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ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS GUIDE (2014-2015)

M.E.D.-2
Sustainable Development: Issues and Challenges
Disclaimer/Special Note: These are just the sample of the Answers/Solutions to some of the Questions given in the
Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
may be seen as the Guide/Help Book for the reference to prepare the answers of the Question given in the assignment. As
these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.
SECTION I
Q. 1. Explian the concept and dimensions of sustainable develoment.
Ans. The concept of sustainability first appeared in the first World Conservation Strategy published by the World
Conservation Unit in 1980. The proposed definition of sustainable development was:
Sustainable Development: Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life support systems, the preservation
of genetic diversity and the sustainable utilisation of species and eco-systems.
The Brundtland Report: These early definitions emphasised the concepts of critical natural capital and biological
diversity and made little or no reference to the economic and social pillars of sustainability. Seven years later, in 1987 the
Brundtland Report described sustainability as:
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs.
Deliberately, the Brundtland definition was not very strict. Nevertheless, it introduced important key concepts that
have continued to influence the use of the concept. The Brundland definition thus addresses inter-generational and
development issues and builds on a recognition of the concept of limitations on the environments ability to met present
and future needs. Following the Brundtland Report, the term sustainable development started entering the vocabulary of
policy planners and policy-makers. Reflecting this, by the mid 1990s, the definitions of sustainable development began to
involve the simultaneous pursuit of economic, social and environmental objectives.
However, this move was not accompanied by criteria and guidelines on how to handle the three dimensions. Rather,
a win-win approach was increasingly advocated in which all three dimensions are comprehensively integrated and tradeoffs are avoided to the extent possible.
The three-dimensional conceptualization thus offered various actors and institutions the opportunities for a fairly
wide scope of interpretation and use of the sustainability dimensions. As a consequence, various academic disciplines, in
particular environmental economics, sought to set up more binding and measurable definitions of the sustainability concept.
Traditional economic disciplines tend however to focus most on the relation between environment and economics. Along
with the development of the definition of sustainable development, procedural aspects gained prominence as well. In
terms of process, sustainable development is perceived less as an ultimate outcome and more as a pathway to change.
Thereby, more emphasis is put on factors that influence decision making such as organisational culture, availability of
information, the rationality of decision-making, and the use of impact assessment tools. The EU SDS is, in fact, a good
example of a document with much emphasis on the procedural aspects.
Groundwater is an example of renewable resources. These resources are replenished by nature as in the case of crops
and plants. However, even these resources may be overused. For example, in the case of groundwater, if we use more than
what is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resource. Non-renewable resources are those which
will get exhausted after years of use. We have a fixed stock on earth which cannot be replenished. We do discover new
resources that we did not know of earlier. New sources in this way add to the stock. However, over time, even this will get
exhausted.

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The term sustainable development gives scope for wide range of interpretation, but it broadly encompasses aspects of
utilising sources in a judicious way such that they can endure in the longer run. The term includes, besides economic
development, providing of genetic diversity, maintaining biological productivity and addressing social considerations.
One can say a resource is to be used avoiding depletion and considering renewability as well as economic ramification.
Human aspirations are in conflict with these aspects resulting in imbalances leading to large-scale depletion of natural
resources.
The concept of sustainable development has been defined in many ways and this often makes it difficult to understand.
The well-known definition provided in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Development is Development
that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable development can also be thought of as development that brings together social, environmental and economic
objectives.
Economy
Environment
Society
The concept of sustainable development first appeared in the first World Conservation Strategy published by the
World Conservation Union (IUCN) in 1980. The strategy argued from a largely environmental standpoint and emphasised
the need to invent and apply patterns of development which conserve those resources that are essential for human survival
and well-being.
The proposed definition of sustainable development was:
Sustainable Development: Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life support systems the preservation
of genetic diversity and the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems (IUCN, 1980).
This definition thus emphasised the need to maintain critical natural capital along with biological diversity. It made
little or no reference to the economic and social dimensions of sustainability.
Environmental Sustainability: This relates with maintenance of carrying capacity of natural resource base and life
support systems. This emphasizes on area of conservation of biodiversity hotspots, increase in forest cover, watershed
protection, and adoption of holistic approach. Equally important are reduction of environmental threats, environmental
pollution and adoption of environment friendly clean and green technologies to mitigate local to global level environmental
problems such as biodiversity loss, climate change from an inter-generational equity perspective.
Economic Sustainability: This provides basically important energy source like a battery to secure environmental
and social sustainability. This emphasizes on promotion of economic self-sustenance of development projects through
measures like adequate budgeting, budget transparency and financial incentive. The focus area includes; alleviation of
poverty, increase in per capita income, promotion of income generating activities including off farm employment and
green micro-enterprises, establishment of mechanism of fair sharing of benefit and natural resource accounting.
Social Sustainability: This focuses on upgrading human environmental quality of life with fulfilment of basic needs
and transforming human from most dangerous animal to most important creative resource. It emphasizes local communities
be well informed on tips of sustainable ways of resource utilization. Ensure active public participation at various level of
development activity as well as fair sharing of responsibility of benefit as user groups. Collaborative effort in conservation
and development activities, improvement in public health, education and basic need, reduction of conflict among
stakeholders on resource use. This will be derived through upgrading public environmental awareness. Enhanced gender
equity and self-confidence among local community with an emphasis on economically disadvantaged/marginalized groups.
Institutional Sustainability: Plans and programmes without action represent futile exercise. Strict implementation
and monitoring of relevant environmental policies, plans, laws, regulations and standards is indispensable to attain the
goal of sustainable development. There should be adequate skilled and motivated manpower and strong institutional
capacity to address environmental and social sustainability. Focus area lies to achieve environmental quality of life such
as reduced air, water soil, noise pollution to accepted level of international standard and public confidence to get involved
in environmental conservation activities. Institutional strengthening of project management should be efficient to deal
environmental problems having local, national, regional to global level significance and including legally binding world
conventions and treaties.
Q. 3. Discuss the various paramentrs to be considered for assessing sustainable development.
Ans. Sector-wise Parameters Of Sustainable Development
The goal of sustainable development is an outcome achieved through joint effort among several interrelated parameters and requiring coordination at both vertical and horizontal levels. There exists dynamic triangular relationship among

