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Guide for Specifying
Architecturally Exposed
Structural Steel

by Terri Meyer Boake


Guide for Specifying
Architecturally Exposed
Structural Steel

Copyright © 2012
Canadian Instute of Steel Construcon

All rights reserved.
This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced
without wrien permission from the publisher.

Second Edion
First Prinng March 2012

ISBN 978-0-88811-160-9

Front cover images courtesy Terri Meyer Boake

Guide for Specifying
Architecturally Exposed
Structural Steel
Terri Meyer Boake, B.E.S., B.Arch., M.Arch., LEED AP
School of Architecture
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario

Canadian Institute of Steel Construction

CISC AESS Guide – 3

1 to 1. 1 CISC AESS Guide – Table of Contents .Feature Elements (view distance  6 metres) AESS 4 .Custom Elements Mixed Categories Acknowledgements 7 7 7 8 8 9 Characteriscs of the Matrix AESS 1 .1 to 3.1 to 2. It is sincerely hoped that this guide will assist in leveraging the posion and ease of use of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel in the Canadian construcon industry.Basic Elements AESS 2 .4 AESS 3 .Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword 6 1 The Challenge 7 What Is AESS? Purpose of the Guide Evoluon of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel Development of the New CISC AESS Documents Primary Factors of Inuence That Dene AESS Form.Feature Elements (view distance > 6 metres) AESS 3 .Characteriscs 4. Fit and Finish This publicaon would not have been possible without the input of many dedicated people in the steel industry.Showcase Elements AESS C . and to Walter Koppelaar for his encouragement and sharing his knowledge of the industry and its inner workings.5 AESS 2 .Characteriscs 3. 10 2 Categories 12 3 Characteriscs Parcular thanks go to Sylvie Boulanger for her assistance in working through the details of this publicaon.4 The Matrix The Categories Approach Standard Structural Steel AESS 1 .Characteriscs 1.4 AESS C Working Outside of Canada 12 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 20 22 22 23 . The CISC AESS Commiee members from across Canada put many long hours into sharing their knowledge in order to help create a useful tool for designing.1 to 4. specifying or creang Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel.Characteriscs 2.6 AESS 4 .

CISC AESS Guide – Table of Contents .5 . Image credits: Unless otherwise noted.CISC Code of Standard Pracce Appendix 2 . They are included only to allow for a beer understanding of the visual intenons of the pracces and procedures outlined in the Guide and related specicaon documents. All images are credited at the end of the document using the numbered photo scheme. all images in this book were taken by Terri Meyer Boake. with the understanding that “a picture might be worth a thousand words”. Images are not to be reproduced without wrien authorizaon of the author.4 Coangs and Finishes General Issues Details Surface Preparaon Paint Systems Shop Versus Site Painng Primers Intumescent Coangs Cemenous/Fibrous Fire Protecon Galvanizing Metalizing Weathering Steel Stainless Steel 5 Connecons Detailing Requirements for AESS Connecons General Issues Connecon Mock-Ups Which Type of Connecon Should I Choose? Bolted Connecons Welded Connecons Tubular Steel Cast Connecons 6 Curves and Cuts Designing for Complex Curves and Cuts Bending Ellipcal Tubes Specialized Equipment Shearing CNC Cung Plasma Cung Torch or Flame Cung Hole Punching and Drilling 24 7 Erecon Consideraons 38 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 29 30 Handling the Steel Transportaon Issues Sequencing of Lis Site Constraints Care in Handling Erecon Issues Combining Steel with Timber Combining Steel with Glass 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 8 Special Acknowledgments 42 9 References and Image Credits 43 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 Appendices Appendix 1 .Sample AESS Specicaon 44 46 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 Disclaimer: It is not the intenon of the CISC AESS Commiee that the projects and details included in this Guide should be replicated or necessarily represent “best pracces”.

the Canadian Instute of Steel Construcon and the author do not assume responsibility for errors or oversights resulng from the use of the informaon contained herein. As a member of the Canadian Steel Construcon Council. CISC works in close cooperaon with the Steel Structures Educaon Foundaon (SSEF) to develop educaonal courses and programmes related to the design and construcon of steel structures. All suggesons for improvement of this publicaon will receive full consideraon for future prinngs. the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and numerous other organizaons. and computer programs. and through the medium of seminars. fabricators. CISC AESS Guide – Foreword . in Canada and other countries. Website: www. The CISC supports and acvely parcipates in the work of the Standards Council of Canada. CISC is located at: 3760 14th Avenue. through the preparaon and disseminaon of publicaons. engineers and others interested in steel construcon are encouraged to make use of CISC informaon services. It is an important part of a connuing e ort to provide current. Suite 200. video tapes. meengs. L3R 3T7 and may also be contacted via one or more of the following: Telephone: 905-946-0864 Fax: 905-946-8574 Email: info@cisc-icca. the Instute has a general interest in all uses of steel in construcon. Ontario.6 .cisc-icca. open-web steel joist and steel plate fabricang industries in Canada. This publicaon has been prepared and published by the Canadian Instute of Steel Construcon. and others interested in the use of steel in construcon. designers. praccal informaon to assist educators.Foreword The Canadian Instute of Steel Construcon is a naonal industry organizaon represenng the structural steel. Preparaon of engineering plans is not a funcon of the CISC. the CISC funcons as a nonprot organizaon promong the e cient and economic use of fabricated steel in construcon. Architects. the Canadian Standards Associaon. The Instute does provide technical informaon through its professional engineering sta . Although no e ort has been spared in an aempt to ensure that all data in this book is factual and that the numerical values are accurate to a degree consistent with current structural design pracce. involved in research work and the preparaon of codes and standards. Formed in 1930 and granted a Federal charter in 1942. Anyone making use of the contents of this book assumes all liability arising from such use.

but also on the method of aachment.1 The Challenge Purpose of the Guide What Is AESS? Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) is steel that is designed for structural su ciency to meet the primary needs of the building. The structural requirements of shear and moment resistance must be accommodated. and all are linked by the Matrix of Categories and Characteriscs. It is also hoped that the range of projects illustrated will inspire you by highlighng the wide range of possibilies available when designing with Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel. detailing and nish requirements of AESS will typically exceed that of standard structural steel normally concealed by other nishes. the designer can price the project out of existence.7 . 2 3 The factors of inuence were worked into the Categories (described in Secon 2) and Characteriscs (Secon 3) as dened in the new AESS documents. 4 5 CISC AESS Guide – 1 The Challenge . AESS steel design requires detailing that can approach industrial design standards when creang joints between members. The Matrix sits at the centre of the suite and provides the connecon that links all of the documents. in order for users of the new specicaon documents to understand more fully the Categories and Characteriscs. For Whom Is It Intended? This Guide was created primarily for architects but is also intended for all design professionals interested in AESS applicaons. They are presented to allow a beer understanding of the visual intenons of pracces and procedures outlined in the Guide and related specicaon documents. Evoluon of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel The basic understanding of steel construcon lies in its roots as an assembled. with the understanding that “a picture might be worth a thousand words”. fabricators have the Code. form. architects have the Guide. If the creaon of connecons requires an excessive degree of unique fabricaon details. an illustrated document was required. The method of preparing and nishing the connecons can also radically increase costs. It is not the intenon of the Commiee that the details included herein should be replicated or necessarily represent “best pracces”. It was felt that. Why a Guide for AESS? This Guide was developed to facilitate beer communicaon among architects. engineers have the Specicaon. along with ghter dimensional tolerances and other consideraons such as balance. In terms of the relaonship between the new AESS documents and specic areas of pracce. The Guide serves as a companion to two other AESS documents: the Sample AESS Secon in the Structural Steel Specicaon and the CISC Code of Standard Pracce including the Category Matrix. the projects and details are intended to help architects select appropriate Categories of AESS which range from AESS1 through AESS4 (see Secon 2). It was felt that visual references would help all pares understand the intent of the new AESS documents as applied to the design of structures. It provides visual references to help beer understand the terms of reference. The design. engineers and fabricators. canopies or ancillary structures. largely prefabricated methodology. The buildings and connecons included in this document are meant to be representave and to provide clear visual references supporng the key facts explained in the Guide. In addion. while at the same me remaining exposed to view. Steel construcon is “elemental” in nature and its arstry reliant not only on the appropriate choice of members (shapes versus tubes). This Guide has been wrien to explain in detail the suite of CISC documents for the specicaon of AESS material. symmetry and economy. Specialized welds and unnecessary ground and lled nishes increase fabricaon and erecon expenses. It is therefore a signicant part of the architectural language of the building.

concerns about AESS were also emerging in several regions of Canada. and construcon process for AESS. The paradigm shi centers on the simple fact that a “nice-looking connecon” or a “smooth surface” has very di erent meanings whether you are talking to an architect. for example. 7 In its arcle on Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel Construcon in Modern Steel Construcon (May 2003). tube). AISC cited the roots of the current trend of exposed steel and transparency in design to the Chicago O’Hare United Airlines Terminal designed by Helmut Jahn between 1985 and 1988. an addion to the CISC Code of Standard Pracce and this Guide. several roundtables were held in Montreal. AISC had produced its AESS Guide. .Much of the architectural enjoyment as well as the challenge of designing with AESS lies in the creaon of key details and connecons that give the structure its disncve character. the challenge consists in determining the method of connecon – welding vs. which typically involved architects. The Categories are further dened by a set of technical Characteriscs. Welds that are contoured and blended are not the same price as ASTM A325 hexagonal bolts. Regional CISC iniaves eventually culminated in the naonal CISC Ad Hoc Commiee on AESS in 2005. airport architecture has succeeded in pushing the use of exposed steel to incredible heights. coang thicknesses and connecon types should maer. engineers and fabricators. In total. The architect now wants direct access to the fabricator’s shop to verify and comment on the edges and surfaces of the imagined product. and ulmately designing the joint itself. specicaon. The Brish High Tech movement brought exposed structural steel to the forefront of design. viewing distances. The Commiee established a set of Categories to dene the nature of nish and tolerance in the steel. Composional issues usually necessitate the addion of extra steel at the joints to create a beauful connecon. an addion to the CISC Code of Standard Pracce (for fabricators) and a Guide (for architects). The committee elaborated a Sample Specicaon (for engineers). hence requiring much involvement. an engineer or a fabricator. Common to all these documents was a unique Matrix of Categories and Characteriscs used by all. During the same period. Whereas designers tend not to be involved in connecon issues for concealed structural systems. For example. and with it an array of issues that had not been part of architectural discourse for more than a century. The idea was to create a dynamic industry dialogue including architects and engineers. 1 The Challenge The surge in the use of AESS has created a paradigm shi in the sequenal communicaon that usually takes place in a more convenonal building where the steel structure is hidden. To facilitate communicaon among architects. Indeed. That leaves the fabricator and the erector somewhere in the middle between aesthec and technical requirements. Development of the New CISC AESS Documents It was felt that the normal specicaon used for structural steel was incomplete when it came to serving the special needs of AESS. CISC adapted components of what AISC had developed and also introduced an underlining Category approach and reduced its scope. and the engineer is dealing with aesthec aspects that impact the structural integrity of the frame. in the hope of providing a series of documents that would assist in re-visioning the design. The project used round HSS members and a structure that was expressed on both the exterior and interior of the building. bolng. Toronto and Vancouver. 6 The Sainsbury Centre for the Performing Arts was designed and constructed by Norman Foster in 1977. as they all impact the nature of the nish and detail required in exposed steel. three AESS documents reference the Matrix: a Sample Specicaon. In parallel. Aer the primary choice of member type and system (shape vs. Those sessions helped shape the orientaon and direcon of the Commiee’s work on the documents. Unfortunately not all designers are adequately informed regarding either the choice of appropriate methods of aachment or the cost implicaons of their choices. Such a situaon creates a misalignment of expectaons in terms of what can be accomplished within specic budget limitaons. exposed systems become the architectural trademark of the building.8 In the following two years. Primary Factors of Inuence That Dene AESS The Canada-wide discussion groups held by the CISC Ad Hoc Commiee on AESS determined that there were primary factors giving rise to the di erenated Categories of AESS: • Connecons mostly bolted or welded (di erent aesthecs requiring di ering levels of nish) • Tolerances required at fabricaon and erecon (di erent as a funcon of scope and complexity) • Access to detail to perform required nish (greater concern for workmanship may mean altering the detail or its locaon to allow access for di erent types of tools) BACKGROUND By 2003. CISC AESS Guide – 1 The Challenge . engineers and fabricators. CISC formed a naonal Ad Hoc Commiee on AESS (see Special Acknowledgments at the end of the document) and focused on di erenang Categories because it became clear that not all AESS need be created equal(ly expensive). Therefore. Categories and their associated Characteriscs are presented in a Matrix to provide an easy graphic reference.

the selecon of the Finish must take place at the beginning of the AESS design process. interior or exterior exposure and re protecon. Unlike standard structural steel that is hidden from view. 9 Composite structural systems require higher levels of coordinaon. The use of stainless steel spider con- 8 Specialty glazing systems require ghter tolerances and a higher level of Fit on a project. and its selecon may accompany a less polished selecon of details. corrosion resistance. If exposed steel is used with heavy mber or glulam systems. Form. AESS specicaons must be tailored to the overall design intenons of each individual project as they are all somewhat unique. A high-gloss nish will reveal every imperfecon and so will require more fasdious fabricaon. Here there needs to be a customized variaon of the consideraons presented in this Guide which form the basis of dialogue for the team. need to re protect. more or less care may be required when preparing the surface. ease of fabricaon. in parcular areas of signicant glazing and curtain wall. Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel is a key element of the expression of the Architectural Design. then the t must also take into account the di erenal movements and erecon idiosyncrasies of these other materials. • Degree of expression (complexity of structure and connecons) • Size and shape of structural elements (W secons and HSS have di erent detailing requirements and their use infers a di erent approach to detailing and nish) • Interior or exterior seng (weathering issues. Many projects seek to incorporate reused or salvaged steel for its sustainable qualies. others may wish to let the rough nature of the steel reveal itself. Members and connecons are designed with more aenon to the way in which their details support the aesthec intenons of the design. the other using mechanical pipe and specialty casng and striving for a seamless appearance using a high gloss nish. Steel is oen selected as the material of choice for large art installaons. The overall Form may vary greatly from regular framing and might oen include curves. Bolted or welded connecons may be chosen less for their structural capabilies or ease of erecon than for their appearance within the overall intenon and form of the design. potenal for impact damage) • Paint nish. Excepons Form. edges and welding of the steel) While the Finish might be the last phase of construcon. The boom line for the contract is that both me and money will be wasted if the level of fabricaon care greatly exceeds the nature of the Finish.9 . unusual angles or three-dimensional elements. A large amount of emphasis is placed on the Form of the steel in the design. This need to ensure accuracy. but in others le with its original nish so that it can express its reuse. In some instances the steel may be cleaned. Where some arsts might be looking for a very plasc appearance. A thicker intumescent coang will conceal many surface imperfecons. Reused steel also requires a di erent set of consideraons. Fit and Finish The primary factors of inuence can be further summarized as Form. The tolerances and construcon pracces of the other material must be taken into account. Fit and Finish consideraons will di er on projects whose intenons might fall outside of tradional Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel. re protecon (depending on the relave thickness of the nish material. There is signicantly less play in the connecons. Galvanizing itself has issues with consistency of nish. Highly arculated steel structures are by their nature more di cult to Fit. Finishes will vary in exposed steel both as a funcon of the design intenon and issues relang to weathering. puts greater pressure on the details and requires narrower tolerances throughout the enre project. and accumulated errors can result in overall misalignment. as well as boom line constructability. Tighter tolerances will carry through when the exposed steel framing must coordinate with other trades. CISC AESS Guide – 1 The Challenge .necons for structural glass systems puts addional pressure on allowable tolerances. This type of applicaon also demands a variaon of the general intenons presented in this Guide. This does not mean that their structural integrity is not a key consideraon in the success of the design. Fit and Finish. 10 11 Two di erent steel trees: one created using W shapes to create a very textured appearance.

4 3.2 2. shopping centres.3 3.3 1. lobbies Moderate (20-250%) (100-250%) (60-150%) Elements with special requirements Showca s e or domi na nt el ements .4 HSS seam not apparent Welds contoured and blended Surfaces Įlled and sanded Weld show-through minimized я я я я C.2 C.4 C.4 1.3 2.1 3.1 1. hospitals.5 Sample Use: EsƟmated Cost Premium: 15 AESS 4 CISC AESS Guide – 1 The Challenge .6 Mill marks removed BuƩ and plug welds ground smooth and Įlled HSS weld seam oriented for reduced visibility Cross secƟonal abuƫng surface aligned Joint gap tolerances minimized All welded connecƟons я я я я я opƟonal я я я я я opƟonal 4.1 4.2 3.2 4.1 C.3 4.1 2.10 Low to High High Airports.4 Visual Samples One-half standard fabricaƟon tolerances FabricaƟon marks not apparent Welds uniform and smooth opƟonal я я я opƟonal я я я 3.THE CISC CATEGORY MATRIX FOR SPECIFYING ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STRUCTURAL STEEL (AESS) Table 1 .5 3.5 Surface preparaƟon to SSPC-SP 6 Sharp edges ground smooth ConƟnuous weld appearance Standard structural bolts Weld spaƩers removed 2.AESS Category Matrix Category 12 13 14 AESS C Custom Elements AESS 4 Showcase Elements AESS 3 Feature Elements я я я я я Viewed at a Distance ч 6 Viewed at a Distance  6 m m я я я я я AESS 1 AESS 2 AESS 3 CharacterisƟcs Id 1.2 1.3 C.

they are 1. NOTES 1. C.4 The welds should be uniform and smooth. 3.11 . The categories appear on architecture. 1. For corrosive environments. 2. CISC AESS Guide – 1 The Challenge .6 Hidden bolts may be considered. The categories are selected by the architect. a physical sample.1 All mill marks are not to be visible in the nished product. either with addional welding. Each category represents a set of characteriscs. see: www.1 HSS seams shall be treated so they are not apparent. For AESS 1. 2. and so on.2 In addion to a contoured and blended appearance. They are specied at bid me as an AESS subdivision of the Structural Steel division in the engineer’s documents.3 Seams shall be oriented away from view or as indicated in the Contract Documents. slivers and surface disconnuies are to be removed. detailing and erecon documents. welded transions between members are also required to be contoured and blended.3 Steel surface imperfecons should be lled and sanded. 3.2 above. A clear distance between abung members of 3 mm is required. as specied.2 These tolerances are required to be onehalf of those of standard structural steel as specied in CSA S16. grinding and especially shearing are to be soened.cisc-icca. 1. and if a visual sample is needed. None 0% 2. Addional characteriscs may be added for custom elements. the tolerances to be met.4 All bolt heads in connecons shall be on the same side.4 The back face of the welded element caused by the welding process can be minimized by hand grinding the backside of the weld.4. 4. canopies Low (40-100%) (20-60%) 1. indicang a higher level of quality control in the welding process. 3.2 Rough surfaces are to be deburred and ground smooth.5 This characterisc is similar to 2. and consistent from one connecon to another. a scaled mock-up or a full-scale mock-up. Sharp edges resulng from ame cung. for AESS 2.3 Members marked with specic numbers during the fabricaon and erecon processes are not to be visible. engineering. any deposits of grease or oil are to be removed by solvent cleaning.1 through 1. caulking or body ller. the associated characteriscs are 1. The degree of weld-through is a funcon of weld size and material. all joints should be seal welded.2 Caulking or body ller is acceptable. 1. 4. Retail and architectural buildings viewed at a distance Low to Moderate Roof trusses for arenas. In general. For more informaon. 4.1 Prior to blast cleaning. Weld projecon up to 2 mm is acceptable for bu and plug-welded joints. it is expected that AESS 2 (for elements viewed at a distance) and AESS 3 (for elements viewed at close range) will be the categories most commonly specied. 3. 2. as specied in Contract Documents.1 Visual samples are either a 3-D rendering.4 The matching of abung cross-secons shall be required.3 Intermient welds are made connuous. Seams of hollow structural secons shall be acceptable as produced. SSPC-SP 1.4.1 through 2. retail warehouses.AESS 2 Feature Elements Viewed at a Distance > 6 Viewed at a Distance > 6 m m я я я я я AESS 1 Basic Elements SSS Standard Structural Steel CSA S16 я я я я я opƟonal я я я The CISC Category Matrix encompasses 4 Categories (AESS 1 through AESS 4). a rst-o inspecon.5 Weld spaer. 4. 3. which claries what type of work will be performed on the steel.

