ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _1_ OF _14_

Things that are key to space:
Nuclear power..............................................................................................................2 Classism/Elitism..........................................................................................................3 Racism..........................................................................................................................5 Patriarchy.....................................................................................................................7 Bears..........................................................................................................................14

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES
Nuclear power

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _2_ OF _14_

Nuclear power is absolutely key to space travel – without it, we may as well quit. Fears of nuclear power MUST be assayed. Halvorson 2003 [Todd, Florida Today
http://www.floridatoday.com/columbia/futurespace/spaceflight1ONSHIPS.htm

The United States lacks sufficient maturity in

two key technologies

nuclear power and propulsion for space exploration. And without them, "we might as well just quit," said NASA astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz, director of the agency's Advanced Propulsion Laboratory at Johnson Space Center in Houston. "It has to be very clear and transparent to the people of our planet that without nuclear power, we simply are not going to go. We just cannot go. We cannot survive," he said. "So the choice is either we quit, or we develop the means for exploring space -- and that is nuclear power. It's a very clear situation. There is no ambiguity. It's either one or the other."
crucial to staging human missions to Mars and other distant destinations: The use of nuclear power in space, however, long has been controversial. During the past 15 years alone, launches of plutonium-powered probes to the sun and the

anti-nuclear activists. They fear that launch explosions -- or inadvertent atmospheric re-entries -could result in fallout that would contaminate the environment and spawn an increase in global cancer cases. They also say the U.S. military would adapt systems developed by NASA for space-based weapons. But when it comes to interplanetary travel, Chang-Diaz and others say conventional chemical propulsion and solar electric systems won't cut it.
outer planets have sparked protests by

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES
Classism/Elitism

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _3_ OF _14_

The space tourism industry runs on classism and elitism Deonandan 2001
[Raywat, Raywat Deonandan is a reject of the Canadian space programme and an owner of The Podium. His personal website is www.deonandan.com. http://podium.deonandan.com/spacetour.html]

Tito's expedition was notable for a variety of reasons. It signaled that
the global space program had evolved to the point of sufficient safety for an untrained individual to take part, and convincingly demonstrated the existence of a space tourism market. From

now on, you don't need to be a PhD scientist or a former fighter pilot with Olympic-calibre fitness to make it into space. All you need is $20 million. The feat has cleared the way for further attempts to cultivate the space tourism market, most
actively by private enterprise. The second man on the moon, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, is among the most high profile of this entrepreneurial army. Dennis

Tito himself has committed his money and business expertise to whittling the price of future tourist missions to a "mere" one or two million dollars. And the "X-prize", a
$10 million bounty cast in the model of the prizes which launched the adventures of the Wright brothers and Charles Lindbergh, is up for grabs to any private company that can put three individuals into space and bring them back to Earth safely two times in two weeks. The intent of the X-prize is to jump-start the commercialization of space, to take access to the heavens out of the hands of monolithic and agenda-ridden governments and genuinely into the hands of small to medium businesses. All this tourism activity bodes well for we who have long sought freedom from Earth's gravity. There will no doubt come a day within the next few decades when, for the present price of a decadent African safari, a moderately affluent individual will be able to purchase a ticket into orbit ...and maybe beyond. This is the true price scale and timeline being bandied about by the experts.

Therein lies my purist concern. While access by the masses is critical for the long-term development of outer space and its related resources, it bodes ill for the ambience, reverence and magic that, ironically, are the factors that attract both vulgar tourists and dreamers alike. Since only the affluent, or indeed the ridiculously rich, will be able to afford it, will outer space be the ultimate class-restricted club? The Monaco or Montserrat of the heavens? How long before recovering Hollywood bad boys seek the age-reducing effects of
microgravity? I cringe at the thought of a Charlie Sheen, Paula Poundstone or Sean "Puff Daddy/P-Diddy/Puffy" Combs drunkenly defacing Neil Armstrong's lunar landing site. I have no doubt that it will one day happen, but I hope I'm not around to hear tell of it. Already, Radio Shack and Pizza Hut have filmed frivolous commercials aboard the international space station. A European designer is planning the first orbital fashion show. And Mark Burnett, creator of television's Survivor, is actively seeking a launch service to enable the production of "Survivor in Space". Do we really need the likes of naked Richard Hatch and screech-voiced Jerri Manthey in our skies? In terms of its potential for exploration and exploitation, outer space truly is the last great physical frontier. More than that, it may be humanity's salvation, as it represents room to expand, resources to exploit, mysteries to uncover and challenges to unite us. Undoubtedly, the path to realizing its promise involves ultimately making this frontier accessible to non-governmental astronauts and even casual visitors. But let's

hope that our heavens do not become or remain the exclusive domain of the affluent and frivolous.

