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International Relations: Theory & Problems
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Q. 1. Discuss the changing dimensions of security in the post-cold war period.
Ans. Security of a nation or of a state depends on its own strength. U.S.S.R. emerged as a superpower in 1945 i.e.
after Second World-War but disintegrated in 1991 through it was a permanent member of U.N.O. with Veto power.
Pakistan contained Bangladesh but it lost it in 1971. Similarly Yugoslavia under Marshal Tito was a very powerful
state but it disintegrated. Same happened in Czechoslovakia and in a tiny state of Cyprus which stands divided. Thus,
security depends on the strength of nation and its people. Nearly 90% conflicts came due to civil wars. Sri Lanka,
Ethiopia, Angola, Georgia, Haiti, Liberia, Rawanda, Siera Leon, Somalia, Tazakishtan and Sudan etc. are the countries
badly affected by civil wars. These civil wars occur due to ethnic, religious and social conflicts etc. In civil war groups are
helped by greater powers and terrorist organisations.
U.N.O. divided Palestine between Palestine Muslim-Arabs and Jews, but both refused to follow U.N.O. decision.
So wars took place between Palestinian Arabs and Jews country of Israel.
Palestinian Arabs were helped by Muslim-Arab countries against tiny state of Israel but were constantly defeated.
P.L.O. continued war and at last succeeded in getting autonomous state of Palestine.
As this is to stated in detail, so details are given to show that how a tiny state of Israel survived against such heavy
odds such as United Arab Nations attack and violent terrorism of P.L.O.
Contemporary Middle East
Israel is ancient land, where Moses and Christ preached and David and Salomon ruled in ancient age. This land of
Jews after seeing the Roman, Arab and Turkish rule came into existence. In 1948, because of the intervention of U.N.O.,
Palestinian, Arabs backed by the Arab Muslim Powers, opposed Israels existence, but Israels tiny forces defeated the
huge Arab countries forces in 1948, 1967 and in 1973 and exiled the Palestinian Arabs and occupied large part of
territory of Arab states.
U.N.O. and U.S.A. intervened and Israel had to give back all territories of Arab states but Palestinian Arabs remained
in exile. They formed Palestinian Liberation Arabs Organization. At last in 1993, they were given territory by Israel to
establish their own autonomous state with limited powers to live and maintain peace and order and to conduct their own
affairs. Palestinian Arabs were given land. Palestinian Arabs established their own government under Yasser Arafat with
a Council of 82 members and 15 thousand Police to maintain peace, law and order. But inspite of promise of peace,
Palestinian Arabs are constantly committing terrible terrorist attacks and to check their attacks, forces of Israel had to
attack in retaliation. In this way the conflict is still prevalent and neither the U.N.O. nor the U.S.A. has been able to check
it. Due to Palestinian terrorists attacks, now-a-days neither lives nor property and honour is safe. These terrorists attacks
cannot be cheked as Palestinian Arab terrorists are backed by the other countries. As such the Jew-Muslim- Arab conflict
is continuous and there is apprehension that it may prove a menace to the world peace as Muslim Arab terrorists are
backed by other Muslim Arab states and Jews of Israel by Jews residing in other countries.
Afghanistan: According to Mahabharat, Afghanistan was a part of India remained from time immemorial. It was
made a separate state by Nadir Shahs general Ahmad Shah Abdali, whose dynasty established his monarchial rule. In



1973, the last king Zahir Shah was removed and in 1978, Marxist government supported by Russia was established.
Mujahideen (holy warriors) defeated the Russian forces and succeeded in establishing their own rule. Mujahideen were
defeated by Taliban, who established their own government under Mullah Omar. In September, 2001, Mulsim Arab
terrorists made terrorist attacks in U.S.A. So an insurgency operation has been made on the terrorist and an interian
government formed under the presidentship of Hamid Karzai. This Karzai government of Afghanistan has proved to be
stable and is straining every nerve to maintain peace, law and order in Afghanistan. But inspite of all these efforts, neither
Mullah Omar nor Osama Bin Laden has been captured and nor peace could be maintained as Taliban extremists are
consistently committing terrorists acts of killing ladies and children and old people. In this way chaos and anarchy is still
prevailing in Afghanistan though the government of Hamid Karzai and multinational forces are trying to control terrorism
and to bring peace and order. Now India is activly helping Karzai government along with other nations to bring peace and
prosperity in Afghanistan. As such it may be hoped that Afghanistan would regain peace, prosperity and stability soon.