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three key Environmental, Economic and Social parameters. The people centred social parameter form the broad base of
triangle as active public participation holds an instrumental role. The interrelationship between population, environment
and development is complex. Besides key factors, efficient manpower capacity building, institutional strengthening,
including strong political will and effective implementation/ monitoring mechanism play equally important roles for
successful outcome of the sustainable development. Particularly, these can be dealt as environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, social sustainability, and institutional sustainability.
Environmental Sustainability: This relates with maintenance of carrying capacity of natural resource base and life
support systems. This emphasizes on area of conservation of biodiversity hotspots, increase in forest cover, watershed
protection, and adoption of holistic approach. Equally important are reduction of environmental threats, environmental
pollution and adoption of environment friendly clean and green technologies to mitigate local to global level environmental
problems such as biodiversity loss, climate change from an inter-generational equity perspective.
Economic Sustainability: This provides basically important energy source like a battery to secure environmental
and social sustainability. This emphasizes on promotion of economic self-sustenance of development projects through
measures like adequate budgeting, budget transparency and financial incentive. The focus area includes; alleviation of
poverty, increase in per capita income, promotion of income generating activities including off farm employment and
green micro-enterprises, establishment of mechanism of fair sharing of benefit and natural resource accounting.
Social Sustainability: This focuses on upgrading human environmental quality of life with fulfilment of basic needs
and transforming human from most dangerous animal to most important creative resource. It emphasizes local communities
be well informed on tips of sustainable ways of resource utilization. Ensure active public participation at various level of
development activity as well as fair sharing of responsibility of benefit as user groups. Collaborative effort in conservation
and development activities, improvement in public health, education and basic need, reduction of conflict among
stakeholders on resource use. This will be derived through upgrading public environmental awareness. Enhanced gender
equity and self-confidence among local community with an emphasis on economically disadvantaged/marginalized groups.
Institutional Sustainability: Plans and programmes without action represent futile exercise. Strict implementation
and monitoring of relevant environmental policies, plans, laws, regulations and standards is indispensable to attain the
goal of sustainable development. There should be adequate skilled and motivated manpower and strong institutional
capacity to address environmental and social sustainability. Focus area lies to achieve environmental quality of life such
as reduced air, water soil, noise pollution to accepted level of international standard and public confidence to get involved
in environmental conservation activities. Institutional strengthening of project management should be efficient to deal
environmental problems having local, national, regional to global level significance and including legally binding world
conventions and treaties.
Indicators can provide crucial guidance for decision-making in a variety of ways. They can translate physical and social
science knowledge into manageable units of information that can facilitate the decision-making process. They can help to
measure and calibrate progress towards sustainable development goals. They can provide an early warning, sounding the
alarm in time to prevent economic, social and environmental damage. They are also important tools to communicate ideas,
thoughts and values because as one authority said, We measure what we value, and value what we measure.
Agriculture
Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fibre productivity soared
due to new technologies, mechanization, increased chemical use, specialization and government policies that favored
maximizing production. These changes allowed fewer farmers with reduced labour demands to produce the majority of
the food and fiber in the U.S.
Although these changes have had many positive effects and reduced many risks in farming, there have also been
significant costs. Prominent among these are topsoil depletion, groundwater contamination, the decline of family farms,
continued neglect of the living and working conditions for farm laborers, increasing costs of production, and the
disintegration of economic and social conditions in rural communities.
A growing movement has emerged during the past two decades to question the role of the agricultural establishment
in promoting practices that contribute to these social problems. Today, this movement for sustainable agriculture is garnering
increasing support and acceptance within main-stream agriculture. Not only does sustainable agriculture address many
environmental and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, laborers,
consumers, policy-makers and many others in the entire food system.
Modern agriculture is a term used to describe the wide majority of production practices employed by Americas
farmers. The term depicts the push for innovation, stewardship and advancements continually made by growers to sustainably

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produce higher-quality products with a reduced environmental impact. Intensive scientific research and robust investment
in modern agriculture during the past 50 years has helped farmers double food production while essentially freezing the
footprint of total cultivated farmland.
The agriculture industry works with government agencies and other organisations to ensure that farmers have access
to the technologies required to support modern agriculture practices. Farmers are supported by education and certification
programs that ensure they apply agricultural with care and only when required.
Technological advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to help reduce their environmental footprint
and to make farming more sustainable.
New technologies have given rise to innovations like conservation tillage, a farming process which helps prevent
land loss to erosion, water pollution and enhances carbon sequestration.
Biotechnology and production technology advances are resulting in new genetic commodities and methods of
production. This trend is also impacting new production and processing technologies. In many circumstances, farmers
cannot afford to be left behind by not adopting the new technologies. At the same time, however, they cannot afford to
make the investments to adopt new technology. Farmers bear the risk of uncertainty about Genetically Modified Organisms
(GMOs) and a possible negative public reaction in case of a real, or imagined, danger to the food supply.
In the last 50 years, thanks to the Green Revolution, there has been a major shift with a major part of the population
consuming wheat and rice. These are high water utilizing, high fertilizer responsive, and high solar utilizing varieties.
Now, this major shift from millets to wheat and from millets to rice has led to deforestation in the plains. Millets and
pulses, grew under agro forestry system that is unsuitable for rice and wheat. The advent of green revolution, and the
construction of big dams, states subsidy for fertilizers, electricity, and for fertilizer responsive varieties led to large scale
research in high fertilizer prone and short duration varieties. In the same piece of land, three crops were cultivated per
year, leading to a high exploitation of ground water and high utilization of nitrogen fertilizers. This gave birth to the
emergence of pests and diseases.
The impact of agricultural policies on the sustainable use of natural resources is of growing national and international
concern, but governments are often uncertain as to the most effective set of policies to use.
Many farm policies put pressure on water and soil resources. The wide range of agri-environmental measures being
put in place by governments to address concerns about sustainability often simply offset pressures from other agricultural
policies. In particular, there is increasing uncertainty about policies designed to help alleviate and to respond to the effects
of climate change.
The way that crops are sold must be accounted for in the sustainability equation. Food sold locally does not require
additional energy for transportation (including consumers). Food sold at a remote location, whether at a farmers market
or the supermarket, incurs a different set of energy cost for materials, labour, and transport.
Plant Production Practices: Sustainable production practices involve a variety of approaches. Specific strategies
must take into account topography, soil characteristics, climate, pests, local availability of inputs and the individual
growers goals. Despite the site-specific and individual nature of sustainable agriculture, several general principles can be
applied to help growers select appropriate management practices:
Selection of species and varieties that are well suited to the site and to conditions on the farm;
Diversification of crops (including livestock) and cultural practices to enhance the biological and economic stability
of the farm;
Management of the soil to enhance and protect soil quality;
Efficient and humane use of inputs; and
Consideration of farmers goals and lifestyle choices.
Selection of site, species and variety: Preventive strategies, adopted early, can reduce inputs and help establish a
sustainable production system. When possible, pest-resistant crops should be selected which are tolerant of existing soil
or site conditions. When site selection is an option, factors such as soil type and depth, previous crop history, and location
(e.g. climate, topography) should be taken into account before planting.
Diversity: Properly managed, diversity can also buffer a farm in a biological sense. For example, in annual cropping
systems, crop rotation can be used to suppress weeds, pathogens and insect pests. Also, cover crops can have stabilizing
effects on the agroecosystem by holding soil and nutrients in place, conserving soil moisture with mowed or standing
dead mulches, and by increasing the water infiltration rate and soil water holding capacity. Cover crops in orchards and
vineyards can buffer the system against pest infestations by increasing beneficial arthropod populations and can therefore
reduce the need for chemical inputs. Using a variety of cover crops is also important in order to protect against the failure
of a particular species to grow and to attract and sustain a wide range of beneficial arthropods.

