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A Proposal in Strengthening 5 Elements of Corporate

Value, through Cultural and Transformational


Leadership Programs
As an effort in succeeding transformation at PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero)
Tisya Andriana Ramadhani
MBA student School of Business and Management
ITB
tisya.andriana@sbm-itb.ac.id

Yuni Ros Bangun


Associate Professor School of Business and Management

ITB
yuniros@sbm-itb.ac.id

Abstract PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) or Indonesian Railway


Enterprise is an Indonesian State Owned Company which provides railway
transportation for both, passengers and goods, which is currently
transforming to become more customer driven. To support this intention, a
new organization culture consisting of five values (integrity, professional,
safety, innovation, service excellence) is introduced. Therefore, a research
was conducted to help identify key drivers which could enhance the
implementation of these five values. Organizational culture traits, which
consist of adaptability, involvement, mision, and consistency; and
transformational leadership, consisting of idealized behavior, idealized
attribute, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and
intellectual stimulation were chosen as the observed variables that will be
tested towards these five values. Result showed that these two variables
does have a meaningful relationship towards the organizations five values.
From a more in-depth finding, it was then determined that mission,
adaptability, involvement (from cultural traits) serves as a key driver which
enhance the organizations five values. While inspirational motivation
(from transformational leadership), serves as a key driver in enhancing the
implementation of organization culture

those that are still in a formative stage. Even though it takes


time, a leader can have a dramatic impact on culture, and often
an organization culture profile will take upon the leadership
profile of its CEO (Denision Consulting, 2010). Since the
observed organization is undergoing a major transformation, a
transformational leadership style is more suitable and should
be adopted by all members of the organization (McShane and
Van Glinow, 2009).
According to the facts above, this research was conducted
to identify whether the characteristic of an effective
organization (involvement, consistency, mission, and
adaptability) and transformational leadership influence the
implementation of Indonesian Railway Enterprises new
values.

KeywordIndonesian Railway Enterprise, Corporate


Organization culture, Transformational leadership

A. Organizational Culture
As mentioned above, organization culture serves as an
organizations DNA template, which forges employee
behaviors, linking them the organizations business intent. A
strong organization culture potentially increases an
organizations success by serving three important functions:
(1) Control system, (2) Social glue, (3) Sense-making
(McShane and Van Glinow, 2009).
Base on the Denison Model, organization culture could be
a source of competitive advantage if it posses four cultural
traits, which are: involvement, consistency, adaptability, and
mission.
These four traits have shown to relate to
organizational effectiveness (Denison et.al, 2006). Detailed
explanation of the four traits could be seen as follow:
Adaptability: Able to translate business environment demands
into action. Measured by three indexes: creating change,
customer focus, organizational learning.
Mission: Able to define a meningful long-term direction for
the organization. Measured by three indexes: strategic diretion
& intent, goals & objectives, vision.
Consistency: Able to define the values and owns a system
that are the basis of a strong culture. Measured by three
indexes: core values, agreement, coordination & integration.
Involvement: Building employees capability, ownership, and
responsibility. Measured by: empowerement, team orientation,
capability development.

Value,

I. INTRODUCTION
In definition, organizational change or transformation is a
process of a planned or unplanned respond of organization
movement from its current state to a desired future state, with
a goal to find improvements within the organization in order
to create added value for its stakeholder (Jones, 2007). Surely,
such transformation will intersect with various elements of the
organization, such as: business processes, organizational
structure, technology, and organization culture.
An organization culture could be analogized as a DNA of
an organization. It could not be seen, yet it is a powerful
template that shapes what happens in a working environment
of an organization. It defines what is important and
unimportant for the organization and shapes how member
should behave and carry out work (McShane and Van Glinow,
2009; Haid et.al, 2010). Nowdays, organization culture is
seen as a source of competitive advantage, which links
behavior to strategy (Kaplan & Norton, 2004). Denison et.al
(2006) mentioned that an effective organization should at least
posses the following cultural traits: involvement, consistency,
mission, and adaptability.
One must also remember that the success or failure of
culture transformation is determined by its leader. Values and
assumption which a leader brings into an organization will
have a direct effect on the organizations culture, especially