Iraq under Saddam Hussain became very powerful and was able to defeat Iran in nine years war. Iraq overran
Kuwait in August 1990. A U.S. led coalition forces beat Iraq in February 1991. In this war, there were 85,000 casualties.
Kuwait was freed from Iraqs yoke but Saddam Hussain was allowed to the rule over Iraq.
U.S.A. suspected that after the defeat, Saddam Hussain is stockpiling chemical weapons and biological and nuclear
weapons of mass destruction. After the attack on U.S. World Trade Centre in September 2001, Osama Bin Laden is held
to be supported by Saddam Hussain and is hiding in Iraq, although Osama Bin Laden had hidden himself in Afghanistan
and is untraceable.
Some diplomates believe that U.S.A. desired friendly regime in Iraq to utilize its oil resource. The reports of secret
agencies of U.S.A and Britain created exaggerated picture of Iraqs power and preparation of destructive weapons by
Saddam Hussain and predicted danger from Iraqs growing power. As such the U.N.O. and world opinion did not approve
this war, but U.S.A. with the support of Britain and other allies invaded Iraq without the approval of U.N.O.
This war against Iraq for American President Bush was part of the global campaign against terrorism. After the 11
September terrorist attacks on NewYork and Washington, war against terrorism began with the invasion on Afghanistan
as it was suspected that the terrorist leader Osama-bin Laden got support of Mullah Omar. So Afghanistan was invaded
and pro-U.S. government was established at Kabul. For U.S. hawks, continuous defiance of U.N. resolution by Iraq was
good enough reason for the U.S. to invade Iraq and to oust Saddam Hussain from power. U.S. Secretary of States, Colin
Powel strained every nerve to gain support and approval of U.N.O. to invade Iraq, but failed to gain support of U.N.O.
Though U.S.A. failed to get support or approval of U.N.O. to launch war against Iraq but succeeded in getting support of
Britain and 30 nations including Italy, Poland, Spain, Portugal and Australia.
The war was launched without U.N. sanction, and was code named Operation Iraq Freedom. It was launched on
March 20, 2003 with active support of British forces and additional support of Italy, Spain, Poland and other powers.
Forces of Saddam Hussain were defeated. On May 1, 2003 Bush declared the end of war as the forces of U.S.A. and its
allies had conquered major part of Iraq. Later on whole of Iraq was conquered by Anglo-U.S. and its allied forces and now
a democratic government is working there.
Thus, U.S.A. won war of Afghanistan in 2002 and of Iraq in 2003 and succeeded in establishing a pro-U.S. Government
at Kabul and Baghdad. It is said that U.S. and its allies have won the war, but have lost the peace in Iraq as well as in
Afghanistan. The major question is whether these wars have succeeded in rooting out terrorism. The answer is negative.
Terrorists acts have increased all over the world in general and in Afghanistan, Iraq and in Israel in particular.
Terrorists are committing acts of terrorism in Iraq. On September 14, 2004, insurgents blowed up a junction where
multiple pipelines cross the Tigris river and left the entire country without power. Bomb blast by terrorist in Baghdad are
common. In retaliation U.S. forces are bombing cities and are committing cruel acts. U.N.O. Secretary General, Kofi
Annan has declared U.S.A. and its allies, invasion of Iraq as illegal, as it has been launched without the approval of
U.N.O. To quote Kofi Annan, the U.N.O. Secretary General. Those who seek to bestow legitimacy must themselves
embody it and those who invoke international law must themselves submit to it. He further said, in Iraq we see civilians
massacred in cold blood and prisoners disgracefully abused. President Bush defended his decision to invade Iraq in his
speech in U.N.O. and urged the world community to turn its attention to the fighting of war on terrorism and humanitarian
concerns. He further said thatthe overthrow of Saddam has freed the Iraqi people from an abstinate dictator.