The examples chosen to illustrate the points in this Guide are not meant to be either denive or exhausve. The ability to see the structure from a close range can impact the required level of workmanship of the nished product. For these reasons the range of increase is fairly wide.12 This structural steel will be hidden behind a suspended ceiling. It is recognized that a wide range of AESS buildings is already in existence. viewing distance and types of members. and hence priced accordingly. There are cost savings if such is recognized prior to specifying the steel. The erecon costs will also increase as a funcon of the complexity of the steel. clearly the overriding concern of this material. The exposed roof trusses may be AESS 1. form. fabricaon or mill processes will not be able to be seen at a distance. there is lile or no architectural concern over the design of the details. have been reduced to three main areas of concern: • • • the viewing distance (greater or less than 6 metres) the type or funcon of the building (as this infers potenal design requirements for nish) a range of percentage of potenal cost increase over standard structural steel. The structural integrity of Standard Structural Steel is CISC AESS Guide – 2 Categories . this might also include the view down onto the structure. When designing atrium spaces. It is also suggested that the program of the building and the range of spaces within a project be examined to assess whether there are in fact a number of types of AESS that need to be specied. These are explained in detail under Secon 3 Characteriscs. Type or Funcon of the Building: The exposed steel over an ice rink and the exposed steel in an airport are likely to have di erent aesthec and nish requirements. because it will be either clad and/or re protected. Viewing Distance: Six metres was chosen as a base dimension. In normal circumstances. access and staging area concerns. and for the purpose of the Matrix. as some natural blemishes in the steel from manufacturing. on a structure many metres out of eyeshot. These Categories reect the primary factors of inuence. this steel is not subject to the same consideraons as an exposed product. Standard Structural Steel (SSS) The inial point of technical reference is Standard Structural Steel (SSS) as dened in CSA S16. . plus a more stringent set of addional requirements. and increased tolerance requirements to t the steel. as it began to di erenate whether an occupant would be able to scrunize the nish from a close range and even touch the product. the ghter the tolerances become. The more complex the AESS and the higher the nature of the nish requirements. Viewing distance can also impact the requirements of the surface nish on the steel members. it is also important to use this measurement in the horizontal direcon. Where steel is viewed from above. The choice of AESS category will vary according to the use of the space. There are a range of degrees of nish between these two building types that are recognized in this document. Baselines have been established that characterize each of the ve AESS Categories. Each Category as illustrated within this Guide will be shown to be able to reference recognizable building types as a point of visual orientaon. Six metres represents a normal height of a high ceiling. It is assumed that regular structural steel is either normally concealed for reasons of nish preference or for reasons of re protecon. but to create a visual reference to assist in understanding both the intent of the AESS Categories as well as the nature of the nish and workmanship inferred by the Characteriscs listed in the next secon. connecons and even necessarily the type of members chosen. The type of AESS will simply need to be marked clearly on the contract documents. and be subject to addional and wall nishes. for instance. Although some applicaons will be more complicated than others. It makes lile sense to grind welds. t and nish. once the type of AESS has been selected and the Matrix completed. and the columns or base details may be AESS 3. the degree to which this complex steel can be fabricated in the shop. these documents be used as a point of communicaon and negoaon among the design and construcon team. A set of Characteriscs has been developed that is associated with each Category. care must be taken to detail the steel to avoid the buildup of grime and trash.2 Categories THE CATEGORIES APPROACH In the new AESS set of Specicaon documents. as the view across a space is as crical as the view upward. This increases the me to erect the steel. It is strongly suggested that. Mulple Types of AESS. so its strength consideraons take priority over its appearance. Range of Potenal Cost Increase: The percentage values noted on the matrix suggest a range of increase in the cost to fabricate and erect the AESS Categories over the cost to fabricate and erect standard structural steel. ve Categories have been created that characterize ve unique levels of nish related to AESS. Same Project: Di erent types of AESS can be in use on the same project. In certain instances. transportaon. Understanding the Categories of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel begins by di erenang structural steel in terms of its degree of exposure. 17 16 Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel will follow This structural steel has spray reproong applied and will also be hidden from view by ceiling all of the same structural requirements as set out within CSA S16. Addional me is involved in the fabricaon processes associated with the specic characteriscs of the higher levels of AESS. Higher-level Categories include all of the Characteriscs of the preceding Categories. If this is clearly marked on the contract drawings. then the fabricator can adjust the bid according to the appropriate level of nish. as it is already established and well understood as a baseline in construcon Specicaons.

(higher cost premium for custom ceal detail. 18 AESS 1 applicaons will see the use of fairly straigh orward secon types such Semiahmoo Library. (low cost premium through the use of standard secons and connecons that are removed from view) Depending on the environment (moisture level in the case of rinks and chemicals in the case of swimming pools. it would likely have more care is required to ensure that fallen into AESS 2 Category Steel. Some extra care is necessary. however. the steel has been le exposed to save on the use of nish the standard structural members are aligned in a uniform way.: The project uses a very as W. Toronto. they fall into AESS 1 given their more roughly detailed design style as well as the less rened nature of the space. and the ceiling height at the low Ricoh Centre. big box stores and canopies and should only require a low cost premium in the range of 20% to 60% due to its relavely large viewing distance as well as the lower prole nature of the architectural spaces in which it is used. AESS 1 – Basic Elements is the rst step above Standard Structural Steel. 20 Ricoh Centre. 3. Toronto. industrial plants. so that the fabricaon. Although ceiling is extremely high. that are located at a closer proximity. Also important to consider when specifying AESS 1 for the ceiling will be the nature of the other elements and systems that will be incorporated into the ceiling plane. This is determined as a funcon of the use of the space. which require enhanced workmanship. ON: Although the trusses that span the arena proper in the Ricoh Centre are somewhat closer to view. the steel is more arculated using curved shapes and HSS members. and so it will need to receive only a paint nish.C. but the The trusses are fabricated from HSS material. In the Ricoh Cen. Generally this type of keeping with the library use of the facility. Some of these specialty fabricaons will be similar to those used in AESS 2.) this type of steel may need special coang treatment to prevent corrosion. This type of applicaon would be suitable for “basic” elements. In Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel. tre. In some situaons the steel may be le completely unprotected or sprinklered. The W secons are structural steel applicaons. Another factor that will impact the decision to ask for AESS 1 versus AESS 2 steel for an exposed ceiling will be the nature of the lighng. this structure might need to fall into a higher Category. this might not be a common choice due to the cost of the coang system. in proled decking. the trusses are sll well above 6 m levels in the low range and addionally from the viewer. the light level on the ceiling is high. HSS. like columns. bolts. If the curved steel trusses of fabricaon) the Ricoh Centre were to be brightly uplit with a more blue-white type of light that could accentuate the detail.13 . in the preparaframing might appear similar to basic on and installaon of the structure. you might also see a high level of signage that will serve to take the focus away from the steel systems and therefore allow for a lower level of nish and detailing. In the case of the library. ON: This renovaon project uses range for this category. These types of applicaons may or may not require special re protecon design. and use a di erent class of AESS for those elements. as much of this type of steel will be located well above eye level and out of range of touch. In the case of retail (big box) stores. This will impact the overall cost of the installaon. and the lighng there is more fabricaon e ort involved than if using o the-shelf components. which has helped in achieving credits towards kept consistent. some specialty customdesigned steel may be specied but would be located at a distant view. other than exposed to view and touch. and oen OWSJ and exposed simple exposed structure comprised of W secons and OWSJ with a painted nish. 2. and welds is also required. 4 or Custom) and the specic set of Characteriscs associated with each AESS Category. the steel. In the case of Semiahmoo 19 Library. it will be common to specify AESS 1 for the ceiling elements of a design. Is it “busy” with mechanical services? Do these need to run parallel or perpendicular to the main structural lines of the trusses or joists? Are the services to be painted out or accentuated? Typically you will see sprinkler runs and HVAC equipment integrated into most AESS 1 type ceilings. but overall the ceiling elements the fact that it is le exposed to view. The detailing on AESS 1 elements should not be greatly impacted by the relave thickness or nish of the intumescent coang.curved trusses adjacent to the entry area of the arena to reect the curved window of the adjacent historic facade. Intumescent coatings could be found where the rang would be one hour or greater. and that the surfaces of a LEED Silver Rang. are viewed at a distance. B. so close scruny of the nishes and conusing a type of lighng that tends to connecons is not possible. This type of exposed structure could be found in roof trusses for arenas. warehouses. etc. its materiality and method of connecons are “expressed” and form a key part of the architectural design of the building or project. with the distance factor being the major point of separaon. As it is ancipated that many AESS projects will specify more than one Category of steel. that spacing is material. nish of the steel and workmanship would not come under close scruny. Had this project used custom And because it is le exposed to view.requirements as dened by the assigned AESS Category (1. Surrey. A greater level of consistency in the use of connecons. Alternavely. (lower cost premium with standard joists) the members are properly prepared to accept uniform nishes and coangs. where the distance to view is in the 6 m or greater range. CISC AESS Guide – 2 Categories . trusses instead of OWSJ members.

The viewing distance is over 6 metres but the design needs something more than a standard joist or truss. For this reason you might be specifying AESS 2 steel for the distant components of the structure and a higher grade of AESS for the low-level elements of the structure. there is normally less concern about concealing the connecon aspects of larger pieces to each other – hence no hidden connecons. Montreal: The trusses supporng this skylight are quite characterisc of AESS 2 type steel. the square HSS secons align fairly cleanly. ON: The project makes use of relavely standard steel secons. . The detailing is simple. Works Yard O ce. rather than more industrial members such as OWSJ. It is suitable for “feature” elements that will be viewed at a distance greater than six metres. This becomes more di cult at the angled junctures of the roof. only the form of the truss. The viewing distance has permied a less fasdious level of ll and nish on the members. Edmonton City Hall uses square HSS members to create a very complex high-level truss system to support a pyramidal skylight. There is some secon bending required the upper oor level. which will change aspects of its detailing and coordinaon during erecon. There are some specialty details added to the repertoire. An upclose inspecon reveals many inconsistencies that are reasonable to leave “as is” due to the view distance. even from the upper levels. Vancouver B. the use of exposed steel has reduced nishes and helped in achieving a LEEDTM Gold rang. The predominant secon choice is a W-shape. The specialty details that support the roof structure and the Parallam wood beams remove the details from close scruny. connecon and fabricaon details. as these are not in close range of view or touch. The dening parameter of viewing distance greater than 6 metres will infer that you might nd this sort of steel in high-level roof or ceiling applicaons. tolerances for gaps. AESS 2 will generally be found in buildings where the expressed structure forms an important. As the viewing distance is great. and the detailing has been kept fairly standard. This type of AESS might be found in retail and architectural applicaons where a low to moderate cost premium in the range of 40% to 100% over the cost of Standard Structural Steel would be expected. however.AESS 2 – Feature Elements includes structure that is intended to be viewed at a distance > 6 m. In the case of the Naonal Works Yard. The viewing distance varies but is typically greater than 6 metres. The extra expense to ll. the elements themselves have been shopNaonal Trade Centre. sistent.14 23 24 Pierre Ellio Trudeau Airport. This type of applicaon may use a combinaon of bolted or welded connecons. predominantly with W-secons. The process requires basically good fabricaon pracces with enhanced treatment of welds.: The project uses a more arculated steel design. and the viewer is not close enough to see the texture of the connecon. so at a distance for viewing and therefore allowing for a lower level of detailing and ne nish.C. and copes. Much of the structure is located at ceiling height. For the straight-run truss elements. 21 Naonal Works. Although the fabricaon employ a higher standard in terms of arrangesteel can be viewed more closely from ment and detailing. but the design and welded prior to shipping. This structure interacts with wood. integral part of the architectural design intent. given the use of the building as a CISC AESS Guide – 2 Categories . But given the pyra- 26 25 27 Edmonton City Hall: The trusses that support the pyramidal glass roof are created using square HSS secons. made to maintain the tectonic of the Much of the structure is sll located in excess of 6 metres W-secons and bolted connecons conabove view. These should be clearly marked on the drawing sets so that the treatments can be di erenated and the respecve cost premiums separated out. centred around the support of the PV skylights and the wood structure. The structure appears to use all-welded connecons. grind and carefully align the members would be lost on users of the building. a decision was which increases fabricaon costs and can impact detailing. Toronto. The primary connecon choice to join 22 major secons is bolng. It will be more common to see W or HSS members specied for this category.

midal shape.15 . The natural look of welds that would be out of view in AESS 2 steel will now be visible to the occupant in the space. and intumescent coangs are used. Some site welds may not be of the same quality as can be expected of shop welds. CISC AESS Guide – 2 Categories . This type of structure could be found in airports. 31 28 O’Hare Internaonal Airport in Chicago was the rst airport to use AESS. Due to the irregularity of the structure. Square plates have been welded to the Where welds cannot HSS members that provide surface for be done in the shop. In this instance a combinaon of welded connecons and exposed plate-to-plate moment connecons at the connecon points between square HSS secons is the feature of the appearance. and the desire of the designer to either conceal or express the materiality of the steel itself. The proled decking is also le exposed to view. and the workmanship required to improve these beyond both Standard Structural Steel and AESS 1 and 2 could have a signicant impact on the cost of the overall structure. so their design. its smoothness and ensure that some of the natural nish on the steel and mill marks do not show through the paint. it is necessary for the team to come to a clear understanding about the level of nish that is both required and expected of the steel. the coloured light through the curtain wall gives addional texture to this expression of steel. The Category would be suitable for “feature” elements where the designer is comfortable allowing the viewer to see the art of metalworking. the re-protecon method must be known from the outset of the project. Although some touch-up grinding of the welds the passengers. It would be expected that the welds will be of a 32 higher quality than those for AESS 2 structures where the Oawa Internaonal Airport: The welds would be out of view and touch due to their height. It is assumed that good quality. bolts on all sides of the connecon to ensure a uniform appearance. Flat plates where condions are more controlled have been used for the lap-type hinge and jigs can be used connecons on the diagonal members. The geometry of the may be required to ensure uniformity. Connecons will come under closer scruny.AESS 3 welds will be expected to have a very uniform apports are within view and touch by pearance. therefore warranng a smoother and more uniform nish and appearance. steel trusses and sloped column sup. The cost premium for AESS 2 ranges from 40 to 100%. it might also frequently be subject to touch by the public. Although the steel is all painted grey. skylight or ceiling support systems. A variety of steel shapes and connecon types have been used. complex geometries and a predominance of welded connecons. creang a degree of uniformity within to ensure precise the scheme. shopping centres. alignment of the components. and the tolerances and nish requirements are character. Tolerances must be ghter than normal standards. Simple bolted connecons may need to be designed to look more ar ul if they are to become part of the architectural language. the nature of the connecons. As one of the common applicaons of AESS 2 will be for roof. uniform welds would be le isc of AESS 3 Feature Element type exposed. or characteriscs of the steel are not though ully considered. As this structure is normally viewed closer than six metres. The complex nature of the secons and connecons called for a ghter sizing tolerance and even nish applicaon.all welds would not be included in this category of steel. tolerances and uniform appearance will become more important. the AESS for the project can easily be priced higher. 30 The cost premium to be found in AESS 3 steel will depend greatly upon the types of members chosen. When AESS structural elements are brought into close range for view and potenally for touch. and the viewing distance made this workable. If the required aributes 29 The Palais des Congrès in Montreal uses specialty W secons with trimmed cutouts. it must be realized that large amounts of site welding of complex elements will result in cost premiums. round HSS members were not deemed appropriate so a detailing compromise was required at the junctures. There may be more In the Canadian War Museum there are welded connecexposed welded and bolted connecons. ons in AESS 3 steel. hospitals or lobbies and could be expected to incur a moderate cost premium ranging from 60% to 150% over standard structural steel as a funcon of the complexity and level of nal nish desired. it is assumed that e ort will be put into further surface preparaon to increase The Canadian War Museum in Oawa uses AESS to create a highly arculated and rugged expression of the steel in Regeneraon Hall. AESS 3 – Feature Elements includes structures that will be viewed at a distance  6m. complete grinding of steel is complex. these can help to conceal any inconsistencies in surface condions. and higher costs associated with the use of HSS shapes. As can be seen later in this document under Characteriscs. steel. If intumescent coangs are used. The welds should be generally smooth but visible and some grind marks would be acceptable. There may be lower costs associated with the clean use of standard structural shapes with bolted or simple welded connecons. ght tolerances are required. Much of the steel is well within range of view and touch.

D. there is a wide variety of member types employed. the tree supports in the Galleria space. If bolted connecons are required for erecon ease but are visually unacceptable. Many of the column or spanning members have been custom-fabricated.of simple circular holes and straight erances for this structure were even less than one-half standard cuts. All welds are ground. by Polshek Partnership uses a combinaon of AESS 4 quality steel with some custom specialty to prevent overspill onto the adjacent stainless surfaces. it is possible to use simpler methods to surface ll or provide the appearance of a connuous weld without actually welding. 34 Pearson Internaonal Airport in Toronto uses a combinaon of AESS 4 for the columns and supports that are visible in the pedestrian areas. It is common in some showcase applicaons to see the use of stainless steel glazing support systems in conjuncon with the use of AESS 4 regular carbon steel. tol. Protecon of these members during transportaon and erecon is crical in order to prevent undue damage to the nish. CISC AESS Guide – 2 Categories . In most cases the weld is ground smooth and any member-to-member transions are lled and made extremely seamless in appearance. All of the surfaces would be “glove” smooth. Extra 35 care in paint applicaon is required The Newseum in Washington. Such geometries. As can be seen. The “canoes” that form the support for the skylight costs of the project.16 On many of these projects the edges of the steel have been nished to be very sharp and precise. . elements in this invenve support system which forms the support and wind bracing for a large mullionless glazed wall at the front of the building. For these types of connecons the aaching plates are kept within the general line of the members. The architectural applicaons of this category of steel included in the guide are very representave of the diverse nature of these projects. Underlying AESS 3 steel is the idea that it is possible to change the appearance of the nal product to make it smoother to the eye. oen with quite innovave custom systems used to aach the spider connecons to the steel. This type of nish will result in signicant increases in fabricaon cost. complexity of construcon and selected nishes. and Custom for the “wishbones” that form the supports for the roof trusses. but it is not always necessary to use more expensive fabricaon techniques to arrive at this point. AESS 4 – Showcase Elements or “dominant” elements is used where the designer intends that the form be the only feature showing in an element. In some cases this may be due to the very large size and structural capacity required of the member. Tolerances of these fabricated forms are more stringent. Simple approaches such as ensuring all bolt heads are located on uniform sides of the connecons can greatly enhance the details with lile extra cost. concealed connecons must be made corrosion-resistant to prevent hidden rust. generally to half of standard tolerance for standard structural steel. as the maximum amount of work is normally carried out in the fabricaon shop to maintain the highest quality of work performed in controlled condions and with more access to liing equipment to posion the elements for nishing operaons. Such special members oen require addional care in transportaon and handling. so that cover plates can be aached over the bolted elements. and so they are appropriate for use in this sort of high-exposure. Many of 33 the members tend to employ steel BCE Place in Toronto by Spanish Architect Sanago Calatrava plate that has been custom-cut to uses AESS 4 quality fabricaon and nish on the lower poron of odd geometries. All surfaces are sanded and lled. As will be seen under Characteriscs. Stainless steel brackets hook on to parallel tension supports that are braced on either side of the façade by these vercal trusses fabricated from parallel secons of plate steel. AESS 4 makes extensive use of welding for its connecons. Given the arculaon and complicated geometry. The supports make use of more standardized shapes where the “wishbones” require signicantly more e ort on the part of the fabricator in the creaon of specialty secons from plate steel. each for their specic purpose within the structure or connecon. will increase the fabricaon fabricaon. The straightness of the line of these members is a crical aspect of their fabricaon that is a requirement of their architectural use. Such systems require even ner tolerances in order to achieve the proper t between the structural members. All of the members use when not based on a combinaon welded connecons with a hand-smooth nish and no apparent blemishes. upscale applicaon. glazing systems and AESS. This type of AESS is oen also painted in the fabricaon shop.Where bolted connecons are employed. concealed connecons can be employed to give the appearance of a seamless or welded connecon without the associated price tag. are well above view level and use a combinaon of welding and bolng. If this is to be an exterior applicaon. and lled edges are ground square and true.C. The cost premium of these elements would be high and could range from 100% to 250% over the cost of standard structural steel – completely as a funcon of the nature of the details. more care will be taken to ensure that there is an aesthecally based uniformity in the connecons which will likely require more fabricaon me and potenally more material. In other cases it is due to the parcular architectural style desired in the exposed structure. again to achieve the best quality nish. Stainless steel is being used frequently to connect and support large glazing walls. AESS 4 Showcase Elements represents the highest standard quality expectaons of AESS products.