Literature Review

B. Transformational Leadership
Bass (1990), defined transformational leaders as follow:
Transformational
leaders
inspires,
energize,
and
intellectually stimulate their employees.
Transformational leader also provides its follower with
motivation to perform hard work that is self rewarding, they
also make major changes in the way of doing business, human
resources management, overhaul the entire philosophy,
system, and culture of an organization (Ivancevich et.al,
2005). These kind of leader could be also be defined as agents
of change.
Transformational leadership is probably more appropriate to
be implemented when an organization is adapting to its
external environment and intend to become a strategy-focused
organization (Kaplan and Norton, 2004; McShane and Von
Glinow, 2009). Transformational leaders usually display
behaviors which are associated with a five transformational
styles:
Table 1 Styles and beavior of transformational leader
(Source: Bass and Avolio, 1994)
Transformational style
Idealized Behavior

Inspirational Motivation

Intellectual stimulation

Individualized
consideration

Idealized attributes

Leader Behavior
Talk about their most important values and
beliefs
Specify the importance of having a strong sense
of purpose
Consider the moral and ethical consequences of
decisions
Champion exciting new possibilities
Talk about the importance of trusting each other
Talk optimistically about the future
Talk enthusiastically about what needs to be
accomplished
Articulate a compelling vision of the future
Express confidence that goals will be achieved
Provide an exciting image of what is essential to
consider
Take a stand on controversial issue
Re-examine critical assumptions to question
whether they are appropriate
Seek differing perspectives when solving
problems
Get others to look at problems from many
different angles
Suggest new ways of looking at how to complete
assignments
Encourage non-traditional thinking to deal with
traditional problems
Encourage rethinking those ideas which have
never been questioned before
Spend time teaching and coaching
Treat others as individuals rather than just as
members of the group
Consider individuals as having different needs,
abilities
Help others to develop their strengths
Listen attentively to others concerns
Promote self development
Instill pride in others for being associated with
them
Go beyond their self-interests for the good of the
group
Act in ways that build others respect
Display a sense of power and competence
Make personal sacrifices for others benefit
Reassure others that obstacles will be overcome

II. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND METHODELOGY


A. Conceptual Framework
Based on previous literature, framework of this research
were develop by the following figure:

Background
Internal pressure
Poor financial
performance
Uneffective business
process

External pressure
PSO rate
Government regulation
Competitor

TRANSFORMATION

New vision and mission


New strategy
Supported by organizational
cultural change

Literature Review

Denison Organizational
Culture Survey

Leadership
Idealized Behavior

Involvement
Consistency

New Culture:
5 Nilai Utama

Idealized Attribute

Mission

Intellectual
Stimulation

Adaptability

Inspirational
Motivation
Individual
Consideration

Expected
outcome of
employee work
behavior

Gap

Current employee
work behavior

Propose suggestion to
strengthen
implementation of
5 Nilai Utama

Figure 1 Conceptual framework

As seen above, this research will examine organizational


traits which is based on the Denison Model and
transformational leadership style towards the implementation
of the five values in the daily work behavior of employee. If
proven that cultural traits and transformational leadership does
have a meanigful relationship towards these five values, a
more in-depth examination will be carried out to see which
specific indicator serves as a key driver and capture how well
these variables are applied in the organization itself. Results
of this study is expected to capture a gap between the desired
and current work behavior, as well to generate input to
minimize the existing gap and strengthen the implementation
of these five values.
B. Methodology
Gathering Data and Information
Initially, interviews were carried out with key personnels to
obtain a more insightful view on the organization. Second, a
quantitative approach was carried out to examine the social
phenomena among culture traits and transformational
leadership towards the five values. This second approach was
made possible using the help of a set of questionnaire as the
researchs instrument, which is measured using a Likert Scale
ranging from : Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Tend to
Disagree (3), Tend to agree (4), Agree (5), and Strongly Agree
(6).