Now in Iraq, government has been established with a promise to hold fair and impartial elections. Saddam Hussain
has been captured and is in jail asking for mercy but neither terrorism has been eradicated nor debate on Iraq has ended
because the world opinion is divided. India and many other countries have refused to send troops in Iraq to maintain



peace, law and order. Tony Blair, the Labour Prime Minister of Britain, has said that participation in Iraq war was a wrong
decision but ousting of Saddam Hussain from power is a right decision. In U.S.A. during presidential elections debate
the Democratic candidate Kery has condemned attack on Iraq, but Bush has defended it saying that it was right to act
preemptively in order to subdue the potential threat to United States. Thus, attack of U.S.A., Britain and its allies is a
controversial question because the world opinion is divided on its necessity and validity. Thus, in spite of establishment of
government in Iraq, peace has not been established and its future remains shrouded in mystery as terrorist attacks on
retaliation is breaking its peace, but it is hoped that in future peace and prosperity may prevail as most of the nations are
willing to help Iraq for its uplift.
Iran is a country of Islamic Shia religion. Although the nine years war between Iraq and Iran has shattered its
economy yet it has been able to regain its prosperity and power within a few years. Now it is powerful country and it is
alleged that it is making nuclear weapons with the help of other countries. As such U.S.A., Israel and some countries are
considering it as a potential threat to peace but it is hoped that peace may prevail with the help of U.N.O. as the world
opinion is in favour of maintaning peace.
In recent election of 2005, Iran elected orthodox Muslim leader as President, so negotiations between Europeon
states and Iran got set back but it may be expected that peace negotiations may succeed and peace in Iran may be
preserved through U.N.O.
Thus, security of a country now also depends on its support of world powers. Afghanistan and Iraq lost domination
as they defied U.S.A. and its allies. As such next to civil war security of a nation depends on its maintaining good relations
with dominating world powers.
Terrorism became a menace to whole world after Second World-War, when Arab powers were defeated by Israel.
P.L.O. resorted to terrorism and violent acts, though P.L.O. got Palestine but terrorist acts are still continuous and are a
great hindrance to restore peace in Palestine and Israel.
Afghanistan and Iraq have been conquered but terrorist acts are still continuous. In South Asia, India is facing
terrorism in Kashmir as well as in Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh etc.
Sri Lanka is facing terrorism from more than a decade, now in Nepal, terrorism of Marxist has become a great
menace. It is said now Marxist, Ulfa, Nuxalites, Peoples War Group (P.W.G.) etc. have spread all over India.
Q. 2. Critically examine the current debate on the future of nation-state in international relations scholarship.
Ans. In recent times there are too many approaches and theoritical thinking about International Relations such as
Realist, Liberalists, Marxists, Structuralism approaches alongwith Neo-Realism, Neo-Liberalism and Dependency approaches etc. Critics have levelled these approaches as Rationalist and Positivist in nature though it is not fully true.
Now modern scholars are of the opinion that there are post positivist and reflective theories. These can be also
divided as explanatory theories and constitutive. New theories about International Relations can be called as Radical,
Alternative, Post-positive or simply new theories.
According to Western thinkers, nation-states came into prominence after 1648 after 30 years war of Westphalia. According
to these thinkers state and nation differ from one another through these have been used in same way. Britain possessed
many nations such as Irish, Scots, Normans, Anglo-Saxons etc. Britain was considered one nation as well as one state,
Now, British people are using word United Kingdom or U.K. for Britain.
Similarly in U.S.A., there are Red Indians i.e. original inhabitants of U.S.A. and people who came from Britain and
Europe and Negroes etc. If we leave aside migration which took place recently from Japan, China, India, Arab and
African countries etc. Thus, there are many nations in U.S.A. having different set up and different religious and different
social structure and way of life but all are living in United States of America.
India also possesses Aryans, Dravidian, Mongols and aboriginal now called Scheduled Tribes, Sakas and Huns etc.
and people who migrated from Persia during Muslim invasions i.e. Parsis, Afghans, Turques, Pathans and Mongols etc.
According to religion most of the people are Hindus who includes Jains, Sikhs etc. As such there are Muslims, Christians,
Jews and Parsies etc. Muslims are divided into Shia and Sunni groups who sometimes clash with one another and Christians
among Roman Catholic and Protestants etc. Thus, India possesses too many races and different religions but India is one
state having many nations.
Similarly Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia possessed many races and these have now become different nations and
recently formed new states. As such though state may possess many nations but in International Relations these are
considered as state.