This category will be suitable where specialty casngs are used. with minimal cleaning and no repainng. It will be very common to specify. engineer and fabricator. Requirements will center around the presence of exisng nishes. lower-level categories for roof/ceiling framing elements and higher-level categories for columns and secons that are nearer to view and touch. With increases in the reuse of steel for sustainably-minded projects. The requirement for a seamless transion from the pipe to the casng required unusual welding and lling of the connecon. members are shipped singly to prevent damage. to preserve the original look and feel of the building. which may have become familiar with the new AESS specicaon suite. corrosion. It is also possible to mix categories on individual elements. and steel that might be purposefully less rened in its Characteriscs. England by Sir Richard Rogers Architect uses a range of AESS Category types throughout the terminal. it is nished as some useful cost-saving suggesons which can structural steel to save on fabricaon costs. Generally no more than two categories would be expected. The riveted steel was le “as is”. As the rear face of the prior to bidding the job. The Custom Category will also provide the ability to create a checklist for members that may be The use of stainless structural steel will also be addressed in this category.more sculptural in nature. In this case a high-level of nish may be required on the exposed AESS face.also advantageous to be sure that this is clearly on in order to achieve a very straight edge along and personally communicated to the fabricator the length of the member. CISC AESS Guide – 2 Categories . inconsistencies between members.17 . and showcase level of fabricaon and nish for the legs/column supports. it is the front two faces of this very large trianglular sec. different treatment may be required where new connecons are mixed with old in order to create visual coherence. A wide range may seem odd for “custom” elements. You need to be ying Brish Airways to come across this steel! The Custom Elements checklist in the Matrix will also allow design teams. 36 Heathrow Terminal 5 in London. and a nish as low as Standard Structural Steel on the hidden face. The premium for this type of AESS could range from 20% to 250% over regular steel. based on the viewing distance. These specialty connecons use a combinaon of custom work for the central hinge. and whether the project needs to showcase the reuse or blend the material with new material. but the lower bound of this Category also includes specialty reused steel for sustainable purposes. a custom specicaon is required in order to make it t into the aesthecs of the old building. In some instances the nature of the steel is intended to be a highlight of the nished project. and in other cases. a unique set of criteria will come into play. Mixed Categories are to be expected on almost all projects. Calgary uses an AESS 4 nish on using the Categories to this level of detail. Again there should be a “cloud” drawn around the member and the 39 specic combinaon of categories noted. It will allow exibility in the design of the steel but will therefore require a high level of communicaon among the architect. The former may require less care and the laer a higher degree of nish and workmanship than would be required even for structures in the AESS 4 range. as these require di erent handling and nishing than do standard steel secons due to their inherently di erent surface nish as a direct result of the casng process. 37 University of Guelph Science Building Courtyard uses special casngs to cleanly join mechanical pipe and a structural tree that stands in the centre of the courtyard. As some historic steel is fastened with rivets. as well as grinding of the surface of the casng so that its normal textured nish would match the surface condion of the adjacent pipe. This will require that the Architect put a “cloud” note around secons or members on their contract drawings and clearly indicate the AESS Category. The fabricator may have member will be hidden from view. This may be done for secons with a side exposed to view/touch and a side that is buried or otherwise hidden from view. These posively impact the overall project. Where new steel is required in this project. The Custom checklist also allows for the addion of extra fabricaon criteria that must be agreed upon among team members and used to achieve parcular or unusual nishes. When The Bow Encana. to create their own checklist for a project so as to beer reect the nature of the project’s aesthecs or funcon. the nature of the steel is to be concealed and the nal product to look more “plasc” in nature. AESS C – Custom Elements was created to allow for a custom selecon of any of the Characteriscs or aributes used to dene the other Categories. Montreal is a unique reuse applicaon of a former locomove shop as o ces and commercial space. 38 Angus Technopole. casngs to connect the ends of the large HSS supports and truss members to the hinge. as this material has di erent specicaons and parcular issues that must be included to ensure a high quality of installaon. This is of great nancial benet when nishing extremely large members.

2 Sharp Edges ground al welding. Filling between the intermient welds also helps in the cleaner applicaon of . when using the suite of AESS documents.3 There should be a connuous weld appearance for all welds. 41 42 Fig. 1.1B As can be seen from the images above. The Characteriscs listed below form the basis for di erenaon of the AESS Categories and are listed in this order in the Matrix. By using this as a starng point. It should be noted that one of the alternate surface preparaon standards. there should not be issues with the applicaon of the range of nishes that would be required for AESS 1 through 4 type applicaons. Intermit43 tent welds can be made to look connuous. commonly used for structural steel elements. For clarity. grinding and especially shearing are to be soened. Higher-level Categories include all of the Characteriscs of the preceding Categories. CISC AESS Guide – 3 Characteriscs .3 Characteriscs CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATRIX A set of Characteriscs is associated with each Category. 1. characterisc of standard structural steel. except for spots and discoloraons that are part of the natural steel material. either with addionFig. oxides.3 Filling between the intermient welds to give a connuous weld appearance In many projects fabricators are oen asked to create connuous welds when they are structurally unnecessary. corrosion products and other foreign maer.2 All of the sharp edges are to be ground smooth. 1. Sharp edges. 40 Fig. AESS 1 – Basic Elements would be the rst step above Standard Structural Steel. Rough surfaces are to be de-burred and ground smooth. SP-3. all of the Characteriscs associated with each of the Categories be included in the contractual arrangements. Prior to blast cleaning. Prior to the applicaon of the nal nish. appropriate caulking or ller can be applied between the intermient welds to complete the appearance. dust. Sharp edges resulng from ame cung. this type of nish condion is not adequate in the nal fabricaon and installaon. SSPC SP-1. mill scale. plus a more stringent set of addional requirements. (Image courtesy of Dry-Tec) Commercial blast cleaning is intended to remove all visible oil.1 The surface preparaon of the steel must meet SSPC SP-6. shot blast cleaning can take what may appear to be rusted steel. caulking or body ller. AESS 1 fabricaon and erecon specicaons would include Characteriscs 1. If not structurally required. paint. as these are normally out of immediate eye range due to their typically high locaons. grease. AESS starts assuming SP-6 nish. any deposits of grease or oil are to be removed by solvent cleaning. It is suggested that.1A Sample sheet showing the nish appearance for steel surface preparaon standards.5.18 44 Fig. are considered unacceptable in any AESS applicaon. the welds themselves need not be connuous. rust. visual references in the form of steel samples (courtesy of the American Instute of Steel Construcon) have been included in the ensuing descripons. and transform it into a product that is smooth in nish and ready to receive subsequent treatments and coangs. 1. This Guide also includes visual references in the built context to assist in clarifying the intenon of each bulleted point. 1.1 to 1. 1. as in AESS 1 type applicaons. and should not be relied upon to provide adequate cleaning for consistent-looking nishes in AESS applicaons. only provides for power tool type cleaning. For corrosive environments. The emphasis here is on the word “appearance”. (Courtesy of AISC) all joints should be seal welded. The seams of hollow structural secons would be acceptable as produced. smooth. This adds extra cost to the project and takes addional me and may create distorons. Even if located out of close viewing range. 1.

AESS 2 includes Characteriscs for AESS 1. Such a case would follow the removal of temporary steel supports or shoring elements used to facilitate the erecon process. Fig.5 Natural splaer due to the weld process is to be removed. 2.1A A digital mock-up was done for this connecon. 1. slivers. requirements. Not all projects would benet from the construcon of largescale mock-ups. For projects with very complex details that are essenal to dening the style and reading of the architectural intenon. hence making this Characterisc oponal.5 Weld splaers.1A A special physical mock-up was made for Pearson Internaonal Airport. Weld projecon up to 2 mm is acceptable for bu and plug-welded joints. It is not reasonable to expect bolts to be ghtened with the heads idencally aligned. as specied in contract documents. It was an e cient method that praccal and ecodid not slow down the process. It was decided to include all weld splaer removal so as to avoid potenal conict in deciding on the minimum diameter or intensity of splaer to be removed. 2. and any oxidized surfaces repaired prior to nal nish applicaons. Although minor modicaons were made to the detailing for subsequent elements. Care should be taken in the applicaon of ll materials so that the surfaces beneath are clean. It is reasonable to expect that all of the bolt heads will be posioned on the same side of a given connecon and all such connecons will be treated in a similar manner. There should also be consistency from connecon to connecon. mock-ups can be essenal to the AESS project. Fig. including colour. but they need not be fasdiously aligned. 45 46 47 Fig. When these elements are removed. 1. It is very important to bear in mind the potenal for delay and addional costs when requiring physical visual samples in the meline of the project. adherence is ensured. In some cases it is suggested that an agreement to incorporate full-scale 49 50 mock-ups in the nal Fig. and compounds are compable with the type of nish applicaon. a rst-o inspecon. the marred surfaces should be properly repaired. a scaled mock-up or a full-scale mock-up. to speak more to the nal nish on the parcular job appearance. this will delay the fabricaon of similar elements unl the approval is reached. There are costs associated with the creaon of large physical mock-ups that must be integrated into the contract price. to full-scale components. 2. This expectaon would hold for both procedures carried out in the fabricaon shop prior to erecon as well as weld splaer and surface connuies that might happen during or as a result of erecon.19 . it was incorporated into the project without any issue.4 It is assumed that bolted connecons will use standard structural bolts.4A Standard structural bolt components include the TC bolt. AESS 2 – Feature Elements includes structures intended to be viewed at a distance > 6m. Again this detailing package. 48 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 1. It allowed the client project would make to understand how the detail would look. and also Characteriscs 2. Visual samples could be a 3D rendering. 1.1 to 2. The structural ghtening of the bolts must take priority. Visual samples could range from small pieces of fabricaon which might include connecons or nishes. Visual samples that might be used to validate the intenon of the nal installed product for AESS can take a variety of forms. the heads should all be located on one side of the connecon. and it is likely that they will show through the nal coang. If a fabricator is expected to create a large element. surface disconnuies are to be removed as these will mar the surface. CISC AESS Guide – 3 Characteriscs . This characterisc requires that some addional care be given when erecng the structure.4B Standard structural bolt alignment will vary for ghtening. cost and scope. a physical sample. so that the look of the overall structure is consistent.4C Standard structural bolts are carefully aligned with nuts all facing the same direcon.1 Visual Samples – This Characterisc is noted as an oponal requirement for this and all subsequent Categories due to issues of suitability.4. Fully rendered 3D models can also be used as a point of decision would depend clear communicaon between the pares. 1. 1. When bolng.nishes and prevents the buildup of dirt in the joints which can be problemac to clean. The image above is part of the fabricator’s nomic sense.

This has a direct impact Fig. 2. Where some of the natural evidence of the materiality and connecon methods of steel might be acceptable at a greater viewing distance. 3. increased proximity in viewing distance begins to uniform quality so complimentary to the place the evidence of certain fabricaon processes structure. There are other opons to grinding the seams.3 Fabricaon marks not apparent. only that it might incur a cost premium over shop welding. 2. 56 AESS 3 – Feature Elements includes structures that would be viewed at a distance  6m. This Fig 2. Cumulave dimensional errors can be disastrous in the ng of the nal elements of each erecon sequence. Welding is a natural condion of steel connecons and. 58 Fig. In many cases these markings will need to be carefully posioned so that they cannot be seen. If there are depressions. Caulking or body ller is acceptable. 3. These imperfecons will be visible aer nishing. if neatly done.20 3. Right side shows groove weld ground smooth. In some instances the marks could be le “as is” but located away from view. there may be less need for grinding the weld. Quality welding is more stringent in AESS 2 categories and higher. This treatment should be saved for AESS 4 Characterisc 4.4B Welds are plainly visible but of good. The quality of the weld appearance is more crical in AESS 2. A seamless nish is not possible without signicant added expense and me. If addional material is present. They could also be lled prior to nishing. This is to recognize the increased importance of t when assembling these more complex components.4 The welds should be uniform and smooth. the voids can be lled with body ller and the surface ground smooth prior to nish applicaons. 2. Removal of these marks would typically be accomplished by grinding. this is an acceptable soluon.2 One-half standard fabricaon tolerances. which can add substanal increases to a project budget. In highly arculated projects there is no play in the erecon of the connecons. Too many welded connecons are subjected to needless grinding. This can impact the design of joints as well as the transportaon of potenally larger preassemblies and the erecon on site.4A The grinding of these welds incurs a cost premium but is necessary for the seamless look of the connecon. potenally. where the elements are in close viewing range and somemes can be touched. Welded seams are a natural nish appearance which is part of the manufacturing process of HSS members. indicating a higher level of quality control in the welding process. it should be ground smooth. especially considering the viewing distance of AESS 2 elements. This is a key characterisc. 57 55 Fig. al for all structural members. 3. Large tolerances can lead to a sloppier appearance and lack of uniformity in the connecons and. this is important to bear in mind. as compared to the requirements for standard structural steel in CSA S16. The seams can be consistently located to give a uniform appearance.2 One-half standard fabricaon tolerances on the erecon process and the potenal cost are required for all elements to be incorporated implicaons of making site modicaons to members that do not t. will be required for this Category. (Courtesy of AISC) . In other cases they may be lightly ground out.into AESS 2 and higher. (Courtesy of AISC) 2.3 Fabricaon marks (number markings put on the members during the fabricaon and erecon process) should not be apparent. as the nal nish appearance is more crical on these feature elements. This level of t is essen. or concealed.1 Mill marks removed. should be able to remain as part of the nal product. In general the seams are to be oriented away from view in a consistent manner from member to member. This does not infer that high quality site welding is not possible. If HSS seams can be oriented away from direct view. 54 Ulmately this would indicate that more of the welds might be carried out in the fabricaon shop to reduce site welding where the condions may not be opmum. 2.3 The normal weld seam that is the product of creang Fig. as the viewing proximity is closer. plates. problems in the erecon of 53 complex geometries. If welds are uniform and consistent in appearance.2 Bu and plug welds are to be ground smooth and lled to create a smooth surface nish. 3. HSS shapes is to be oriented (Courtesy of AISC) for reduced visibility. the same might not be acceptable “up close” where the nal product can be both viewed and touched.2. Fig. There are di erent ways of making these markings not apparent. and ensuring good quality welds can save substanal cost in a project. angles and components comprising the project.1 Mill marks are to be removed so as not to be visible in the nished product. or as indicated in the contract documents.2 Bu and plug welds ground smooth. into close viewing range. When choosing HSS. These kinds of welds can result in the presence of addional material or slight depressions in the members. CISC AESS Guide – 3 Characteriscs . removed.3 Surfaces lled and sanded. This is not universally necessary. The treatment of these might vary throughout the project as appropriate by member and locaon.

then greater care must be taken in detailing the members to achieve a consistent look. This will be addressed in greater detail in Secon 5. seem in keeping with the overall design intenon. then ensure that the weld seams are aligned. If two HSS members are joined (see Fig 3. A clear distance of 3 mm between abung members required.6A. 3.2. 3. Part of this characterisc may be enhanced by ensuring that the steel conforms to Characterisc 2. and might also suit the aesthec of the project. 3. 60 Fig. O sets in alignment are considered to be unsightly in these sorts of feature elements at a close range of view.3A). The gaps on the le are standard structural steel. 3.5 Joint gap tolerances are to be minimized. Welded connecons are easier to fabricate in the shop. where a bolted connecon is concealed behind the cover plate). 3. 3. Fig. 3. welded connecons might not be possible. be sure to incorporate advanced knowledge of the nal nish coat as it may either help to conceal or exacerbate these slight misalignments. shadow casng may be more problemac than others.6B This design used all-welded connecons.6 AESS 3 Feature Elements may require all-welded connecons. 3. 3. Bolted connecons may be advantageous for erecon purposes or constructability. whether due to access constraints or issues of me.4). the reducon of joint gaps in bolted connecons aids in ensuring consistency and ghter design.21 . 3. Fig.5B This exposed bolted connecon is ghtly designed and demonstrates uniformity in the joint gaps.If the seams are located in members whose viewing angles are mulple.4 This column splice is within touching range. even on the outside face of the connecon. In some lighng condions. but the column anges do not line up and the connecon plate seems too short. In some situaons. There may be addional work to repair surfaces that have been damaged due to the removal of temporary steel such as backing bars. In keeping with ghter tolerances on the members themselves.3B The seams on the square HSS secons have been aligned and. 63 64 Fig. 3. acknowledging that a parcular aesthec might purposefully call for bolted connecons. care must be taken to seal the joint to prevent water from becoming trapped. 3.4 Cross-seconal abung surfaces are to be aligned. but erecon simplied.3A The natural weld seams on these connecng HSS secons may have been beer detailed if they had been aligned. (Courtesy of AISC) Fig. The appearance of a completely welded structure is kept.2 above. even for this anchoring detail of the truss to the base plate. but much of the overall aesthec intenon of a project is held in the decision to use an all-welded structure over one that either uses some or all bolted connecons. This is noted as oponal. 59 Fig.6A Pictured is a cover plate over a hidden bolted connecon. 61 62 65 66 Fig. Connecons. The use of bolted connecons is quite common in many AESS applicaons. This Characterisc is similar to 2. half standard tolerances. 3.parcularly when using “o -the-shelf” structural secons that will have had lile specialty fabricaon work done to them (see Fig. The erecon condion on the site might require temporary shoring to hold the geometry in place while welding is completed.5A Joint gap minimized. There may also be a need to shape or grind the surfaces at the point of connecon to ensure that the surfaces are aligned. Fig. Bolted connecons were not desired. The matching of abung cross-secons shall be required. If this connecon is used in an exterior environment. hidden bolts may be considered as an acceptable soluon (see Fig. Alternavely. the seams of the round HSS secons are not apparent to view. but this will not guarantee completely precise alignment of abung members . and on the right sized for AESS. if an enrely welded appearance is desired. CISC AESS Guide – 3 Characteriscs . Where the inconsistencies are small.3C Given the complexity of the structure and the lighng condions.