Determining Number of Samples


A representative sample size was determined using the
Slovins formula as follow:

 =
 + 
n = sample size

N = population size

e = margin error

With an approximate population size of 1,300 and a 10%


margin error, the obtained number of required samples is 93
respondents. On actual the researcher distributes 150 set of
questionnaires and succesfully collected back 111.
Sampling Design
Initially, samplings were conducted through a stratified
random sampling, where an element of the population are
stratified in a more meaningful levels (Sekaran, 2003). In this
research the researcher divides this base on six main
direcorates and two additional supportive functions (Finance,
Technics, Operation, Human Capital, Safety and Security,
Railway Assets, and Strategic Planning & Business
Development. Once reaching each stratum, samples were
drawn using the simple random approach
Partial Least Square (PLS) as a Statistical Method
Partial Least Square (PLS) is an alternative technique,
besides covariance-based (CB), for SEM in analyzing the
causal-effect relations among latent variables which is based
on theoritical assumptions using empirical data (Kline, 2011).
For this research itself, the author choses the PLS-SEM
approach to explore and predict the relationship between the
observed latent variables (culture traits and transformational
leadership towards the organizations five values).
The PLS model used in this research could be viewed in
figure 2. Like any Structural Equational Modelling, a PLS
model consist of two components, which are the structural
model (indicated in a red box line) and measurement models
(indicated in a green box line). The structural model, or also
known also as the inner model, connects and shows the
relationship among the latent variables.
While the
measurement models, or often reffered as the outer model,
connects an associated observed indicator with its latent
variable (Hair et.al, 2011).

As we can see in figure 2, there are two types of indicators:


reflective and formative indicators. A reflective indicators are
those which are caused by the latent construct, while a
formative indicators are observed measures which causes the
latent construct.
In this research,culture traits and
transformational leadership are considered as a reflective
construct, while the five values are categorized as a formative
indicator.
Involvement

Mission

Culture
Traits

Consistency

Integrity
Professional

Adaptability
5 Elements
of
Corporate
Value

Inspirational
Motivation

Innovation
Safety

Transf.
Leader
s

Idealized
Attributes

Intellectual
Stimulation

Serv.
execellence
Idealized
Behaviour

Individual
Consideration

Figure 2 PLS Model

III. RESEARCH FINDING


A. Model Hypothesis
Research succesfully identifies that both variable resulted a
meaningful relationship (path coefficient > 0.2) towards the
five values. Based on evaluation criterion of a PLS-SEM,
These two items were proven to be reliable and valid.
Through bootstrapping, it was also confirmed that both
variables are significant towards the implementation of the
five values. Overall results of PLS modelling could be viewed
in figure 3.

Figure 3 Relationship model of cultural traits and transformational leadrship towards the five values

From figure 4, it could be seen that all factor loadings


resulted with values > 0.6, meaning that no indicator should be
deleted. From the structural model, cultural traits showed a
much stronger relationship towards 5 Nilai Utama (0.685),
than transformational leadership (0.212). Statistical results for
both measurement model and structural models could be
viewed in the following tables:
Table 2 PLS Result Confirming Reflective Indicators
Construct

Internal
Consistency
Realibility

Culture traits

0.894364

Transformational
Leadership

The Fornell-Larcker criterion


R2

Average
Variance
Extracted (AVE)

Largest
Squared
Correlation

0.679615

0.590406

0.709188

0.613123

relationship exist between transformational leadership and


culture traits. This was made possible by creating an alternate
PLS model.
This modification causes a change on the path modelling of
the latent constructs. Initially, as seen in figure 3, there were
two exogenous latent variables (culture traits and
transformational leadership), while in this modified model,
culture traits becomes an endogenous variable because it is
now a targeted construct which is trying to be explained by
transformational leaderhip. The complete model could be
seen as follow:

0.685
0.933372

Table 3 PLS Result Confirming Formative Indicators


Indicators
Integrity
Professional
Safety
Innovation
Service exellence

Significancy

Indicators
Loading

t-value
0.811
2.133
2.338
3.372
2.949

0.6929
0.7539
0.8037
0.85
0.8823

P
0.417
0.033
0.019
0.00075
0.003203

Table 4 Bootsrapping Result for Confirmin Structural Model


Construct

t-value

Culture traits
Transformational Leadership

8.455
2.255

3.62 x 10 -17
0.024

Table 2 consist assessed criterions for a reflective indicator.