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Finally, feeding and marketing are flexible in animal production systems. This can help cushion farmers against trade
and price fluctuations and, in conjunction with cropping operations, make more efficient use of farm labour.
(a) Soil Management: A common philosophy among sustainable agriculture practitioners is that a healthy soil is a
key component of sustainability; that is, a healthy soil will produce healthy crop plants that have optimum vigor and are
less susceptible to pests. While many crops have key pests that attack even the healthiest of plants, proper soil, water and
nutrient management can help prevent some pest problems brought on by crop stress or nutrient imbalance. Furthermore,
crop management systems that impair soil quality often result in greater inputs of water, nutrients, pesticides, and/or
energy for tillage to maintain yields.
Efficient use of inputs: Many inputs and practices used by conventional farmers are also used in sustainable agriculture.
Sustainable farmers, however, maximize reliance on natural, renewable and on-farm inputs. For example, one grape
grower switched from tillage to a few applications of a broad spectrum contact herbicide in the vine row. This approach
may use less energy and may compact the soil less than numerous passes with a cultivator or mower.
Consideration of farmer goals and lifestyle choices: Management decisions should reflect not only environmental
and broad social considerations, but also individual goals and lifestyle choices. For example, adoption of some technologies
or practices that promise profitability may also require such intensive management that ones lifestyle actually deteriorates.
Management decisions that promote sustainability nourish the environment, the community and the individual.
(b) Animal Production Practices: In the early part of this century, most farms integrated both crop and livestock
operations. Indeed, the two were highly complementary both biologically and economically. The current picture has
changed quite drastically since then. Crop and animal producers now are still dependent on one another to some degree,
but the integration now most commonly takes place at a higher level--between farmers, through intermediaries, rather
than within the farm itself. This is the result of a trend toward separation and specialization of crop and animal production
systems. Despite this trend, there are still many farmers, particularly in the Midwest and Northeastern U.S. that integrate
crop and animal systems--either on dairy farms, or with range cattle, sheep or hog operations.
Even with the growing specialization of livestock and crop producers, many of the principles outlined in the crop
production section apply to both groups. The actual management practices will, of course, be quite different. Some of the
specific points that livestock producers need to address are listed below:
Animal Selection: Sustainable development, which has taken more importance over the years, is contributing to the
development of new systems of value and new stakes for the industry. Animal breeding must follow this evolution and
today those involved in selection must think about the animals we will need tomorrow.
Animal Nutrition: Determining the optimal use of farm-generated by-products is an important challenge of diversified
farming.
Breeding: Breeding objectives should be concerned with the individual producers interest, because the producers
primary reason for buying certain breeding stock at a certain price will be based on an assessment of how the animals will
contribute to the efficiency of a farm.
Herd Health: Different animals have very different grazing habits which on the surface may complement each other,
and they are susceptibel to different diseases and parasites, which may help with general herd health. However, while
some combinations of animals may compliment each other, others may not do so well in that regard.
Grazing Management: Humankind has historically fostered and relied upon livestock grazing for a substantial portion
of its livelihood because it is the only process capable of converting the energy in grassland vegetation into an energy source
directly consumable by humans. Bio-chemical constraints determine that herbivores function as energy brokers between
the solar energy captured by plants in the photosynthetic process and its subsequent use by humans. The inability of humans
to directly derive caloric value from the 19 billion metric tons of vegetation produced annually in tropical and temperate
grasslands and savannas provides the ultimate justification for evaluating grazing as an ecological process.
Confined Livestock Production: In many countries, cattle and other livestock are raised in confined quarters for at
least a part of their life cycle. Although this does not affect grasslands directly, it does have a tremendous environmental
impact. Livestock production on rangeland and in confined spaces can be sustainable, but it must be scaled back, according
to the Worldwatch Institute. To downsize this activity, rich countries have to reduce their meat consumption. A sustainable
system also requires a reintegration of livestock and crop production. Rangelands need to be managed with an ecosystem
approach, one that adjusts herd size to the carrying capacity of the land. Efforts are also needed to restore damaged
grasslands.
(c) Water:When the production of food and fiber degrades the natural resource base, the ability of future generations
to produce and flourish decreases. The decline of ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean region, Pre-