Great care must be taken to ensure that the lled and sanded surface is consistent with the nished surface of the adjacent steel. as the three-dimensional nature of the structure made posioning seams out of view difcult. it might be praccal to choose mechanical pipe over round HSS. again due to the close range of view of the members. A wide show weld show-through from a connecon on the far side of the range may seem odd for custom plate. 4. The le-hand images 250% over standard steel.1. those in very close proximity for view and touch and those whose form. This brings in transportaon issues and site access if the resultant members are very large. The technical nature of the steel is to be hidden or downplayed.3B Surfaces lled and sanded. in a controlled environment and where the pieces can be manipulated (by crane if necessary) so that the ironworkers can properly access the details. 4. Grinding of the seams would have been prohibively expensive as well as me-consuming. which adds expense to the project. (Courtesy of AISC) Fig. This may require grinding of the weld seam. AESS C – Custom Elements was created to allow for a completely custom selecon of any of the characteriscs or aributes that were used to dene the other categories. This parcular point can incur a high cost premium and is a parcular case in point that all AESS need not be created equal.22 allow for shop fabricaon and minimizing site work. or if the viewing angles to the structure are from all sides and it is crical that the HSS appear more plasc.2 Welds are to be contoured and blended. All of the surfaces would be “glove” smooth. The le-hand sample shows typical structural welds.3 Steel surfaces are to be lled and sanded. t and nish require this type of seamless appearance.2A Welds contoured and blended. 4. 4. Grinding and contouring welds is me-consuming and thereby very expensive. The premium for this type of AESS could range from 20% to Fig. 4. so any joining surface treatment must mediate the two nishes. It also has di erent physical properes and may require alternate approaches when fabricang details. The markings on the back face of the welded element caused by the welding process can be minimized by hand-grinding the backside of the weld. Steel casngs for instance have a di erent surface than adjacent HSS secons.1 The normal weld seam in an HSS member should not be apparent. In situ high quality welding might require the erecon of addional secure pla orms to access the welded connecons.4 Weld show through is minimized. All welds are ground and lled edges are ground square and true. elements. Filling and sanding is intended to remove or cover any steel surface imperfecons. The right-hand sample shows how they have been welded and contoured. The degree of weld-through is a funcon of weld size and material thickness. 4. These three examples show very di erent applicaons of AESS 4 whose details require extra care and high-level consistency such that any and all imperfecons are lled (typically with body ller) and sanded prior to the applicaon of the nish coang. This type of detailing should be reserved for the most parcular applicaons.4 Weld show-through must be minimized. Procedures such as this are not required where the members cannot be seen. In any case a change in secons must be approved by the structural engineer. The right-hand image shows how it has been concealed. All surfaces are sanded and lled. It would allow complete exibility in the design of the steel. engineer and fabrica73 74 tor. If it is not possible to orient the natural weld seam in the HSS secons away from primary view. and a seamless appearance was important. In addion to a contoured and blended appearance.2B It is easy to see that this detail relies on a high level of nishing – including grinding and contouring of the welds to achieve its form. 4. It is parcularly important in the le and right images where a glossy nish is to be applied. Tolerances of these fabricated forms are more stringent. This project uses mechanical pipe instead of HSS. welded transions between members are 67 also required to be contoured and blended. or variaons will be revealed aer the nished coang is applied. but the lower bound of (Courtesy of AISC) . generally to half of standard tolerances for structural steel. Therefore part of the negoaon for this type of detailing must begin by looking at maximizing the sizes of the pieces to 68 69 Fig. Mechanical pipe has the advantage of normally being seamless but has a surface texture more like an orange peel. but would therefore require a high level of communicaon among the architect. 70 71 72 Fig. CISC AESS Guide – 3 Characteriscs . t and nish. 4. Fig. It is more easily done in the fabricaon shop. 4. In some instances where there are numerous weld seams to conceal. then the seams may need to be ground and lled. Also such pieces must be carefully handled and stored on the site to prevent damage.AESS 4 – Showcase or Dominant Elements would be used where the designer intends the form to be the only feature showing in an element.

Request to see sample projects as a demonstraon of quality of workmanship. 79 The unusual areas of concern for AESS custom projects might include: • oversized members • extraordinary geometries • curved members • accessibility issues • unusual nish requirements • high levels of grinding and lling for connecons • transportaon problems associated with member size • di cult handling or extra care needed to protect pre-painted components 78 75 In this project the arst very much wanted the rough nature of the steel to show through. Projects located outside of Canada will bring their own unique issues to the table. and steel that might be purposefully less rened in its characteriscs. the lack of care in workmanship due in part to problems in communicaon. Ensure that local or site personnel are quite familiar with Canadian specicaons and expectaons. The form. 82 80 There is a high level of similarity and communicaon between Canadian and American systems. locaons. cauon is urged. supervision and understanding of the role of AESS undermined this installaon. The level of form. When working in distant locaons. It is strongly recommended that the team sit down with the Matrix and specicaon documents in hand and manually go through the list of characteriscs. given varied lighting condions. level of nish and types of members used can greatly vary in custom projects. t and nish on this project is exceponally high. The welds were sloppy. erectors and ironworkers who may be unfamiliar with the level of expectaon of AESS projects in Canada. Others clearly do not. In many cases a cercaon may be needed. The intumescent coang appeared to have been applied when the project was sll open to the weather. The scale and complexity of this welded project meant high cost premiums and addional fabricaon and erecon me. so many aspects that would normally be removed in an AESS project were purposefully retained to enhance the understanding of the materiality of steel. Some countries that have made AESS a part of their architectural tradion for the past decades boast highly skilled fabricators. erectors and ironworkers. The secons were created using plates and. size. resulng in dirt streaks down all of the members.S. 83 77 Very precise details require special fabricaon.23 . The overall aesthec of the project could accommodate this level of texture. the complexity. Working Outside of Canada 76 Seamless curved structures have their own fabricaon and erecon concerns. leading to a wide variaon in the cost premium to be expected for this type of project. t and nish on the project are very high. CISC AESS Guide – 3 Characteriscs . In spite of the overall creave energy of the design of the building. The project was addionally complicated as a result of fabricaon and erecon in China. many of the welds were visible. odd angles and extremely heavy elements add a cost premium to this project.this category also includes specialty reused steel for sustainable purposes. 81 The Chinese Naonal Theatre uses large plate steel members to create its trusses. There is far less AESS work that is rounely made a part of Chinese construcon. so skilled labour can be an issue. These in turn are braced by solid rods that use a half-sphere to manipulate the curve of the connecon. As is illustrated by the range of projects pictured. erecon and handling. In the UK a high level of tradion of AESS has been established which has resulted in a highly skilled labour force. welding and nish on this museum in inner China was extremely low. The quality of the ironwork. as well as a large number of Canadian fabricators and erectors accustomed to supplying steel to U. An even higher level of communicaon and agreement will be required when working with team members that may include fabricators. This was undoubtedly the result of signicant coordinaon and close supervision of the work. Complex geometry.

Di erent coangs.24 makes lile sense if these are to be coated with a heavy material. making the surface condion even more obvious. Remember to install pigeon-deterring fences and surfaces to prevent roosng and the associated soiling of the structure and spaces below. if an extremely glossy nish is desired. This would be the case with the choice to use intumescent coangs over a regular painted nish. This will include issues of weathering. This is even more the case if the geometries are highly complex or if there will be accessibility issues in painng the structure on site. Both the details and the durability of the coangs must take into account the urban menace presented by pigeons. coangs can be divided into two general categories: • those that reveal or exacerbate the surface condions and potenal imperfecons in the steel (thin coat or glossy nishes). exposure to ice. The issue of coangs and nishes is a highly complex area of concern and one that may override the decision-making process regardless of the AESS Category. Welded Versus Bolted Structures. Spending project dollars on highly complex arculated details 84 85 Extreme care and highly specialized detailing was required to join the branches of this tree to the casng nodes. yet where it is installed in areas of high urban polluon. Coangs will also be inuenced by interior or exterior locaons. Access is not possible over the full width of the staon. and • those that conceal such surface condions and potenally hide aspects of intended details (thick coats and mae or moled nishes). Where some intumescent coangs are fairly thin and allow details to show through. Cleaning and Maintenance. The surface had to be perfect given the applicaon of a glossy painted nish and focus lighng. snow and rain. In many cases. leading to severe buildup of grime over part of the structure. Details will have to be designed to drain. It may be much more expedient and desirable to pre-nish AESS structures in the fabricaon shop. Salt applied to the treads has resulted in rust stains on both the supporng steel and the concrete below. Mechanical pipe was selected for its seamless appearance and structural properes. The painted white structure at the TGV Staon at touch ups can be expected. Seldom considered in many projects are issues related to the maintenance and cleaning of the structures.4 Coangs and Finishes GENERAL ISSUES The Matrix and AESS Specicaons were intenonally designed to exclude coangs as a parameter or characterisc. The selecon of the nish may be governed by re protecon concerns rather than aesthecs. Even with extraordinary care. consideraon must be given to a coang selecon that will work with the details in both places. Much of the tectonic character will be dened simply by the choice to use welded or bolted connecons as the main method of aachment for the structure. Certain steel shapes can be more easily cleaned by high pressure washing than others. CISC AESS Guide – 4 Coangs and Finishes . and types of texture of the coangs and nishes may be more or less appropriate as a funcon of the tectonic expression of the structure. The selecon of coangs and nishes for AESS work needs to be known at the outset of the project. others are by their nature quite thick. Their droppings are corrosive as well as a nuisance. Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris has proven difcult to keep clean. AESS installaons might never look as good as on the day on which the building was opened. nishes. If it is the intenon to pre-nish members. There are situaons where the erecon of sca olding is prohibively expensive or strategically impossible. as well as atmospheric polluon. If similar members are being used on the interior and exterior of the project. The structure is easily viewed from above. then extra care will be required to transport the elements to the site as well as during the 87 erecon process. Controlled condions can lead to a beer nal product. Flat surfaces and ledges can provide areas to collect debris. Generally speaking. it can age quickly. this might lead to design decisions that favour welded condions over bolted ones given the inference of clean lines. shed water. Shop Versus Site Painng. 88 Ledges provide an excellent roosng place for pigeons. the nature of the nish will begin to dictate the level of surface preparaon required for the various elements of the structure as well as much of the fabricaon detailing. 86 The white painted nish on this exposed steel exterior stair was not a good choice. . White is a fashionable colour for AESS. Conversely. The properes of di erent coangs can even begin to skew the decision-making process outlined within each of the disnct categories of the Matrix. and coangs chosen to prevent corrosion on both the exterior and interior of members.

CISC AESS Guide – 4 Coangs and Finishes . This will increase costs but will potenally provide a more durable exterior coang. Paint Systems The selecon of the paint or coang system should be done at the outset of the project. as both the colour and nish will impact detailing decisions and.the average dry lm thickness per coat It is recommended to review the painng with a local fabricator or supplier to ensure that the most suitable system is chosen for a specic applicaon. can cover or conceal imperfecons as well as ne details.3 of CSA Standard S16-09. Thin nishes will reveal surface imperfecons. Each paint system oen 90 has its own primer. One-coat systems are referenced in Clause 28.3.7.the manufacturer’s product idencaon . When using hollow secons or composite members that create voids on exterior applicaons. Thicker coangs. Steel buildings require no paint when the steel is hidden behind drywall and suspended ceilings. The basic selecon of member type and connecon detailing for exterior structures should ensure that there are no places where water and debris can collect or puddle. Where there are di erent AESS Categories used in the project. For architecturally exposed steel that is to be painted. Buildings that have exceponally high humidity. Consultants must ensure that the nish coats are compable with the primer. are excepons and should be treated as exterior exposed steel. If a high-gloss nish is desired. Seal welds may be specied on parts to be galvanized to prohibit pickling acids and/or liquid zinc from entering into a specic region during the galvanizing process. It might be beer to provide a vent space and also galvanize the interior of hollow secons. cost. Beams and channels should be orientated with the webs vercal so that water cannot collect and stand for any period of me. seal welds may be specied to prevent unsightly rust bleeding. Since the building environment is controlled. Urethanes should be used when wear is a consideraon. there may also be different surface preparaons and di erent nishes required. General Notes About Painng Steel exposed to view is generally painted for appearance. the HSS tubes is covered with grime. In AESS applicaons. intermediate and nish paints and if applicable: . Steel exposed to view that will be top-coated for appearance (AESS 2 and above) requires a prime coat for adhesion. Alkyd primers are acceptable This AESS structure is located in a parking strucbut epoxy primers are not. Proper communicaon is important when deciding on the method of prevenon of moisture entry on sealed joints. These buildings perform adequately throughout the country. Seal welds can alter load paths and are prohibited in some structural situaons. therefore. Structural steel that is exposed to view and the elements on the exterior of buildings require more thorough cleaning and nishing to ensure long-term performance. Tender documents should include the following informaon to ensure good quality coang systems: • idencaon of members to be painted • a specicaon for the degree of cleanliness required to ensure performance such as SSPC Surface Preparaon Standards • compable primer. The top of enclosed.25 . The treatment helps to conceal potenal fabricaon inconsistencies in this high-prole structure. such as intumescent re protecon. no corrosion occurs. The humidity in such buildings is below the threshold limit for steel corrosion to occur (Clause 6. a greater degree of cleanliness is required by the specicaon. 89 This AESS structure has been sandblasted prior to painng to arrive at this uniform textured surface. a closed volume should never be galvanized as it will cause an explosion. Paint will not make up for design deciencies. such as swimming pools and water treatment plants. the coang system may fail or the surface deciencies will show through. however. Seal welds are oen specied to prevent the entrance of moisture or oxygen-laden air into the cavity. Light-coloured paints will quickly reveal corrosion and dirt. it is also necessary to prevent corrosion of the interior surfaces.DETAILS Surface Preparaon Surface preparaon will be done in accordance with the chosen AESS category (1 through 4 or Custom). Aired access should be provided for the molten zinc to reach all surfaces and therefore avoid explosions. Flat nishes are more accommodang. A one-coat paint system. no corrosion occurs once the building is enclosed. Drain holes can be added if the secon cannot be orientated or sloped to drain. Epoxy systems over compable primers are usually most suitable. For HSS.2 of CSA Standard S16-09). orientaon problems can be overcome. With some care and aenon. Hence AESS requires surface preparaon to a minimum SP-6. such as CISC/ CPMA 2-75. it is beer simply to provide drainage at the boom of the element to ensure that gasses do not get trapped. Even the most sophiscated epoxy and vinyl paint coatings cannot compensate for details that create opportunies for corrosion to occur. A fast-dry primer. such as performance specicaon CISC/CPMA 1-73a. Once the building is ture in a dusty urban environment. it is essenal to apply the proper surface preparaon. it will reveal every minute imperfecon in the steel. is su cient to provide the necessary base. Finishes for exterior steel structures will require special aenon to prevent corrosion. To ensure that this system will perform for longer periods. If the surface is not adequately cleaned prior to the applicaon of the coang system. is su cient for standard warehouse structures that will not be top coated (Standard Structural Steel and AESS 1). Higher degrees of cleanliness along with beer quality mul-coat paints should be considered under these circumstances.6. and there is evidence of dirt dripping to the underside of the tubes. Exposed steel on which moisture can collect should be detailed with a slope to ensure drainage.

so you must check with the intumescent coang supplier to determine an acceptable primer. Not all nish coang systems take the same base primer. including basic removal of sharp edges (Characterisc 1. Naturally it is expected that the paint nish will be free of drips and runs. not all nish systems require a primer. Pre-painted structures may also require beer staging areas on site – again to prevent damage to the painted nishes. Epoxy coangs are normally shop-applied and can be used on interior or exterior applicaons. the level of detail that is revealed through the coang. intumescent coangs have been applied on-site to steel structures during the construcon phase of the building. . It is somemes more cost-e ecve to increase the thickness of the steel as it can decrease the number or thickness of the intumescent coangs – the increased cost of steel being signicantly less than the extra cost to increase the thickness of the intumescent material. so the reducon of the amount 92 Applying intumescent reproof coang on a steel of coangs is preferable. if these are not ground or rounded o . The water-based material is “greener” but takes some94 what longer to dry and is mostly used for interior The intumescent coang on this structure is quite applicaons. Shop applicaons can provide for the controlled venng needed for solvent-based systems. it has become quite popular for use with The intumescent coang on this structure is quite AESS applicaons.2). Careful preparaon of the steel. react together to produce an insulang foam or “char”. Given the scale of the coang as well as on the type of re that might be project and the grinding of the weld between the ancipated in the building use. Intumescent Coangs Intumescent coangs simultaneously provide a re resistance rang and a painted appearance to exposed steel. Nonetheless. Primers The selecon of the primer will be a funcon of the choice of the nish coang. CISC AESS Guide – 4 Coangs and Finishes . If not required. Lile grinding was necessary as the seams are in part hidden by the coang. the weld seam on the HSS part dependent on the type and thickness of the column remains visible. The thick coang is also quite vulnerable to abuse at street level. In spite of e orts during transportaon and erecon. Access to the installed structure for paint applicaons can be a logiscal issue. extending its structural capacity and allowing for safe evacuaon. Care in applicaon of the primer is important as any drips and runs will show through both paint and intumescent coang nishes. and hence beer drying. Shop-applied paint nishes will likely need to be touched up aer erecon. Acrylic coangs can be either water or solvent-based. under the inuence of heat. Controlled drying in the shop means beer nish as the coated steel secons cannot be moved unl they are hard enough to resist damage. seam weld for this 27 metre-long member. The connecons are all welded. it was deemed unnecessary to grind the mulple coangs of the product. so revisions in the nal nish type may require remedial correcon of primers to ensure compability.26 Tradionally. Many fabricators can o er shop painng which can ensure a more consistent. and they are eld-applied. This char layer has low thermal conducvity as well as a volume that is many mes that of the original coang. 93 The intumescent coang on the legs was shopapplied. Pre-painted structures will require extra care and protecon during transportaon. They contain a resin system “pigmented” with various intumescent ingredients which. Increasing the re conical base of the column and the cylindrical resistance rang is usually achieved by applying leg. In an exterior applicaon. handling and erecon. Intumescent coangs are either acrylic or epoxybased. it will interfere with the successful applicaon of the intumescent coang system. Shop condions can also provide more control of temperature and relave humidity. can lead to premature wear on the edges of the structure. structure Intumescent re protecon applicaon is preceded by the applicaon of an approved primer. Addionally. They are more durable than acrylic coangs and can also be used to provide corrosion protecon. The solvent-based coang is more thick. Not all primers can be used. The required thickness of the coang is in turn determined by the thickness of the structural steel member. As this material can extend the re resistance rang of exposed steel to a maximum of 2 91 hours. The re resistance rang is in thick. Bolted connecons would have been unsuitable. many touch-ups were necessary. higher quality nish. but this is less problemac than the complete painng of the structure on site which rarely occurs. Pre-painted structures will be more in need of “just in me” delivery to the site to prevent site-generated damage. Thin or light members will require more coats than heavier members. The char layer reduces the rate of heang experienced by the steel. this can represent a cost and me saving. In-shop applicaon is a more common pracce as beer control of applicaon condions is possible. Structural steel is inherently a more sustainable material. If the wrong primer is applied. this can lead to corrosion.Shop Versus Site Painng The painng of an AESS structure can take place in the fabricaon shop or on the site. The spray applicaon of the product on sharp corners is di cult and. These members must be more carefully handled during transporaon and erecon as any damage must be properly repaired in order to preserve the integrity of the re protecon system. will allow for a more even applicaon of the paint and beer coverage on the corners. The detailing used seems appropriate to robust and can also be used on the exterior.

