Smay Control Devices (URBS) fulfill all the requirements set
for electronic pressure control devices applied in fire protections systems.
Power supply unit
ZSP135-DR

VFP
pressure sensor

VRP-M
controller

Actuator
NMQ24A-SRV-ST

x - exposed equipment
SMY controller

Moxa A53
converter

PC
Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of URBS test rig at ITB Laboratory

Basing on the Belimo Smay Control Device URBS laboratory tests results Technical Approval
ITBAT85642011 for an electronic pressure differential control system has been issued, becoming first
document of this kind regarding electronically controlled Pressure Differential Systems (PDS).

Belimo Smay Control Device URBS identification


Each URBS is labeled with a sticker confirming device model.

Data plate with basic parameters of the device is located on the inner side of the housing front panel.

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URBS - Belimo Smay Control Device


Accessories and order instructions
Orders shall be placed in accordance with following example:
URBS - <W>-<P>
Key:
<W>

device model: 1, 2, 3 or 4

<P>

minimal value of pressure difference setpoint that shall be maintained between


pressurized space or air supply duct and the reference

Order example:
URBS - 1 - 50

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Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Pressure Differential Systems (PDS) application

MSPU
MONITORING, INTEGRATION AND REMOTE CONTROL OF THE PDS

SMAY Sp. z o.o. / Ciepownicza St. 29 / 31-587 Krakw


tel. +48 12 680 20 80 / fax. +48 12 680 20 89 / e-mail: info@smay.eu

MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Legal grounds
Pursuant to the Regulation of the Minister of the Interior and Administration dated 27 April 2010 (Journal of Law
No. 85) on the list of products used for ensuring public safety or protecting health, life and property and the
principles of issuing admittance to use these products and acknowledged technical standards PN-EN 54 Fire
detection and alarm systems and EN 12101 series Smoke and heat control systems both input and output
circuits of control devices as well as data transmission circuits shall be monitored.

Application
Operating Conditions Monitoring Device (MSPU) complements SMAY company pressure differential systems
offer. MSPU can be applied to monitor data transmission circuits and operation parameters of actuating devices
in simple SAFETY WAY or vast iSWAY pressure differential systems. MSPU monitoring device pertains integral
component of pressure differential systems manufactured by SMAY company.

Goals of application
Main goal of MSPU development was to enable continuous monitoring of actual pressure difference between
pressurized space and the reference and additionally to control operating conditions of system components in
order to ensure instant failure detection during standard system operation or periodic commissioning tests.

Fig. 1. Exemplary screen with SAFETY WAY operating parameters visualization

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version 5.1.4

MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Advantages resulting from MSPU application
Application of Operating Conditions Monitoring Device (MSPU) in active controlled smoke and heat control
systems results in following advantages:
continuous pressure difference monitoring in pressurized spaces;
continuous monitoring of actuating devices operating conditions;
visualization of smoke detectors located inside air supply ducts alarms;
continuous monitoring of emergency power supply units operating conditions;
pressure differential architecture display function;
reduction of total time required to perform acceptance and commissioning tests;
safety level improvement in case of fire due to quick detection of fire alarm/failure;
remote system control and monitoring option via LAN or INTERNET carried out by SMAY company.

Structure

Fig. 2. MSPU structure

MSPU in standard version of configuration is characterized by simple and compact structure. All components
of automation system are located inside the housing (1) painted in the color RAL 3000. Key component of MSPU
is industrial computer PC (2). MSPU is powered by emergency power supply 230V unit. Additional UPS (3) is also
provided to power MSPU in case of temporary voltage drops, decays or during switching computers. UPS also
protects MSPU against overvoltage. Two RJ-45 jack sockets are also located on XMTCP terminal (4) to enable
INTERNET or LAN connections.
Operating Conditions Monitoring Device (MSPU) provides one-way data transfer with SAFETY WAY system
controllers located in the building via communication interface converter RS485/RS232 with optical isolation
XMBUS terminal (5). Emergency power supply line 1x230V shall be connected to XMZ terminal (6). In the bottom
panel of the housing three cable glands (7) are located to enable carrying out all required connections. In both
top and bottom panels of the housing are located ventilation slots (8) enabling effective heat removal.

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61

MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Functions and operation of visualization panel
The main window of the visualization panel contains tree with the list of all monitored devices. In standard
configuration tree contains SMY controllers with all connected pressure controllers or dampers actuators.
User can select each available component by clicking it's icon to display Monitoring Panel (PM).

Fig. 3. Connection of Safety Way Visualizer with Safety Way Server

displayed names of system components correspond to real scale system architecture;


User can select system components and switch between selected devices by means of touchscreen;
alarm or failure of system component is indicated by yellow highlighting of given component
and connected SMY controller;
In the central part of main window there is a field indicating operating conditions of digital inputs of each SMY
controller. Digital inputs are responsible for monitoring of:
fire alarm;
smoke detectors inside the air supply duct operating conditions;
24V DC power supply units operating conditions.
If given digital input receives alarm signal it becomes active. Additionally digital input can also report
shorted or not-shorted conditions. Visualization of listed operating conditions is presented below:

/ digital input inactive


/ digital input shorted or not-shorted
/ digital input active
Fig. 4. Operating conditions of digital inputs of SMY controller

Digital input inactive proper operation, no alarms detected;


Digital input shorted or not-shorted failure detected;
Digital input active alarm or error detected;
Digital input of SMY controller can be also configured as FIRE ALARM. In case of such input alarm
detection Smay Visualizer will display message Alarm SAP highlighted in red. This message can be
deleted only if no digital input of SMY configured as FIRE ALARM report alarm.

Fig. 5. FIRE ALARM message displayed by MSPU

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MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Functions and operation of visualization panel continuation
In the center of the main window there is also monitoring of operating conditions of each pressure controllers
and pressure sensors connected to selected MP-Bus line. By means of digital protocol continuous monitoring
of following operating parameters of pressure controller is enabled:
operation/failure/no reply;
damper position;
actual overpressure in adjacent pressurized space.

Fig. 6. Visualization of selected pressure controller during standard operation

Fig. 7. Failure or no reply of pressure controller

It is possible to display operating parameters of single SMY controller at the time. Selected SMY controller
is highlighted in green. In case of failure or technical alarm given SMY controller is highlighted in yellow.
After selecting SMY controller on touchscreen all connected pressure controllers and pressure sensors as well
as digital inputs monitored by this controller will be listed. User can easily determine which component crashed
or reports an alarm.

Fig. 8. Failure/Technical alarm of device or digital input connected to given SMY controller

Examples of possible causes of alarm/failure message:


communications with MSPU failure (all SMY controllers highlighted in yellow);
communications with one of pressure controllers or pressure controller power supply failure
(pressure controller highlighted in yellow);
occurrence of an event in one of the devices (active inputs).

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MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Software
WINDOWS XP MSPU operating system
Safety Way Serwer
Safety Way Server was developed to enable administration of complete set of SAFET WAY system devices.
Application communicates directly with selected device via serial port using file generated with Safety Way
Configurator (SWC). Server enables access to and download of a full system configuration to the clients via webservice in Safety Way Visualizer (SWV).
System architecture design
To enable application operation it is necessary to provide design of SAFETY WAY pressure differential system
developed in Safety Way Configurator (SWC). Without this file server operation is not possible. Safety Way
Configurator (SWC) is the property of SMAY company and any changes to the code can be done by SMAY company
engineers or authorized representatives only. In order to add new project appropriate file shall be copied to the
folder containing all files of Safety Way Server (SWS). New file will be loaded automatically after rebooting the
system.
Licensing
License file is required to enable fully functional operation of Safety Way Server (SWS). It is also possible to use
Safety Way Server (SWS) software in demo version. License file is provided to each Operating Conditions
Monitoring Device (MSPU). License file shall be copied to the folder containing all files of Safety Way Server
(SWS). New file will be loaded automatically after rebooting the system.
Communication with the devices
Safety Way Server (SWS) application communicates with selected device of SAFETY WAY system via serial port.
In order to enable such connection communication interface converter RS485/RS232 with optical isolation
is applied. Single serial port will be selected automatically, in case of more than one default serial port will
be selected randomly. In such situation additional manual selection may be necessary.
Launching a program in console mode
After installing application it may be launched by double-clicking executable file SafetyWayServer.exe located
in C:\Program Files\SMAY\SafetyWay. All information about system operation are logged in text file log.txt.
Launching a program in service mode
Target mode of launching a program is Windows service mode. After installing a program new entry Safety
Way Server in Windows Service Manager will be added. Using this entry program can be manually enabled
or disabled. By default program is loaded automatically after starting the system.
Troubleshooting log.txt file
All important information required for problem diagnosis are saved in text file log.txt located in the program
installation folder. This file is updated continuously during system operation. Maximal file size is set by default
to 20 MB. If required maximal file size may be changed manually by editing SafetyWayServer.exe.config.
Enabling remote access to MSPU
Safety Way Visualizer (SWV) clients can connect to Safety Way Server (SWS) via TCP/IP protocol using by default
port 12001. To enable connection firewall at both computers client and host shall be properly configured.
To enable communication via INTERNET using port forwarding may be necessary. Port 12001 of Safety Way
Server (SWS) host computer shall be forwarded directly to the host computer port 12001.
Safety Way Visualizer (SWV) general information
Safety Way Visualizer (SWV) application is a web client of Safety Way Server (SWS). By means of this application
operating conditions of SMY controllers and connected pressure controllers and pressure sensors may
be visualized. Due to applied client-server structure it is possible to visualize multiple systems operating
conditions connected to single Safety Way Server (SWS). When no actual license file at client computer

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MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Software - continuation
is detected application is automatically switched to demo mode. Safety Way Visualizer (SWV) can connect
to Safety Way Server (SWS) also via INTERNET after forwarding TCP port (for detailed instructions please read
Safety Way Server manual). In order to use the program User shall unzip archive only, installation is not
required. Safety Way Visualizer (SWV) can be easily launched from external HDD or FLASH memory.
Launching Safety Way Visualizer (SWV)
In order to launch application SafetyWayVisualizer.exe shall be copied to Visualizer folder in target location
at client computer. Installation is not required.
Connecting with Safety Way Server (SWS)
After launching application login screen shall be displayed. User shall enter IP address of Safety Way Server
(SWS) and click Connect button. Connection shall be established within few seconds and main User interface
will be displayed.
Full screen mode
User interface may also be displayed in full screen mode after pressing F11 key. User may leave full screen
mode by pressing Esc key.

Detailed schematic diagram of electrical connections


Power supply
Device requires power lead 1x230V AC from before main fire power supply switch. Power supply line shell
be connected to the terminal XMZ MSPU in accordance with Drawing 10.
Communication
MSPU communicates with controllers located in the building via ELABUS bus using standard protocol RS485.
ELABUS line shall be connected to XMBUS MSPU terminal in accordance with Drawing 10.
MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device

Monitoring room
Building

Emergency
power supply
1x 230V
1kW

wires:
A HDGs(o) FE180/E90 3x2,5
B HTKSH FE180/E90 ekw 1x2x0,8
C FTP cat.6

Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of MSPU connections

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MSPU - Operating Conditions Monitoring Device


Electrical parameters
Electrical parameters
Power supply range
Power supply range
Apparent power
Active power
Network
Input

230 VAC 50Hz


180-266V
IP40
400VA
240W
LAN/INTERNET
RS485/ELABUS

Order instructions
MSPU
No additional requirements for MSPU standard version.
MSPU non-standard version*
* To order MSPU in non-standard version it is necessary to prepare individual design of MSPU device taking into account
additional requirements. Device design is performed by SMAY company engineers in strict cooperation with the Client.
All the technical details shall be each time consulted with fire protection expert.