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Columbian southwest U.S. and Central America is believed to have been strongly influenced by natural resource degradation
from non-sustainable farming and forestry practices. In some areas, sufficient rainfall is available for crop growth, but
many other areas require irrigation. For irrigation systems to be sustainable they require proper management (to avoid
salinization) and must not use more water from their source than is naturally replenished, otherwise the water source
becomes, in effect, a non-renewable resource. Improvements in water well drilling technology and submersible pumps
combined with the development of drip irrigation and low pressure pivots have made it possible to regularly achieve high
crop yields where reliance on rainfall alone previously made this level of success unpredictable. However, this progress
has come at a price, in that in many areas where this has occurred, such as the Ogallala Aquifer, the water is being used at
a greater rate than its rate of recharge.
In California, an extensive water storage and transfer system has been established which has allowed crop production
to expand to very arid regions. In drought years, limited surface water supplies have prompted overdraft of groundwater
and consequent intrusion of salt water, or permanent collapse of aquifers. Periodic droughts, some lasting up to 50 years,
have occurred in California. Several steps should be taken to develop drought-resistant farming systems even in normal
years, including both policy and management actions: (1) improving water conservation and storage measures, (2) providing
incentives for selection of drought-tolerant crop species, (3) using reduced-volume irrigation systems, (4) managing
crops to reduce water loss, or (5) not planting at all.
(d) The Economic, Social and Political Context: In addition to strategies for preserving natural resources and
changing production practices, sustainable agriculture requires a commitment to changing public policies, economic
institutions, and social values. Strategies for change must take into account the complex, reciprocal and ever-changing
relationship between agricultural production and the broader society.
Relationships among these actors shift over time as new technologies spawn economic, social and political changes.
A wide diversity of strategies and approaches are necessary to create a more sustainable food system. These will
range from specific and concentrated efforts to alter specific policies or practices, to the longer-term tasks of reforming
key institutions, rethinking economic priorities, and challenging widely-held social values.
(e) Food and Agricultural Policy: Existing federal, state and local government policies often impede the goals of
sustainable agriculture. New policies are needed to simultaneously promote environmental health, economic profitability,
and social and economic equity. For example, commodity and price support programs could be restructured to allow
farmers to realize the full benefits of the productivity gains made possible through alternative practices. Marketing orders
and cosmetic standards could be amended to encourage reduced pesticide use.
By helping farmers to adopt practices that reduce chemical use and conserve scarce resources, sustainable agriculture
research and education can play a key role in building public support for agricultural land preservation. Educating land
use planners and decision-makers about sustainable agriculture is an important priority. The close proximity of newly
developed residential areas to farms is increasing the public demand for environmentally safe farming practices.
(f) Land use: Land use and land management practices have a major impact on natural resources including water,
soil, nutrients, plants and animals. Land use information can be used to develop solutions for natural resource management
issues such as salinity and water quality. For instance, water bodies in a region that has been deforested or having erosion
will have different water quality than those in areas that are forested.
The major effect of land use on land cover since 1750 has been deforestation of temperate regions. More recent significant
effects of land use include urban sprawl, soil erosion, soil degradation, salinization and desertification. Land-use change,
together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas.
(g) Labour: In terms of social standards and legal protections in other forms of employment, the condition of
agricultural labourers is far from satisfactory. To address this situation, policies and programmes are necessary for bringing
the change. The government must take care of labour for a sustainable development in the long-term.
(h) Rural Community Development: Family farms and rural communities are very important for sustainable
agriculture. For this purpose, a more diversified agricultural production on family farms should be encouraged. Sustainable
agriculture policies and practices would foster community institutions that meet not only employment needs but also
other needs as well.
(i) Consumers and the Food System: Consumers play a critical role in creating a sustainable food system through
their purchases. Consumers send strong messages to producers, retailers and others in the system about what they think is
important. Food cost and nutritional quality have always influenced consumer choices. The challenge now is to find
strategies that broaden consumer perspectives, so that environmental quality, resource use, and social equity issues are
also considered in shopping decisions. The food system extends far beyond the farm and involves the interaction of

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individuals and institutions with contrasting and often competing goals including farmers, researchers, input suppliers,
farmworkers, unions, farm advisors, processors, retailers, consumers, and policy-makers.
Sustainable Agriculture Indicators: Agricultural indicators are used to set the criteria for sustainable agriculture.
Following indicators and parameters are used for this purpose.
1. Soil fertility/health: These indicators include parameters such as soil organic carbon, number of beneficial
organisms, number of predatory mites and number of beneficial micro-organisms.
2. Soil loss: The indicators for soil loss cover soil erosion and soil oil cover index.
3. Nutrients: These indicators include balance of N/P/K over crop rotations, amount of inorganic Nitrogen (N)/
Phosphates (P)/ Potassium (K) applied, emissions of N-compounds to air and proportion of N fixed on site/
imported.
4. Pest Management: Percentage of crop under Integrated Pest Management (IPM), amount of pesticides (active
ingredient) applied and type pesticides applied.
5. Bio-diversity: The indicators for soil loss cover level of biodiversity off-site (cross-boundary effects) and level
of biodiversity on site: number of species; farm landscape; habitat for natural predator systems.
6. Local Economy: These indicators include employment level in local community, amount of money/profit
reinvested locally and percentage of goods/labour/services sourced locally.
Industry
On current trends and projections, there will be around 9 billion people by 2050. This underlines the ongoing problem
of overshoot and the stress we are placing on our planet.
Some signs of positive change can be seen in the willingness of companies partnering with, for example, WWF to
reduce their CO2 footprints with greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for the coming years.
Responsible Entrepreneurship: Responsible entrepreneurship means how to run a business in a way that enhances
its positive contribution to society whilst minimising negative impacts on people and the environment. It means the way
in which entrepreneurs interact with their stakeholders on a daily basis: customers and business partners in the marketplace,
employees in the workplace, the local community and the environment.
Corporate Environmental Management Tools: These tools integrate sustainable development with business and
contributes to the harmonisation of environmental regulation and enforcement.
Technology Cooperation: For a sustainable development effective technology cooperation from private sector is a
must. However, the protection of patents and intellectual property rights of the developer is also to be taken care of.
Industry and Freshwater: The way industry has started managing its own water it should bring awareness for the
use of fresh water among the business communities and agriculture.
Africa
To alleviate poverty promotion of industrial development on a sustainable basis is very important. Investment in
industry and the resultant increase in employment is necessary for improved environment.
Asia and Pacific
Small and medium enterprises are to be involved more directly. Stringent enforcement of relevant legislations regarding
unequal opportunities for men and women, violation of basic labour rights etc. is needed for a sustainable development.
Europe and North America
Industry is to be involved for sustainability. Implementation of new work and employment systems, cleaner technologies,
products and practices, and effective partnership structures must be brought in place for the growth of new business
models so that sustainable development can be promoted.
Latin America and the Caribbean
In this region, innovative financing, internal markets for value added products must be developed. At the same time,
modernisation and expansion is necessary for facing the international market competition.
West Asia
More small scale industries should be developed to face the large scale industries. It must be seen that the private
sector does not form monopolies or cause shortages of essential goods.
Service
Technological advances have brought many economic and industrial changes which in turn have led to the development
of a complex and integrated system.
Demand-driven and responsive
Institutional systems are to be established in the field of industry and agriculture. Access to databases of best practices