of several hundreds of microns according to the parcular formulaon. Any poron of the structure at “hand” level should have a top coat for ease of cleaning and maintenance and to prevent permanent blotching and stains. The damaged intumescent coating must be properly repaired to maintain the required re resistance rang. this should be taken into account when mixing intumescent and painted nishes in a project. so it is necessary to detail items like these columns to recognize that the nishes are not the same. a thick system can give a very uneven. Solvent-based products can dry faster but can also strike back to dissolve prior layers if insu cient drying me is permied between layers. This is to be expected in this sort of applicaon. The thickness of the coang is determined by the thickness of the steel. Cemenous/Fibrous Fire Protecon 97 Cemenous nishes can be commonly found on exposed steel used in parking garages. there is no demarcaon between steel and zinc but a gradual transion through the series of alloy layers which provide the metallurgical bond. The coang corrodes preferenally to provide sacricial protecon to small areas of steel exposed through drilling. there need not be the same level of surface preparaon required. Galvanized coangs protect steel in three ways: 1. Galvanizing Galvanized nishes are increasingly seen in AESS applicaons. Because the wet lm needs to be relavely thick. Care should be taken when using thick coangs in high-tra c areas or where they can be subject to vandalism. cung or accidental damage. so if colour matching is an issue. 95 The colour and texture of intumescent coangs are not the same as normal paint. When the clean steel component is dipped into the molten zinc (approx. This helps to make the galvanized nish highly durable as it cannot easily be chipped away. This could be the case if the steel is located at a distance from view or touch. If badly applied. Several coats may need to be applied to build up to a total dry coat thickness in order to give the required re protecon. The galvanized coang can be made thicker by roughening the steel.5 to 6 mm. 98 As can be seen in this galvanized exposed steel exterior shading system. A thin coating is considered to exist for thicknesses from 0. The speckled grey nish is guaranteed to vary from batch to batch. note that exact colour matches are not possible. a water-based product can be used if the humidity levels are kept low. and a thick coang for thicknesses up to 13 mm. textured appearance. It is important to allow the layers to dry thoroughly between coangs. Achieving a good quality coang requires a surface that is free of grease. The thicker system has enough substance to conceal some of the ner details that might go into the design of the AESS connecons. Addionally there are two types of intumescent coangs: thin and thick systems. CISC AESS Guide – 4 Coangs and Finishes . that would be unacceptable if a standard paint nish were employed. Thin-coat intumescent systems will result in a nish that resembles an orange peel. While not falling in a regular AESS category. even from the same manufacturer. If such a nish is to be applied. 450°C). galvanizing was not intended as a nish. giving a long and predictable life. size and shape of the member to which it is being applied. care has been taken here with the design of the support system in the garage. This provides a hard protecve coang to the product. The intumescent coang system can include a top coat. If a very smooth high-gloss nish is desired. It is important to note that white or light colours will tend to yellow with me. thereby creang more surface area for the metallurgical reacon to take place. Intumescent coangs. a series of zinc-iron alloy layers are formed by a metallurgical reacon between the iron and zinc. but as a preventave measure against corrosion. Here a band of a di erent colour highlights the change. shop-applied epoxy coangs may o er savings. Although not the usual case for AESS installaons. as in the case of AESS Categories 1 or 2. 2.Where access for nishing may be an issue. Although these coangs provide the appearance of a painted nish. this system requires addional surface treatment. It is important to remember that in the view of the steel industry. Solvent-based coangs can be applied with relave humidity up to 85%. If combining intumescent and regular paint-nished steel. Water-based products take longer to dry where humidity levels are high and temperatures are low. intumescent coang surfaces don’t clean as well as with a top coat and will also show nger prints. intumescent coangs are oen thick to avoid slumping and runs while sll wet. It will also vary as a funcon of the applicaon technique and the style. the texture is not the same. Without a top coat. Colour matching can also be an issue. The use of intumescent coang oen precludes the need for ne nishing. and the Matrix should be customized to remove characteriscs very early on in the scheduling of the project to avoid wasted me and expense. When the reacon between iron and zinc is complete. Water-based coangs are typically applied when relave humidity is between 40% and 60%. If there is concern about the presence of high VOCs on the project. cemenous or brous re protecon might be used. The nature of the intumescent nish will alter the colour of the coang. a variety of nishes can be seen on the di erent hot dip galvanized members.27 . are not always deemed by architects to be the best soluon as they can somemes result in a thick-looking nish that can obscure some connecon details. The zinc weathers at a very slow rate. The colour matching on some of the supports is more di cult to achieve. as it is thick enough to cover up surface imperfecons 96 This thick intumescent coang is constantly being repaired due to its high tra c locaon as well as repeated incidences of gra  removal. dirt and scale of the iron or steel before galvanizing. although allowing exposed steel use in an increased number of occupancies. It will be necessary to detail the structure to account for this slight change in hue or tone.

To be specic. From a design perspecve. sacricial protecon prevents sideways creep which can undermine coangs. stable.28 101 Here galvanized steel members are mixed with zinc painted grey steel. Double dipping is not an effecve soluon. this will mean coang the interior of the shape as well – increasing the surface area for coang and potenally increasing the cost. This temperature can cause distoron in thinner steels. Clean. molten zinc must be allowed to ow freely to all surfaces of a fabricaon. 104 Galvanizing is very popular as a nish. it will be important to understand the physical limitaons of the galvanizer’s facility. 103 Galvanizing is a suitable nish for an exterior AESS structure that will be constantly subjected to weathering as in this expressive railing system. For HSS members.3. Where AESS is being installed in an exterior environment. 100 The base connectors for these hybrid steel and glulam mber members have been fabricated from galvanized steel. Metalizing is a very versale and e ecve coang for protecng steel structures that are to be connuously exposed to weathering. There is a large opening at the base of the square HSS post to allow any water that may enter the railing an opportunity to drain. in other cases it may be necessary to provide extra holes for this purpose. Contaminants in the atmosphere will a ect this protecve lm. It was decided not to galvanize some of the members due to the chance of deformaon in the hot zinc bath and potenal stress release of the welds. shiny surface. The nature of the nish will not be consistent from batch to batch. compressed CISC AESS Guide – 4 Coangs and Finishes . di erenals in nish must be both understood and detailed into the project. Any features which aid the access and drainage of molten zinc will improve the quality of the coang and reduce costs. holes that are present for other purposes may full the requirements for venng and draining. Good member design requires: • means for the access and drainage of molten zinc • means for escape of gases from internal compartments (venng) 99 Seal welds have been used to connect the various components of this exterior galvanized steel feature railing. but this limit must be veried as it impacts member size. If the damaged area is larger. Metalizing Metalizing is a substute for painng structural steel that protects steel for signicantly longer than paint alone. it is crically important that all surfaces be coated. The di erence in this photo is due to nishing temperatures. protecve layer that is ghtly bonded to the zinc. in one operaon. The metalizing process begins with proper surface preparaon. If the use of the galvanized coang is known early on during the design process. the zinc has a clean. . so painted steel was not desired. inside and out. The presence of SO2 greatly a ects the atmospheric corrosion of zinc. Steel of every shape and size may be metalized either in-shop before construcon or on-site instead as an alternave to painng. it may be decided to increase the thickness of the steel to prevent distoron. No post-treatment of galvanized arcles is necessary. The posion of the connector in the building put it at greater risk of moisture exposure. water and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The resistance of galvanizing to atmospheric corrosion depends on a protecve lm which forms on the surface of the zinc. galvanizing internal surfaces eliminates any danger of hidden corrosion during service. With certain fabricaons. Paint or a powder coang may be applied for enhanced aesthecs or for addional protecon where the environment is extremely aggressive. This limit on the member size may result in the need for addional connecons. aluminum wire or zinc wire is connuously melted in an electric arc spray or gas ame spray gun. It is more expensive than galvanizing. Next. With hollow secons or where there are internal compartments. For complete protecon. If galvanizing is used as a nal coang on an AESS project. 102 One of the technical realies of using galvanizing as a nish lies in the inconsistency of the product. With me this changes to a dull grey pana as the surface reacts with oxygen. When the steel is lied from the galvanizing bath. This forms a tough. Complex shapes and most hollow items can be galvanized. bright. what is the size of the bath? It is not usual to dip pieces that are 20 metres in length. It is important to bear in mind that the steelwork is immersed into and withdrawn from a bath of molten zinc at about 450°C. but remember that its basic purpose is as a corrosion-prevenon coang.

Therefore. Weathering steel is also available in sheets.e. it is a “hot roof”. 106 This wall is made from weathering steel. As we are dealing with “living steel”. durable and beauful. In weer climates the colour of weathering steel will generally have an overall redder cast relave to those exposed in drier climates. If desired it can be pre-aged outside and then installed inside. 108 This weathering steel has been badly located as it is staining the concrete wall below. Weathering steel is not readily available in W shapes and HSS from Canadian sources. special aenon must be paid to the drainage of storm water (or condensate) to prevent staining of surrounding structures. provided one is careful about the details. virtually regardless of temperature. for roong and cladding. i. you can see remains relavely cool at about 120O-150OC. Aer about two years. it oxidizes to form a dense and ghtly adhering barrier or pana which seals out the atmosphere and retards further corrosion. There is no cure me or temperature to limit metalizing. There are three types of wire that are used to create three specic coangs. A single metalized coang can protect steel for 30 years or longer depending upon the applicaon. 109 These welded steel secons may look like weathering steel but they are actually fabricated from regular carbon steel that is coated with an applied “weathering steel nish”. and properly used vercally. loss of material may be more signicant and could cause perforaon of very thin sheets. no paint is required. porous and aky oxide which allows the atmosphere to connue penetrang the steel. However. they were not meant for architectural applicaons. It is marginally easier to spray pure zinc than pure aluminum by some ame or arc spray systems. parcularly where there are high concentraons of sulfur dioxide and other pollutants. coang thickness and sealing. it is low-maintenance. It is not appropriate for green roofs. when steel is needed for an exterior wall element. Otherwise be prepared for the nal surface state to take many years to develop. Zinc with 15% aluminum wire combines the benets of pure zinc with the benets of pure aluminum in the metalized coang. Metalizing is thought of as a cold process in that the aluminum or zinc is deposited onto steel by 105 spraying rather than by dipping the steel into a This garden wall is made from weathering steel. Weathering steel has a unique characterisc such that. It is very oen used as a substute for pure zinc because it is somewhat more chloride and sulfur dioxide-resistant than pure zinc. This is in contrast to other steels that form a coarse. However. The nal colour of the steel will be slightly darker than what is pictured here. few steel service centres will stock a large inventory of weathering steel because of its specic bridge applicaon. the colour is going to be much darker and reddish brown. Its greater galvanic power protects gaps in the coating beer than pure aluminum. Unfortunately. Words of cauon: runo of water from upper porons of a structure tend to produce longlasng streaks or other paerns of redder oxide on lower porons. However. If it is desired to use weathering steel in an interior applicaon. that usually represents low tonnage for a service centre. and corrosion is accelerated. The steel Although durable in appearance. one can be most certain that the nal colour will have a rich dark earthy tone and will be low-maintenance. while retaining the greater electro-chemical acvity of pure zinc.29 . which is the me it takes to develop the oxide skin. Zinc provides greater galvanic protecon than aluminum. Although convenient. etc.air strips droplets of molten metal from the wire. types of installaons so that the run-o water does not stain surfaces below the wall. However. in an accelerated environment. it must be noted that the requisite wet/dry cycles are absent and it will not age (very quickly). bath of molten zinc as with galvanizing. It is essenal to detail these on or weld damage by metalizing. Also. sidewalks. These waste products retard the wet/dry cycle necessary for weathering steel. In terms of availability. under proper condions. CISC AESS Guide – 4 Coangs and Finishes . deposing these parcles onto the steel forming the protecve coang. climate is important – the oxide layer will form provided there are wet/dry cycles. This sprayed metal coang is both a barrier coang and a galvanic coang in one. it will not provide lasng protecon. In addion. it can add a disnct and green character to your project. Weathering steel must be kept free from debris such as leaves. and other surfaces. However. It is not possible to select or carefully predict its nal hue. The oxidized layer on weathering steel in many climates does not consume a signicant amount of steel in its formaon. for green building design. Sprayed aluminum is preferred for use in industrial environments. they will order it from the mill on request but usually for bridge applicaons. The material must go through a number of weng and drying cycles for the coang to cure. There are no VOC’s (volale organic compounds) in the metalized coang. so metalizing may be applied throughout the year. the colour will not be consistent from project to project or even within a project. one should know that a thin weathering steel roof has low solar reecvity. Weathering Steel 107 Care must be taken in detailing weathering steel to avoid having the natural oxidizing process create stains on the surfaces below the material. This the destrucve markings on the surface made by means that there is virtually no risk of heat distorusers of the space. pine needles.

Jigs can be set up for repeve assemblies to ensure consistency in appearance and nish. This coang does not produce rust runo . CISC AESS Guide – 5 Connecons . being easy to form and fabricate and available in a variety of forms. however. 316 o ers heavy corrosion resistance and is used in harsh environments. There are signicant cost premiums for stainless steel as a material. that must be done on site. 304L is a low-carbon version of 304 and is specied where higher corrosion resistance is needed as well as the welding of heavy secons. Although it is possible to transport oversized pieces to the site with a police escort. screws and fasteners. put a greater than normal emphasis on connecon design. when the site is constricted and the staging area either The fabricator chosen for creang an AESS structure from stainless steel should be experienced in the material. It is an iron-based metal that has at least 10. Stainless steel is available in plate. Only dedicated tools must be used to cut and nish the steel. wire. 430 is a chromium ferric material that is used in interior applicaons. shapes and thickness of material are not available. the welding rods and techniques are quite di erent from those involving regular carbon steel. causing rust spots to occur. it is beer to maximize the number of connecons. that can be done in the shop over those. constructability. As a general rule. Although the details normally used for AESS structures include some fairly standard connecon methods. The coang must also be applied to site welds to result in a uniform appearance. tubes. 304 is the most commonly used for exterior architectural applicaons. Only stainless steel fasteners should be used to join stainless steel members. AESS connecons will oen incorporate specialty items such as rods and tensile connectors. As a result. Stainless steel is also readily welded. C and L-shapes). 305 and 410 are used for bolts. Other metals can result in chemical reacons between the materials. The detailing language of the connecons must feed into the overall aesthec desired for the structure. it does increase the cost of the project. These vary due to their alloy content. These typologies can be further subdivided into the choice of predominantly welding or bolng the connecons. of which ve are most commonly used for structural applicaons. Tools used with carbon steel will embed small parcles of carbon steel in the stainless. 110 The Domes at Robson Square in Vancouver have been fabricated from stainless steel tubular secons. AESS structures. It is easier to turn and x the members into posion for welding with crane assistance. and by their nature are likely to present challenges for both fabricaon and erecon. and those that use hollow secons. by their inherently exposed nature. Stainless Steel 5 Connecons DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR AESS CONNECTIONS General Issues Stainless steel has the advantage of having its corrosion protecon quite integral to the structural member. There are 50 di erent grades of stainless steel. Connecon details must be constructable and within reason to erect. Connecon types can be subdivided into structures that use shapes (such as W. Stainless steel casngs can be fabricated to form connecons between members. parcularly welded connecons. In the end. metalizing. The applicaon of primer and even nish painng is more e ciently done in the shop. molybdenum and manganese that assist in resisng oxidaon. these are mostly modied as a way of enhancing the architectural expression of the structure. Likewise. and from a structural perspecve it also requires a di erent set of calculaons as its behaviour is very di erent from regular mild carbon steel.5% chromium as well as quanes of nickel. It is applied to standard structural steel materials. Plates can be worked into both types of connecons. it has a remarkable nish and requires far less ongoing maintenance than does regular steel protected through methods of galvanizing. It provides a similar looking nish and so might be useful where certain sizes.and eld-applied nish that gives the appearance of weathering steel but does not create the same oxidized layer as actual weathering steel. the maximum size of member that can be transported to site will oen determine the scope of shop-fabricated connecons and the number and type that must be done on site.30 111 112 Connecon detailing must meet the end requirements of the AESS Category and also take into account the cost. This is a shop. which can lead to failure.Weathering Steel Finish is a new coang that is available for use. . Stainless steel has a very low carbon content. 316L offers extra corrosion resistance and heavy welding. In turn there are shop-fabricated connecons and site-erected connecons. or with painted or intumescent coatings. The chromium combines with oxygen to create a barrier to the rust that would normally form due to the iron content. rods and bars. usually bolted. Extruded shapes are not common but can be fabricated by special order. There is more quality control in the shop. fabricaon and ease of erecon.

31 . Physical mock-ups can create delays. The type of connecon that is most appropriate for a project might not be clearly evident from the outset. If 3D or other sorts of digital models are to be used as the basis of agreement for details. This combinaon of plates allows for constructability. Normally those present are examining the sample at close range when in fact the in situ connecon may be many metres out of range of view and touch. Tubular members can be connected using very invenve means. pre-assembling the pieces on site on the ground might also not be possible. these di erent connecons may use a similar language and form a “family” of typical condions. exposure to weather and atmospheric grime and choice 115 The large “wishbone” secons used at Pearson Internaonal Airport were special enough to warrant a full scale mock-up. use of the space. and it may be necessary as well as desirable to use di erent types in a project as are suited to the specic range of requirements and AESS Categories (recognizing that viewing distances throughout a project may vary). there are many di erent types of connecons. Hidden or discrete connecons can be used where there are transportaon and erecon limitaons. Large pieces can be transported and erected e ciently using bolted connecons that are hidden or made discrete. Most architects would ideally like to be able to see and feel specialty connecons before they commit to their mass fabricaon. alternaves can be provided. Which Type of Connecon Should I Choose? The connecon type will be dependent on the structural requirements of the assemblies. If a standard bolted connecon is unsasfactory from an aesthec point of view. As previously menoned. The AESS Category must be kept in mind when viewing physical samples. not only by their fabricaon but also by requiring all pares to be present for approvals. It may be possible to verify most of the appearance issues associated with the connecons and receive design approval through the use of 3D drawings – a combinaon of those produced by the fabricator’s detailing soware and the ones produced with 3D modeling soware. As with any project. 113 116 3D modelled detail which can be used to verify connecon details through a digital mock-up. This approach can save me and money. 118 Varying approaches to bolng are used to achieve the splicing of the W-secons and the joining of the square HSS members to the truss. A combinaon of smaller physical mock-ups of aspects of detailing and nish might be used to accompany digital representaons to achieve a good level of communicaon about the expectaons of the project details. and a welded site connecon is impraccal and expensive. It may also be possible to reference a fabricator’s previous work to establish a baseline for discussion when using digital references. Connecon Mock-Ups The issue of mock-ups (Characterisc 2. CISC AESS Guide – 5 Connecons . These are very simply aached using splice plates on both sides of the ange.1 . the overall structural consideraons – loads. The size and cost of the mock-up were such that it was made to be incorporated into the project. More pragmac issues such as the type of project. Most urban sites will require “just in me” delivery of steel pieces and carefully planned erecon to make the best use of the staging area as well as preserve an area for staging that might be required to the last moment of steel erecon. This is not always possible or praccal due to issues of ming and cost. these are impercepble in situ. minimal on-site welding and enhanced interest in appearance. Although there may be slight di erences in the nal design. clear spanning requirements and support locaon – will form the starng point for the design. it is important to discuss the ner aspects of welding. Viewing distance also needs to be taken into account when looking at a physical mock-up. The fabricaon of large specialty items is expensive and me-consuming. For overall clarity of the design.small or non-existent. the shapes and types of steel members that are to be connected as well as the aesthec that is desired. 114 117 This building uses extensive diagrids formed with W-secons.Visual Samples) plays heavily into the design issues related to connecons. bolng and nishing as these are likely not represented fully in the digital model.