If a country of same nation becomes divided, it is considered different. Germany was divided after Second WorldWar and now Korea is divided between North and South Korea though both belong to same race or nation. Thus, state and
nation are different but have been used as of similar meaning. U.S.S.R. i.e. Soviet Union contained lot of races i.e.,
nations mainly 16 races or nations but it was considered as one state, Now each nation has got its own states so it is now
considered that Russia is one state and other 15 states are nation-states.
In Pakistan there were Pathans, Baluchies, Punjabies and Sindhies etc. and in East Pakistan there were mainly
Bengalis whose languages, culture and way of living was different from the people of Pakistan but both were considered
as one state though geographically both stand apart. As such after 1971, they have formed Bangladesh and now Bangladesh
and Pakistan are two different states.
All this have been given in detail as students as well as people confuse between nation and state.
Now the future of nation-state as a viable political unit has lost significance due to growth of International bodies
like U.N.O. i.e. United Nations Organisations and world bodies attached to it such as United Nations Educational and
Cultural Organisation (U.N.E.S.C.O.), International Monetary Fund, (I.M.F.) World Bank etc.
Similarly formation of European Union, Arab, League S.A.A.R.C. etc. are collective bodies. All these have helped
in economic and cultural globalization.
The rise of global culture or mass culture has weakend the distinctive national culture and traditions all over the
world. Domocratic values, ideals of liberty, equality and freedom etc. have weakend separate ideals. Now highly educated
people migrate to any part of the world where better employment opportunities are available regarding pay perks and
privilege etc. Thousands of Indians migrate to U.S.A., Britain and other European and Arab countries caring very little for
their native states. Multinational companies have weakened state and national barriers. A person can become richest
person as such Luxmi Narain Mittal, and Indian born person is richest man of Britain as Premji of India. Tourism has
further weakened the barriers of nation and of states. Means of communication, air travel, exchange of means of recreations,
free trade, Olymphic games, beauty contests etc. have further weakened state barriers and exchange of globalization has
replaced nation and barriers and idea of nation-states.
Collapse of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic i.e. of U.S.S.R. lead to collapse of socialist block and disintegration
of Soviet Union. Now democratic revolutions and ideals, need of international cooperation, integration etc. have encouraged
globalization. Now new theories like liberal, pluaralism, globalization, market economy, free trade and neo idealism has
come to the fore of international relations. Some scholars are of the opinion that transitional/non state actors are now
much more important in post-cold world war order. Declaration of human rights has conferred rights to all people of the
world without caring for nation-states, their culture and traditions etc. As such now globalizations replacing national
states but recent rejection of France and Holland Constitution of Europen Union point out that nation-states are still
powerful in age of globalization.
For post-colonial countries term as Third World and Potential World is used. Post-colonial countries are
overwhelmingly influenced by the ideas, belief, culture and ideologies of colonizers that the ruling elite class of Third
World countries could never come out with an alternative agenda.
India based her development ideals on the basis of Planning Commission of Russian model and is now pursuing
globalization, market economy and free trade concept on United States model. Third World countries cry for self-reliance
but follows policies as desired by World Bank, I.M.F., and i.e., World Trade Organization (W.T.O.).
As all these countries are trying for development so they have become intimate enemies. Japan developed herself on
Western model particularly of United States and has become competitor of other developed Western countries and this
competition may be considered as intimate enemity.
Similarly India and China are competing one another in development etc. and both are ambitious to become most
developed country of the world, so there is intimate enemity between the two.
According to scholars post-colonial states claim absolute sovereignty but it is paradox that they are hierarchically
unequali and thus, unequality is being hierarchical perpetuated by these states who claim absolute sovereignty.
Q. 3. What is ethnicity? Why has there been an increase in ethnic violence and conflict in the post-war period?
Ans. Ethnicity is Latin word which means common identity to differentiate themselves from other groups. For example Jews of Israel possess common identity and differentiate themselves from Arab Muslims of Israel. In Lanka Tamilians
differentiate themselves from Sinhals of Lanka.
Ideology Decline of Nationalism and Ethnic Resurgence
Patriotism gave death blow to imperialism and colonialism, so national-states become independent but now ethnicity
is fast emerging as the most solid basis for political formation.