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _4_ OF _14_

The space tourism industry is the critical step in an economic path from the status quo to space colonization. Space tourism provides the needed launch and transport practice that is key to achieving space colonization. NASA 2005
[Al Globus, http://www.nas.nasa.gov/About/Education/SpaceSettlement/Basics/wwwwh.html

Although we know generally how to build space colonies, we have yet to find an economic path from where we are now to construction of the first colony. One approach is to develop a series of profitable, private industries. For example: The key to space colonization is transportation from the Earth's surface to LEO. The key to inexpensive, economic transportation is the same as learning a musical instrument: practice, practice, practice. To date, there have been only a few thousand space launches and
only a few hundred people have been to space. Traditional uses of space, such as communication, Earth resources, military, exploration and science won't require a whole lot more in the next few decades. However,

hundreds of thousands of people say they would travel to space if the price was right. Tourism is a market that may provide the necessary practice.
Making a profit on space tourism seems like a ridiculous dream, but it has already happened. Burt Rutan's Scaled Composites flew their privately developed rocket, SpaceShipOne, into space three times in 2004, winning the $10 million Ansari X-Prize in the process. Not only did they win the prize, but they sold the technology to Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic for over $20 million, becoming profitable on their first space tourism venture. Virgin Galactic has put up another $50 million to develop five larger vehicles to carry tourists into space for a profit. The price is expected to be around $200,000 per flight. In a late 2004 talk, Rutan made the following predictions:

o o o o

Within 5 years 3,000 tourists will have been to space. Within 15 years sub-orbital tourism will be affordable, and 50,000 people will have flown. Within 15 years the first, expensive orbital tourist flights will have happened. Within 25 years orbital tourism will be affordable.

Time will tell if these are accurate. Orbital Tourism. SpaceShipOne went almost straight up 100km to get into space, and then came nearly straight down again. This sub-orbital flight is much easier than orbital flight, which requires the spacecraft to go nearly 30,000 km/hr horizontally to avoid crashing back to Earth. Surprisingly, the first paying orbital tourists have already flown. The Russians have taken Dennis Tito and Mark Shuttleworth to the International Space Station (ISS) developed by the U.S., Russia, Canada, Europe, Japan and other partners. However, even at $20 million a trip, this business only makes economic sense because the international partners spent tens of billions of dollars developing the ISS for other reasons.

we will see affordable orbital tourism within the lifetime of most people reading this. Successful orbital mass tourism will mean not only people, but solar power satellites can be launched from the ground to orbit affordably.
Nonetheless, if Rutan's prediction is correct

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES
Racism

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _5_ OF _14_

Racism and cultural intolerance are key motivators for space colonization – space is the ultimate gated community NASA 2005
[Al Globus, http://www.nas.nasa.gov/About/Education/SpaceSettlement/Basics/wwwwh.html

The ultimate gated community. On Earth it is essential that diverse groups learn to live in close proximity. It's hard to live with five or six billion homo sapiens, and some people can't seem to do it gracefully. Space settlements offer an alternative to changing human nature or endless conflict -- the ability to live in fairly homogeneous groups, as has been the norm throughout hundreds of thousands of years of human existence. Those who can't get along can be separated by millions of miles of hard vaccum, which in some cases seems necessary. All entry into a space settlement must be through an airlock, so controlling immigration should be trivial.

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _6_ OF _14_

The motivation for space colonization is racism and classism with the idea of “starting over” on a new planet Marcotte 2006
[Amanda, Administrator of Pandagon Book Club “Stephen Hawking is a tool” http://pandagon.net/2006/06/14/stephen-hawking-is-a-tool/

The idea of starting over with a small group of people on another planet is the same racist, classist superiority complexdriven fantasy that fuels the mythology of the Rapture, where it’s assumed an elite group of “Christians” (imagined as mostly white Americans) will get sucked away while the rest of us inferior humans died in the cesspool that is Earth. I suspect the rich assholes
who buy off scientists to spread imaginary doubt about global warming also think their elite status will save them, so that when the rest of us are crowding to the cities that are still above water and baking from the heat and possibly starving to death, they’ll be bouncing from air-conditioned mansion to air-conditioned car and living off hydroponically

Out of all the elitist fantasies about escape hatches, this is the only one that probably has an ounce of reality to it.
grown foods inside the farming wings of their tightly sealed mansions.