4) as well as the consistency of the side on which the bolt head is to be found. it is not reasonable to expect the rotaon of all heads to align. The more industrial look of these secon types seems more aesthecally suited to bolted connecons. and so bolng was chosen. and discuss the same with your Fabricator. and to remove and make good surfaces when these are no longer required. 124). The organizaon and alignment of members is likely to be either more careful or more creave than is to be found in standard structural steel. That is not to say that welding is not used with W-shapes. It is also possible to suggest aesthecally pleasing bolted connecons. This has given way to the use of all-welded connecons in current AESS projects. Welding is oen used on hollow structural shapes and less oen for W. and the other was designed to facilitate erecon using a more standard approach where the plates are welded to the ends of the HSS members and then bolted. Bolted Connecons Bolted connecons are normally chosen to achieve a more rugged aesthec for AESS or as a result of erecon issues and constraints. This can be seen in the connecons of square HSS members for the Canadian War Museum (Fig. The aesthec of the space and the desire to mimic a twisted war-torn landscape inspired these connecons. Bolted connecons are oen chosen when using W. Oen the detailing used on these types of bolted AESS connecons is very close to the connecons that would be used in standard structural steel. Budget will also directly impact detailing. If these end plates are not aesthecally sasfying. One featured a set of overlapping plates (at the X intersecon). The majority of site connecons tend to be bolted. then the more visible areas can be more expensively detailed. 121 Good quality welding should require no special aer-treatment (grinding) for the majority of AESS applicaons (Categories 1 through 3). The typical. aenon should be given to specifying the type of bolt to be used (Characterisc 1. This does not preclude the use of welded connecons on site. As the structural requirements of the bolted connecon dictate how far it needs to be ghtened. Grinding would be considered only for Category 4 applicaons if a seamless appearance is important. Welded Connecons Shop-welded connecons are used on a high proporon of AESS structures. 119 The aesthec of this project included a high level of texture using standard structural shapes. 122 Although the overall form of this box truss appears complex. When designing bolted connecons. Transportaon and access to the site will require breaking up the overall concept into smaller elements that may be shipped as well as t into erecon limitaons on the site.32 123 Space frame systems used to be rounely used to connect large nodes of HSS members. Welding gives a clean. . praccal HSS connecon is to weld the intersecng HSS elements in the shop and create stubs with oversized end plates to facilitate erecon. Site welding does mean addional costs to put temporary shoring or supporng pieces in place while welding is carried out. These details are automacally more expensive. cap plates and plates slit into the HSS can be detailed to make the connecons more discrete. 124 These square HSS members are connected both by using overlapping splice plates as well as welded end plates for ease of erecon. 120 Welded connecons have been used here in conjuncon with the selecon of W-members to create a very technical feel for the Works Yard. C or L-shapes. If there is signicant dirt present in the environment. or if cleaning and maintenance of the structure is di cult. It makes lile economic sense to invest in highly arculated details if the connecons are either out of view or concealed in part by thicker intumescent coangs. the 100% welded connecons have been designed with simple geometries. Both the Naonal CISC AESS Guide – 5 Connecons . it is best not to create ledges that will collect dirt and surfaces that will highlight lack of maintenance. C or L-shapes. uncluered appearance. Two types of bolted connecons have been employed.of re protecon method will begin to inuence the choice of AESS Category. If the project can be broken into di erent Categories of AESS. Refer to the Matrix for suggested cost premiums for the AESS Categories. Bolted connecons are also used with hollow structural members.

When deciding upon the level of nish of a welded connecon. the nal look is likely to reect the inial relief of the surface. 130 127 Modern equipment makes precision cung of these intersecng round HSS members much simpler. 101) incorporated welded connecons within the larger poron of the shop-fabricated assembly.Works Yard (Fig. Welded connecons present di erent challenges for the fabricator as a funcon of the connecon geometry as it is combined with the choice of member. It will be necessary to understand transportaon restricons when working through the details of these connecons. Tubular Steel Tubular steel – generally hollow structural secons or occasionally mechanical pipe – is oen chosen when creang AESS projects. Although there is variance of nal texture in extruded shapes and on the coang system used. and bolted connecons for the site work. it is extremely important that the viewing distance and AESS type and associated characteriscs be respected. it will be necessary to maximize the amount of work that can be done in the fabricator’s plant so that proper jigs. Except in the instance of structural necessity. 120) and Art Gallery of Ontario (Fig. In general. so the alignment issue is not really visible. In the case of HSS. As grinding may not completely conceal the weld seam. these splices can hardly be di erenated from the larger welded expanses of steel. The choice of the member shape will have a tremendous impact on the design and appearance of the connecons. 125 Complex connecons using square HSS members are very di cult when it comes to alignment. Where highly arculated assemblies must be broken into smaller elements due to transportaon and liing limitaons. simple angle or mul-member intersecon – will impact the cost and complexity of resolving mulple HSS shapes. This connecon is located on a high-level skylight. One of the major reasons for cost overruns in AESS has historically been the tendency of welded connecons to be overworked. All evidence of the joining of the two members was concealed. In situ. In some instances the joint can be resolved by cung and welding. A welded seam will tend to be visible even aer grinding. as one can only grind perpendicular to a surface. The geometry of the connecon – planar. Circular members are more forgiving. whereas in pipes the shape will be seamless. In other instances plates may be needed to simplify the intersecon and erecon. All HSS secons start out round and are formed to alternate shapes. 128 The large HSS members used on this bridge have helical welds. 117). 129 It was important for the form. Welds are structural. with the nal connecon concealed with cover plates. Although unusual in appearance. the secon shapes can be square. The reveal detail of the connecon of the upper structure to the column makes the connecon simpler to erect. depending on the coang process used. using both tube-to-tube connecons as well as X-shaped plate fabricaons to resolve the geometry of the transion. HSS tends to be produced using a welding process. A higher cost is the result of this level of complexity for a welded connecon. There will be a welded seam along the HSS.33 . lled or smoothed out unnecessarily. so a welded connecon was used. When designing with HSS the AESS characteriscs require that you look at the orientaon of this weld seam in the design. welding may not even need to be connuous. even aer nish coangs are applied. whereas pipe tends to be the result of an extrusion process. or for seal welding to prevent moisture entry. t and nish in this building to have a seamless transion between these two HSS members. and overgrinding of welds can diminish their strength. it will be helpful to discuss the details of these more signicant site connecons with the fabricator if a totally welded appearance is the desired end result. It is possible to create site connecons that give the appearance of being welded but that are discretely bolted. it is preferable (and less expensive) simply to orient this CISC AESS Guide – 5 Connecons . Welds are oen ground. In the Seale Public Library (Fig. Mechanical pipe is only produced round and cannot be used in seismic applicaons. There will be a maximum member size that will be able to clear bridge overpasses and road widths to avoid clearance mishaps or frequent police escorts or road closures. liing and clamping devices can be used to manipulate the materials. Only in Custom or very high-end AESS 4 should grinding be considered as an opon for welded connecons. 126 These tubular members were welded. rectangular. they were aesthecally worked into the design. round or ellipcal. For complex geometries to be more a ordable and for beer quality and alignment. bolted connecons are used for splices between the larger shop-welded secons of the larger diagrid found in the building.

You can see the “orange peel” like nish of the raw casng. Steel casngs are higher strength. You generally see casngs in conjuncon with cable and glass structures. HSS secons with a diameter greater than 400 mm generally require special ordering. The surface of a welded HSS tends to resemble that of a rolled shape. Casngs can be formed hollow or solid. For large quanes (i. As helical welds are somemes proposed for large tubular secons. Pipe secons are rarely used and are considered a backup plan for most applicaons. Tapered tubes are not a regular manufactured product. curved geometries without the di cules found using mulple combinaons of tubes and plates.34 133 136 Casngs used as tension anchors can vary greatly in size. then maybe these are appropriate for your project. if the connecon starts to cost four mes as much as the material it is made of. then steel casngs start to be economical.e. This is due to the manufacturing process and a funcon of the material that creates the form for the casng. a reason is needed. as it would be di cult to achieve uniform cooling with solid casngs and CISC AESS Guide – 5 Connecons . A cast member has a di erent nish. Check with your local service centre for current availability. and it is not the same for di erent diameter ranges. The joints were lled and sanded to conceal them. Is there repeon (so the cost of making the mould is partly amorzed – a must)? Are there many elements coming to one point? Do you want to use casngs in a high-stress zone? Is there a foundry in your area that has the experse? Would casngs provide aesthec advantages? If the answer is yes for at least 3 of these quesons.natural occurrence consistently or away from the dominant angle of view. Solid casngs are usually found in smaller connectors like the ones used to form the terminus of tension rod-type structures. Economy is found in the mass producon of the elements. A rough rule of thumb is that. They must be custom-fabricated from a trapezoidal plate that is rolled to form a tapered pole and the seam welded. These complex connecons made appropriate use of casngs to resolve complex geometries cleanly. over 50 to 70 tonnes) an order can be placed directly to the structural tubing mill. the surface texture of the nished steel will have a rough sand-like appearance. Cast Connecons Cast connecons are being used increasingly in projects in Canada. For example if a sand casng is used. from these pictured here to much smaller ones used to aach rods for stayed structures. this can mean signicant grinding and lling to smooth out the rougher nish of the casng. This textural di erence may be signicant if combining hollow secon types with other structural shapes in an AESS applicaon where a high level of consistency of nish is desired. or in complex tubular joints for buildings or bridges. weldable and more ducle. 134 All of the primary connecons on this project are fabricated from cast steel. There will be a variability in the availability of di erent secon sizes. they do require a di erent level of engineering and tesng experse. The characteriscs of today’s steel casngs have nothing to do with its earlier cousin: cast iron. Hollow casngs are used for larger members. For higher levels of AESS categories. it is important to discuss this with your fabricator and explicitly exclude these in your AESS specicaon documents if they are not acceptable. A large steel casng was used in this tree-like structure to join several mechanical pipe secons. or remove casng mill marks. whereas a pipe may exhibit a light texture akin to an orange peel. While they bring with them the added advantage of handling complex. Special nishing will be required if a seamless nal appearance is sought between the casng and the adjacent tubular member. 132 135 Custom casngs are used to connect the mber columns to the concrete foundaons. For casngs to work. Larger diameter tubes (diameter > 500 mm) will be custom-manufactured and will require a minimum 100-tonne quanty when ordering unless they can be bundled with another job. . 131 This is a cast connector that would form the end condion of a round HSS secon or pipe. One-o casngs or small runs can be very expensive.

also more expensive. splicing and erecng the structure. Carlos de Oliveira and Tabitha Sne.35 . When selecng a caster. including 100% ultrasonic tesng. the diameter or overall secon dimensions of the steel the thickness of the steel the type of secon the direcon of the bending (perpendicular or parallel to its weak axis) In general terms. Extra steel will need to be purchased for each piece to ensure that the lengths delivered to site are long enough. there may not be any need for correcve work. Modern Steel Construcon. Large specialty casngs require specic testing to ensure that they are properly designed and capable of resisng stresses. it is next to impossible to ensure that the pieces will align properly due to the natural distoron of the steel shape during the bending process. should be considered as a minimum. it is a good idea to verify the capabilies of fabricators that might be bidding the job to ensure that their shop can handle the work on site. Connecon styles may be considered that do not aempt to create the impression of awless connuity. 138 The high prole and very exposed nature of the round bent steel tubes that support this pedestrian bridge meant extra care in bending. Modern Steel Construcon. deformaon or distoron will occur. If the distoron is small and the steel is AESS 1 or 2. but very di cult when designing with HSS shapes or pipe. This is more easily done using W secons. If bending ghter than the advised ghtness of radius. Non-destrucve evaluaon of each casng. 139 Steel bending is done at a special facility. Bending steel requires specialized equipment. A certain length of steel is lost to the bending process. If splicing needs to occur to achieve a longer piece. CISC AESS Guide – 6 Curves and Cuts . The lengths of the member clamped at either end in the equipment are not bent. or to join two secons of a complex project together. independently of the nished form of the exterior. Non-uniform cooling can create internal stresses. making it quite suitable for transferring forces through the connecons in a reliable manner. Most steel fabricators do not own bending equipment and will subcontract this work out. It is preferable if the bent steel member can be designed to be connuous. The equipment and dies slowly push the steel into the desired curve aer several passes through the machine. May 2006. out-of-plane surfaces may be lled and sanded prior to painng to hide the defects. Modern Steel Construcon. so as to resist shear. and such equipment is very costly. plasma cuers and CNC equipment allow for a wide range of interesng variaons in AESS projects. It is important to be realisc about the expectaons of the connected pieces. It accomplishes this by working the geometry as a funcon of variaons in the wall thickness. “easy way” is bending the steel around its weak axis and “hard way” is bending the steel around its strong axis. Terri Meyer Boake. or that they can make arrangements to sub out work that they cannot handle. It is best to check with the fabricator early on in the design process when specifying curved steel. 6 Curves and Cuts DESIGNING FOR CURVES AND COMPLEX CUTS 137 Although steel can be curved to very ght radii. Todd Alwood. References • “Convenient Connecons”. moment and torsional stresses. AISC. viewed at a greater distance. July 2008 Modern bending equipment. AISC. July 2008 • “Branching Out”. the interior dimensions of the void in a casng do not have to match the exterior form of the object. If curves are very ght. As much of this work is highly equipment-dependent. it makes a di erence if the steel shape is to be bent “the hard way” or “the easy way”. and the steel is AESS 3 or 4. Reference • “What Engineers Should Know About Bending Steel”. If the deformaon is small enough. be sure that appropriate tesng will be performed. Unlike fabricaons made from tubes or plates. AISC. Cast steel exhibits isotropic properes. There are also limits on the ghtness of the radius that steel can be bent to as a funcon of: • • • • Solid casngs are being e ecvely used in seismic installaons. some deformaon is likely to occur. It will depend on the depth of the secon and the curvature. Bending Bending steel is a specialty subset of fabricaon and is becoming increasingly popular in AESS work.

at the same me an located at a high ceiling level. This specialized equipment allows for a very high level of precision when fabricang complex geometries. Fall 2009 • “Ellipcal Secons – Three-Part Series. some units. A CNC method can be used in conjuncon with a number of di erent steel-cung methods. it is normally inially sized by sawing.Angle Rings Heel Up Angle Rings Leg Out Angle Rings Leg In Channel Rings Flanges In Channel Rings Flanges Out Ellipcal Tubes Ellipcal tubes are relavely new to the AESS scene. Je Packer. CISC AESS Guide – 6 Curves and Cuts . A “Computer Numerical Controlled” device can be used to facilitate more complicated or repeve cung. March 2008 • “Ellipcal Hollow Secons – Three-Part Series. They are oen used in front of glazing. ciently hot to melt the metal being cut and . CISC. excellent weldability. 37. making a smooth welded connecon di cult to achieve. oen using robocs to control welding. drilling and punching. Ellipcal tubes have similar material on the secon type and its orientaon. water jet cung and laser cung. The use of such specialty equipment may enable increased fabricaon speed and the inclusion of ne details but is likely to incur an increase in cost to the project. turning a more easily viewed level using welded connecons some of that gas to plasma. Plasma cung is a process 143 for cung steel of di erent thicknesses using The curved steel W-secons in this exposed installa. properes to regular HSS members. 141 Ellipcal tubes are a new product that is seeing increasing use. These include torch cung. CNC Cung 142 This curved secon is distorted at its splice. Their use started in Europe and is making its way into North American architecture. roung. 35. Part One: Properes And Applicaons “. an inert gas (in on are joined with moment-resisng connecons. the nish requireelectrical arc is formed through that gas from ments would be less than for curved steel located at the nozzle to the surface being cut. If the cung blades are straight the process is called shearing. EHS have greater bending capacity than circular hollow secons of the same area or weight. and similar connecon methods can be used in their connecon detailing. Such equipment is very expensive. Je Packer. with major-to-minor axis dimensions of 2:1. CNC processes have become very commonly used in steel fabricaon shops. Advantage Steel No. are suitable for hot-dip galva140 nizing and are applicable to dynamic loading The minimum bending radius permied will depend situaons. if the cung blades are curved then they are shearing-type operaons. The full potenal of the device can only be realized if taking its instrucons from CAD/CAM soware. negligible residual stress. Modern Steel Contrucon. it will be necessary to determine the shop capabilies of the fabricators bidding the job. are addionally used to alter the steel. New specialized equipment. parcularly in AESS work. EHS The Hard Way have a ne grain structure. These tubes are used to support a high curtain wall in an airport. It is common for fabricators to sub out work to another shop that may own such equipment. is a metalworking process which cuts stock without the formaon of chips or the use of burning or melng. as their shape is less obtrusive and blocks less of the view and light coming into the space. The edges of sheared steel are typically sharp and will require nishing when used in AESS applicaons. The plasma is sufand HSS members. Plasma Cung Plasma is a gas in which a certain percentage of parcles is ionized. if the member is viewed from one predominant direcon. with the outside weld bead removed but the inside weld bead typically le Channel Rings in place. due to their strong and weak axis direcons.a plasma torch. CISC. also known as die cung.36 References • “Going Ellipcal”. They are produced as connuously welded secons. cung. Shearing Shearing. In this process. Part Three: EHS Connecon Design”. as hot-nished hollow Beam Rings The Hard Way structurals. Sheet metal or plates as well as steel rods are commonly cut by shearing. uniform mechanical properes. but sll maintain a smooth closed shape. joined by high-frequency inducon welding and nished to their Beam Rings nal shape at extremely high (normalizing) The Easy Way temperatures. compressed air) is blown at high The overall aesthec is rougher. Advantage Steel No. and with the steel speed out of a nozzle. Je Packer. The weld seam is located on the top of the member as the predominant viewing angle is from below. There is also reduced visual intrusion compared to regular circular HSS. plasma cung. When examining bids for any job that might require the use of such equipment. All EHS are produced. AISC. Summer 2010 SPECIALIZED EQUIPMENT When steel enters the fabricaon shop. It can also be used to control hole drilling. Due to the hot nishing process.