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for technology generation and dissemination is required in research. New information and communication technologies
would make extension services responsive.
Q.5. Explain the following in your own words:
(a) Eco-system approach.
Ans. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that
promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach
a balance of the three objectives of the convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies
focused on levels of biological organisation which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among
organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of
eco-systems.
Eco-system Means a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living
environment interacting as a functional unit. As described by the Conference of the Parties, the eco-system approach is
the primary framework for action under the convention. The Conference of the Parties, at its Fifth Meeting, endorsed the
description of the ecosystem approach and operational guidance and recommended the application of the principles and
other guidance on the Eco-system Approach. The seventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties agreed that the priority
at this time should be on facilitating implementation of the ecosystem approach and welcomed additional guidelines to
this effect.
The eco-system approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes
conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Thus, the application of the eco-system approach will help to reach
a balance of the three objectives of the convention: conservation; sustainable use; and the fair and equitable sharing of the
benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources.
An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of
biological organisation, which encompass the essential structure, processes, functions and interactions among organisms
and their environment. It recognises that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of many ecosystems.
This focus on structure, processes, functions and interactions is consistent with the definition of eco-system provided
in Article 2 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Eco-system means a dynamic complex of plant, animal and
micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. This definition does not
specify any particular spatial unit or scale, in contrast to the Convention definition of habitat. Thus, the term ecosystem does not, necessarily, correspond to the terms biome or ecological zone, but can refer to any functioning unit
at any scale. Indeed, the scale of analysis and action should be determined by the problem being addressed. It could, for
example, be a grain of soil, a pond, a forest, a biome or the entire biosphere.
The eco-system approach requires adaptive management to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of ecosystems
and the absence of complete knowledge or understanding of their functioning.
Eco-system processes are often non-linear, and the outcome of such processes often shows time-lags. The result is
discontinuities, leading to surprise and uncertainty. Management must be adaptive in order to be able to respond to such
uncertainties and contain elements of learning-by-doing or research feedback. Measures may need to be taken even
when some cause-and-effect relationships are not yet fully established scientifically.
The eco-system approach does not preclude other management and conservation approaches, such as biosphere
reserves, protected areas and single-species conservation programmes, as well as other approaches carried out under
existing national policy and legislative frameworks, but could, rather, integrate all these approaches and other methodologies
to deal with complex situations. There is no single way to implement the eco-system approach, as it depends on local,
provincial, national, regional or global conditions. Indeed, there are many ways in which eco-system approaches may be
used as the framework for delivering the objectives of the convention in practice.
(b) Lining in Harmony with Nature.
Ans. The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, having met at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June
1972,having considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the
world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment, Proclaims that:
Man is both creature and moulder of his environment, which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the
opportunity for intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth. In the long and tortuous evolution of the human race on
this planet a stage has been reached when, through the rapid acceleration of science and technology, man has acquired the
power to transform his environment in countless ways and on an unprecedented scale. Both aspects of mans environ-

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ment, the natural and the man-made, are essential to his well-being and to the enjoyment of basic human rights the right
to life itself.
The protection and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples
and economic development throughout the world; it is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty of
all Governments. Changes are also required in the attitudes and procedures of both public and private-sector enterprises.
Moreover, environmental regulation must move beyond the usual menu of safety regulations, zoning laws, and pollution
control enactments; environmental objectives must be built into taxation, prior approval procedures for investment and
technology choice, foreign trade incentives, and all components of development policy.
Problem of accounting environmental losses: The best vulnerability and risk analysis has not been applied consistently across technologies or systems. A major purpose of large system design should be to make the consequences of
failure or sabotage less serious. There is thus a need for new techniques and technologies as well as legal and institutional mechanisms for safety design and control, accident prevention, contingency planning, damage mitigation, and
provision of relief. The limits of traditional financial and cost-accounting methods to reflect organisations efforts towards sustainability and to provide management with information needed to make sustainable business decisions have
been broadly recognised. Information on environmental performance of organisations might be available to some extent,
but, internal company decision-makers, as well as those in public authorities, are seldom able to link environmental
information to economic variables and are crucially lacking environmental cost information.
As a consequence, decision-makers fail to recognize the economic value of natural resources as assets, and the
business and financial value of good environmental performance. Beyond Good-will initiatives, few market-based
incentives exist to integrate environmental concerns in decision-making. Therefore, there is a need to upgrade the business decision-making process by including information on material flows and related costs to account for efforts towards
sustainable development.
Problem of fixing responsibilities and making them pay: Some large-scale projects, however, require participation on a different basis. Public inquiries and hearings on the development and environment impacts can help greatly in
drawing attention to different points of view. Free access to relevant information and the availability of alternative sources
of technical expertise can provide an informed basis for public discussion. When the environmental impact of a proposed
project is particularly high, public scrutiny of the case should be mandatory and, wherever feasible, the decision should be
subject to prior public approval, perhaps by referendum.
Efficacy and authority of international legal system in solving environmental conflicts: The integration of economic and ecological factors into the law and into decision-making systems within countries has to be matched at the
international level. The growth in fuel and material use dictates that direct physical linkages between eco-systems of
different countries will increase. Economic interactions through trade, finance, investment, and travel will also grow and
heighten economic and ecological interdependence. Hence, in the future, even more so than now, sustainable development requires the unification of economics and ecology in international relations.
The Ever Growing Population: Population growth in developing countries will remain unevenly distributed between rural and urban areas. UK projections suggest that by the first decade of the next century, the absolute size of rural
populations in most developing countries will start declining. Nearly 90 per cent of the increase in the developing world
will take place in urban areas, the population of which in expected to rise from 1.15 billion in 1985 to 3.25 million in
2025./10. The increase will be particularly marked in Africa and, to a lesser extent, in Asia.
Appropriate or Alternate Technology: Environmental risks arising from technological and developmental decisions impinge on individuals and areas that have little or no influence on those decisions. Their interests must be taken
into account. National and international institutional mechanisms are needed to assess potential impacts of new technologies before they are widely used, in order to ensure that their production, use, and disposal do not overstress environmental resources. Similar arrangements are required for major interventions in natural systems, such as river diversion or
forest clearance. In addition, liability for damages from unintended consequences must be strengthened and enforced.
Q.7. (a) Constitutional provisions for environmental protection and sustainable development.
Ans. The enactments are plenty and the rules associated with the Act are umpteen. There have been initiatives from the
legislature and the executive but it is the Indian judiciary which has taken a lead in terms of the actual immediate effects in
the matters of the environment. Failure of the governmental agencies to implement the laws made, prompted the NGO and
Public to approach the Courts as a last resort. Though the credit for the evolution of environmental jurisprudence in India
goes to the Supreme Court, which cannot be denied by any chance, it was the 1997 Magsaysay Award Winner for Public
Service, MC Mehtawho used PIL to protect the environment in India very wisely. Others also had a share in this practice.