The internal consistency showed result > 0.7, which is
acceptable; Convergent validity is measured by AVE which
resulted a value of 0.5, and is also considered acceptable; the
Fornell-Larcker criterion is use to test discriminant validity
and states that the AVE value for each construct should be
greater than the highest squared correlation estimates between
the observed constructs (Farrell & Rudd, 2009); result showed
that both constructs have AVE Values higher then their largest
square correlation.
Table 3 consist of assesed criterions for a formative
indicator. From all of the five indicators which constructs the
five values, only integrity which showed a non-significant
relationship (indicated in red figure). However, the author
does not see this as a problem, since the existance of these
values are not based on theories, but it is formed from a
critical corporate vales which is considered essential and
required in succeeding transformation process at all level of
organization.
Table 4 presents result for the overall structural model,
where culture traits (p<0.01) and transformational leadership
(p<0.05) showed significancy towards the five values. This
model also resulted a value of R2 of 0.685, which indicates
that 68.5% of the five values could be explained by both
culture traits and transformational leadership, and is
considered substantial (Henseler et.al, 2009).
B. Alternate Model
Initially, the author assumed that there should be a strong
relationship between transformational leadership traits with
the implementation of the five values, but this study showed a
different result.
Compared to the culture traits,
transformational leadership showed a weaker relation.
Eventually, the author then decided to seek whether a

Figure 4 Alternate PLS Model

It could be seen that the R2 value of transformational


leadership towards culture traits is 0.349 or 34.9%, which is
considered moderate. This shows that 34.9% of culture traits
could be explained by transformational leadership. The path
coefficient of 0.59 indicates a meaningful path coefficient
towards the endogenous variable. Via bootstraping, the tvalues of 7.397 (figure in paranthese) also gave significancy
with p < 0.05.
As seen above, a more stronger relationship is formed
between culture traits and the five values, than with
transformational leadership. As seen from the alternate model
(figure 5), transformational leadership has a more stronger
relationship with cultural traits, than it does with the
organizations five values.
From these findings, the author then conducted a more indepth examination on: (1) determining which specific
indicators from cultural traits which serves as a key driver
towards the implementation of the five values, and at the same
time rank them from the strongest to the weakest, (2)
determining which specific indicators from transformational
leadership which serves as a key driver towards the
implementation of the five values, and at the same time rank
them from the strongest to the weakest.
C. In-depth Examination
A more in-depth examination was carried out to sort out
impacts coming from each indicators towards their targeted
variables. Prior the analysis, a two step evaluation was carried
out for both, measurement and structural model(s). The
structural results obtained from the in-depth examination for
both culture traits and transformational leadership could be
seen in the following table:

0.442

Significant

Adaptability

0.306

Significant

Involvement

0.263

Significant

-0.023

Non-significant

Consistency

Transformational Leadership  Culture Traits


Path
Significancy
coefficient
test

Indicator
Inspirational
Motivation
Individualized
Consideration

0.377

Significant

0.193

Non-significant

Idealized Behavior

0.09

Non-significant

Idealized Attribute

0.011

Non-significant

Remarks
Meaningful
relationsip
Non-meaningful
relationship
Non-meaningful
relationship
Non-meaningful
relationship

Table 4 shows result obtained from the in-depth


examination. From the cultural traits, only consistency which
did not gave a significant result. Mission (0.442), adaptability
(0.306), and involvement (0.263), respectively showed a
meaningful path coefficient. From the significancy test, it was
also proven that these three items are significant, and could be
concluded as the key drivers in enhancing the implementation
of the five values.
Whereas from the five indicators of transformational
leadership, only inspirational motivation which showed a
meaningful relationship towards culture traits, with a path
coefficient of 0.377. While the other four, intellectual
stimulation; individualized consideration; individualized
attributes; and idealized behaviour, resulted a path coefficient
bellow 0.2, which indicates a weak relationship (in red bold
figures). In addition, from the bootstraping test, it was
statistically proven that only inspirational motivation which
showed significany towards culture traits. Therefore, it could
be concluded that inspirational motivation serves as a key
driver towards the implementation of culture traits
D. Descriptive Analysis of Culture Traits and
Transformational Leadership
After succesfully identifying the key drivers, a descriptive
analysis was carried out to capture the actual implementation
of these key drivers. It is expected that one could map out
such potential. Descrptive analysis for these key drivers were
obtained from respondent assesment measured by the research
instrument, and could be seen as follow:

Tend to be Tend to be
weak
strong

64.11%

Mision

69.42%

Adaptability

70.65%

Involvement

Strong

76.58%

10

20

30

40

50

60

0.6
(0.422)
(0.377)
(0.306)