however. cost of the fabricaon. this does come at some cost to the project. The correct size relaonship between the punch and the die hole will produce a cleaner top edge. Oxy-acetylene can only cut low. allowing for the high level of precision that is required in complex AESS structures. Hole drilling can be done in conjuncon with CNC equipment for greater precision and speed. It is good to remember that holes. Any cut perpendicular to the material can be accomplished using CNC. Plasma cung is e ecve for material no greater than 50 mm.37 . in the range of 150 mm or greater. Plasma and oxy-fuel require moderate to heavy amounts of grinding if all cung marks are to be eliminated from the plate edges. 149 Several kinds of cuts are required to connect this plate to the HSS member to create a pin connecon. • Laser Cung: This method is used on material in the range of 1/16” up to a praccal limit of ¾” (1. If torch cung is used on AESS material. Hole Punching and Drilling Modern equipment has greatly improved hole punching and drilling. A stream of oxygen is trained on the metal. The hole size should be no greater than the plate thickness plus 1/16” (1. Manual cung requires more clean-up depending on the skill of the operator and the level of AESS expected. the edges will need treatment to make them smooth for even-nish applicaons. 148 Automated torch cung of a piece of steel plate. plasma and oxy-fuel have limitaons on width-to-thickness raos of cuts. This ensures that holes are drilled with very even spacing on each member. a cung torch heats metal to kindling temperature. • Oxy-fuel cung: This is the most common method and the thickness of material is unlimited. the plate thickness should be no greater than 1” (25 mm). The way that steel is cut will inuence the level of detail as well as the amount of remediaon required. Laser and water-jet cut edges require minimal grinding. In oxy-fuel cung. Although very complex shapes are possible using modern equipment. therefore. It is essenal that the steel used in the project meet the half-standard tolerance characterisc of precision drilling in order to be of ulmate benet to the project. Torch or Flame Cung 144 Modern hole-drilling equipment is clean. there must be room on the opposite side of the workpiece for the spray to exit. 146 Plasma cuers combined with CNC equipment can achieve a very ne level of detail. This type of torch can be part of a large roboc device or a small portable handheld device. 147 Grinding is done by hand to remove or smooth out the nish where operaons must be concealed. For the cleanest results in hole punching. 150 The drilling of holes is an automated process. • Water jet cung: This method is less common and the limits on steel thickness are not known.5 to 20 mm).moves su ciently fast to blow molten metal away from the cut. This process uses fuel gases and oxygen to cut the steel. For exceponally thick steel. quick and precise. For example. Torch cung is also called oxy-fuel cung. circles and lines can be used in combinaon to make clean cut-outs which do not require the extra expense of specialized equipment. Since the melted metal ows out of the workpiece. This adds signicantly to the me and. 145 Plasma cuers can facilitate the cung of more complex shapes. straighter hole and minimum burr on the boom edge. and metal burns in that oxygen and then ows out of the cut as an oxide slag.5 mm) to the maximum of 1” (25 mm). Most cung today is performed using CNC control although manual cung can sll be medium-carbon steels and wrought iron. oxy-fuel cung would normally be used. you cannot praccally oxy-fuel cut a hole with a diameter smaller than the thickness as this will result in too much melng and poor quality. Thickness limits: • Plasma cung: The thickness of steel with this method is typically ¼” to 1-¼” (6 to 30 mm). CISC AESS Guide – 6 Curves and Cuts .

the less force will be required to t them during erecon. A custom set of supports (blue) was constructed to hold the members in place unl proper lateral bracing could be provided. This conguraon also allowed for these extra long members to navigate around di cult corners. such will not be as easy in the staging area without benet of jigs. Lane closures may be required on fronting streets to provide for staging and erecon. it is necessary to maximize the amount of fabricaon and painng that can be carried out in the fabricator’s shop. The erecon that took place at this end of the building was extremely challenging as the crane operator was below the pieces he was erecng. The erector will arrange li sequences to minimize the amount of steel that is on the site at any me. This may mean that members can become increasingly large and di cult to transport. so padded slings will be required to avoid marking the nish coat. using padded support points so as not to damage the intumescent shop-applied coang. The nish had to be touched up intermiently throughout the construcon process due to unavoidable nicks and scratches. Construcon sequencing for architecturally exposed steel members places further limitaons on detailing and increases the challenge of erecon. geometrically complex members. 154 151 Only one piece of steel will be shipped on this truck to prevent damage to the piece. The standard limit for size would be to ship on a atbed trailer. Many of the members that come to the site might also be pre-nished (paint. It is obviously beer (and less expensive) to avoid requiring an escort or street closures. Oddly shaped or eccentric members can easily be distorted or bent if improperly handled. Where quality welding can be easily carried out in the shop. To prevent damage. With such a small staging area and the complex geometry. The 90-foot-long steel columns that support the upper structure of the addion to the Ontario College of Art and Design were pre-nished at the fabricaon shop with a coloured re-resistant intumescent coating. More delicate members may require the use of temporary steel bracing to prevent distoron from road movement. the result of roune construcon processes – processes that would not cause extra expense on a more roune use of structural steel. backing bars or bridging aached to . and the small Site Constraints staging area was bordered by hydro wires. galvanizing or intumescent coangs). Hidden bolts were used on this seemingly all-welded structure to facilitate erecon. Many sites are constricted and have insu cient staging area to provide holding for the steel.38 156 The blue frames are temporary supports that were constructed to shore up the sloped columns precisely. including turning radii for narrow streets.7 Erecon Consideraons HANDLING THE STEEL Transportaon Issues As quality of nish and precision of installaon are paramount with AESS. The more precisely fabricated the pieces. o -loading and subsequent liing. parcularly when building to the lot line. If an all-welded appearance is desired. the design may need to make use of invenve hidden bolted connecons to simplify erecon. members may have to be shipped separately rather than maximizing the allowable tonnage per trailer. but also care had to be taken to preserve the integrity of the intumescent coating during handling and erecon. Constricted sites are common in dense urban areas. The size of the staging area will gure into design decisions that will a ect the types of connecons that are employed in aggregang very large members. It will be essenal for the fabricator to map the clearances from the shop to the site to ensure that the pieces will t for easy transport. so the lis all had to take place quickly at night. CISC AESS Guide – 7 Erecon Consideraons . Oen steel will be shipped with temporary supports. 153 These pieces were so long that they could not t on a normal trailer bed but were ed with separate wheels on the back. Care in Handling AESS requires more care in handling to avoid damage to the members. 155 There was virtually no staging area at this busy downtown intersecon. it is It is not uncommon for sub-assembly to occur not uncommon to require more than one aempt to on site in the staging area for oversized or t a piece. Not only was the street access extremely restricve. Just-in-me delivery is needed to ensure proper sequencing and avoid damaging the pieces. 152 Sequencing of Lis A temporary piece of steel joins the two points to stabilize the piece during shipping and erecon.

It also helps to use dry wood instead of green wood at the interface if possible because it moves less over me. again to prevent damage to the surface of the steel. twisng load back to the building. That means it is made up of a diverse range of di erent items. changes in humidity. Steel and wood are two very di erent materials and combining them can be a challenge to designers. ng issues should be minimized but may not be eliminated. With diagonal or unbalanced members. predictable and innitely recyclable. variable in strength but renewable. a hybrid project can be carried out in the steel fabricator’s shop. It is not unreasonable for some members to require more than one aempt due to alignment or geometry issues. There are analycal programs available now to help set up the structure needed when combining the materials. connecons between wood and steel can be di cult.39 .prevent deformaon during shipping and erecon. the liing points will need to be more carefully pre-calculated. A major issue is the di erent expansion and contracon coe cients when combining AESS with wood. however. as the processes and connecon details di er from straight AESS work. In some cases. is a much stronger material. The strength of steel lessens the bulk and provides an economy of structure that would not be possible with an all-wood design. Where steel is pre-nished. With odd geometries and asymmetry of members. delicate proles that would not be possible with wood alone. as each will present a di erent challenge to be solved that may have no precedent. extra care must be taken during erecon so as not to damage the nish. by galvanizing or coating with a specic paint system. so in considering AESS with wood. it has a cellular structure and its properes are direconally dependent. a bolted steel connecon should not span the full depth of a wood element. Wood is described as a heterogeneous. In some cases padded slings will be used in conjuncon with regular liing chains to prevent damage to nishes. Because it is important to limit the restraint imposed by the steel connecng elements. This also avoids large connecons at the boom truss since steel is transferring the high-tension forces. These supports are removed aer the steel is lied into place and the weld marks removed prior to the applicaon of nishes. it aracts water molecules from the environment though absorpon or adsorpon. relavely uniform beams. 159 The steel and glulam arches of Brentwood Staon were fabricated at the steel fabricator’s plant to ensure proper t and coordinaon of the erecon process. The liing points are predictable and make assembly on site roune and quick. Because steel 158 Both materials have issues with moisture. there has to be enough steel to provide some interest. Care must be taken to minimize and remove these elements. gravity will not be of assistance and liing points may require more calculaon than normal. designer has to be very aware of balance. In this way. the nish will last a long me and the connecons would be di cult to access for renishing. Steel is a crucial element in the design of hybrid structures because it allows the use of slender. There are concerns where wood and steel come into direct contact with each other. This might also be done with primed steel where a high-gloss nish is ancipated. in order to resist the humidity changes in the wood. cellular and anisotropic material. On a primarily AESS structure. There are concerns about damaging the wood in the shop. the is used. It is helpful if the fabricator has some experience with working with wood. There may be erecon delays in projects where each element is unique. which have lile e ect on steel. Standard structural steel elements tend to be more regular. Also. There can be holes or small aachments to the steel strictly to facilitate erecon. and on a primarily wood structure. can cause wood to shrink and permanently change its dimensions. The warmth of wood can add a welcoming touch to an all-steel building. 157 These special galvanized ngs work well with the glued-laminated mber system. From a fabricator’s perspecve. either through handling or by welding or heang steel too close to the wood in the structure. a hybrid wood/ steel truss design should have the wood on top of the truss (in compression) and the steel at the boom chord (in tension). Steel is a manufactured product – strong. Pairing steel and wood in a single project can lead to unique assemblies of sustainable and aesthecally pleasing hybrid structures. Because of their di erent properes. sloed holes in the steel can allow for some movement of the wood. make sure that the fabricator is familiar or has experience with the applicaon. If the steel members have been accurately constructed with no less than half the standard tolerances. the two materials should be separated by a waterproof membrane. The important thing in creang a hybrid structural system is to remember the strengths of each material and in what context each of them works best. steel excels in tension while wood reacts much beer to compression. where mber decking is supported by steel girders. the wood elements bu against each other with very lile bolng. hygroscopic. Steel is subject to oxidaon while wood is subject to decay. The curved glulam facade of the Art Gallery of Ontario is enrely supported by a steel frame that takes its eccentric. Wood is a natural material – relavely weak. there has to be enough wood to warm up the building. Erecon Issues Erecng AESS will vary with the complexity of the project. Addionally. On bridges. A combinaon of painted grey and galvanized steel When using steel and wood together. Part of this canopy will be exposed to humidity and so corrosion protecon is required. Temperature di erenals cause steel to expand and contract but have lile e ect on wood. Steel needs to be protected. Combining Steel with Timber Steel is oen used with structural mber. The use of a heat shield can protect the steel CISC AESS Guide – 7 Erecon Consideraons . with vercal columns and horizontal.

Many AESS and glass structures are designed as signature elements of the building. It is possible steel used to support the glass. Bolts through the assembly secure the plate to the mber. Protecve wrappings need to stay in place unl well aer the erecon is complete to connue to provide weather protecon. The wood should not be walked upon. an interlighten the appearance of the system.from scorching during adjacent welding.40 165 A suite of arculated steel arms canlevers out over a hotel drop-o area. the resulng contracon induces compressive stresses at the surface and tensile stresses in the core which can produce a pane of glass four or ve mes stronger than annealed or oat glass. 164 A highly arculated vercal truss at either end of a cable system is used to provide wind support for a large expanse of glass at the Newseum. the physical connecons between materials can either be done in the fabricaon shop. are ed with a plate that penetrates the end of the mber. as the nishes and interface tolerances are more stringent than for standard structural steel. John Leckie. expansive glazed applicaons: • The steel framework is used simultaneously as the structure and the method of holding the glass in place. 161 Most importantly. Part Two: Steel and Wood”. CISC. as is customary in working large steel. Advantage Steel No. Protecon against breakage can be enhanced by laminated units where mulple layers of glass are bonded by a layer of plasc sheet material. with the majority of the steel hidden beneath the wood cladding of the arches. • Larger steel members are used directly behind (or in front of) the glass system to provide wind bracing. ture. In selecng a fabricator it is important to make sure that ev. whereby the glass is virtually in the same plane as the steel. delivery schedule and erecon. unique structure of its own. Much of the supporng AESS used in these systems is welded for a cleaner appearance. but a much higher emphasis is placed on their visual appeal. detailing and erecng The large arches over the Richmond Speed Skang AESS steel and glass buildings. Tempered glass is most commonly used in these applicaons. to have the steel fabricator coordinate shop drawings. The wood needs to maintain its protecve covering unl it arrives on site. or combined on site in the staging area. As the centre cools. hence the interface elements are generally small. trusses or 163 cable systems are used. The steel interface elements of these signature structures transfer porons of the wind loads to the steel superstructure. 30. with holes cut into the plates to to provide the lateral support and creates a separate.160 eryone in the shop is aware of the di erences Steel connecons are used to join this mber strucin the materials. Winter 2007 Combining Steel with Glass New technological developments have both increased the opons available and reduced the 162 di cules in designing. these members can be installed vercally or horizontally at the mullions and usually do not also support the oor loads above. only peeling away areas requiring work. structural steel secons. There are three basic ways to consider the way in which steel acts as a support system for Oval are fabricated from a combinaon of steel and wood. The steel fabricator retained must be familiar with AESS. The AESS system illustrated here uses a specialized • The steel structure sits back from the glass vercal truss-like column formed from round HSS secons and plates. The thin prole of the steel connect the glass to the steel. This is the only way to ensure a “for show” as the main support system is all steel proper t between the materials and to ensure and the large square wood secons are used only to bulk out the form and provide a contrast with the coordinaon from start to nish. Bolted connecons are seldom chosen when . These will oen be lled or hidden to make the connecons more mysterious. or cracking will occur. Diagonal rods with stainless connectors support the glazed roof. Precision in t is even more important as wood members cannot be forcibly t. It can be seen that the steel connecon pieces 1 The Challenge The staging and erecon of a hybrid system is similar to regular AESS with the excepon that the wood must be handled more gently. In this case the penetraon slot is le exposed. then shipped. appears as a simple extension of the curtain wall. someone has to take charge The heavy mber on this scupltural project is really of the project. Depending on the size and complexity of the members. Glass is tempered by heating it to 650 to 700o C and rapidly cooling it so the centre retains a higher temperature than the surface. Stainless steel clamps connect the spider connectors to the cables. to act as the lateral wind load support for this very tall expanse of sal support system (oen cables) is used to glass at Pearson Airport. Reference • “Steel and Other Materials. Covering saw horses with wood and carpeng and using nylon slings to move the wood beams rather than the chains and hooks usually used with steel will minimize problems. as damage can result. CISC AESS Guide – 7 Erecon Consideraons . The combinaon of di erent layers improves post-breakage behaviour of the glass and gives designers and building owners more condence to use it in larger applicaons. Padded slings need to be used to li the members so as not to damage the wood.

John Leckie. Alignment issues between the glass and steel support frame are taken care of by levelling mechanisms that are part of the glass connecon system. cable net systems. Precision in the welding of the steel elements is parcularly important as the welding process naturally distorts the steel. More recently some cable systems are spanning across the width of the glazed facade and transferring the load to adjacent columns or vercal trusses. This alleviates issues of drilling of the glass and allows for beer accommodaon of di erenal movement between the systems. It is crical to have a high level of communicaon between the architect. Structural glass ns can be used as the primary means of lateral/ wind support or in conjuncon with AESS systems. CISC Summer 2007 CISC AESS Guide – 7 Erecon Consideraons . Changes in oor loading both during construcon and during the life of the building must be accounted for.41 . Glass connues to be very brile and sensive to local stress concentraons. Glass requires higher precision with tolerances of ±2 mm while the tolerances for steel are ±5 mm. In Europe parcularly. The AESS poron of the support system can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Each project will have slightly di erent parameters. The panels are usually secured at the four corners with an addional pair of bolts in the middle of each side for larger panels. If more welding is required on one side of a long supporng member. much attenon has to be spent designing the interface between glass and steel to resolve issues of material compability. pin brackets or clamping devices are all alternaves that are used on occasion. Stainless steel cables are used in conjuncon with laminated structural glass and stainless spider connectors to support this large glazed façade at a Berlin rail staon. Hence. Angle brackets. with lile room for discrepancy given the proximity of the steel tube to the inside face of the glass. The most commonly used is the spider bracket which has one to four arms coming out of a central hub. poor alignment will be quite apparent. these sorts of facades promise to be even more challenging to design as external shading devices grow in use as a means of lowering cooling loads. As concerns about energy e ciency and prevenng unwanted heat gain connue to grow. allowing for clean lines and uniformity on the public side of the system. 29. Bolts through the glass panels are secured to the arms and the brackets are aached to the support structure. here we can see that the framing is steel with wood cladding. These are located on the rear of the canopy and are not visible from the front. 168 171 This tubular steel framing system connects to the sloped curtain wall in a more tradional fashion with slim line supports being fairly concealed behind the prole of the HSS secons. Systems must also allow for vercal di erenal movement. creang tall supporng systems for expanses of glass. Part One: Steel and Glass”.rods. Methods include: vercal trusses. all capable of connecng to the stainless steel spider connectors. Reference • “Steel and Other Materials. ellipcal tubes. thin vercal columns. and it is possible to adjust the glass support system to suit the overall look of the balance of the AESS on the project. it can result in bowing of the member. tension 166 169 Spider connectors are used to connect this mullionless glass to a tubular steel frame at the top of the expanse of window of this Las Vegas Hotel lobby. removing the need to drill holes in the glass. The steel supports for this double façade envelope use a system of clips to support the extra layer of glass. In all cases a substanal amount of movement must be accommodated in the design of the system. engineer and fabricator on these types of projects. Silicon is oen used to ll the gaps between the panels once construcon is complete. The di erences have to be accommodated during the installaon in order to keep the glass panels properly aligned. 167 170 Although the interior of this lobby would give the appearance of being supported in heavy mber. and reach the desired aesthec objecve. boom or side support points. and so di erenal movement in the steel and glass will need to be accounted for due to temperature. as coordinaon must be very precise. The support system can also bear on the oor or be suspended from the oor above. Advantage Steel No. The coordinaon for this detail is extremely ght. This permits the connecon of spider connectors to the steel structure hidden inside. oen achieved by the use of slip joints that simultaneously allow movement up and down. stainless steel tension systems (either by themselves or in conjuncon with larger AESS carbon steel members). One of the problems of working with steel and glass is the relave tolerances in producing the materials. Glazed façades are oen subjected to high levels of solar gain. bolted systems are slipping from favour and designers there tend to use a clip system where the panels are supported on the side. single brackets. There are a number of methods for connecting the glass panels to the structural supports. Wind loads will cause di ering deecons at the centre of the spans versus the top. Because the glass panels are normally aligned with the steel elements. while restricng the joint laterally for wind loads.