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(a) Andhra Pradesh Polluting Industries Case: Nakka Vagu was a fresh water stream which provided fresh water
for drinking and irrigation to the villagers living in 14 villages adjacent to it. But the indiscrimi-nately set up 250 industries
which did not fulfill the condition of setting up water treatment plants turned the stream into a huge drain carrying
industrial effluents. The Supreme Court directed that an amount of 20 million should be paid to the farmers who had lost
their crops and cattle due to air and water pollution. The authorities are directed monitor setting up of set up pollution
control devices by the polluting industries.
(b) Antop Hill Case: At Antop Hill, in the heart of Mumbai a large-scalehemicals storage center for hazardous
chemicals was proposed to be set up. Nearly 1.5 million people living around the area will be staking their safety by this
proposal. A Pubic Interest Litigation was filed in the Supreme Court of India against this. The Apex Court reacted
positively and directed for the stoppage of the industries and storing of such chemical in that particular area.
(c) Aquaculture Case: As already mentioned above the coastal belt of India (especially the coastal states of Orissa,
Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu) is very lengthy and rich in flora and fauna. Prawn farming by small farmers was done
on a small scale in the past. But once it has been commercialized by the big industrial houses and multinationals the
degradation started in every aspect. The methods implemented by them were unscrupulous, unplanned and unscientific.
These practices destroyed the livelihood of the small farmers. Thousands of hectares of fertile lands affected. Salinity in
the ground water had increased which resulted in the scarcity of drinking water. The neighbouring lands are affected and
have become totally useless for crops. In this backdrop S. Jagannath a social worker and Gandhian filed a writ petition in
the Supreme Court praying for the protection of coastal ecology and lives and livelihood of thousands of small farmers
and fishermen. The Supreme Court of India reacted positively and held that intensive prawn culture within 500 metres of
High Tide Line and within 1000 metres of Chilka Lake and Pulicat Lake should be banned. An Authority under the
Chairmanship of a retired Supreme Court Judge was ordered to be constituted by the Central Government under Environment
Protection Act 1986 to implement the principles of Precautionary Principle and the Polluter Pays Principle to assess
the loss to ecology and recover the cost of eco-restoration and amount of compensation from the polluters.
(d) Brick Kiln Case: New Delhi Metropolitan authority drafter a Master Plan in the year 1990. According to that
plan Brick Kilns were categorized as H. The Supreme Court of India directed them to close down their industries or
alternatives they can be shifted outside Delhi limits within three years of the master plan coming into effect. Applications
were filed by the brick kiln owners of Delhi for modification of the order in which the applicants had been directed to
surrender the land without being paid any compensation. Their contention is that in the Master Plan of 1990, brick kilns
were not shown as a category H industry. But the Delhi Pollution Control Committee in their report submitted to the
Supreme Court on 1996 appraised the fact that 246 brick kilns are operating in NCT of Delhi. While ordering closure and
shifting of these industries in Delhi the Supreme Court in their earlier judgment had directed that the use of the land which
would become available on account of shifting/relocation of brick kilns shall be permitted in terms of the order of 10th
May, 1996. It was also stated that that brick kilns shall be given incentives and brick kiln should shift to fly ash technology.
The Court in their order held that with the closure of brick kilns or the change in use to fly ash technology, the owners of
the land in which they are situated would not be under any obligation to surrender the land. To that extent the order of 26/
11/96 got modified. The Court also made it clear that this order will not apply to those brick kilns owners who have
availed this Court order dated 26/11/96 and have benefited in the same in the matter of relocation.
(e) Coastal Areas Case: As already been discussed in this article the Coastal Zone Regulation Notification had come
into existence in the year1991. Inspite of the notification no coastal States had formulated coastal zone management plan.
The result is haphazard constructions and industrial activities are permitted in these areas. It lead to the large scale
damage to coastal ecology and loss of livelihood to lakhs of fishermen and other indigenous communities dependent on
marine resources. Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action (ICELA) filed a Public Interest Litigation for the protection of
coastal zone according to the notification issued by the Government of India. Supreme Court delivered a landmark
Judgment banning industrial/ construction activity within 500 mtrs of the High Tide Line and set a time limit for the
coastal states to formulate coastal management plans.
(b) Regional initiatives for environment protection and sustainable development.
Ans. The EU has some of the highest environment standards in the world, developed over decades to address a wide
range of issues. Today, the main priorities are combating climate change, preserving bio-diversity, reducing health problems from pollution and using natural resources more responsibly. While aimed at protecting the environment, these goals
can contribute to economic growth by fostering innovation and enterprise. Debate in NAFTA have focused on
(1) possible threats posed to previously signed U.S. domestic environmental laws and international environmental agreements; (2) concern that harmonization of environmental standards would result in acceptance of the least common de-