0.3
(0.263)

0
Very Weak

Weak

Tend to be
Weak

Tend to be
Strong

Strong

Very Strong

Implementation
Remarks:
: Inspirational Motivation
: Involvement
: Adaptability
: Mission

Figure 6 Mapping of key drivers

As seen above, inspirational motivation is categorized as


tend to be weak with a moderate path coefficient of 0.33.
Therefore, the organization should at least pay some attention
to carry out improvements for this specific key indicator. As
for the three culture traits, was assesed as tend to be strong,
where respectively mission trait has the strongest path
coefficient (0.442), followed by adaptability (0.306) and last
in place is involvement trait (0.263). The author then
concluded that the organization should maintain all aspects
that is measured by mission, adaptability, and involvement
trait. These results then becomes the basic fundamental in
delivering a business solution.
IV. BUSINESS SOLUTION
Business solution is delivered to improve the organizations
actual condition, where description of the actual condition was
obtained from an interview with one of the human capital
special staff.
A. Proposed Improvements for Inspirational Motivaion
Trait

Key Drivers Assesment Result


Inspirational Motivation

1.0

Path Coefficient

Mission

Remarks
Meaningful
relationsip
Meaningful
relationsip
Meaningful
relationsip
Non-meaningful
relationship

Weak

Indicator

As seen in figure 5, it could be seen that inspirational


motivation falls in the category of tend to be weak, while the
three culture traits (mission, adaptability, and involvement)
falls in the category of tend to be strong. These results were
then mapped in a modified importantce matrix made by the
author. Where the four key drivers are plotted based on
respondents assesment, ranging from very weak to very
strong, and the strength of each path coefficients.
Substantial

Culture Traits  Five Values


Path
Significancy
coefficient
test

Moderate

Table 5 Summarized In-depth Analysis Result

70

80

90 100

Figure 5 Overall Key Drivers Assesment Result

Table 6 Improvements for inspirational motivation trait


Actual Condition
It was admitted that not all leaders in the
organization understands the importance
of putting extra attention on subordinates
development, aside from formal work
relationship

Proposed Solution
Do not hesitate to get close with
subordinates and shower them with
inspiration stories, perhaps historical
stories of the organization, or words
Energize subordinates by being
optimistic in viewing the future
Express confidance that goals are
achievable
Provide an exciting image of what will
be achieved and what actions are
essential to achieve this state
Routinely schedule a one-to-one
moment
for
coaching
and/or
mentoring session

As seen in table 6, it was clearly stated that those who


occupies a leader or supervisory position has little
consideration on the importance of inspiring its subordinates.
They do not realize that having an inspired subordinates will
lead them to greater benefits, where subordinates will make
more of a contribution to the organization (Bass, 1990).
However, transformational leadership is also a learnable
process, where such qualities could be learned from leadership
trainings and/or workshops (Bass, 1990; Hall et.al, 2002).
One of the well-known transformational leadership
development is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire
(MLQ), developed by Bernard M. Bass. The organization
could adopt this concept where participants will recieve
theories related to inspirational motivation and other
leadership styles, undergo a series of skill-building exercise to
improve their leadership effectiveness, create a development
plan to improve and forge an effective leadership style (Hall
et.al, 2002)
B. Maintaining
the
Mission,
Adaptability,
and
Involvement Trait
This section will focus more on maintaining the three traits
of mission, adaptability, and involvement, where maintainance
could be carried out by:
Mission

Involvement
Table 9 Maintaining the involvement trait
Actual Condition
Team Orientation:
Team work is carried out in a situational
manner, where an individu knows how
and when to use team work in
completing a certain work
Capability Development:
PT. KAI states that theyre commited in
developing employess capability, where
members of the organization is
encouraged to participate in soft and
hard skills trainings, which is monitored
using an SAP and will automatically
link this to employees historical of
training. In the future, an individus
career path and promotion will also
depend on its training experience

Proposed Solution
Capability Development:
In order to provide a more well
targeted development program, the
organization should asses their
employee based on skill and
knowledge towards organization
demands. At the same time,
employees should also get the chance
to conduct self-assesment to identify
area of improvements. Therefore it
is expected that the organization will
develop the right people concerning
the right area of improvements.