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES
Patriarchy

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _7_ OF _14_

Technology thrives on patriarchy, it represents “frozen gender relations” Wajcman 1991 [Judy, Judy Wajcman is currently (December 2000) Visiting Centennial Professor in the
Gender Institute of the London School of Economics. Her permanent position is professor of sociology at the Research School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University in Canberra. A distinguished sociologist, Wajcman was formerly on the faculty of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Patriarchy, Technology, and Conceptions of Skill Work and Occupations 18.29 http://wox.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/18/1/29]

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _8_ OF _14_

New technologies are inspired and constructed by patriarchal influences Wajcman 1991 [[Judy, Judy Wajcman is currently (December 2000) Visiting Centennial Professor in the
Gender Institute of the London School of Economics. Her permanent position is professor of sociology at the Research School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University in Canberra. A distinguished sociologist, Wajcman was formerly on the faculty of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Patriarchy, Technology, and Conceptions of Skill Work and Occupations 18.29 http://wox.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/18/1/29]

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _9_ OF _14_

Patriarchal systems seek technological innovation to entrench gender and class divisions Wajcman 1991 [[Judy, Judy Wajcman is currently (December 2000) Visiting Centennial Professor in the
Gender Institute of the London School of Economics. Her permanent position is professor of sociology at the Research School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University in Canberra. A distinguished sociologist, Wajcman was formerly on the faculty of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Patriarchy, Technology, and Conceptions of Skill Work and Occupations 18.29 http://wox.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/18/1/29]

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _10_ OF _14_

Technological advancement is the ultimate expression of patriarchy Hodgkinson 2000 [L., Department of Sociology University of Plymouth Plymouth,
Devon, U.K. ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7314/19786/00915589.pdf

Here, the widely accepted association between technology and masculinity changes from one of image, to the view that technology is inherently masculine. These analysts challenge the idea that technology simply shapes gender relations without being shaped by them. Far from being neutral, technology is seen to be ‘shaped’ by social interests, including those of gender. Since women have traditionally been absent from technology, technological knowledge, practices and artefacts are therefore seen to embody ‘masculine values’ Eco-feminism is a form of feminist thought which sees technology as not only gendered, but essentially and inherently patriarchal.
Eco-feminism, as defined by Cat Cox, ‘draws together environmental, feminist and women’s spirituality movements; it describes the diverse range of women’s efforts to save the Earth from ecological disaster and incorporates a new feminist view of women and nature’ [27]. Eco-feminism was inspired by the ‘difference feminism’ of the early 1980s, which revalued qualities that our society had devalued as “feminine”, such as subjectivity, co-operation, feeling and empathy [28]. Eco-feminism asserts that women’s capacity to give birth makes them closer to nature and inherently pacifist and nurturant.

It has focused particularly on reproductive technology, military technology and the ecological effects of other modem technologies [5]. At its most extreme, eco-feminism states that Westem science and technology embody patriarchal values and are used by men to dominate and control both nature and women. Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva articulate the central tenets of eco-feminism in the passage below: The new developments in biotechnology, genetic engineering and reproductive technology have made women acutely conscious of the gender bias of science and technology and that science’s whole paradigm is characteristically patriarchal, antinature and colonial and aims to disposses women of their generative capacity as it does the productive capacities of nature
[29]. The eco-feminist position has usefully highlighted the ways in which technology has been used ‘to oppress those who do not possess it or cannot engage with it’

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _11_ OF _14_

Rapid tech growth is key to space colonization David 2005, Senior space writer for space.com, 2005 (Leonard, "Space Colonization: The Quiet Revolution,"
February 23, http:Ilwww.space.comlbusinesstechnologyltechnology/space~colonization~050h2t2m3l.)