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version 5.1.4

Compact pressurization unit


Tested in real scale building during research and implementation project

iSWAY

SMAY Sp. z o.o. / Ciepownicza St. 29 / 31-587 Krakw


tel. +48 12 680 20 80 / fax. +48 12 680 20 89 / e-mail: info@smay.eu

iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Application

iSAFETY WAY (iSWAY ) compact pressurization unit is a part of SMAY company offer as regards smoke and heat
control systems. iSWAY unit may be applied to vertical escape routes such as stairwells, fire-fighting lobbies
and elevator shafts keeping them free of smoke and ensuring safe evacuation from the building in case of fire.
Moreover application of iSWAY unit ensures obtaining normative pressure gradient and directed airflow
between escape route and fire floor in wide range of buildings regardless of ambient conditions during the fire.
Due to a simple structure iSWAY unit can be located almost anywhere in the building additionally active control
system application allows to monitor actual value of pressure difference as well as to reduce total time required
to perform acceptance and maintenance tests.
PVC tubings conducted
inside electroinstallation tubes

Staircase
Static pressure measurement
point inside pressurized space

1 a Air Supply Module (ZN) external housing version


2 - Power Supply and Control Module (MNR)
3 - 24V power supply unit Merawex ZSP125-DR
4 - smoke detector
5 - pressure sensor
6 - main power switch

Wiring connecting Air Supply Module (ZN)


with Power Supply and Control Switchbox (SZS)

In case of installation designed


in accordance with EN 12101-6:2007
Double Air Intake System (DAIS) is required.

3x400 V guaranteed power supply,


Fire Alarm Signal (SAP)

Rescue team
access level

Staircase

1 b - Air Supply Module (ZN) - internal housing version


2 - Power Supply and Control Module (MNR)
3 - 24V power supply unit Merawex ZSP125-DR
4 - smoke detector
5 - pressure sensor
6 - main power switch
In case of installation designed
in accordance with EN 12101-6:2007
Double Air Intake System (DAIS) is required.
Reference static pressure
measurement point

Static pressure measurement


point inside pressurized space

PVC tubings conducted


inside electroinstallation tubes

3x400 V guaranteed power supply,


Fire Alarm Signal (SAP)
Wiring connecting Air Supply Module (ZN)
with Power Supply and Control Switchbox (SZS)

Rescue team
access level

Fig. 1. Possible locations of iSWAY unit inside the building and a list of key components

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Application - continuation
Static pressure measurement point
inside air supply duct

Static pressure measurement point


inside pressurized space

24V guaranteed
power supply

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

Reference static pressure


measurement point

Fire-fighting lobby

Staircase

24V guaranteed static pressure


measurement
power supply
point inside the
fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

KWP-o - fire damper open


KWP-z - fire damper closed
x - In case of installation designed in accordance with EN 12101-6:2007
Double Air Intake (DAI) system is required.

Fig. 2.

3x400 V guaranteed power supply,


Fire Alarm Signal (SAP)

Rescue team
access level

iSWAY example of stairwell and fire-fighting lobbies pressurization system with active controlled air transfer
to the corridor

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Application - continuation
Static pressure measurement point
inside air supply duct

Static pressure measurement point


inside pressurized space

24V guaranteed
power supply

Reference static
pressure
measurement
point

Fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

Staircase

static pressure
measurement
point inside the
fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

KWP-o - fire damper open


KWP-z - fire damper closed
x - In case of installation designed in accordance with EN 12101-6:2007
Double Air Intake (DAI) system is required.

Fig. 3.

3x400 V guaranteed power supply,


Fire Alarm Signal (SAP)

Rescue team
access level

iSWAY example of stairwell and fire-fighting lobbies pressurization system with active controlled air transfer
to the corridor - continuation

Standard version of iSWAY device consists of:


- Air Supply Module (ZN);
- Power Supply and Control Module (MNR);
- Power supply unit ZSP135-DR.
Air Supply Module includes factory configured components. Main advantages of iSWAY device applications
are: simple on-site assembly and configuration as well as reasonable price.
NOTE: In standard initial on-site pressurization unit start-up includes final configuration of all components
taking into consideration building characteristics such as pressurized space total air leakage rate
and evacuation doors sizes carried out by SMAY company engineers.

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Structure and key operating parameters

iSWAY compact pressurization unit consists of combined modules Air Supply Module (ZN) (1) and Power Supply
and Control Module (MNR) (2), (3). All modules are potted in shared housing. Compact structure allows to
reduce time required to assemble and connect iSWAY pressurization unit. Modular housing is made
of aluminium square hollow sections and steel sheets painted in any color from RAL color chart. Thermal
insulation is made of mineral wool 34 mm thick. Inspection holes provide fast, easy access for inspection all
components or cleaning interiors. Depending on inspection holes location iSWAY units are manufactured
in two versions: left and right.
Reference pressure
measurement connection
point

Panel of Belimo Smay


Control Devices (URBS)

Pressurized space
pressure measurement
connection point

Pressure sensor
with LCD display

Air exhaust shut off


air damper

By-pass air damper

Smoke detector
Main power switch

Air supply air damper


operating as a pressure
controller

Air supply fan


Air supply shut off
air damper

Elastic connector
Frame bearer

Modules list:
1 - Air Supply Module (ZN)
2,3 - Power Supply
and Control Module (MNR)

Fig. 4.

iSWAY unit structure with key components specification

Table 1.

Dimensions of iSWAY unit

Dimensions of iSWAY unit

Size

Table 2.

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

2200

1100

1900

1100

1100

1100

700

1000

2600

1400

2300

1400

1200

1400

800

1300

Operating parameters and weights of iSWAY unit

Operating parameters and weights of iSWAY unit


Type

1.10
1.15
1.20
2.25
2.30
2.35

version 5.1.4

Capacity
[ m3/h ]

10 000
15 000
20 000
25 000
30 000
35 000

Static
pressure
[Pa]

300
300
300
300
300
300

Protection
Supply
voltage of power supp.
[V]

3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400

PKZMO-[A]

10
10
16
20
20
25

Active
power
[kW]

4,1
5,2
6,9
9,1
9,1
12,9

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Total
Protection
Reactive
power of dev switchgear weight
[kVA]

5,4
6,4
8,5
11,1
11,1
15,9

[A]

C25
C32
C40
C50
C50
C63

[kg]

611
614
630
861
890
914

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Structure and key operating parameters continuation
By default Client receives complete and fully functional pressurization unit iSWAY consisting of Air Supply
Module (ZN), Power Supply and Control Switchbox (SZS) and power supply unit ZSP135-DR. Depending on the
local requirements ZN can be delivered as a single compact or divided module. It is required to connect 3x400 V
emergency power supply, Fire Alarm Signal (SAP) to the SZS. Additionally it is necessary to connect flexible PVC
tubings conducted inside electroinstallation tubes to URBS by default located inside the iSWAY unit housing.
SZS shall be located near the building entrance at the rescue team access level e.g. monitoring room.
All connections between ZN and SZS shall be made in accordance with Table 3. on the basis of attached
schematic diagrams Fig. 5. or 6. pursuant to the applicable regulations and SMAY company guidelines.
All the operations listed above are not within the standard scope of SMAY company service. However SMAY
company provides support and guidance at all stages of the project.

Photo 2. Power Supply and Control Switchbox (SZS)

Photo 1. Air Supply Module (ZN)

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Photo 3. Merawex ZSP135-DR power supply unit

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Structure and key operating parameters continuation
Power supply and control switchbox (SZS) - types: 1.10, 1.15, 1.20

FAS
NC

3x400 V
emergency
power supply
from the swithgear

Operation
indicator

Main power switch

ALARM
NC

supply network
230V

output 1

24V power supply unit

SERVICE
NC

Pressure
controller

Duct smoke detector

Shut off air damper 2

Shut off air damper 1

Pressure
sensor

Air supply fan

Air supply module (ZN) - types: 1.10, 1.15, 1.20

Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of connections between Air Supply Module (ASM) and Power Supply and Control Switchbox (PSCS)
Power supply and control switchbox (SZS) - types: 2.25, 2.30, 2.35

FAS
NC

3x400 V
emergency
power supply
from the swithgear

Operation
indicator

Main power switch

ALARM
NC

output 1

24V power supply unit

SERVICE
NC

Duct smoke detector

Air supply fan

supply network
230V

Pressure
controller 1

Pressure
controller 2

Shut off air damper 1

Shut off air damper 2

Pressure
sensor

Air supply module (ZN) - types: 2.25, 2.30, 2.35

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of connections between Air Supply Module (ASM) and Power Supply and Control Switchbox (PSCS)

Table 3. Wiring specification with cables cross-sections


Cable type
Cable

Marking

1.10

1.15

1.20

2.25

2.30

2.35

NHXH FE180/E90

4x2,5mm2

4x4mm2

4x4mm2

4x6mm2

4x6mm2

4x10mm2

NHXH FE180/E90

A1

3x6mm2

3x6mm2

3x10mm2

HDGs FE180/E90

B1

2x1mm 2

2x1mm 2

2x1mm 2

2x1mm 2

2x1mm 2

2x1mm 2

HTKSH FE180/90

1x2x0,8mm2

1x2x0,8mm2

1x2x0,8mm2

1x2x0,8mm2

1x2x0,8mm2

1x2x0,8mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

HTKSH FE180/90 ekw

3x2x1,5mm
2

HDGs FE180/E90

2x1,5mm

HTKSH FE180/90 ekw

1x2x1,5mm2

1x2x1,5mm2

1x2x1,5mm2

1x2x1,5mm2

1x2x1,5mm2

1x2x1,5mm2

HTKSH FE180/90

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

3x2x1,5mm2

HDGs(o) FE180/E90

3x2,5mm2

3x2,5mm2

3x2,5mm2

3x2,5mm2

NHXH FE180/E90

5x4mm

2x1,5mm

5x6mm
2

YLY

3x1,5mm

HLGS

2x2,5mm2

3x1,5mm

2x1,5mm

5x6mm
2

2x2,5mm2

3x1,5mm

5x10mm
2

2x2,5mm2

version 5.1.4

2x1,5mm

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2x1,5mm

2x1,5mm2

3x2,5mm2

3x2,5mm2

5x10mm2

5x16mm2

3x1,5mm2

2x2,5mm2

2x2,5mm2

3x1,5mm

2x2,5mm2

3x1,5mm

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Principle of operation
Fan module (1) is equipped with motorized air damper with return spring in order to prevent from cooling
pressurized spaces during Stand-by mode of iSWAY. Voltage decay results in opening shut off air damper.
After receiving Fire Alarm Signal (FAS) iSWAY device goes to Operation mode and pressurization process is
started. Simultaneously power supply of the shut off air damper located in fan module is cut off. By default
a fixed time delay between air damper power cut off and fan start is set.
Power Supply and Control Modules (PSCM) 2,3 are used to generate and control set value of pressure difference
between pressurized space and the reference. Pressure regulation is done by means of VRP-M Belimo pressure
controller which on the basis of continuous pressure difference measurement controls positions of air supply
(module 2) and redundant by-pass (module 3) dampers. Both multiblade air dampers are equipped with fastacting Belimo NMQ24A-SRV-ST actuators.
For external assembly version reference pressure measurement points are located on two opposite sides of the
housing. For internal assembly version reference pressure measurement point are located directly on the
building facade.