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nominator; and (3) fear that U.S. industries would establish pollution havens in Mexico, where labor is cheaper and
enforcement of regulations is weaker than in the United States. In order to allay such concerns, several provisions were
added to the NAFTA text. For example, the preamble commits governments to undertake increased trade in a manner
consistent with environmental protection and conservation, and the agreements dispute-settlement provisions can place
the burden on the country challenging an environmental regulation. In addition, prior to NAFTA entering into force on
January 1, 1994, the participating governments agreed to the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
(NAAEC), which obliges each country to Ensure that its laws and regulations provide for high levels of environmental
protection and to strive to continue to improve those laws and regulations. It also ensures access by private persons to
fair and equitable administrative and judicial proceedings on matters pertaining to the environment. The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), which has three institutional components: a Council, a
Secretariat, and a Joint Public Advisory Committee. The Council, assisted by the Secretariat, is charged with monitoring
NAFTAs environmental impacts. When they uncover adverse environmental impacts, they publicize them in various
ways, including posting notices on their web site. The aim of the council is that, by means of this public shaming,
countries will take action to remedy these situations.
All the Mekong states have embarked on far-reaching trade liberalization programmes, driven by or as a requirement
ofWorld Trade Organisation membership, membership in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Free
Trade Agreement or other international factors. The expansion of trade and liberalization initiatives further pressurizes
the environmental sustainability of this region. Apart from formal trade and investment regimes, illegal trade-particularly
of wildlife and timber products-is also undermining the sustainability of the region's environment.
More emphasis should be given to the strengthening of the regions own institutional mechanisms and a higher
level of regional ownership of the trade-environment agenda.
Foreign donors should intensify efforts already underway to improve the coordination of the pillars of supportbilateral projects and technical assistance, country-based ASEAN projects, and support to the ASEAN Secretariatto ensure that synergies are achieved.
Coordination among donors, among ASEAN member states, between the ASEAN Secretariat and member states,
and between donors and ASEAN urgently needs to be strengthened.
The new Public Outreach and Civil Society Division within the ASEAN Secretariat should be invested with a
direct mandate to address and facilitate cooperation between state and non-state actors on environmental matters.
Q. 9. (a) Integration of scientific and traditional development knowledge for sustainable development.
Ans. At the World Conference on Science in 1999, organised by UNESCO in cooperation with the International
Council for Science, the relationship between scientific and traditional knowledge was the focus of a thematic session on
Science and Other Systems of Knowledge. Through the Science Agenda A Framework for Action, a set of recommendations on this specific issue was addressed to governments, NGOs and international organisations including the
recommendation to sustain traditional knowledge systems through active support to the societies that are keepers and
developers of this knowledge, their ways of life, their languages, their social organisation and the environments in which
they live, and fully recognise the contribution of women as repositories of a large part of traditional knowledge.
Today, in a world that acknowledge the central role of knowledge in the development process and that sets before
itself the goal of building a knowledge society, a niche on the international agenda has been clearly defined for the
distinctive systems of knowledge and know-how possessed by indigenous and local communities.
But even though much progress has been made in the recognition of traditional knowledge, the task of actually
implementing recommendations agreed upon at the Earth Summit, the World Conference on Science and other international,
regional and national events, has proved infinitely more complex than originally anticipated. If scientists admit to sharing
a worldview that has a basis in culture, then judging traditional knowledge by the tenets of science makes no more sense
than evaluating science according to the tenets of traditional knowledge.
Today the linking of traditional and scientific knowledge is in need of novel and more comprehensive approaches
that acknowledge the diversity, dynamism and multiple dimensions of traditional knowledge and the broad range of its
contributions to sustainable development. To bring about the process of sustainable development faster there are various
efforts being made to harness the traditional practices and knowledge along with scientific inputs in various areas.
Agriculture and Forestry
Bio-diversity, indigenous knowledge, and sustainable development are very closely linked. The indigenous knowledge
systems of the peoples of the South constitute the world largest reservoir of knowledge of the diverse species of plant and
animal life on earth. For many centuries, their indigenous agricultural systems have utilised practices and techniques
which embody, what one scientist has called Principles of Permanence.

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During 1980s, the researchers and the scientists in CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)
recognized the importance of indigenous knowledge for sustainable development in agricultural productivity. Indigenous
soil characteri-zation and soil management in Africa was undertaken with the participation of the local people. Moreover,
in India too, the agricultural universities have focused their research on indigenously available plant strains in collaboration
with the local farmers. In collaboration with the local communities, sustainable crop cultivation and irrigation methods
(e.g. drip irrigation) have been promoted by NGOs and developed by scientists.
Conservation of Bio-diversity
The fact that indigenous knowledge has a potential source for conservation of biodiversity has now been recognised.
With their help of local people, scientists have been able to discover new species. Ethno-botanical research in India and
Mexico has focused on sacred groves occurring throughout these countries that are protected and managed by local
communities. In these forests, trees are not felled. Research was started on traditional knowledge and systems in the area
of marine resource in the Pacific Islands. Further, indigenous conservation and management practices relating to marine
bio-diversity were observed that could be adapted for future.
Artisanal Technologies
In villages and non-industrialised settings artisanal products such as pottery, wood work, leather work, metal work,
handicrafts, carpet weaving and others have been used in our society throughout our history. The knowledge and skill of
the artisans have been perfected over hundreds of years using locally available materials and designs appropriate to the
culture of the region and are passed from one generation to the next in the same family. Artisans knowledge has been the
basis of small-scale industries in our society.
Moreover, communities in rural and tribal areas use forest and plant products, to make their essential items and
houses etc. The important feature of this technology its sustainability. The use of locally available biodegrad-able and
replenishable resources, maximum utilisation of renewable energy and low capital inputs are some of its basic elements.
However, these technologies are facing extinction due to industriali-sation and artisanal products are facing stiff competition.
One of main reasons for this situation is that the artisanal methods of production have remained static and have not been
adopted and improved to meet the requirements of present situation.
NGOs have made great efforts in India to infuse new life into the dying artisanal crafts after realising the importance
of artisanal technology to sustainable development. Under the general title of Science and Technology for Rural
Development, many projects and programmes provide a rich and useful base to build upon in the Asian region. For
instance, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has been trying to identify prevailing traditional
practices and provide scientific inputs to arrive at ecologically and culturally acceptable technologies.
Health and Medicine
The need for the primary health care of about 80% of the worlds population is provided by the traditional knowledge.
Traditional systems of medicine and healthcare such as Siddha, Unani and Ayurveda, is actively supported and researched
in India. Similarly, in China, the Chinese and Tibetan systems of medicine are mostly used in healthcare. Moreover,
western medicine continues to be strongly influenced by traditio-nal knowledge. The allopathic system too has its roots in
the traditional knowledge.
Curative medicine as well as preventive medicines, cosmetics and nutraceuticals that are taken as supplements to diet
all can be produced with the help of traditional knowledge. Thus, indigenous knowledge is extremely valuable for the
drug scientists. This means collaboration with the local people would be beneficial for the scientists and for the whole of
human society.
Partnership between Scientific
Community and Indigenous People
It is being recognised that partnerships between the Scientific and Technological (S&T) communities and indigenous
people is necessary to promote sustainable development in our society. This partnership must be based upon mutual
respect and understanding, open dialogue. Since, the fields of traditional and scientific knowledge extend into areas
involving development processes, business and government, these commitments are important.
The S&T community must bring the necessary changes in the conduct of scientific research. This research must
address the social, economic, and environmental issues of sustainable development. Broad-based participatory approaches
involving the holders of traditional knowledge should be adopted and the issue of ownership of knowledge must be
understood and acknowledged. The National Innovation Foundation (NIF) in India is an important step in this direction.
It is also important at the same time to expand these collaborative partnerships to include appropriate intergovernmental
organisations, national government agencies, NGOs, local authorities, business and industry.

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(b) Human Resource Development for sustainable development.


Ans. Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and
organisational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee
training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession
planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance and organisation development. The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organisation and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. Organisations have many opportunities for human
resources or employee development, both within and outside of the workplace. Human Resource Development can be
formal such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organisational planned change effort. Human Resource
Development may also be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organisations believe in Human
Resource Development and cover all of these bases.
Family Planning
Growth of population is to be managed in order to maintain human resources effectively. For this, we nee family
planning which is the planning of when to have children, and the use of birth control and other techniques to implement
such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually
transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling and management and infertility management.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control, though it often includes more. It is most
usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing
of pregnancy (also known as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as pregnancy
termination. Now it is easier to reach remote areas due to the rapid advances in communication technology. With its help
we can educate the masses about the implications of population explosion. Information technology, along with telecommunications, has brought awareness among people.
Poverty and Sustainable Development
Linkages between poverty and environmentally sustainable development are often dependent on how poverty is
defined, the environmental problem in question, and the groups among the poor that are affected by environmental
change/degradation in the context of uneven development. The causes of poverty and environmental degradation are
structured by this uneven process of development operating via technologies, incentives and institutions and regulations
which favour some. The broadening of conventional poverty measurements (income/consumption flows) to include other
dimensions of poverty such entitlements and vulnerability is changing the way linkages between poverty-environment are
viewed.
To address questions of sustainability, then, is to confront the fundamental dilemmas facing the development community
today. Traditional approaches and models have not resolved the problems for the vast majority of the worlds population,
which lives in poorer conditions today than in recent human history. While the trickle-down approaches to economic
progress enrich a few and stimulate growth in modern economies and sectors in traditional societies, they have not
served to address most peoples needs; furthermore, they contributed to depleting the worlds store of natural wealth, to a
deterioration in the quality of our natural environment, and to enriching the wealthy. The broadening gap between rich
and poor within nations and on an international scale offers stark testimony of the social inadequacies of this unfortunate
model of economic development.
Various technologies such as agricultural biotechnology, energy technologies and information technology have
enormous potential to improve the lives of the poor of our society. The villages and urban slums are to be transformed for
this purpose. In India, the government is evolving a plan to develop herbal and natural products and horticulture. This
plan will link the poor farmer to the right kind of technology input and the large global and domestic markets. The proper
design and effective availability of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to the poor are critical areas
that need attention. In short, technologies must be harnessed to reduce the gap between the poor and rich for sustainable
development.
Health
Increasingly rapid advances in science and technology have saved or extended the lives of millions of people worldwide.
But industrialized and developing countries have not shared the gains equally: People living in dire poverty in developing
countries still lack access to basic care that could prevent or cure diseases and other health conditions. In the second half
of the 20th century, a steady accumulation of knowledge in medicine and public health led to remarkable successes in
controlling communicable diseases such as smallpox. These advances also resulted in better management of noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease and diabetes, particularly in industrialised countries. Much of the developing

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world now faces the dual challenges of addressing diseases related to poverty-under-nutrition and infectious diseases
while also seeing a rise in the diseases that afflict wealthier countries. To improve health in developing countries, a
balance must be struck between relying on new medical advances and applying conventional health measures in costeffective ways. In addition, health research must adopt a more global perspective: Greater cooperation between the
industria-lized countries of the North and the developing countries of the South will be essential to ensure that new
scientific advances benefit poorer countries as well as wealthier ones. Several priorities should guide future biomedical
research. First, the balance of research between industrial and developing countries should shift so that a greater proportion
is directed at the needs of poorer countries. Public and private funding in industrial countries has predominantly supported
research on diseases affecting their own populations and ignored the health problems of developing countries. This
skewed funding has resulted in the 10/90 gap, in which more than 90 per cent of the worlds spending on health
research is directed at diseases that affect only 10 per cent of the worlds population. If a better balance is not achieved,
advances in science and technology could further widen the gap in health care between the North and South. A second
priority is to analyze and use methods of health care delivery already known to be clinically effective and cost-effective.
Health services should be based on well-designed pilot studies rather than political guesswork, and health care systems
should be evaluated rigorously and held to high performance standards. A third priority is to use a multidisciplinary
approachexamining the biological as well as social dimensions of diseasesto address the major causes of death and
illhealth that have yet to be controlled. The target diseases include malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease,
cancer, diabetes, and mental health disorders.
Human resources is a term used to describe the individuals who comprise the workforce of an organisation, although
it is also applied in labour economics to, business sectors or even whole nations. Human resources is also the name of the
function within an organisation charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating
to the management of individuals (i.e. the human resources). Sustainable development has been a topic of discussions and
debates among government officials, business professionals and other members of the society since the beginning of
globalisation more than two decades ago. Numerous attempts around the world, including Good Governance and Corporate
Social Responsibility, have been made to ensure sustainable development. An alternative approach to sustainable development
called the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy has been introduced. Although the philosophy encompasses sustainable development
in many fronts (e.g. individuals, communities, agriculture, government), the focus of this essay is on corporate sustainability
since business organisations undoubtedly play a pivotal role in sustaining any economy and society. Clearly, corporate
sustainability covers in significant part the development of human resources and business institutions.

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