Ethnic Resurgence in Practice

Ethnic resurgence have brought separation of Czechs and Slovaks and disintegration of U.S.S.R. and of Yugoslavia
etc. Now it is found all over the world. About 190 states only 15 are ethnically homogeneous but in most of the states
ethnicity is negligible.
Although the study of ethnic conflict has a long history, genuine interest in ethnic conflict beyond the comparative
political science sub-field dates from the collapse of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, both of which were followed by
ethnic conflicts that escalated to violence and civil war. The end of the Cold War thus, sparked interest in two important
questions about ethnic conflict: was ethnic conflict on the rise; and given that some ethnic conflicts had escalated into
serious violence, what, if anything, could scholars of large-scale violence (security studies, strategic studies, interstate
politics) offer by way of explanation?
One of the most debated issues relating to ethnic conflict is whether it has become more or leSs prevalent in the
post-Cold War period. At the end of the Cold War, academics including Samuel P. Huntington and. Robert D. Kaplan
predicted a proliferation of conflicts fuelled by civilisational clashes, tribalism, resource scarcity and overpopulation,
The post-Cold War period has witnessed a number of ethnically-informed secessionist movements, predominantly
within the former communist states. Conflicts have involved secessionist movements in the former Yugoslavia, Transnistria
in Moldova, Armenians in Azerbaijan, Abkhaz and Ossetians in Georgia and Chechens in the Russian Federation.
However, some theorists contend that this does not represent a rise in the incidence of ethnic conflict, since many of
the proxy wars fought during the Cold War were in fact ethnic conflicts masked as hot spots of the Cold War. Research
showsrthat the fall of Communism and the increase in the number of capitalist states were accompanied by a decline in
total warfare, interstate wars, ethnic wars, revolutionary wars, and the number of refugees and displaced persons. Indeed,
some scholars have questioned whether the concept of ethnic conflict is usfeful at all. Others have attempted to test the
clash of civilizations thesis, finding it to be difficult to operational ise and that civilisational conflicts have not risen in
intensity in relation to other ethnic conflicts since the end of the Cold War.
On the question of whether scholars deeply invested in theories of interstate violence could adapt their theories to
explain or predict large-scale ethnic violence, a key issue proved to be whether ethnic groups could be considered rational
actors. Prior to the end of the Cold War, the consensus among students of large-scale violence was that ethnic groups
should be considered irrational actors, or semi-rational at best. If true, general explanations of ethnic violence would be
impossible. In the years since, however, scholarly consensus has shifted to consider that ethnic groups may in fact be
counted as rational actors, and the puzzle of their apparently irrational actions (for example, fighting over territory of little
or noi intrinsic worth) must therefore be explained some other way. As a result, the possibility of a general explanation of
ethnic violence has grown, and collaboration between comparativist and international relations subfields has resulted in
increasingly useful theories of ethnic conflict.
Q. 4. (a) Main arguments of the theory of Dependencia.
Ans. Dependency in International Relations means dominant dependent structure of relations among and between
nation-states. In India Dada Bhai Naroji and M.N. Roy etc. also contributed to this theory. They believed in drain theory.
According to these writers during British rule, India was exploited by British rulers. Indian wealth used to go from India
to England. Moreover, development of India was not in the interest of British rulers, so they did not develop India. They
kept it underdeveloped, poor and dependent on British economy. In the same way Afro-Asian countries which were under
foreign rule were dependent on their foreign rulers. As such Africa came under the influence of the Council for the
Development of Economic and Social Research (CODESRIA), the umbrella social service organisation of Africa. This
CODESRIA influenced Angola, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia etc. It has now become official
ideology of Tanzania, Mozambique and of Angola etc. in Africa, but this theory of dependencia is also very popular in
Latin American countries.
Key Arguments of the Theory of Dependencia: In this world more powerful advanced countries who are rich and
well developed dominate the under-developed countries in the international capitalist system. According to dependists,
there are developed capitalist countries of Western Europe such as Britain, France, Germany and U.S.A. etc. and there are
third world countries of Asia such as Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan etc. and of Africa and
Latin America which constitute periphery of third world countries and are poor and under-developed.
Dependentists are of the opinion that third world countries are increasingly being drawn into the world capitalist
system and so their economies are increasingly being transferred into capitalistic mode of production through the continuous
supply of capital from the rich capitalist countries to the peripheral areas.



These thinkers believe that it is a historical process which allowed the rich developed capitalist countries to establish
and perpetuate the dominance over peripheral economies. As such in capitalistic system rich deveoped countries exploit
and dominate economy of underdeveloped countries.
As rich developed capitalist countries exploit periphery countries so they accumulate surplus capital and exploit
peripheral countries. It may be stated here by dependency is meant that economy of some countries is conditioned by the
development and expansion of another economy to which it is subjected.
During British rule Indian economy was dependent on British economy and even now Indian economy is dependent
on economy of U.S.A., on Japan and on multinational companies. In India prices of gold and silver depend on U.S.A. and
France. Automobile, T.V. and electronic goods depend on Japan and on companies established in India with Japanese
collaboration such as Maruti, Suzuki and Hero Honda etc. Prices of cigarette depend on Indian Tobacco Co., a branch of
multinational Anglo-American Tobacco Co., prices of soap and detergent and of vegetable oil etc. depend on Lever
Brothers. Not only this even prices of aerated water and even of drinking mineral water depends on Coca Cola and Pepsi
Cola companies which are multinational companies of U.S.A. Prices of beverage such as Horlicks and Bournvita and
even of Nascafe etc. depend on multinational companies, even tea has been monopolized by Lipton and Brooke Bond
companies. Thus, rich developed capitalist countries decide the prices of gold, silver, iron and oil etc. and establish
multinational companies to exploit underdeveloped and developing countries and earn surplus. This surplus is invested
again and so it perpetuates inequalities. These economists argue that during colonial period it was direct looting, robing
and plundering and now it is in shape of profits. Thus, rich developed capitalist countries still exploit third world
underdeveloped countries through trade and profits of multinational companies.
Marxists based their theory on class struggle between capitalists i.e., Burgeous and poor (Proletariat) without caring
for states while supporters of Dependencia theory care for states and say that the rich developed capitalist countries
exploit underdeveloped third world countries.
This theory is popular in Latin American and in African countries particularly in Tanzania, Angola and Mozambique
(b) Marxist theory of hegemony in the study of international relations
Ans. Marx studied national capitalism but he was of the opinion that class loyalities cut across national divisions, so
in his Communist Menifesto, he gave slogan Workers of whole world unite, you have to lose nothing but chains. This
slogan became very popular but national loyalities were too deep so people remain divide on the basis of national states
who claim sovereign states in international relations and in all things.
Liberal and Realist believe that power is organised vertically reflecting the division of world into independent states
while Marxists think horizontly organisation based on international class. As stated above according to Lenin, imperialists
expansion reflected domestic capitalisms quest to maintain profit levels through the export of surplus capital which
brought major capitalist powers into conflict with one another, As such in First World-War was imperialist powers i.e.,
Britain, France and U.S.A. etc. were stood against Germany and her allies for the control of colonies etc.
Basic Assumptions in Marxist Approach
Marxists think on the basis of mankind as according to their thinking class-conflicts occur without caring for state
boundaries. According to their thinking capitalist and workers conflict is world wides so their slogan is Workers of whole
world unite. Thus, they think in totality.
Marxist believe in Marxist conception of history. They believe that it is economic development of a society which
determines the political change. In capitalist society there is continuous struggle between bourgeois that is capitalist and
proletariate i.e. worker and poor man i.e. between persons who possess property or posts and means of production and
those who are poor and earn their living by hard labour.
Hegemony is derived from Greek word which means leader. Communist thinkers believe that dominant rich powers
on the basis of pattern of world order still dominate and exploit the other countries. They have shaped the international
system to suit their interests. To a certain extent, it may be true as finally U.S.A., U.K., Soviet Union, China and France
are permanent members of Security Council of U.N.O. with Veto powers and no important action can be taken by U.N.O.
without their consent.
But communist thinker places emphasis on economic aspect so they are of the opinion, that free trade favours
capitalist countries, so they dominate the world.
Opinion of these thinkers does not seem to be correct as China, South Asian countries and India have become
economically developed countries in present pattern of world order. India has adopted market economy and is ambitious
to become richest and most powerful country of the world. As such, it is difficult to agree with Marxist thinkers.



Q. 5. (a) Assumptions and themes of Post-modernism

Ans. In recent times there are too many approaches and theoritical thinking about International Relations such as
Realist, Liberalists, Marxists, Structuralism approaches alongwith Neo-Realism, Neo-Liberalism and Dependency approaches etc. Critics have levelled these approaches as Rationalist and Positivist in nature though it is not fully true.
Now modern scholars are of the opinion that there are post positivist and reflective theories. These can be also
divided as explanatory theories and constitutive. New theories about International Relations can be called as Radical,
Alternative, Post-positive or simply new theories.
Post-Structuralist or Post-Modernist Approach to International Relations
Scholars differ about post-structuralist or post-modernist theories because post modernist are suspicious of any
theory or approach that it is possible to uncover the truth. They oppose Marxist as well as critical theory and have brought
foundational epistemology based on foundations for making knowledge.
Basic Theme of Post-Modernism
Post-modernist approach to study of history is within power knowledge frameworks. It is based on the assumption
that the truth and knolwedge are beyond discourse.
It is based on textual strategies or textual interplay at work and are based on deconstructive and double reading. As
these theories are too theoretical and are for removal from the real world. But post-modernist say that the theories of post
modernism are the most appropriate theory for a globalized world as many countries including India are supporting
globalisation. So these theories have become popular and have some relevances.
(b) Diaspora and transnational movements
Ans. Diaspora are communities which live abroad in host countries but maintain sentimental, economic and political
ties with their homelands such as N.R.I. it encourages transnational movements by various means.
Now Inter-Governmental Organisations (IGOs) have become important. U.S.A. and U.K. opposed slave trade.
Chinese opposed opium, but European countries fought Opium War, but now opium and its products heroine etc. have
been banned all over the world. Ethnic aspects such as Irish Republican Army, Kurds of Iran, Iraq and Turkey etc. are
examples of ethnic movements.
NGOs have now powerful transnational impact.
Migrants of people with different cultural backgrounds create transnationalism, for they link culture of the countries
of their origin with the culture of country where they live. This creates difficulties as in Frances laws have even opposed
by Muslims and Sikhs.
Some scholars imagine that there may be Clash of Civilization as there are Western, Islamic, Hindu, Japanese,
Chinese, Latin American and African civilizations. But at present Western i.e. European- American civilization is dominating
whole world and there is no hope of clash. But influence of ethnic groups may not be minimised as out of 190 countries.
120 countries had politically significant minorities.
Diasporas are communities which live abroad in host countries but maintain sentimental, economic and political
ties with their homelands such as N.R.I. i.e. Non-Resident Indians living in U.S.A., England and Australia and Dubai etc.
send money and enjoy relationship in India.
There are about 2 lakh Indians in Australia, 22 thousand in Chinavs Hong Kong, 4 lakhs in Fiji, 40 thousand in
Germany, 800 in Iran, 100 in Iraq, 50 thousands in Israel, 40 thousand in Italy, 2500 in Japan, 3 lakhs in Kuwait, 13 lakhs
in Mauritius, 4 lakhs in Myanmar (Burma), 13 lakh in Saudi Arabia and 13 lakhs in South Africa.
(1) Russia about 16000 only.
(2) U.S.A. about 16 lakhs.
(3) U.K. i.e. Britain 12 lakhs only.
(4) United Arab Emirat (U.A.E.) 12 lakhs.
(5) Canada 10 lakhs.
Thus, N.R.Is are more in U.S.A., U.K., South Africa and Muslim-Arab countries now there are about 2 crore N.R.Is
all over the world i.e. about 6 times population of Ireland or about 3 times of Israel.
N.R.I. in U.S.A., Britain, Canada and Australia etc. continue their religious beliefs, eating habits and traditions etc.
and generally marry in India and carry Indian culture. In above countries, they are doctors, nurse, architects, or businessmen
or engaged in information technology or in software engineering and are rich and send money. In above countries Indians
have temples, masjid and gurudwara and there is freedom of worship and restaurants and hotels etc. N.R.I. have proved
that Indians are innovative, productive and successful in abroad. As such Luxmi Naraian Mittal is richest man in United
Kingdom in Britain followed by Hinduja brothers and Lord Swaraj Paul etc.