Photo 3. Static pressure


measurement point

Photo 4. Static pressure


measurement point structure

Actual value of pressure difference is measured with a use of Belimo VFP pressure sensor. Maximal vertical
distance between pressure measurement point and Air Supply Module (ASM) shall not exceed 12 m.
During pressure criterion air supply rate corresponds to the total air leakage rate of pressurized space
as a function of set pressure difference.
Capacity of air supply fan is constant during device operation. Pressure difference regulation is done by means
of two electronically coupled air dampers. Redundant airflow rate is discharged directly to the ambient through
by-pass damper located in module 3. All air dampers except by-pass one are thermally insulated.
URBS consisting of VRM-M controller and VFP pressure sensor is located in module 3. All connections between
ASM and are ..
On the housing of module 3 additional pressure sensor with LCD display is located enabling continuous

monitoring of actual pressure difference. Inside the housing of iSWAY device smoke detector (SD) is located.
Depending on the chosen scenario smoke detection may result in reporting alarm or immediate device switch
off.
Manual power switch is also located on the device housing it can be used to switch of iSWAY device to perform
maintenance works.

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Operating modes
1. Stand-by mode: air intake and exhaust shut off dampers are closed, supply air damper is fully open whereas
by-pass damper is closed.
2. Operation mode: after receiving Fire Alarm Signal (FAS) power supply of both shut off dampers is cut off,
dampers are opened by means of return spring. Air supply fan is started with time delay required to open
shut off dampers. Pressure difference is controlled by mechanically and electrically coupled air supply
and by-pass dampers. Air supply damper operates as a pressure controller.

iSWAY versions
iSWAY pressurization devices can be manufactured in various versions depending on its location in the
building: external assembly (rooftop assembly) and internal assembly. Rooftop housing version is equipped
with additional roof panel and air supply and exhaust turns to protect device components against precipitation.
Depending on the removable inspection panels location housing can be manufactured in two additional
versions: right and left. If it is necessary to reduce housing total height housing can be manufactured in flat
version with inspection panels on both sides of the housing. Housing is based on frame bearer or with vibration
isolators or Big Foot roof support system.

Fig. 7. Big Foot roof support system.

Fig. 8. Concrete floor frame


bearer construction (rooftop version)

Fig. 9. Concrete floor frame


bearer construction (internal version)

roof panel

air exhaust turn


air intake turn

Fig. 10. Air Supply Module (ASM) rooftop assembly right access side version

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


iSWAY versions - continuation

Fig. 11. Air Supply Module (ASM) rooftop assembly left access side version

Fig. 12. Air Supply Module (ASM) internal assembly right access side version

Fig. 13. Air Supply Module (ASM) internal assembly left access side version

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iSWAY versions - continuation

Fig. 14. Air Supply Module (ASM) rooftop assembly flat version, both sides access version

Fig. 15. Air Supply Module (ASM) internal assembly flat version, both sides access version
Table 4. Dimensions of iSWAY in flat housing version

Dimensions of iSWAY in flat housing version

Size

version 5.1.4

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

2200

1200

1800

1100

1100

1100

700

1000

2600

1500

2200

1400

1200

1400

800

1300

w w w. s m a y. p l

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Twin air intake system
Pursuant to EN 12101-6:2007 European Standard:
Air intakes of pressure differential system shall always be located away from any potential fire hazards.
If possible air intakes shall be located on ground level (but away from basement smoke extraction openings)
to avoid contamination by smoke.
Where an air intake is not at roof level, a smoke detector shall be provided in the intake duct or within the
immediate vicinity of the supply ductwork in order to cause the automatic shut down of the pressure differential
system if substantial quantities of smoke are present in the supply. An override switch shall be provided for the
fire brigade purposes in accordance with 11.4.2.5
Where air intakes are positioned at roof level there shall be two air intakes, spaced apart and facing different
directions in such manner that they could not be directly downwind of the same source of smoke. Each inlet
shall be independently capable of providing the full air requirements of the system. Each inlet shall be protected
by an independently operated smoke control damper system in such a way that if one damper closes due
to a smoke contamination, the other inlet will supply the air requirements of the system without interruption.
The discharge point of a smoke ventilation duct shall be a minimum 1 m above the air intake and 5 m horizontally
from it. An override switch to reopen the closed damper and to close the open damper shall be provided for the
fire brigade use.
Where iSWAY device is located at the roof level inside the housing Smoke Detector (SD) is provided.
After smoke detection in supply air pressurization device is automatically shut down. iSWAY device is also
equipped with an override switch pursuant to listed standard requirements.
Manual override switch shall be located in:
a)
b)

HVAC system or pressure differential system engine room or,


near the building entrance in location agreed-upon with fire brigade and e.g. monitoring room.

Manual override switch shall be locked in ON position and designed in such manner that changing its position
to OFF shall require authorization (e.g. keyless lock).

Independent Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) offered by SMAY company consists of two motorized smoke dampers
protected against ambient conditions influence with inspection holes providing easy access for service
and maintenance and additional control module located in Power Supply and Control Switchbox (PSCS).
Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) are offered in standard series of types corresponding to air intake ductwork
dimensions.

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Twin air intake system - continuation
Straight duct

PS air damper
Mounting
plate

Seal

Inspection
hole
Actuator
Belimo BLE24

Junction box
Cable
gland

Sheet
metal section

PS air damper size

Size

width x height

Fig. 16. Dual Air Intake System(DAIS) module

iSWAY pressurization device identification


Metal data plate with basic parameters of the device is located on the housing.
Type
S/N
Year
V
P.

Defines technical specification of the device e.g. 1.20


Serial Number
Year of manufacture
Capacity of Air Supply Module (ASM) at given pressure D
p, m3/h
Electric power of Air Supply Module (ASM), kW

TYPE
YEAR

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iSWAY - compact pressurization unit


Accessories and order instructions
Orders shall be placed in accordance with following example.
iSWAY - <W>.<V>-<X><M><A>-<P><RAL>
Key:
<W>

device type:
1 parameters according to Table 1
2 parameters according to Table 2

<V>

air supply fan capacity at static pressure 300 Pa:


10 capacity 10000 m3/h
15 capacity 15000 m3/h
20 capacity 20000 m3/h
25 capacity 25000 m3/h
30 capacity 30000 m3/h
35 capacity 35000 m3/h

<X>

inspection panel access side:


R right side
L left side
H both sides

<M>

device location:

inside the building (internal assembly)


O outside the building (external assembly)

<A>

control system:
none standard control system
C
to control Dual Air Intake System (DAIS)

<P>

finish: *
- galvanized steel
SL painted steel

<RAL>

selected RAL chart color (available for SL)

* option if not selected default values will be applied

Ordering iSWAY pressurization device it is required to give code symbol in accordance with above instruction.
Additionally nominal pressure difference between pressurized space and the reference shall also be defined in

order to enable proper calibration. Order shall also define detailed location and support construction of iSWAY
device.

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Compact pressurization unit


with single pressure control system

iSWAY-FC
Functionality and reliability confirmed in an independent Laboratory
of Institute of Industrial Aerodynamics GmbH at the Aachen University
of Applied Sciences (I.F.I.) in accordance with latest version
of prEN 12101-6 European Standard testing procedure.

SMAY Sp. z o.o. / Ciepownicza St. 29 / 31-587 Krakw


tel. +48 12 680 20 80 / fax. +48 12 680 20 89 / e-mail: info@smay.eu

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Application

iSAFETY WAY-FC (iSWAY-FC ) compact pressurization unit is a part of SMAY company offer as regards smoke
and heat control systems. iSWAY-FC can be applied to vertical escape routes such as staircases, fire-fighting
lobbies and elevator shafts keeping them free of smoke and ensuring safe evacuation from the building in case
of fire. Moreover application of iSWAY-FC ensures obtaining normative pressure gradient and directed airflow
between escape route and fire floor in wide range of buildings regardless of ambient conditions during the fire.
Due to a simple structure iSWAY-FC can be located almost anywhere in the building additionally active control
system allows to monitor actual value of pressure difference and failure detection as well as to reduce total time
required to perform acceptance and maintenance tests.
Application of Belimo Smay Control Devices (URBS) controlling operation of frequency inverter and pressure
controller actuator allows to eliminate mechanical barometric dampers used to control pressure in protected
space. It is particularly important in case of pressurization systems with large air supply rates required where
due to the considerable dimensions of overpressure dampers location and assembly of such devices may
by hindered or impossible.

Corridor

Staircase

x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard


it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 1.

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Application - continuation

Corridor

Staircase

x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard


it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 2.

Concentrated air supply pressurization system

iSWAY-FC unit with concentrated air supply doesn't require vertical shaft assembly. In case of existing
buildings staircase pressurization shaft can be used to pressurize lobbies and increase fire safety level.
NOTE: Possibility of concentrated air supply application shall be analyzed for each building taking into account
pressure differential system class and building architecture.
By default it is assumed that it may be applied for buildings which total height doesn't exceed 35 m (~ 100 ft.).

version 5.1.4

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Application - continuation
Static pressure measurement point
inside air supply duct

Corridor

Elevator shaft 1

Elevator shaft 2

Staircase

x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard


it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fire-fighting lobby

Staircase

Corridor

Fire-fighting lobby

Air release opening in the building envelope

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Concentrated air supply to the staircase and elevator shafts

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Fig. 3.

Staircase

KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 4.

84

Staircase and fire-fighting lobbies pressurization with air transfer through mechanical transfer damper

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Location in the building
Due to the compact structure and relatively small dimensions iSWAY-FC units may be located in almost any
place in the building e.g. ventilation engine rooms, rooftop location, ground level. Wide range of air supply fans
with different characteristics in terms of capacity and static pressure covers variety of standard applications.
Flexible PVC tubing conducted
inside electroinstallation tubes
Static pressure measurement point
inside air supply duct

3x400 V guaranteed power supply,


Fire Alarm Signal (FAS)

Static pressure
measurement
point inside
pressurized space
Staircase

Electrical cables connecting


iSWAY-FC with Control Panel (TSS)

x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6


European Standard it is required to apply
twin air intakes system.

Fig. 5.

Fire brigades
access level

Example of iSWAY-FC rooftop location

Staircase

Static pressure
measurement
point inside
pressurized space
Ambient pressure measurement
point (reference pressure)

Flexible PVC tubing conducted


inside electroinstallation tubes

Static pressure measurement


point inside air supply duct

Electrical cables connecting


3x400 V guaranteed power

supply, Fire Alarm Signal (FAS) iSWAY-FC with Control


Panel (TSS)
KWP-o - fire damper open

Fig. 6.

Fire brigades
access level

Example of iSWAY-FC location in the ventilation engine room

version 5.1.4

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Location in the building continuation

By default iSWAY-FC series units is supplied together with Control Panel (TSS). It is required to provide
possibility of nominal air volume intake, carry out all electrical connections (supply guaranteed power 3x400V
and Fire Alarm Signal, connections with Control Panel). To enable pressure control it is required to provide static
pressure measurement points in pressurized space and reference. In situations when it is necessary to control
pressure inside air supply duct it is required to provide pressure measurement point located at the straight part
of the ductwork in accordance with detailed SMAY company guidelines.
If pressure differential system consists of more than one iSWAY-FC units it is possible to connect up to four
units to the single Control Panel (TSS). If total number of units is more than four units it is recommended to use
Monitoring of Operating Condition (MSPU) device together with standard Control Panel (TSS). According to the
fire protection regulations both MSPU and TSS shall be located in the same place e.g. monitoring room.
NOTE:
At the design stage it is required to explicitly define locations of static pressure measurement points in the
pressurized space and the reference and ensure air release path from the fire floor sized on the basis of design
air supply and exhaust rates.
Photo. 1. Static pressure
measurement point

Photo. 2. Structure of static


pressure measurement point

Structure

All components iSWAY-FC units are placed inside the modular housing made of aluminum square hollow
sections and steel sheets painted in any color from RAL color chart. Thermal insulation is made of mineral wool
40 mm thick. Inspection doors provide fast and easy access for regular servicing all components or cleaning
interiors. Depending on inspection doors location iSWAY-FC devices are manufactured in two versions: left or
right access side.

iSWAY-FC unit consists of two combined modules:


Fan Module (MW);
Control Module (MR).
Separated with sheet pile and based on the joint frame bearer.
Fan located in Fan Module (MW) is powered and controlled with frequency inverter and supplies air to the
Control Module (MR). Device interior is protected against chilling and dust infiltration with thermally insulated
shut off damper. Shut off damper opens immediately after receiving Fire Alarm Signal (FAS).
In order to increase reliability level of the unit shut off damper actuator is equipped with the return spring.
In case of voltage decay (e.g. damage of the electrical cables) air damper goes to the open position enabling
pressurization of protected spaces. All iSWAY-FC series units are by default equipped with smoke detector
located inside the housing. In case of smoke detection unit depending on the selected settings is automatically
switched off or optionally smoke detection alarm is reported.
Control Module (MR) is responsible for pressure difference regulation between protected space and the
reference by means of multiblade air damper with fast-acting Belimo actuators NMQ24A-SRV-ST operating as
a pressure controller. Such solution enables precise and automatic pressure difference control and protects
whole system against oscillations.

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Structure - continuation
Both frequency inverter and air damper actuator are controlled by means of automatic Control Panels in URBS
configuration intended to control volumetric airflow and pressure difference. URBS monitors continuously
actual pressure difference between protected space and the reference.
Ambient pressure measurement points are located in specially designed housing that minimize negative

influence of wind forces. For iSWAY-FC units located at the roof two independent pressure measurement point
are provided located at the opposite sides of the housing. In case of locating the unit inside the building one
of pressure measurement points is blanked. Due to the variable wind speed and direction resulting in a variety
of pressure distribution patterns in the vicinity of the building for each high-rise building simple CFD analysis
of possible wind influence is performed.
At the housing main power switch is located which enables power switch off for servicing or manual emergency
switch off of the unit. Additionally to reduce time required to connect unit connecting boxes are provided.

no air damper view

Key:
MW Fan Module
MR Control Module
1 Housing
2 Fan
3 Frame bearer
4 Shut off air damper
5 Pressure control damper
6 Frequency inverter
7 Breaking resistor
8 Automatic control board (SA)
9 URBS
10 Merawex power supply unit
11 Smoke detector
12 Main power switch
13 Connection point of static
pressure measurement inside
protected space
14 Connection point of reference
static pressure measurement

Fig. 7.

Schematic diagram of key components of iSWAY-FC unit location

Removed front panel view

Key:
1 Housing IP66
2 VRP-M Belimo controller
3 Pressure sensor VFP Belimo
4 Mounting plate
5 Cable gland

Fig. 8.

Schematic diagram of Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) with removed front panel

version 5.1.4

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87

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Idea of operation
Key:

6
1

4
2

Fig. 9.

1 URBS 1
2 URBS 2
3 Fan
4 Frequency inverter
5 Air damper with fast acting Belimo actuator
6 Merawex power supply unit

Schematic diagram of iSWAY-FC unit

Idea of operation of iSWAY-FC unit is based on application of Control Panels URBS in order to control operating
parameters of frequency inverter and the actuator.
Basing on static pressure difference inside the air supply duct and the reference URBS generates control signal
which is transmitted to the built-in controller of frequency inverter (feedback). Basing on measured static
pressure difference proportional to the analog signal value PID controller algorithm of frequency inverter
controls fan rotational speed in order to achieve required pressure difference corresponding to the air supply
rate. Basing on the static pressure difference between protected space and the reference URBS generates
control signal which is transmitted to the actuator of control air damper. Control air damper is opened or closed
in order to achieve set value of overpressure inside the protected space. Two stage regulation, rough by means
of frequency inverter and precise one by means of motorized air damper ensures accurate control of pressure
difference and additionally protects pressure differential system against oscillations.
Application of iSWAY-FC series device enables automatic adaptation of pressure differential system
to the changes during evacuation with simultaneous reduction of energy consumption due to the temporary
reduction of fan rotational speed (capacity). Additionally iSWAY-FC units may be used in continuous operation
mode to ventilate industrial buildings staircases e.g. heat gains removal.
iSWAY-FC unit switches to the operation mode after receiving Fire Alarm Signal from fire alarm control
and indicating equipment (CSAP). Air supply fan is activated with a time delay required to open the shut
off damper located in the Fan Module (MW). Opening of shut off damper is realized by means of the return spring
after cutting off power supply of an actuator. By the time the air supply fan is activated shut off air damper shall
be open. In operation mode (pressurization) pressure difference is continuously controlled by means
of air supply rotational speed and damper position regulation.

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Idea of operation continuation
In Operation Mode smoke presence in the housing is also monitored. In case of smoke detection unit
is automatically switched off or pressurization is continued with a use of second air intake Dual Air Intake
System (DAIS) Module. Smoke detection alarm is indicated at the Control Panel (TSS) of iSWAY-FC unit.

Operating modes
1. Stand-by Mode: shut off air damper is closed, control air damper open;
2. Operation Mode: after receiving Fire Alarm Signal from fire alarm control and indicating equipment (CSAP)
power supply of shut off damper actuator is decayed and damper is opened by means of the return spring,
air supply fan is activated with set time delay, two stage automatic pressure regulation is carried out
by means of frequency inverter and motorized air damper operating as a pressure controller.

Dimensions and weights

Fig. 10.

External dimensions of iSWAY-FC series units

Table 1.

Specification of iSWAY-FC series dimensions

iSWAY-FC series dimensions

Size

1
2

version 5.1.4

H1

[mm]
2200

[mm]
1100

[mm]
1000

[mm]
1100

[mm]
1100

[mm]
900

[mm]
800

[mm]
700

2200
2600

1400
1700

1200
1500

1100
1400

1100
1200

1100
1400

1000
1300

1000
1300

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iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Dimensions and weights
Table 2.

Specification of iSWAY-FC series units operating parameters and weights

iSWAY-FC series units operating parameters and weights


Type

0.3
0.12
1.17
1.20
1.24
2.31
2.39
2.47

Capacity

Static pressure

Supply
voltage

Active
power

Apparent
power

[ m3/h ]

[Pa]

[V]

[kW]

[kW]

3 000
12 000
17 000
20 000
24 000
31 000
39 000
47 000

900
550
390
400
400
410
470
430

3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400

3,4
5,4
5,4
7,3
9,6
9,6
14,0
18,7

3,8
6,0
6,0
8,1
10,7
10,7
15,6
20,7

Current unit
protection

Suggested
protection

Weight

FWC-10A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-20A10F
FWC-20A10F
FWC-32A10F
FWC-40A14F

gG 16 A
gG 20 A
gG 20 A
gG 20 A
gG 25 A
gG 25 A
gG 40 A
gG 50 A

505
515
630
640
650
900
920
935

[kg]

NOTE: Given powers assuming that =0,9 and cos=0,98

Characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/2-560-220 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 11.

iSWAY-FC 0.3 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/2-560-400 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 12.

90

iSWAY-FC 0.12 characteristics

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Characteristics - continuation

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/4-800-400 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig. 13.

iSWAY-FC 1.17 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/4-800-550 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 14.

iSWAY-FC 1.20 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/4-800-750 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 15.

iSWAY-FC 1.24 characteristics

version 5.1.4

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91

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Characteristics - continuation

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/4-1000-750 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig. 16.

iSWAY-FC 2.31 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/4-1000-1100 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 17.

iSWAY-FC 2.39 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FC unit with AFC/4-1000-1500 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 18.

92

iSWAY-FC 2.47 characteristics

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Housing versions
Internal assembly version
Right access side

Internal assembly version


Left access side

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

Air inlet

Air outlet

Air outlet

Air inlet

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

External assembly version


Right access side
Air intake turn

External assembly version


Left access side
Air intake turn
Roof panel

Roof panel

Air outlet

Air outlet
Air inlet

Air inlet

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

Fig.19.

Housing version of iSWAY-FC unit

Electrical connections diagrams


WIRING
Schematic
mark

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FC unit

Table 2

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FC unit)
Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads

Table 2

Monitoring room
Unit

Cable A1

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Fig. 20.

Block diagram of electrical connections between single iSWAY-FC unit and Control Panel (TSS)

version 5.1.4

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93

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Electrical connections diagrams - continoation

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room
WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FC unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FC )
Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 21.

Block diagram of electrical connections between two iSWAY-FC units and Control Panel (TSS-2)

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room
WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FC unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FC )
Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 22.

94

Block diagram of electrical connections between three iSWAY-FC units and Control Panel (TSS-3)

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Electrical connections diagrams - continoation

Monitoring room
WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FC unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FC )
Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 23.

Block diagram of electrical connections between four iSWAY-FC units and Control Panel (TSS-4)

It is possible to connect iSWAY-FC, iSWAY-FCD and iSWAY-FCR within one pressure differential system.

Assembly on-site
iSWAY-FC units can be located at concrete floors (internal or external assembly) on the frame bearer with
vibroisolation. Where units are assembled on structural steelworks vibration damping mat shall be applied.
In case of rooftop location Big Foot roof support system shall be ensuring vibrations damping, unit leveling
which doesn't penetrate the roof surface.

Fig. 24 Rooftop assembly with Big Foot


support system

version 5.1.4

Fig. 25 Internal assembly on concrete floor

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95

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Assembly on-site continuation
By default each iSWAY-FC unit is equipped with Control Panel (TSS) enabling change of operational
parameters settings as well as continuous monitoring of pressure difference and alarm signals.
Before unit is activated following operations shall be carried out:

- iSWAY-FC unit and ductworks connections assembly;


- Control Panel (TSS) assembly on the fire brigades access level e.g. monitoring room;
- Guaranteed power connections 3x400V;
- electrical connections between iSWAY-FC unit and the Control Panel (TSS) in accordance with SMAY
company guidelines;
- Fire Alarm Signal (SAP) connections;
- providing nominal air supply rate and air release paths from the fire floor in order to achieve design
parameters in terms of pressure difference and air velocities;
- pressure measurement points location in the pressurized, reference space, optionally in air supply duct
and connections to the appropriate pressure sensors.
After listed operations are finished SMAY company engineers perform initial start-up of the unit and operating
parameters calibration basing on the on-site measurements.
SMAY company provides full support at each stage of assembly works and start-up operations.

Twin air intake system


Pursuant to EN 12101-6:2007 European Standard:
Air intakes of pressure differential system shall always be located away from any potential fire hazards.
If possible air intakes shall be located on ground level (but away from basement smoke extraction openings)
to avoid contamination by smoke.
Where an air intake is not at roof level, a smoke detector shall be provided in the intake duct or within the
immediate vicinity of the supply ductwork in order to cause the automatic shut down of the pressure differential
system if substantial quantities of smoke are present in the supply. An override switch shall be provided
for the fire brigade purposes in accordance with 11.4.2.5
Where air intakes are positioned at roof level there shall be two air intakes, spaced apart and facing different
directions in such manner that they could not be directly downwind of the same source of smoke. Each inlet
shall be independently capable of providing the full air requirements of the system. Each inlet shall be protected
by an independently operated smoke control damper system in such a way that if one damper closes due
to a smoke contamination, the other inlet will supply the air requirements of the system without interruption.
The discharge point of a smoke ventilation duct shall be a minimum 1 m above the air intake and 5 m horizontally
from it. An override switch to reopen the closed damper and to close the open damper shall be provided for the
fire brigade use.
If iSWAY-FC device is located at the roof level inside the housing smoke detector is provided. After smoke
detection in supply air pressurization device is automatically shut down. iSWAY-FC device is also equipped with
an override switch pursuant to listed standard requirements.
Manual override switch shall be located in:
a) HVAC system or pressure differential system engine room or,
b) near the building entrance in location agreed-upon with fire brigade and e.g. monitoring room.

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Twin air intake system - continuation
Manual override switch shall be locked in ON position and designed in such manner that changing its position
to OFF shall require authorization (e.g. keyless lock).
Independent Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) offered by SMAY company consists of two motorized smoke dampers
protected against ambient conditions influence with inspection holes providing easy access for service and
maintenance.
Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) are offered in standard series of types corresponding to air intake ductwork
dimensions.
Straight duct

PS air damper
Mounting
plate

Seal

Inspection
hole
Actuator
Belimo BLE24

Junction box
Cable
gland

Sheet
metal section

PS air damper size

Size

Fig. 26.

width x height [mm]

Dual Air Intake System(DAIS) Module

iSWAY-FC unit identification


Metal data plate with basic parameters of the device is located on the housing.
Type
S/N
Year
V
P.

Defines technical specification of the device e.g. 1.20


Serial Number
Year of manufacture
Capacity of Air Supply Module (ASM) at given pressure D
p, m3/h
Electric power of Air Supply Module (ASM), kW

TYPE
YEAR

version 5.1.4

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97

iSWAY-FC - compact pressurization unit with single pressure control system


Accessories and order instructions
Orders shall be placed in accordance with following example.
iSWAY - <F>-<W>.<V>-<X><M><A>-<P.><RAL>
Key:
<F>
<W>

unit type: FC
unit size: 0, 1 or 2

<V>

air supply fan capacity at static pressure 300 Pa:


3 capacity 3000 m3/h
12 capacity 12000 m3/h
17 capacity 17000 m3/h
3
20 capacity 20000 m /h
24 capacity 24000 m3/h
31 capacity 31000 m3/h
39 capacity 39000 m3/h
47 capacity 47000 m3/h

<X>

inspection panel access side:


R right side
L left side

<M>

device location:
none the building (internal assembly)
O
outside the building (external assembly)

<A>

control system:
none standard control system
C
to control Dual Air Intake System (DAIS)
Y
primary unit control system
Z
redundant unit control system
S
custom-made control system

<P>

finish: *
none galvanized steel
SL
painted steel

<RAL>

selected RAL chart color (available for SL)

* option if not selected default values will be applied

Ordering iSWAY-FC unit it is required to give code symbol in accordance with above instruction.
Additionally:
nominal pressure difference between pressurized space and the reference shall be defined
(optionally pressure difference between air supply duct and the reference);
exact location of the unit taking into consideration local on-site assembly requirements.
Order example:
iSWAY FC 1.20 R O SL9010
nominal pressure difference 50 Pa
flat roof bearer frame assembly
NOTE: In case of more than four units pressure differential system suggests application of Operating
Conditions Monitoring Device (MSPU) connected with Control Panel (TSS) to provide components
integration and monitoring.

98

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version 5.1.4

Compact pressurization device


with multiple pressure control system

iSWAY-FCD
Functionality and reliability confirmed in an independent Laboratory
of Institute of Industrial Aerodynamics GmbH at the Aachen University
of Applied Sciences (I.F.I.) in accordance with latest version of prEN
12101-6 European Standard testing procedure.

SMAY Sp. z o.o. / Ciepownicza St. 29 / 31-587 Krakw


tel. +48 12 680 20 80 / fax. +48 12 680 20 89 / e-mail: info@smay.eu

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Application

iSAFETY WAY-FCD (iSWAY-FCD ) compact pressurization unit is a part of SMAY company offer as regards
smoke and heat control systems. iSWAY-FCD can be applied to vertical escape routes such as fire-fighting
lobbies and elevator shafts keeping them free of smoke and ensuring safe evacuation from the building in case
of fire. Moreover application of iSWAY-FC ensures obtaining normative pressure gradient and directed airflow
between escape route and fire floor in wide range of buildings regardless of ambient conditions during the fire.
Due to a simple structure iSWAY-FC can be located almost anywhere in the building additionally active control
system allows to monitor actual value of pressure difference and failure detection as well as to reduce total time
required to perform acceptance and maintenance tests.

iSWAY-FCD units are intended to pressurize single or many fire-fighting lobbies. Each lobby is equipped with
motorized multiblade damper operating as a local pressure controller. SMAY company has also developed
solution ensuring electronically controlled air transfer from the fire-fighting lobby to the corridor. Each firefighting lobby is equipped with independent set of two mechanically and electronically coupled pressure
controllers with fast acting Belimo actuators NMQ24A-SRV-ST. Idea of operation is quite simple both air
dampers operates backward in that manner that opening angle of each air damper is inversely proportional.

Staircase

Corridor

Fire-fighting lobby

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Fire-fighting lobby

Air release opening in the building envelope

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Air damper located in the fire-fighting lobby operates as a pressure controller. While evacuation doors are
closed excess air is transferred to the corridor via the by-pass damper and the pressure control damper
is almost fully closed. After opening the door by-pass damper closes and pressure control damper opens and
required nominal air volume is supplied to the corridor through evacuation door.

Staircase

KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 1.

100

Fire-fighting lobbies and staircase pressurization system

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system

static pressure
measurement point

24V guaranteed Static pressure


power supply
measurement
point inside
fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

Staircase

24V guaranteed
power supply

Corridor

Air release opening in the building envelope

Fire-fighting lobby

24V g. Static pressure


power measurement
point inside
supply
fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

Staircase

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 2.

Fire-fighting lobbies pressurization system with electronically controlled air transfer

Location in the building


Due to the compact structure and relatively small dimensions iSWAY-FCD units may be located in almost any
place in the building e.g. ventilation engine rooms, rooftop location, ground level. Wide range of air supply fans
with different characteristics in terms of capacity and static pressure covers variety of standard applications.

24V guaranteed
power supply

Fire-fighting lobby

Ambient pressure
measurement point
(reference pressure)

Static pressure
measurement
point inside
24V guaranteed fire-fighting lobby
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Air release opening in the building envelope

24V guaranteed
power supply

Corridor

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Application continuation

Electrical cables
connecting iSWAY-FCD
with Control Panel (TSS)

24V guaranteed
power supply

24V guaranteed
power supply

Fig. 3.

Example of iSWAY-FCD rooftop location

version 5.1.4

x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6


European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.
KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed

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101

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system

24V guaranteed
power supply

Reference static pressure


measurement point
24V guaranteed
power supply

Static pressure
measurement
point inside
fire-fighting lobby

24V guaranteed
power supply

Static pressure measurement point inside air supply duct

Location in the building - continuation

24V guaranteed
power supply

Flexible PVC tubing conducted


inside electroinstallation tubes
Static pressure
measurement point

KWP-o - fire damper open


KWP-z - fire damper closed

Fig. 4.

Electrical cables connecting


iSWAY-FC with Control
Panel (TSS)

Fire brigades
access level

Example of iSWAY-FCD location in the ventilation engine room

By default iSWAY-FCD series units is supplied together with Control Panel (TSS). It is required to provide
possibility of nominal air volume intake, carry out all electrical connections (supply guaranteed power 3x400V
and Fire Alarm Signal, connections with Control Panel). To enable pressure control it is required to provide static
pressure measurement points in pressurized space and reference. In situations when it is necessary to control
pressure inside air supply duct it is required to provide pressure measurement point located at the straight part
of the ductwork in accordance with detailed SMAY company guidelines.

If pressure differential system consists of more than one iSWAY-FCD units it is possible to connect up to four
units to the single Control Panel (TSS). If total number of units is more than four units it is recommended to use
Monitoring of Operating Condition (MSPU) device together with standard Control Panel (TSS). According to the
fire protection regulations both MSPU and TSS shall be located in the same place e.g. monitoring room.
NOTE:
At the design stage it is required to explicitly define locations of static pressure measurement points in the
pressurized space and the reference and ensure air release path from the fire floor sized on the basis
of design air supply and exhaust rates.
Photo. 1. Static pressure
measurement point

102

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Photo. 2. Structure of static pressure


measurement point

version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Structure
All components iSWAY-FCD units are placed inside the modular housing made of aluminum square hollow
sections and steel sheets painted in any color from RAL color chart. Thermal insulation is made of mineral wool
40 mm thick. Inspection doors provide fast and easy access for regular servicing all components or cleaning
interiors. Depending on inspection doors location iSWAY-FCD units are manufactured in two versions: left
or right access side.
Key application of iSWAY-FCD units is simultaneous pressurization of multiple small cubature spaces e.g. firefighting lobbies. Each pressure controller is powered and controlled by means of Control Panels in URBS
configuration. Device interior is protected against chilling and dust infiltration with thermally insulated shut
off damper. Shut off damper opens immediately after receiving Fire Alarm Signal (SAP).
In order to increase reliability level of the unit shut off damper actuator is equipped with the return spring.
In case of voltage decay (e.g. damage of the electrical cables) air damper goes to the open position enabling
pressurization of protected spaces. All iSWAY-FCD series units are by default equipped with smoke detector
located inside the housing. In case of smoke detection unit depending on the selected settings is automatically
switched off or optionally smoke detection alarm is reported.
Both frequency inverter and air damper actuators are controlled by means of automatic Control Panels in URBS
configuration intended to control volumetric airflow and pressure difference. URBS monitors continuously
actual pressure difference between protected space and the reference.
Ambient pressure measurement points are located in specially designed housing that minimize negative
influence of wind forces. For iSWAY-FCD units located at the roof two independent pressure measurement
point are provided located at the opposite sides of the housing. In case of locating the unit inside the building
one of pressure measurement points is blanked. Due to the variable wind speed and direction resulting
in a variety of pressure distribution patterns in the vicinity of the building for each high-rise building simple CFD
analysis of possible wind influence is performed. At the housing main power switch is located which enables
power switch off for servicing or manual emergency switch off of the unit. Additionally to reduce time required
to connect unit connecting boxes are provided.
no air damper view

Fig. 5.

Key:
1 Housing
2 Fan
3 Frame bearer
4 Shut off air damper
5 Frequency inverter
6 Breaking resistor
7 Automatic control board (SA)
8 URBS
9 Merawex power supply unit
10 Smoke detector
11 Main power switch
12 Connection point of reference
static pressure measurement

Schematic diagram of key components of iSWAY-FCD unit location

version 5.1.4

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103

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Structure - continuation
Removed front panel view

Key:
1 Housing IP66
2 VRP-M Belimo controller
3 Pressure sensor VFP Belimo
4 Mounting plate
5 Cable gland

Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram of Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) with removed front panel

Principle of operation

3
1

5
2

Key:
1 URBS 1
2 URBS 2
3, 4 Merawex power supply unit
5 Frequency inverter
6 Air damper with fast acting Belimo actuator
7 Fan

Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of iSWAY-FCD unit

Principle of operation of iSWAY-FCD unit is based on application of Control Panels URBS in order to control
operating parameters of frequency inverter and the actuator.
Basing on static pressure difference inside the air supply duct and the reference URBS generates control signal
which is transmitted to the built-in controller of frequency inverter (feedback). Basing on measured static
pressure difference proportional to the analog signal value PID controller algorithm of frequency inverter
controls fan rotational speed in order to achieve required pressure difference corresponding to the air supply
rate. Basing on the static pressure difference between protected space and the reference URBS generates
control signal which is transmitted to the actuator of autonomous control air damper operating as a local
pressure controller.

104

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Principle of operation - continuation
Control air damper is opened or closed in order to achieve set value of overpressure inside the protected space.
Two stage regulation, rough by means of frequency inverter and precise one by means of motorized air damper
ensures accurate control of pressure difference and additionally protects pressure differential system against
oscillations.

Application of iSWAY-FCD series unit enables automatic adaptation of pressure differential system to the
changes during evacuation with simultaneous reduction of energy consumption due to the temporary reduction
of fan rotational speed (capacity). Additionally iSWAY-FC units may be used in continuous operation mode
to ventilate industrial buildings staircases e.g. heat gains removal.
iSWAY-FC unit switches to the operation mode after receiving Fire Alarm Signal (SAP) from fire alarm control
and indicating equipment (CSAP). Air supply fan is activated with a time delay required to open the shut off
damper located in the Air Supply Module (ZN). Opening of shut off damper is realized by means of the return
spring after cutting off power supply of an actuator. By the time the air supply fan is activated shut off air damper
shall be open. In operation mode (pressurization) pressure difference is continuously controlled by means
of air supply rotational speed and autonomous damper position regulation. To ensure proper operation
of iSWAY-FCD unit it is required to provide 24V guaranteed power supply of each pressure controller actuator
and pressure difference measurement between the fire-fighting lobby and the reference.
In Operation Mode smoke presence in the housing is also monitored. In case of smoke detection unit
is automatically switched off or pressurization is continued with a use of second air intake Dual Air Intake
System (DAIS) Module. Smoke detection alarm is indicated at the Control Panel (TSS) of iSWAY-FCD unit.

Operating modes
1. Stand-by Mode: shut off air damper is closed, control air damper open;
2. Operation Mode: after receiving Fire Alarm Signal from fire alarm control and indicating equipment (CSAP)
power supply of shut off damper actuator is decayed and damper is opened by means of the return spring,
air supply fan is activated with set time delay, two stage automatic pressure regulation is carried
out by means of frequency inverter and motorized air damper operating as a pressure controller.

version 5.1.4

w w w. s m a y. p l

105

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Dimensions and weights

Fig. 8.

External dimensions of iSWAY-FCD series units

Table 1.

Specification of iSWAY-FCD series dimensions

iSWAY-FCD series dimensions

0
Size

1
2

H1

[mm]
2200

[mm]
1100

[mm]
1000

[mm]
1100

[mm]
1100

[mm]
900

[mm]
800

[mm]
700

2200
2600

1400
1700

1200
1500

1100
1400

1100
1200

1100
1400

1000
1300

1000
1300

Table 2. Specification of iSWAY-FCD series units operating parameters and weights

iSWAY-FCD series units operating parameters


Type

0.3
0.12
1.17
1.20
1.24
2.31
2.39
2.47

Capacity

Static pressure

[Pa]

[ m /h ]

3 000
12 000
17 000
20 000
24 000
31 000
39 000
47 000

900
550
390
400
400
410
470
430

Supply
voltage

Active
power

Apparent
power

[V]

[kW]

[kW]

3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400

3,4
5,4
5,4
7,3
9,6
9,6
14,0
18,7

3,8
6,0
6,0
8,1
10,7
10,7
15,6
20,7

Current unit
protection

Suggested
protection

Weight

FWC-10A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-20A10F
FWC-20A10F
FWC-32A10F
FWC-40A14F

gG 16 A
gG 20 A
gG 20 A
gG 20 A
gG 25 A
gG 25 A
gG 40 A
gG 50 A

505
515
630
640
650
900
920
935

[kg]

NOTE: Given powers assuming that =0,9 and cos=0,98

106

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/2-560-220 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 9.

iSWAY-FCD 0.3 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/2-560-400 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 10.

iSWAY-FCD 0.12 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/4-800-400 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig.11.

iSWAY-FCD 1.17 characteristics

version 5.1.4

w w w. s m a y. p l

107

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Characteristics - continuation

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/4-800-550 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig.12.

iSWAY-FCD 1.20 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/4-800-750 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig.13.

iSWAY-FCD 1.24 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/4-1000-750 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig.14.

108

iSWAY-FCD 2.31 characteristics

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Characteristics - continuation

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/4-1000-1100 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig.15.

iSWAY-FCD 2.39 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCD unit with AFC/4-1000-1500 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig.16.

iSWAY-FCD 2.47 characteristics

version 5.1.4

w w w. s m a y. p l

109

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Housing versions
Internal assembly version
Left access side

Internal assembly version


Right access side
Elastic connector

Elastic connector

Air outlet

Air inlet

Air outlet

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

External assembly version


Left access side

External assembly version


Right access side
Air intake turn

Elastic connector
Roof panel

Roof panel

Air outlet

Air outlet
Air inlet

Air inlet

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

Fig. 17.

iSWAY-FCD unit housing versions

Electrical connections diagrams


WIRING
Schematic
mark

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCD unit

Table 2

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCD unit)

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads

Monitoring room

Table 2

Key:
Unit

Cable A1

Control Panel (TSS)


Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Fig. 18.

110

Block diagram of electrical connections between single iSWAY-FCD unit and Control Panel (TSS)

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Electrical connections diagrams - continuation

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room

WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCD unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCD )

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 19.

Block diagram of electrical connections between two iSWAY-FCD units and Control Panel (TSS-2)

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room

WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCD unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCD )

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 20.

Block diagram of electrical connections between three iSWAY-FCD units and Control Panel (TSS-3)

version 5.1.4

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111

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Electrical connections diagrams - continuation

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room

WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCD unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCD )

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 21.

Block diagram of electrical connections between four iSWAY-FCD units and Control Panel (TSS-4)

NOTE: It is possible to connect iSWAY-FC, iSWAY-FCD and iSWAY-FCR within one pressure differential
system.

Assembly on-site
iSWAY-FCD units can be located at concrete floors (internal or external assembly) on the frame bearer with
vibroisolation. Where units are assembled on structural steelworks vibration damping mat shall be applied.
In case of rooftop location Big Foot roof support system shall be ensuring vibrations damping, unit leveling
which doesn't penetrate the roof surface.

Fig. 22. Rooftop assembly


with Big Foot support system

112

Fig. 23 Internal assembly


on concrete floor

w w w. s a fe t y w a y. p l

version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Assembly on-site continuation

By default each iSWAY-FCD unit is equipped with Control Panel (TSS) enabling change of operational
parameters settings as well as continuous monitoring of pressure difference and alarm signals.
Before unit is activated following operations shall be carried out:
- iSWAY-FCD unit and ductworks connections assembly;
- Control Panel (TSS) assembly on the fire brigades access level e.g. monitoring room;
- Guaranteed power connections 3x400V;
- electrical connections between iSWAY-FCD unit and the Control Panel (TSS) in accordance with SMAY
company guidelines;
- Fire Alarm Signal (SAP) connections;
- providing nominal air supply rate and air release paths from the fire floor in order to achieve design
parameters in terms of pressure difference and air velocities;
- pressure measurement points location in the pressurized, reference space, optionally in air supply duct
and connections to the appropriate pressure sensors.
After listed operations are finished SMAY company engineers perform initial start-up of the unit and operating
parameters calibration basing on the on-site measurements.
SMAY company provides full support at each stage of assembly works and start-up operations.

Twin air intake system


Pursuant to EN 12101-6:2007 European Standard:
Air intakes of pressure differential system shall always be located away from any potential fire hazards.
If possible air intakes shall be located on ground level (but away from basement smoke extraction openings)
to avoid contamination by smoke.
Where an air intake is not at roof level, a smoke detector shall be provided in the intake duct or within the
immediate vicinity of the supply ductwork in order to cause the automatic shut down of the pressure differential
system if substantial quantities of smoke are present in the supply. An override switch shall be provided for the
fire brigade purposes in accordance with 11.4.2.5
Where air intakes are positioned at roof level there shall be two air intakes, spaced apart and facing different
directions in such manner that they could not be directly downwind of the same source of smoke. Each inlet
shall be independently capable of providing the full air requirements of the system. Each inlet shall be protected
by an independently operated smoke control damper system in such a way that if one damper closes due to
a smoke contamination, the other inlet will supply the air requirements of the system without interruption.
The discharge point of a smoke ventilation duct shall be a minimum 1 m above the air intake and 5 m horizontally
from it. An override switch to reopen the closed damper and to close the open damper shall be provided for the
fire brigade use.
If iSWAY-FCD device is located at the roof level inside the housing smoke detector is provided. After smoke
detection in supply air pressurization device is automatically shut down. iSWAY-FCD device is also equipped
with an override switch pursuant to listed standard requirements.
Manual override switch shall be located in:
a) HVAC system or pressure differential system engine room or,
b) near the building entrance in location agreed-upon with fire brigade and e.g. monitoring room.

version 5.1.4

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Twin air intake system - continuation
Manual override switch shall be locked in ON position and designed in such manner that changing its position
to OFF shall require authorization (e.g. keyless lock).
Independent Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) offered by SMAY company consists of two motorized smoke dampers
protected against ambient conditions influence with inspection holes providing easy access for service
and maintenance.
Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) are offered in standard series of types corresponding to air intake ductwork
dimensions.
PS air damper

Straight duct

Mounting
plate

Seal

Inspection
hole
Actuator
Belimo BLE24

Junction box
Cable
gland

Sheet
metal section

Size

Fig. 26.

PS air damper size

Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) Module

iSWAY-FCD unit identification


Metal data plate with basic parameters of the device is located on the housing.
Type
S/N
Year
V
P

114

defines technical specification of the device e.g. FCD 1.20


serial number
year of manufacture
3
capacity of Air Supply Module (ASM) at given pressure D
p, m /h
electric power of Air Supply Module (ASM), kW

w w w. s a fe t y w a y. p l

version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCD - compact pressurization device with multiple pressure control system


Accessories and order instructions
Orders shall be placed in accordance with following example:
iSWAY - <F>-<W>.<V>-<X><M><A>-<P.><RAL
Key:
<F>
<W>

unit type: FCD


unit size: 0, 1 or 2

<V>

air supply fan capacity at static pressure 300 Pa:


3 fan capacity 3000 m3/h
12 fan capacity 12000 m3/h
17 fan capacity 17000 m3/h
20 fan capacity 20000 m3/h
24 fan capacity 24000 m3/h
31 fan capacity 31000 m3/h
39 fan capacity 39000 m3/h
47 fan capacity 47000 m3/h

<X>

inspection panel access side:


R
right side
L
left side

<M>

unit location:
none inside the building (internal assembly)
O
outside the building (external assembly)

<A>

control system:
none standard control system
C
modified to control Dual Air Intake System (DAIS)
Y
primary unit control system
Z
redundant unit control system
S
custom-made control system

<P>

finish: *
none finish
SL
painted steel

<RAL>

selected RAL chart color (available for SL)

* option if not selected default values will be applied

Ordering iSWAY-FCD unit it is required to give code symbol in accordance with above instruction.
Additionally:
nominal pressure difference between pressurized space and the reference shall be defined
(optionally pressure difference between air supply duct and the reference);
exact location of the unit taking into consideration local on-site assembly requirements.
Order example:
iSWAY FCD 1.20 L - O - Z SL9010
nominal pressure difference 50 Pa , 5 pressurized lobbies,
electronically controlled air transfer flat roof bearer frame assembly
NOTE: In case of more than four units pressure differential system suggests application of Operating Conditions Monitoring
Device (MSPU) connected with Control Panel (TSS) to provide components integration and monitoring.

version 5.1.4

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115

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version 5.1.4

Compact pressurization device


with reversible axial flow fans intended for high-rise building application

iSWAY-FCR
Functionality and reliability confirmed in an independent Laboratory
of Institute of Industrial Aerodynamics GmbH at the Aachen University
of Applied Sciences (I.F.I.) in accordance with latest version
of prEN 12101-6 European Standard testing procedure.

SMAY Sp. z o.o. / Ciepownicza St. 29 / 31-587 Krakw


tel. +48 12 680 20 80 / fax. +48 12 680 20 89 / e-mail: info@smay.eu

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Principles of SAFETY WAY system operation
Forced airflow system SAFETY WAY is intended to protect staircases of tall, high-rise and industrial buildings
against smoke and fire gases infiltration by achieving and maintaining fixed value of overpressure in reference
to the fire floor.
In case of high-rise buildings system consists of at least two iSWAY-FCR units located at top and bottom floors
if such locations are not available it is possible to assembly iSWAY-FCR units on the roof and provide ductwork
and air inlet/exhaust points at top and bottom floors.
Principle of operation of SAFETY WAY system is to generate maintain directed and controlled airflow inside the
staircase by means of axial reversible flow fans equipped with frequency inverters and motorized multiblade air
dampers equipped with fast-acting Belimo actuators operating as a pressure controllers. Stabilization of static
pressure distribution is achieved by controlling intensity of an airflow inside the staircase corresponding to the
airflow resistance which shall be proportional to the actual natural pressure gradient resulting from stack
effect.
Airflow directions depend on the actual pressure distribution corresponding to the temperature difference
between internal air and the ambient.
For a conventional winter period system shall provide:
upward airflow air supplied to the low pressure zone at the bottom floors and exhausted from the high
pressure zone at the top floors;
Please find Fig. 1.
For a conventional summer period system shall provide:
upward airflow air supplied to the low pressure zone at the top floors and exhausted from the high
pressure zone at the bottom floors;
Please find Fig. 2.
Required airflow direction is determined automatically on the basis of actual temperature difference between
internal and the ambient air. To calculate actual average temperature difference additional Control Module (MS)
is applied. Since airflow direction changes depending on the current temperature difference it is necessary to
apply reversible flow fans.
SAFETY WAY system operates in two modes:
pressure mode all evacuation doors closed air supply and exhaust rates are determined depending
on actual temperature difference, staircase geometry and building total height;
airflow mode one or mode evacuation doors open air supply rate is determined depending on the required
air velocity at the open evacuation door, door size and staircase total air leakage rate. Air exhaust is shut off
due to the pressure drop resulting from opening evacuation door.
Complete SAFETY WAY system can be built with a use of iSWAY-FCR series pressurization units and simple
control system. Number and operating parameters of all components is determined by SMAY company
depending on building total height, pressure differential system nominal parameters and additional
requirements. By default total wiring length as well as number of sensors and electronic devices is reduced
to the necessary minimum.
Additional advantage of SAFETY WAY system application is possibility of staircase ventilation in day-to-day
operation mode e.g. industrial buildings with increased heat gains.
The SAFETY WAY system, as the only one in Europe, literally complies with all the requirements of this
Standard as regards of high-rise buildings and polish winter ambient conditions.
Estimated air supply rate for simultaneous pressurization and pressure distribution can be calculated with
following formula:
V1 (V2) = VC + VN
where:
V1, V2
air supply rates, m3/h
VC
air supply rate required to reduce or eliminate stack effect pressure gradient
VN
air supply rate required to achieve and maintain nominal pressure difference

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Principles of SAFETY WAY system operation - continuation
iSWAY-FC

iSWAY-FCR

iSWAY-FCD

Fig. 1.

Pressure distribution stabilization inside heated high-rise building staircase during winter period with application

of forced airflow SAFETY WAY system


iSWAY-FC

Fig. 2.

iSWAY-FCD

iSWAY-FCR

iSWAY-FCD

Pressure distribution stabilization inside air conditioned high-rise building staircase during winter period
with application of forced airflow SAFETY WAY system

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119

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Principles of SAFETY WAY system operation - continuation
iSWAY-FC

iSWAY-FCR

iSWAY-FCD

Fig. 3.

iSWAY-FCD

Nominal airflow at evacuation door on fire floor with application of forced airflow SAFETY WAY system

NOTE:
In order to determine detailed operating parameters of SAFETY WAY system by default CFD simulations
of heat and mass transfer are carried out e.g. total fans capacities, locations of air inlet/outlet points.
For standard staircase geometry where which total height exceeds 35 m it is assumed to provide additional air
supply point per each ten floors. Additional air volume is supplied with standard iSWAY-FC unit calibrated
to maintain 30 35 Pa of pressure difference between protected space and the fire floor. Pressure drop after
opening evacuation door results in supplying fixed airflow rate through additional air inlet points.

Application

iSAFETY WAY-FCR (iSWAY-FCR ) compact pressurization unit is a part of SMAY company offer as regards
smoke and heat control systems. iSWAY-FCR can be applied to vertical escape routes such as tall and high-rise
building staircases keeping them free of smoke and ensuring safe evacuation from the building in case of fire.
Moreover application of iSWAY-FCR ensures obtaining stable pressure distribution, normative pressure
gradient and directed airflow between escape route and fire floor in wide range of buildings regardless
of ambient conditions during the fire. Due to a simple structure iSWAY-FCR can be located almost anywhere
in the building additionally active control system allows to monitor actual value of pressure difference and
failure detection as well as to reduce total time required to perform acceptance and maintenance tests.
Application of Belimo Smay Control Devices (URBS) controlling operation of frequency inverter and pressure
controller actuator allows to eliminate mechanical barometric dampers used to control pressure in protected
space. It is particularly important in case of pressurization systems with large air supply rates required where
due to the considerable dimensions of overpressure dampers location and assembly of such devices may by
hindered or impossible.

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Location in the building

Fire-fighting lobby

measurement point inside air supply duct

Corridor

Staircase

Static pressure

Static pressure

Staircase

Air release opening in the building envelope

Fire-fighting lobby

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

measurement point inside air supply duct

Due to the compact structure and relatively small dimensions iSWAY-FCR units may be located in almost any
place in the building e.g. ventilation engine rooms, rooftop location, ground level. Wide range of air supply fans
with different characteristics in terms of capacity and static pressure covers variety of standard applications.

KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Corridor

Fire-fighting lobby

Staircase

Static pressure

Staircase

Air release opening in the building envelope

Fire-fighting lobby

Static pressure

Air release opening in the building envelope

Corridor

measurement point inside air supply duct

Simultaneous pressurization of fire-fighting lobby and staircase with iSWAY-FCR units application

measurement point inside air supply duct

Fig. 4.

KWP-o - fire damper open, KWP-z - fire damper closed


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6 European Standard it is required to apply twin air intakes system.

Fig. 5.

Simultaneous pressurization of fire-fighting lobby and staircase with iSWAY-FCR units application and additional
air supply unit iSWAY-FC

version 5.1.4

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121

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Location in the building
Flexible PVC tubing conducted
inside electroinstallation tubes
Static pressure measurement point
inside air supply duct

3x400 V guaranteed power


supply, Fire Alarm Signal (FAS)

Staircase

Static pressure
measurement
point inside
pressurized space

Electrical cables connecting


iSWAY-FC with Control Panel (TSS)

Static pressure
measurement
point inside
pressurized space
Ambient pressure
measurement point
(reference pressure)

Flexible PVC tubing conducted


inside electroinstallation tubes

3x400 V guaranteed power


supply, Fire Alarm Signal (FAS)

Fig. 6.

Electrical cables connecting


iSWAY-FCR with Control Panel (TSS)

Fire brigades
access level

KWP-o - fire damper open


x - In case of design in accordance with EN 12101-6
European Standard it is required to apply
twin air intakes system.

Example of iSWAY-FCR units locations in forced airflow SAFETY WAY system

By default iSWAY-FCR series units is supplied together with Control Panel (TSS). It is required to provide
possibility of nominal air volume intake, carry out all electrical connections (supply guaranteed power 3x400V
and Fire Alarm Signal, connections with Control Panel). To enable pressure control it is required to provide static
pressure measurement points in pressurized space and reference. In situations when it is necessary to control
pressure inside air supply duct it is required to provide pressure measurement point located at the straight part
of the ductwork in accordance with detailed SMAY company guidelines.
If pressure differential system consists of more than one iSWAY-FCR units it is possible to connect up to four
units to the single Control Panel (TSS). If total number of units is more than four units it is recommended to use
Monitoring of Operating Condition (MSPU) device together with standard Control Panel (TSS). According to the
fire protection regulations both MSPU and TSS shall be located in the same place e.g. monitoring room.
NOTE:
At the design stage it is required to explicitly
define locations of static pressure measurement
points in the pressurized space and the reference
and ensure air release path from the fire floor
sized on the basis of design air supply and exhaust
rates.
Photo. 1. Static pressure
measurement point

122

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Photo. 2. Structure of static


pressure measurement point

version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Structure
All components iSWAY-FCR units are placed inside the modular housing made of aluminum square hollow
sections and steel sheets painted in any color from RAL color chart. Thermal insulation is made of mineral wool
40 mm thick. Inspection doors provide fast and easy access for regular servicing all components or cleaning
interiors. Depending on inspection doors location iSWAY-FCR units are manufactured in two versions:
left or right access side. iSWAY-FCR unit consists of two combined modules:
Fan Module (MW);
Control Module (MR).
Separated with sheet pile and based on the joint frame bearer.
Fan located in Fan Module (MW) is powered and controlled with frequency inverter and supplies air to the
Control Module (MR). Device interior is protected against chilling and dust infiltration with thermally insulated
shut off damper. Shut off damper opens immediately after receiving Fire Alarm Signal (SAP).
In order to increase reliability level of the unit shut off damper actuator is equipped with the return spring.
In case of voltage decay (e.g. damage of the electrical cables) air damper goes to the open position enabling
pressurization of protected spaces. All iSWAY-FCR series units are by default equipped with smoke detector
located inside the housing. In case of smoke detection unit depending on the selected settings is automatically
switched off or optionally smoke detection alarm is reported.
Control Module (MR) is responsible for pressure difference regulation between protected space and the
reference by means of multiblade air damper with fast-acting Belimo actuators NMQ24A-SRV-ST operating as
a pressure controller. Such solution enables precise and automatic pressure difference control and protects
whole system against oscillations.
Both frequency inverter and air damper actuator are controlled by means of automatic Control Panels in URBS
configuration intended to control volumetric airflow and pressure difference. URBS monitors continuously
actual pressure difference between protected space and the reference.
Ambient pressure measurement points are located in specially designed housing that minimize negative
influence of wind forces. For iSWAY-FCR units located at the roof two independent pressure measurement
point are provided located at the opposite sides of the housing. In case of locating the unit inside the building one
of pressure measurement points is blanked. Due to the variable wind speed and direction resulting in a variety
of pressure distribution patterns in the vicinity of the building for each high-rise building simple CFD analysis
of possible wind influence is performed.
At the housing main power switch is located which enables power switch off for servicing or manual emergency
switch off of the unit. Additionally to reduce time required to connect unit connecting boxes are provided.

version 5.1.4

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iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Structure - continuation
Removed damper view

Schematic diagram of key components of iSWAY-FCR unit

Fig. 7.

Key:
MW Fan Module
MR Control Module
1 Housing
2 Fan
3 Frame bearer
4 Shut off air damper
5 Pressure control damper
6 Frequency inverter
7 Breaking resistor
8 Automatic control board (SA)
9 URBS
10 Merawex power supply unit
11 Smoke detector
12 Main power switch
13 Connection point of static pressure
measurement inside protected space
14 Connection point of reference
static pressure measurement

Removed front panel view

Key:
1 Housing IP66
2 VRP-M Belimo controller
3 Pressure sensor VFP Belimo
4 Mounting plate
5 Cable gland

Fig. 8.

Schematic diagram of Belimo Smay Control Device (URBS) with removed front panel

Idea of operation

4
6

Fig. 9.

124

10

Key:
1 URBS 1
2 URBS 2
3 URBS 3
4 URBS 4
5, 6 Merawex power supply unit
7 Frequency inverter
8 Air damper with fast acting Belimo actuator 1
9 Air damper with fast acting Belimo actuator 2
10 Fan

Schematic diagram of iSWAY-FCR unit

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Idea of operation - continuation

Idea of operation of iSWAY-FCR unit is based on application of Control Panels URBS in order to control
operating parameters of frequency inverter and the actuator.
Basing on static pressure difference inside the air supply duct and the reference URBS generates control signal
which is transmitted to the built-in controller of frequency inverter (feedback). Basing on measured static
pressure difference proportional to the analog signal value PID controller algorithm of frequency inverter
controls fan rotational speed in order to achieve required pressure difference corresponding to the air supply
rate. Basing on the static pressure difference between protected space and the reference URBS generates
control signal which is transmitted to the actuator of control air damper. Control air damper is opened or closed
in order to achieve set value of overpressure inside the protected space. Two stage regulation, rough by means
of frequency inverter and precise one by means of motorized air damper ensures accurate control of pressure
difference and additionally protects pressure differential system against oscillations.
Application of iSWAY-FCR series device enables automatic adaptation of pressure differential system to the
changes during evacuation with simultaneous reduction of energy consumption due to the temporary reduction
of fan rotational speed (capacity). Additionally iSWAY-FCR units may be used in continuous operation mode
to ventilate industrial buildings staircases e.g. heat gains removal.
iSWAY-FCR unit switches to the operation mode after receiving Fire Alarm Signal from fire alarm control and
indicating equipment (CSAP). Air supply fan is activated with a time delay required to open the shut off damper
located in the Fan Module (MW). Opening of shut off damper is realized by means of the return spring after
cutting off power supply of an actuator. By the time the air supply fan is activated shut off air damper shall be
open. In operation mode (pressurization) pressure difference is continuously controlled by means of air supply
rotational speed and damper position regulation.
In Operation Mode smoke presence in the housing is also monitored. In case of smoke detection unit
is automatically switched off or pressurization is continued with a use of second air intake Dual Air Intake
System (DAIS) Module. Smoke detection alarm is indicated at the Control Panel (TSS) of iSWAY-FC unit.

Operating modes
1. Stand-by Mode: shut off air damper is closed, control air damper open;
2. Operation Mode: after receiving Fire Alarm Signal from fire alarm control and indicating equipment (CSAP)
power supply of shut off damper actuator is decayed and damper is opened by means of the return spring, air
supply fan is activated with set time delay, two stage automatic pressure regulation is carried out by means
of frequency inverter and motorized air damper operating as a pressure controller.

version 5.1.4

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125

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Dimensions and weights

Fig. 10.

External dimensions of iSWAY-FCR series units

Table 1.

Specification of iSWAY-FCR series dimensions and weights

iSWAY-FCR series dimensions and weights

Size

1
2

H1

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[mm]

[kg]

2300
2600

1400
1700

1300
1500

1200
1400

1100
1200

1200
1400

1100
1300

1000
1300

Operating parameters
Table 2.

Specification of iSWAY-FCR series units operating parameters

iSWAY-FCR series units operating parameters


Type

Capacity
3

1.21
1.23
1.27
2.33
2.43
2.54

[ m /h ]

21 000
23 000
27 000
33 000
43 000
54 000

Static pressure

[Pa]

250
250
250
250
250
250

Supply
voltage

Active
power

Apparent
power

[V]

[kW]

[kVA]

3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400
3x400

5,4
7,3
9,6
9,6
14
18,7

6
8,1
10,7
10,7
15,6
20,7

Current unit
protection

Suggested
protection

Weight

FWC-16A10F
FWC-16A10F
FWC-20A10F
FWC-20A10F
FWC-32A10F
FWC-40A14F

gG 20 A
gG 20 A
gG 25 A
gG 25 A
gG 40 A
gG 50 A

[kg]
670
680
685
930
955
970

NOTE: Given powers assuming that =0,9 and cos=0,98

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCR unit with ARC/4-800-400 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig. 11.

iSWAY-FCR 1.21 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCR unit with ARC/4-800-550 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 12.

iSWAY-FCR 1.23 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCR unit with ARC/4-800-750 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 13.

iSWAY-FCR 1.27 characteristics

version 5.1.4

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127

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Characteristics - continuation

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCR unit with ARC/4-1000-750 fan

airflow [m /h]

Fig. 14.

iSWAY-FCR 2.33 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCR unit with ARC/4-1000-1100 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 15.

iSWAY-FCR 2.43 characteristics

static pressure [Pa]

iSWAY-FCR unit with ARC/4-1000-1500 fan

airflow [m3/h]

Fig. 16.

128

iSWAY-FCR 2.54 characteristics

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Housing versions
Internal assembly version
Left access side

Internal assembly version


Right access side
Elastic connector

Elastic connector

Air outlet

Air inlet

Air outlet

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

External assembly version


Left access side

External assembly version


Right access side
Air intake turn

Elastic connector
Roof panel

Roof panel

Air outlet

Air outlet
Air inlet

Air inlet

Elastic connector

Elastic connector

Fig. 17.

iSWAY-FCR unit housing versions

Electrical connections diagrams


WIRING
Schematic
mark

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FC unit

Table 2

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FC unit)
Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads

Table 2
Unit

Monitoring room

Cable A1

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Fig. 18.

Block diagram of electrical connections between single iSWAY-FCR unit and Control Panel (TSS)

version 5.1.4

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129

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Electrical connections diagrams - continuation

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room

WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCR unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCR )

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 19.

Block diagram of electrical connections between two iSWAY-FCR units and Control Panel (TSS-2)

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)
Differential static pressure
measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room

WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCR unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCR )

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 20.

130

Block diagram of electrical connections between three iSWAY-FCR units and Control Panel (TSS-3)

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version 5.1.4

iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Electrical connections diagrams - continuation

Key:
Control Panel (TSS)

Differential static pressure


measurement flexible PVC
tubing O6mm

Monitoring room

WIRING
Schematic
mark

Table 2

Automatic components electrical


connections

Cable
type

Guaranteed power supply 3x400V


of iSWAY-FCR unit

Table 2

Unit

Cable A1

Guaranteed power supply 1x230V


of Control Panel (TSS)
Power and control cables 24V:
(twin air intake, doubled iSWAY-FCR )

Cables:
Fire Alarm Signal (NC)
Unit operation (NO)
Failure (NC)
Analog signal (pressure 2-10V)
Control leads (fair-lead)
Control leads (indywidualny)

Fig. 21.

Block diagram of electrical connections between four iSWAY-FCR units and Control Panel (TSS-4)

NOTE: It is possible to connect iSWAY-FC, iSWAY-FCD and iSWAY-FCR within one pressure differential
system.

Assembly on-site
iSWAY-FCR units can be located at concrete floors (internal or external assembly) on the frame bearer with
vibroisolation. Where units are assembled on structural steelworks vibration damping mat shall be applied.
In case of rooftop location Big Foot roof support system shall be ensuring vibrations damping, unit leveling
which doesn't penetrate the roof surface.

Fig. 22. Rooftop assembly


with Big Foot support system

version 5.1.4

Fig. 23 Internal assembly


on concrete floor

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iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Assembly on-site continuation
By default each iSWAY-FCR unit is equipped with Control Panel (TSS) enabling change of operational
parameters settings as well as continuous monitoring of pressure difference and alarm signals.
Before unit is activated following operations shall be carried out:
iSWAY-FCR unit and ductworks connections assembly;
Control Panel (TSS) assembly on the fire brigades access level e.g. monitoring room;
Guaranteed power connections 3x400V;
electrical connections between iSWAY-FCR unit and the Control Panel (TSS) in accordance with SMAY
company guidelines;
- Fire Alarm Signal (SAP) connections;
- providing nominal air supply rate and air release paths from the fire floor in order to achieve design
parameters in terms of pressure difference and air velocities;
- pressure measurement points location in the pressurized, reference space, optionally in air supply duct and
connections to the appropriate pressure sensors.
-

After listed operations are finished SMAY company engineers perform initial start-up of the unit and operating
parameters calibration basing on the on-site measurements.
SMAY company provides full support at each stage of assembly works and start-up operations.

Twin air intake system


Pursuant to EN 12101-6:2007 European Standard:
Air intakes of pressure differential system shall always be located away from any potential fire hazards.
If possible air intakes shall be located on ground level (but away from basement smoke extraction openings)
to avoid contamination by smoke.
Where an air intake is not at roof level, a smoke detector shall be provided in the intake duct or within the
immediate vicinity of the supply ductwork in order to cause the automatic shut down of the pressure differential
system if substantial quantities of smoke are present in the supply. An override switch shall be provided for the
fire brigade purposes in accordance with 11.4.2.5
Where air intakes are positioned at roof level there shall be two air intakes, spaced apart and facing different
directions in such manner that they could not be directly downwind of the same source of smoke. Each inlet
shall be independently capable of providing the full air requirements of the system. Each inlet shall be protected
by an independently operated smoke control damper system in such a way that if one damper closes due
to a smoke contamination, the other inlet will supply the air requirements of the system without interruption.
The discharge point of a smoke ventilation duct shall be a minimum 1 m above the air intake and 5 m horizontally
from it. An override switch to reopen the closed damper and to close the open damper shall be provided for the
fire brigade use.
If iSWAY-FCD device is located at the roof level inside the housing smoke detector is provided. After smoke
detection in supply air pressurization device is automatically shut down. iSWAY-FCD device is also equipped
with an override switch pursuant to listed standard requirements.
Manual override switch shall be located in:
a) HVAC system or pressure differential system engine room or,
b) near the building entrance in location agreed-upon with fire brigade and e.g. monitoring room.

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iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Twin air intake system - continuation
Manual override switch shall be locked in ON position and designed in such manner that changing its position
to OFF shall require authorization (e.g. keyless lock).
Independent Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) offered by SMAY company consists of two motorized smoke dampers
protected against ambient conditions influence with inspection holes providing easy access for service
and maintenance.
Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) are offered in standard series of types corresponding to air intake ductwork
dimensions.
Straight duct

PS air damper
Mounting
plate

Seal

Inspection
hole
Actuator
Belimo BLE24

Junction box
Cable
gland

Sheet
metal section

PS air damper size

Size

Fig. 24.

Dual Air Intake System (DAIS) Module

iSWAY-FCD unit identification


Metal data plate with basic parameters of the device is located on the housing.

Type
S/N
Year
V
P

defines technical specification of the device e.g. FCR 1.21


serial number
year of manufacture
capacity of Air Supply Module (ASM) at given pressure D
p,
electric power of Air Supply Module (ASM), kW

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iSWAY-FCR - compact pressurization device with reversible axial flow fans


intended for high-rise building application
Accessories and order instructions
Orders shall be placed in accordance with following example:
iSWAY - <F>-<W>.<V>-<X><M><A>-<P><RAL>
Key:
<F>
<W>

unit type: FCR


unit size: 1 or 2

<V>

air supply fan capacity at static pressure 250 Pa:


21 fan capacity 21000 m3/h
23 fan capacity 23000 m3/h
27 fan capacity 27000 m3/h
3
33 fan capacity 33000 m /h
43 fan capacity 43000 m3/h
54 fan capacity 54000 m3/h

<X>

inspection panel access side:


R
right side
L
left side

<M>

unit location:
none inside the building (internal assembly)
O
outside the building (external assembly)

<A>

control system:
none standard control system
C
modified to control Dual Air Intake System (DAIS)
Y
primary unit control system
Z
redundant unit control system
S
custom-made control system

<P>

finish: *
none finish
SL
painted steel

<RAL>

selected RAL chart color (available for SL)

* option if not selected default values will be applied

Ordering iSWAY-FCR unit it is required to give code symbol in accordance with above instruction.
Additionally:
nominal pressure difference between pressurized space and the reference shall be defined
(optionally pressure difference between air supply duct and the reference);
exact location of the unit taking into consideration local on-site assembly requirements.
Order example:

iSWAY FCR 1.21 L O SL9010


nominal pressure difference 50 Pa , 5 pressurized lobbies,
electronically controlled air transfer flat roof bearer frame assembly
NOTE: In case of more than four units pressure differential system suggests application of Operating Conditions
Monitoring Device (MSPU) connected with Control Panel (TSS) to provide components integration and monitoring.

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