C. Additional Solution
Basically, all the four key drivers are basically an
expression of desired behaviors that should be possesed by all
members of the organization. The author believes that such
tools which could accommodate the implementation of these
desired behaviors in the employees daily work behavior is by
using the 360-degree feedback process. In line with the
authors findings, it is best if theorganization considers to
include the four key drivers into their list of competency.

Table 7 Maintaining the mission trait

Actual Condition
The organizations vision and
mission is translated into a five year
long-term plan and is continously
broken down into a yearly agenda,
and finally translated specifically
base on each direcotrates business
performance.
Every two weeks an executive
meeting is held, consisting of
Executive
(BOD),
head
of
operational area (DAOP), head of
division (Kadiv), Executive Vice
President
Every three month every directorate
is required to provide accountability
report base on their budget and
performance
If required and necessary, results of
meeting will be socialized to staff

Proposed Solution
Coordination meetings should aslo
be carried to the lower level of
employees, so that all strategic
directions and intent
will be
rooted and could be carried out by
all level of organizations member
At each coordination meeting it is
a strongly required that every
member of the directorate is
assigned with a certain objectives,
which links with the organizations
objectives, depending on his or her
role
Do not forget to show appreciation
to those whove successfully
complete his or her assigned goals

Adaptability
Table 8 Maintaining the adaptability trait
Actual Condition
Creating change:
To keep up with the organizations
external condition, the organization has
a public relation division which collects
external information which influence
the organization performace, and is
usually published in the organizations
monthly tabloid Kontak and its eoffice
Customer Focus:
Customer insight is usually obtained
from a yearly survey and/or by
collecting data from the organizations
call center
Organizational Learning:
The spirit of innovation is currently
monitored using a performance appraisal
called SIMAK, where a manager or those
who occupy a supervisory posistion will set
an agreement with his and her employee on
how to be innovative in their daily work life

Proposed Solution
Creating change:
Not
only
carrying
out
documentations
for
external
informations and/or occasion
which influence the organizations
performance, a discussion or
conversation related to these topics
should be mentioned in employees
work life, either in a one-to-one or
group condition
Organizational Learning:
Stimulate innovation and learning
by carrying out internal contest or
compettion, related to business
improvement
Adopt the philosophy of "forgive
and remember" where mistakes are
not to be punished but is seen as an
opportunity to learn and develop
skills

V. CONCLUSION & FURTHER SUGGESTION


A. Conclusion
The observed research variables, culture traits and
transformational leadership, is proven to have a
meaningful relationship with the organizations five values
(path coefficients > 0.2)
However, a stronger relationship with the five values exist
for culture traits, which is indicated by a path coefficient of
0.685, while a path coefficient of 0.212 exist for
transformational leadership Through an alternate model,
the author also discovered that transformational leadership
has a much stronger relation with culture traits, indicated
by path coefficient of 0.59
From a more in-depth examination, mission (0.442);
adaptability (0.306); and involvement (0.263), of the
cultural traits, showed significancy towards the five values.
While inspirational motivation (0.377), showed
significancy towards cultural traits
B. Further Suggestion
As this is more of an exploratory research to determine key
drivers to strengthen the implementation of the five values, the
author then strongly suggest that further studies should be
carried out for a more wider impact towards the organization.
This could be carried out by examining and linking culture
traits and transformational leadership with the organizations
business performance and customers satisfaction.
In addition, for a more sustainable implementation, the
organization should also conduct a year-to-year survey to keep
track the implementation of these five values in the daily work
life of organizations member.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This paper is written based on the authors final project at
MBA ITB supervised by M.Yuni Ros Bangun , who has been
relentlessly motivating the author to accomplish the final
project. The author would like to thank you to PT Kereta Api
Indonesia (Persero) where the final project has taken place.
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AUTHOR
Bangun,Y.R. Associate Professor at School of Business
Management, Institute of Technology Bandung. BandungIndonesia.
(e-mail: yuniros@sbm-itb.ac.id)
Rengganis,R. MSM student at School of Business Management,
Institute of Technology Bandung. BandungIndonesia. (e-mail:
renni.rengganis@sbm-itb.ac.id)
Fransiska,Y. MSM student at School of Business Management,
Institute of Technology Bandung. BandungIndonesia. (e-mail: