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APARIENCIA DE LAS

DISCONTINUIDADES DE ACUERDO
CON LOS RESPECTIVOS PROCESOS
DE FABRICACIN
Una discontinuidad es cualquier variacin en
la homogeneidad de una pieza o material,
tanto en su estructura como en su forma.
A travs de la influencia que la discontinuidad
tendr sobre la utilizacin del material o del
equipo es que se podrn definir criterios de
aceptabilidad.

Las discontinuidades pueden


atribuidas a diferentes causas:

ser

Pueden ocurrir durante el propio proceso


de fabricacin del material (fundicin)
Durante el procesamiento (laminacin,
forja,...)
Durante el uso del equipo en servicio
(aplicacin de esfuerzos mecnicos o de
corrosin)

Las discontinuidades ms comunes son:

Fisuras
Grietas de filete
Grietas de esmerilado
Grietas de tratamiento trmico
Grietas en tubos
Escamas de hidrogeno
Laminaciones
Contracciones y micro contracciones
Poros e inclusiones

SOLDADURA
TIPO DE JUNTAS (AWS A3.0)
1. Junta a tope

2. Junta en esquina

SOLDADURA
TIPO DE JUNTAS (AWS A3.0)
3. Junta en T

4. Junta de traslapo

SOLDADURA
TIPO DE JUNTAS (AWS A3.0)
3. Junta de borde

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PREPARACION DE LA JUNTA

CHAFLAN CUADRADO

CHAFLAN EN V

PROCESOS DE SOLDADURA
SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding):
Soldadura de arco con electrodo revestido
GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding):
Soldadura de arco con gas de proteccin
GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding):
Soldadura de arco con electrodo de
Tungsteno

PROCESOS DE SOLDADURA
FCAW (Flux Core Arc Welding):
Soldadura de arco con electrodo tubular
SAW
(Submerged
Arc
Soldadura de arco sumergido

Welding):

OAW (Oxyacetylene Welding): Soldadura


con mezcla de oxigeno y acetileno

DISCONTINUIDADES SUPERFICIALES
EN JUNTAS SOLDADAS

(VISUALES)

Grietas

Inclusiones (poros escoria)

Falta de relleno

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Penetracin excesiva

Exceso de refuerzo

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Mordeduras

Desalineamiento (Hi-Lo)

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Traslape

Picaduras de arco y marcas de


esmerilado

MARCA DE
ESMERILADO

PICADURA DE ARCO

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Distorsin Angular

14

15

Los estndares ms comunes


utilizados en este tipo de servicios son:
ASME Secc. V, AWS D1.5, AWS D1.1.

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CODE
AWS D1.1.
4.8.1 Visual Inspection. For acceptable qualification, welds shall meet the
following requirements:
(1) The weld shall be free of cracks.
(2) All craters shall be filled to the full cross section of the weld.
(3) The face of the weld shall be flush with the surface of the base metal, and the
weld shall merge smoothly with the base metal. Undercut shall not exceed 1/32 in.
[1 mm]. Weld reinforcement shall not exceed 1/8 in. [3 mm].
(4) The root of the weld shall be inspected, and there shall be no evidence of
cracks, incomplete fusion, or inadequate joint penetration. A concave root surface is
allowed within the limits shown below, provided the total weld thickness is equal to
or greater than that of the base metal.
(5) The maximum root surface concavity shall be 1/16 in. [2 mm] and the maximum
melt-through shall be 1/8 in. [3 mm]. For tubular T-, Y-, and K-connections, meltthrough at the root is considered desirable and shall not be cause for rejection.

CODE
API 1104.
6.4 VISUAL EXAMINATION
For a qualification test weld to meet the requirements for visual examination, the
weld shall be free from cracks, inadequate penetration, and burn-through, and must
present a neat workman-like appearance. The depth of undercutting adjacent to
the final bead on the outside of the pipe shall not be more than 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) or
12.5% of the pipe wall thickness, whichever is smaller, and there shall not be more
than 2 in. (50 mm) of undercutting in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of
weld.
When semi-automatic or mechanized welding is used, filler wire protruding into the
inside of the pipe shall be kept to a minimum.
Failure to meet the requirements of this subsection shall be adequate cause to
eliminate additional testing.

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CODE
API 1104.
9.7 VISUAL ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS FOR UNDERCUTTING
9.7.2 Acceptance Standards
When visual and mechanical means are used to determine depth, undercutting
adjacent to the cover or root bead shall not exceed the dimensions given in Table 4.
When both mechanical and radiographic measurements are available, the
mechanical measurements shall govern

CODE
API 650
8.5 VISUAL EXAMINATION
8.5.1 A weld shall be acceptable by visual inspection if the inspection shows the
following:
a. There are no crater cracks, other surface cracks or arc strikes in or adjacent to
the welded joints.
b. Maximum permissible undercut is 0.4 mm (1/64 in.) in depth for vertical butt
joints, vertically oriented permanent attachments, attachment welds for nozzles,
manholes, flush-type openings, and the inside shell-to-bottom welds. For horizontal
butt joints, horizontally oriented permanent attachments, and annular-ring butt
joints, the maximum permissible undercut is 0.8 mm (1/32 in.) in depth.
c. The frequency of surface porosity in the weld does not exceed one cluster (one
or more pores) in any 100 mm (4 in.) of length, and the diameter of each cluster
does not exceed 2.5 mm (3/32 in.).

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CODE
API 650
d. The reinforcement of the welds on all butt joints on each side of the plate shall
not exceed the following thicknesses:

The reinforcement need not be removed except to the extent that it exceeds the
maximum acceptable thickness or unless its removal is required by 8.1.3.4 for
radiographic examination.

CODE
ASME B 31.4
434.8.5 Required Inspection and Acceptance Criteria
(b) Inspection Methods and Acceptance Standards
(1) Nondestructive inspection shall consist of visual inspection and radiographic
examination or other acceptable nondestructive methods, and shall be in
accordance with API 1104. The methods used shall be capable of producing
indications of potential defects that can be accurately interpreted and evaluated.
Welds shall meet the acceptance standards for discontinuities contained in API
1104, or the alternate acceptance standards for girth welds in Mandatory Appendix I
of API 1104.

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CODE
ASME B 31.3

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