The prognosis for space colonization is good, said Edward McCullouqh, principal scientist for The Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, He pointed to numbers of technologies that are on exponential qrowth curves - that is, showing signs of increasing rapid growth. "During the last half of the 20th century, a host of technologies and disciplines which had witnessed millennia of slow or no growth ... suddenly went exponential," McCullouqh reported at the STAlF meeting. McCullouqh
pointed to photography, chemistry and quantum mechanics that have combined to produce a new industrial revolution. Electrical and mechanical engineering are on courses that appear to indicate unbounded exponential improvement. Delving into the structure of DNA has spurred a better understanding of the cellular processes. The human genome has been sequenced and micro biomechanics has taken off, he said. Furthermore, the centuries old technology of printing has been extended to three dimensions with inks of polymers, ceramics, wood and metals. "These

technologies have affected other technologies so that now at the dawn of the 21st century, one technology after another is assuming an exponential trajectory," McCullough noted. And all this is good news, he suggested, when one speculates on what these technologies portend for space colonization. Out of the blue 'There are so many technologies coming on," McCullough told SPACE.com. 'The commercial drivers
of these technologies are so massive, and the monev is so large, that they they're going to come right out of the blue," he said. There

are many more advancements that are already in the pipeline, McCullough said. "Some of the technologies that are out there are going to allow us to do some things that people are going to find incredible."

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _12_ OF _14_

Technological growth is key to space colonization that saves billions of lives – default to faster growth Bostrum 2002, Department of Philosophy, Yale University, Director of the Future of
Humanity Institute at Oxford University, 2002 (Nick, "Astronomical Waste: The Opportunity Cost of Delayed Technological Development," Preprint, Ufilitas Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 308-7 14, http:llwww.nickbostrom.comlastronomical/waste.htmI) Now, if these assumptions are made, what follows about how a person-affecting utilitarian should act?

Clearly,

avoiding existential calamities is important,
consideration -

not just because it would truncate the natural lifespan of six billion or so people, but also - and given the assumptions this is an even weightier

because it would extinguish the chance that current people have of reaping the enormous benefits of eventual colonization. However, by contrast to the total utilitarian, the person-affecting utilitarian would have to balance this goal with another equally important desideratum, namely that of maximizing the chances of current people surviving to benefit from the colonization. For the person-affecting utilitarian is not enough that humankind survives to colonize; it is crucial that extant people be saved. This should lead her to emphasize speed of technological development, since the rapid arrival advanced technology would surely be needed to help current people stay alive until the fruits of colonization could be harvested. If the goal of speed conflicts with
the goal of global safety, the total utilitarian should always opt to maximize safety, but the person-affecting utilitarian would have to balance the risk of people dying of old age with the risk of them succumbing in a species-destroying catastrophe.[l4]

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES
Native American Suffering
Author Title Imprint

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _13_ OF _14_

Mander, Jerry In the absence of the sacred : the failure of technology and the survival of the Indian nations / Jerry Mander San Francisco : Sierra Club Books, c1991 STATUS CHECK SHELF

LOCATION CALL # CIRCULATING BOOKS E98.S67 M36 1991

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES
Bears

SPACE! IMPACT TURNS _14_ OF _14_

Bears are key to solving the muscular atrophy problem which is key to long-term space travel and exploration. Brain tissue from freshly killed wild bears is critical to this research. Riepenhoff 2004 [BOB RIEPENHOFF "BOB RIEPENHOFF Bears could hold key in
medical research". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, The. Sep 19, 2004. FindArticles.com. 22 Feb. 2007. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4196/is_20040919/ai_n10991964]

This hunt also was different for another reason. As Danny Riley -- professor of cell biology, neurobiology and anatomy at the Medical College of Wisconsin -- told me when I arrived at bear camp: "You are part of the research team."
Here's a little background:

Valentine Vogel, an osteologist and former taxidermist from Oak Creek, with what some
In fall of 2001, Riley, of Brookfield, was contacted by might have viewed as a far-fetched theory about bears potentially holding the secrets to human diseases. Riley didn't see it that way.

thinks there is something in the bear's fat that preserves the muscle when it lies in a den for three to five months, very inactive."
"He made sense," Riley said of Vogel. "He

Riley, who does NASA-funded research on human muscle atrophy in astronauts, said: "An astronaut, at five days in space, already shows up to 10 or 15% atrophy." bears hold the key to space travel, as well as curing diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity, the two men launched a research project in 2002.
To find out whether Since then -- supported by money from the Medical College's Cardiovascular Center and volunteer help from the Wisconsin Bear Hunters Association -- the team has anesthetized and gathered tissue from 19 live wild bears, 14 of which were radio-collared so samples could be taken and compared later. The team also has sampled nine dead bears, either road-kills or bears confiscated by the Department of Natural Resources. Shortly after I arrived at Vogel's cabin in western Bayfield County, Riley explained that

our

mission was to provide something the project desperately needed, something that had never been scientifically analyzed before -- brain tissue from a freshly killed wild bear.