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Tantengco, Mary May

ChE 516 N

BS ChE 5

Tutorial 9
Cascade Control
Description:
The tutorial gives a series of exercises on the proper design of cascade controls, which can dramatically
improve the performance of feedback control systems, when it is designed and implemented correctly.
The first exercise is about determining whether the cascade control was possible in the design of furnace
coil outlet temperature control. If it not properly designed, appropriate changes must be made. The same
thing is done with the second exercise but this time; bottoms composition analyzer control for distillation
was designed. The last two exercises are about choosing the correct characteristics of primary and
secondary variable sensors.
Generalization:
Cascade is possible only if it meets the cascade design criteria. For the first exercise, which is the furnace
coil outlet temperature control, in fuel supply pressure, cascade is better. The flow controller will
compensate for the disturbance. Whether the secondary corrects for the complete disturbance depends on
the flow sensor. In an orifice meter, the density changes with pressure. Therefore, maintaining the flow
measurement (P) constant does not maintain the actual flow constant. The mass flow rate can be
measured by a mass flow meter, such as a coriolos meter. The total heat release depends on the mass flow
rate for light gas hydrocarbon fuels without hydrogen. Therefore, maintaining mass flow rate constant
will completely compensate for pressure changes. Cascade control with mass flow control would perform
better than with an orifice meter. However, the mass flow meter will be more costly. The density of the
liquid does not depend on the pressure. Therefore, the orifice meter provides a good measurement. In
terms of fuel density composition, cascade is better. In terms of feed temperature, cascade is neither better
nor worse.
For a cascade control design, the sensor for the secondary variable should provide good reproducibility. A
sensor with good reproducibility is often less expensive than a highly accurate sensor. For a cascade
control design, the sensor for the primary variable should provide good accuracy. Nothing can correct
errors in the primary sensor. Therefore, the primary sensor must achieve the accuracy needed for the
process application.
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Tantengco, Mary May

ChE 516 N

BS ChE 5

Tutorial 10
Feedforward Control
Description:
The tutorial is about feedforward control. In the exercises provided, a process is shown and we are asked
to determine whether feedforward control is possible, whether it will improve dynamic performance

and tasked to sketch the feedforward control on the figures provided. The first one is a heat
exchanger with bypass flow and the second one is a packed bed chemical reactor with feed
composition disturbance. The third exercise requires us to decide when to use a feedforward
control given three different cases. The following exercises are about a characteristic of a
feedforward sensor.
Generalization:

Feedforward adds a new control approach that can significantly improve dynamic performance
when properly designed and implemented. In a heat exchanger with bypass valve, feedforward
control is not recommended because the feedback dynamics are very fast. Feedback performance
is expected to be very good. Another thing is one valve can split the flow in two different paths,
while the total flow does not have to be changed. In a packed bed chemical reactor with feed
composition disturbance, feedforward is possible.
We can measure many events that affect world energy prices, such as discoveries of oil and gas,
wars, political conflicts, and so forth. If we act quickly, we might gain an advantage.
Feedforward could provide over feedback after energy prices change.
For feedforward control (used in conjunction with feedback), the sensor for the disturbance
variable should provide good reproducibility. Feedback would correct for a bias in the
feedforward sensor. Feedforward only needs to correct for changes in the measured disturbance
variable.
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Tantengco, Mary May

ChE 516 N

BS ChE 5

Tutorial 11
Level and Inventory Control
Description:
Basically, the exercises in the tutorial are about level and inventory control e.g. the amount of
feed material that needs to be stored, the type of level control that must be used etc.
Generalization:
Inventory increases the flexibility in operating the plant. When the plant has large feed
inventories, we can change the selection of feed materials at any time and feed the plant at any
rate. Thus, large feed inventory (along with large feed storage capacities) improves operability. A
large inventory of material can have the following disadvantages: (a) requires expensive land (b)
Requires expensive storage facilities (c) Increases working capital, i.e., money that is invested
in material that does not contribute to profit. When the plant is shut down, this capital is
recovered, but the potential profit from investing this money is lost during the operation of the
plant. (d) Can result in degradation of quality during storage (e) can increase fire and other
hazards.
Two commonly used methods for measuring liquid levels are:
1. The pressure difference between two locations in the vessel.
2. The change level in a side chamber, which is measured by a float position or the weight of a
metal object that is immersed in the liquid.

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