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Read the following passage. Then fill in the diagram with the information that you read.

The wolf is the ancestor of all domestic dogs. Evidence from Israel
indicates that humans domesticated wolves over 12,000 years ago.
Today, dogs and wolves exist as a separate species, even though
their genetic makeup is nearly identical. While most dogs bear little
physical resemblance to the wolf, dogs retain many behavioral

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characteristics common to wolves. Modern dogs display similarities


to wolves in social structures and in their displays of aggression.
The structure of the wolf pack can be seen amongst families of
dogs. Both species evolved as a group of social hunters who had to
work as a team to kill large animals. Wolves have hierarchical pack
structures, in which one wolf acts as the leader and other wolves are
expected to be submissive to the leader. Within families, the mother
and father are the alpha wolves, and pups are expected to obey.
Wolves form hierarchies not only within their families, but also within
their packs. Should they try to assert power, those at the bottom of
the scale of dominance risk being ostracized by pack leaders. The
hierarchy and teamwork of wolves can also be seen amongst dogs,
such as the sled-pulling Siberian huskies. The sled-driver acts as the
alpha male or female, giving instructions to the pack. The entire
group forms a pack hierarchy, wh'1ch is vital to the success of the
sled.
Both dogs and wolves are highly territorial and will show
aggressive behavior in order to assert power. Wolves and dogs
similarly curl their lips and snarl when attempting to intimidate or
threaten. Wolves may fight within their hierarchies, often until one wolf

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resemblance:
the state of being similar
to something
alpha wolf:
the wolf considered the
leader of the pack
ostracize:
to exclude from a group
territorial:
defensive of a particular
area

Inherent:
existing as a necessary
atlribute
belligerence:
the state of treating with
-disdain or aggression
bare:
to reveal or show

is severely injured. This struggle to show dominance is a common


theme in the history of both dogs and wolves. While domestication
could tame their wild natures to an extent, dogs have still retained
their inherent belligerence and suspicion of strangers, which humans
have learned to take advantage of for guarding, hunting, and sports.
While modern dogs do not howl in the same way that wolves do, their
vocal defense of territory shows many similarities to how wolves
defend their homes. Just as a, wolf bares its teeth and displays
aggression when threatened, a dog behaves similarly if it encounters
an unfamiliar or threatening animal.

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