So now the wait is over. (Now Genivar) Andrew Meen Bush Bohlman Marn Nielsen Busby Perkins & Will Bob Neville Read Jones Christo ersen Stéphane Rivest Bureau D’études Spécialisées (BÉS) Jacques White Université Laval School of Architecture . All CISC regions reviewed the documents and suggested changes. May all design professionals wishing to have fun with steel. Ing. CISC sta and the author. which would typically involve architects. several roundtables were held in Montreal. Ontario Region – Chairman Suja John CISC Ontario Region Alan Lock CISC Atlanc Region Peter Timler CISC Western Region Sylvie Boulanger CISC Quebec Region – Secretary Peter Boyle MBS Steel Ontario Region Paul Collins Collins Industries Alberta Region Michel Lafrance Structal-Heavy Steel Construcon Quebec Region Graham Langford Weldfab Central Region Rob McCammon Iwl Steel Fabricators Central Region Jim McLagan Canron BC BC Region Mike Payne Waiward Steel Alberta Region Rob Third George Third and Son BC Region Harrison Wilson Ocean Steel Atlanc Region CISC AESS Guide – 8 Special Acknowledgments . specicaon and construcon process for AESS. economic and construcon criteria use this Guide at work. in the hopes of providing a series of documents that would assist in re-visioning the design. Enjoy! Sylvie Boulanger CISC Members of the CISC Ad Hoc AESS Commiee Walter Koppelaar Walters Inc. but it also introduced an underlining Category approach and reduced its scope. It is with unsurpassed enthusiasm and a passion for teaching that Terri has travelled in Canada and around the globe to gain understanding and deliver beauful. a detecve and a friend of the industry. Common to all these documents is the unique Matrix of Categories and Characteriscs to be used by all. at school and start specifying AESS Categories in your projects. CISC adapted components of what AISC had developed. a photographer. an addion to the CISC Code of Standard Pracce (for fabricators) and a Guide (for architects). our warmest thanks go to Terri Meyer Boake. Cima+ François Deslauriers Saia Deslauriers Kadano Leconte Brisebois Blais Pierre Delisle Pierre Delisle Architecte Michael Heeney Bing Thom Architects Jean Lacoursière Mesar Consultants Je Leibgo SBSA Structural Consultants Sol Lorenzo. Toronto and Vancouver. The commiee developed a Sample Specicaon (for engineers). Walter Koppelaar.42 Architects and Engineers Who Parcipated in Roundtable Discussions Alain Bergeron ABCP Architecture Terri Meyer Boake University of Waterloo School of Architecture Peter Buchanan Stantec Guy Carrier. a teacher. She has asked thousands of quesons and dug into the topic with the curious eyes of an architect.8 Special Acknowledgments The AESS Story in Canada started in 2005 with the CISC Ad Hoc Commiee. Terri Meyer Boake. a writer. Michel Lafrance suggested the step-like matrix of Categories. introduced the importance of a strong di erenaon of Categories. Rob Third was immensely acve in the renement stage of the documents. the roundtable parcipants. Those sessions helped shape the orientaon and direcon of the commiee’s work on the documents. chair of the commiee. Martoni Cyr & Assoc. In the following two years. The third of the series of CISC AESS documents is available in the form of this Guide. Finally. including architects and engineers. engineers and fabricators. The idea was to create a dynamic industry dialogue. at home. We wish to acknowledge all the hard work from the commiee members. to improve communicaon in order to sasfy aesthec. which became a central tool in the process. In parallel. inspiring photos.

Part One: Properes and Applicaons by Je Packer Advantage Steel No. 74 Walters Inc. 29 | Summer 2007 Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel: How Is It Dened? by Terri Meyer Boake A look into the design process and criteria that will be used to create the upcoming Canadian AESS Specicaon and Guide Advantage Steel No. 42. illustraons by Vincent Hui Birkhauser. 51. 54. 70. 57. 68. 113.9 References and Image Credits REFERENCES The following arcles. 49. 102 American Instute of Steel Construcon: Nos. 46.43 . 73. 45.: Nos. journal publicaons and books were referenced in the creaon of this Guide: Advantage Steel | Ask Dr. unless otherwise noted. all photos by Terri Meyer Boake Sylvie Boulanger (CISC): Nos. Part Three: EHS Connecon Design by Je Packer Advantage Steel No. 43. Part Two: Steel and Wood A detailed look at the technical aspects of e ecve design with composite steel and wood structures by John Leckie Advantage Steel No. 48. 22 | Spring 2005 A Categorical Approach: The Canadian Instute of Steel Construcon Is Taking a New Approach to Specifying AESS Requirements by Sylvie Boulanger. 31 | Summer 2008 Steel and Other Materials. 92. Modern Steel Construcon | April 2008 Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel: A Design Guide Modern Steel Construcon | May 2003 Convenient Connecons by Carlos de Oliveira and Tabitha Sne Modern Steel Construcon | July 2008 Branching Out by Terri Meyer Boake Modern Steel Construcon | July 2008 What Engineers Should Know About Bending Steel by Todd Alwood Modern Steel Construcon | May 2006 Going Ellipcal by Je Packer Modern Steel Construcon | March 2008 Ellipcal Hollow Secons – Three-Part Series. 37 | Spring 2010 Understanding Steel Construcon: An Architect’s View by Terri Meyer Boake. 35 | Fall 2009 Ellipcal Secons – Three-Part Series. 56. 53. 114. 71. 156 Vincent Hui: Nos. 30 | Winter 2007 Steel and Other Materials. 2011 IMAGE CREDITS Front and rear covers and.aspx The Canadian Matrix: A Category Approach for Specifying AESS A presentaon of CISC’s new Category Approach of AESS1 through AESS4 including a handy pull-out centerfold of the Category Matrix by Sylvie Boulanger and Terri Meyer Boake Advantage Steel No. 153. 32. 95. 41. Terri Meyer Boake and Walter Koppelaar A detailed look at the new Canadian AESS Matrix. Part One: Steel and Glass A look at the detailed interacon of steel and glass in buildings by John Leckie Advantage Steel No. 140 CISC AESS Guide – 9 References and Image Credits . 58. 44. 47. 75. 63. Sylvie Column An excellent resource included in each Advantage Steel issue from Spring 2003 to Fall 2010 Advantage Steel issues are available online at: hp://www.

and copes. arrangement and erecon drawings. SCOPE AND REQUIREMENTS c) For Categories AESS 2. Categories are listed in the AESS Matrix shown in Table I1 where each Category is represented by a set of Characteriscs. connecon and fabricaon detail. In addion: a) If a disncon is to be made between di erent surfaces or parts of members. care must be taken to avoid and/or repair any blemishes or unsightly surfaces resulng from the use or removal of such temporary elements. FABRICATION I3. AESS 3: AESS 4: AESS C: Feature Elements Viewed at a Distance  6 m Suitable for “feature” elements – where the designer is comfortable allowing the viewer to see the art of metalworking. I3. please visit: hp://www. All members designated as AESS members are to be clearly idened with a Category. The following Categories shall be used when referring to AESS: AESS 1: Basic Elements Suitable for “basic” elements which require enhanced workmanship. All surfaces are sanded/lled. the AESS Matrix included in Table I1 shall be used to specify the required treatment of the element. Showcase Elements Suitable for “showcase or dominant” elements – where the designer intends the form to be the only feature showing in an element. d) Tack welds shall be ground smooth. 2.1 General Requirements. reused or weathering steel that are to be AESS may sll have erecon marks.2 Unnished. I1.1 Idencaon. c) All architecturally sensive connecon details will be submied for approval by the Architect/Engineer prior to compleon of shop detail drawings.5.Appendix 1 . electronic version of the CISC Code of Standard Pracce. 2. Special requirements shall be specied as Category AESS C. I2. These variaons could include machined surfaces. SHOP DETAIL. I2. arrangement and erecon drawings. . and lled edges are ground square and true. Any variaons from the AESS Categories listed must be clearly noted. ARRANGEMENT AND ERECTION DRAWINGS I2. 4 requirements.2 Denion of Categories. c) If temporary braces or xtures are required during fabricaon or shipment. I1. The fabricator is to take special care in handling the steel to avoid marking or distorng the steel b) Fabricaon and/or erecon tolerances that are to be more restricve than provided for in this Appendix. AESS 2: Feature Elements Viewed at a Distance > 6 m Suitable for “feature” elements viewed at a distance greater than six metres. and forgings. temporary braces and xtures used in fabricaon are to be indicated on shop drawings.cisc-icca. locally abraded surfaces.1 General Fabricaon. All welds are ground. I3.2 Variaons.2. For a downloadable. When members are specically designated as “Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel’’ or “AESS’’ in the Contract Documents.CISC Code of Standard Pracce CISC CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE – APPENDIX I Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) a) Specic idencaon of members or components that are AESS using the AESS Categories listed in I1. the requirements in Secons 1 through 7 shall apply as modied by this Appendix. The process involves basically good fabricaon pracces with enhanced treatment of weld. 3 or 4. I1. All surfaces are to be “glove” smooth. b) Care shall be taken to minimize damage to any shop paint or coang. Tolerances of fabricated forms are more stringent – generally one-half of the standard tolerance. Members fabricated of unnished. AESS members or components shall be fabricated and erected with the care and dimensional tolerances that are spulated in Secons 1. Refer to Table I1. on all shop detail. if any. Tolerances are ghter than normal standards. or to facilitate erecon.44 d) For Category AESS C. some grind marks are acceptable.2 through 1. tolerances for gaps. Custom Elements Suitable for elements which require a di erent set of Characteriscs than specied in Categories 1. a) All slings will be nylon-type or chains with soeners or wire rope with soeners. either AESS 1.3 Addional Informaon. Welds are generally smooth but visible. 3. 3. I1. b) Tack welds. The structure is normally viewed closer than six metres and is frequently subject to touching by the public. The following addional informaon shall be provided in the Contract Documents when AESS is specied: CISC AESS Guide – Appendix 1 CISC Code of Standard Pracce . painted marks or other marks on surfaces in the completed structure. the transion line/plane must be clearly idened/dened on the shop detail. Reused or Weathering Steel. of a visual sample or rst-o component for inspecon and acceptance standards prior to the start of fabricaon. 4 or C.

I3.20/21 and ASTM A6.9 Surface Preparaon for Painng. b) Care shall be taken to minimize damage to any shop paint or coang. b) Weld spaer. Prior to blast cleaning: a) Any deposits of grease or oil are to be removed by solvent cleaning. c) If temporary braces or xtures are required to facilitate erecon. 3 and 4. b) For Category AESS 3.2 Standard of Acceptance.1 General Delivery. width. 2 and 3.5 Joints. I3. For Categories AESS 2. leveled and aligned to a tolerance equal to that permied for structural steel.10 Hollow Structural Secons (HSS) Seams a) For Categories AESS 1 and 2. For Categories AESS 2. the as-fabricated straightness tolerance for the built-up member is one-half of the standard camber and sweep tolerances in CSA W59. SSPC-SP 1.6 Surface Appearance. I5. I3. weld projecon up to 2 mm is acceptable for bu and plug-welded joints. seams shall be treated so that they are not apparent. or in uniform contact if shown without gap.4 Tolerances for Built-up Members. I5. out-of. It is recognized that the degree of weld show-through. The Erector must plan and execute all operaons in a manner that allows the architectural appearance of the structure to be maintained.I3. 3 and 4. the steel surface imperfecons should be lled and sanded. which is any visual indicaon of the presence of a weld or welds on the opposite surface from the viewer.7 Welds.3 Adjustable Connecons. c) Sharp edges resulng from ame cung. The standard for acceptance of delivered and erected members shall be equivalent to the standard employed at fabricaon. f) All bolt heads in connecons shall be on the same side. in order to enable the Erector to adjust and/or specify the method for achieving the desired dimensions.8 Weld Show-through. slivers and surface disconnuies are to be removed. all weld spaer is to be avoided/removed where exposed to view. a smooth uniform weld will be acceptable. and consistent from one connecon to another. grinding and especially shearing are to be soened. I4. a) All slings will be nylon-strap or chains with soeners. the weld will be contoured and blended. miters and bu cuts in surfaces exposed to view are made with uniform gaps.45 . as specied. The Fabricator shall use special care to avoid bending. In addion: a) For Categories AESS 1. camber and sweep of rolled shapes shall be as specied in CSA G40. I5. I4. b) For Categories AESS 1. handling and erecng the AESS to avoid marking or distorng the AESS. the Fabricator will clean AESS members to meet the requirement of SSPC-SP 6 “Commercial Blast Cleaning” (sandblast or shotblast). the fabricator shall minimize the weld show-through. For Category AESS 4. I4.3 Tolerances for Rolled Shapes. if shown to be open joint. all copes. For Categories AESS 1. c) For Category AESS 4.20/21. the members or components will be acceptable as produced. the quality surface as delivered by the mills will be acceptable. twisng or otherwise distorng the Structural Steel. is a funcon of weld size and material thickness. For corrosive environments. All e-downs on loads will be either nylon strap or chains with soeners to avoid damage to edges and surfaces of members. the Owner’s plans shall specify/allow adjustable connecons between AESS and adjoining structural elements. I3. 2 and 3. care must be taken to avoid and/or repair any blemishes or unsightly surfaces resulng from the use or removal of such temporary elements.2 Erecon Tolerances. Unless otherwise specied in the Contract Documents. Adjustment details proposed by the Erector shall be submied to the Architect and Engineer for review. e) All backing bars shall be removed and ground smooth. seams shall be oriented away from view or as indicated in the Contract Documents. seams of hollow structural secons shall be acceptable as produced. Unless otherwise specied in the Contract Documents. When more stringent tolerances are specically required for erecng AESS. b) For Category AESS 4. The following excepons apply: a) b) I3.1 General Erecon.square. CISC AESS Guide – Appendix 1 CISC Code of Standard Pracce . members and components are plumbed. a) For Categories AESS 1. I3. welds will be ground smooth/lled. c) For Categories AESS 1 and 2. For Categories AESS 3 and 4: the matching of abung cross-secons shall be required. The Erector shall use special care in unloading. all joints should be seal welded. For Categories AESS 3 and 4. DELIVERY OF MATERIALS I3. ERECTION I5. bars and shapes by welding is limited to the accumulaon of permissible tolerances of the component parts as provided by CSA W59 and ASTM A6. The permissible tolerances for depth. 2 and 3. 2. For Categories AESS 3 and 4. For Category AESS 4. d) Tack welds shall be ground smooth and holes shall be lled with weld metal or body ller and smoothed by grinding or lling to the standards applicable to the shop fabricaon of the materials. 3 and 4: the as-fabricated straightness tolerance of a member is one-half of the standard camber and sweep tolerance in CSA G40. The tolerance on overall secon dimensions of members made up of plates.

Division 5 «Metal Decking» Secon for erecon requirements relang to exposed steel decking and its connecons. 2. Indicate any special tolerances and erecon requirements. 3-D rendering of specied element. and C as listed in the AESS Matrix (see Table 1). Include details that clearly idenfy all of the requirements listed in secons 2. CISC Code of Standard Pracce. Idenfy grinding. c. B. Architect’s approval of mockups is required before starng fabricaon of nal units. Visual samples when specied may include any of the following: 1. Indicate welds by standard CWB symbols. nish and prole of welds as dened herein. SUBMITTALS b. apply to this Subsecon. 1. 3. electronic version of the Sample AESS Specicaon. First o inspecon: First element fabricated for use in nished structure subject to alteraons for subsequent pieces. 3. Provide connecons for AESS consistent with concepts. Mockups: As specied in Structural Design Document.3 ‘’Fabricaon’’ and 3. 4. a. Mockups are either scaled or full-scale. Fabricator Qualicaons: In addion to those qualicaons listed in other Subsecons of Division 5 “Structural Steel” Secon.1. Erector Qualicaons: In addion to those qualicaons listed in other Subsecons of Division 5 “Structural Steel” Secon. 5. 1. Approved full-scale mockups may become part of the completed work. B. Shop Drawings detailing fabricaon of AESS components: d.3. refer to the other Subsecons of Division 5 «Structural Steel» Secon. SUMMARY This Subsecon includes requirements regarding the appearance. disnguishing between shop and eld welds. length and type of each weld. 4. refer to the CISC Code of Standard Pracce Appendix I. nish of bolts. Physical sample of surface preparaon and welds. surface preparaon and integraon of Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel (AESS) only.Sample AESS Specicaon SAMPLE AESS SPECIFICATION FOR CANADA ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STUCTURAL STEEL (AESS) “AESS” Subsecon of Division 5 “Structural Steel” Secon 05120 For a downloadable. latest edion. please visit hp://www.46 1. Division 1 «Quality Control» Secon for independent tesng agency procedures and administrave requirements. Related Secons: The following Secons contain requirements that may relate to this Subsecon: 1.cisc-icca. 4. A. PART 1 – GENERAL 1. Mockups may have nished surface (including surface preparaon and paint system). This Subsecon applies to any structural steel members noted on Structural Design Documents as AESS. A. All AESS members must also be idened by their Category.2. AND HANDLING . General: Submit each item below according to the Condions of the Contract and Division 1 «Specicaons» Secon. and show size.5. 2.3 ‘’Erecon’’ of this specicaon. 3. D. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract. Provide erecon drawings clearly indicang which members are considered as AESS members and their Category. For technical requirements.Appendix 2 . DELIVERY. if shown on the Structural Design Documents. 3. Indicate type. C.4. B. 1. engage a rm competent in fabricang AESS similar to that indicated for this Project with su cient producon capacity to fabricate the AESS elements. Comply with applicable provisions of the following specicaons and documents: 1. STORAGE. QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Division 5 «Steel Joist» Secon. including General and Supplementary Condions and Division 1 «Specicaons» Secon. RELATED DOCUMENTS A. 2. Indicate which side of the connecon bolt heads should be placed. CISC AESS Guide – Appendix 2 AESS Sample Specicaon . Mockups are retained unl project is completed. For denions of Categories AESS 1. 1. Division 9 «Painng» Secon for nish coat requirements and coordinaon with primer and surface preparaon specied in this Subsecon. Mockups are to demonstrate aesthec e ects as well as qualies of materials and execuon: 2. B. engage a competent Erector who has completed comparable AESS work .

li and align pieces using padded slings and/or other protecon required to maintain the appearance of the AESS through the process of erecon.3 Primers: Primers must be specied. and equipment used for AESS will limit distorons to allowable tolerances. Appearance and quality of welds shall be consistent with the Category and visual samples if applicable. bracing and supports only where noted on the approved shop erecon drawings. erecon bolts and other steel members added to connecons to allow for alignment. B. 1. and abraded areas and repair galvanizing to comply with ASTM A780. which might result in rejecon of the appearance of the member. Handle.3 ERECTION A. Galvanized Surfaces: Clean eld welds. Verify that weld sizes. see Table 1 – AESS Category Matrix. bolted connecons. MATERIALS In addion to the special care used to handle and erect AESS. Provide bolt type and nish as specied and place bolt heads as indicated on the approved shop drawings. B.EXECUTION 1. Bolted Connecons: Make in accordance with Secon 05120. 1. quality.5 ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW A. 1. Weld tabs for temporary bracing and safety cabling only at points concealed from view in the completed structure or where approved by the Architect.47 . B. Touchup Painng: Cleaning and touchup painng of eld welds.1 1. B. Filling of connecon access holes: Filling shall be executed with proper procedures to match architectural prole. FABRICATION A. 4. PART 2 – PRODUCTS 1. the bolt heads in a given connecon shall be placed to one side. if applicable. Erect nished pieces using soened slings or other methods such that they are not damaged. B. 1.4 FIELD CONNECTIONS A. t-up and welding in the eld shall be removed from the structure. Provide connecons for temporary shoring. Holes for erecon bolts shall be plug welded and ground smooth where specied. Assemble and weld built-up secons by methods that will maintain alignment of members to the tolerance of this Subsecon.A.5 ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW A. PREPARATION A. Locate eld joints in AESS assemblies at concealed locaons or as approved by the Architect. and abraded areas of shop paint shall be completed to blend with the adjacent surfaces of AESS. Field Welding: Weld prole. gouges or other imperfecons. Ensure that all items are properly prepared. and nish shall be consistent with Category and visual samples. 1. employ the proper erecon techniques to meet the requirements of the specied AESS Category: A. handled and/or packaged for storage and shipping to prevent damage to product. Such touchup work shall be done in accordance with manufacturer’s instrucons.4 SHOP CONNECTIONS 1. EXAMINATION A. 2. Provide padding as required to protect while rigging and aligning member’s frames. The Fabricator/Erector will advise the consultant the schedule of the AESS Work. Where not noted. For the special fabricaon characteriscs. Coordinate remedial acon with fabricator prior to erecng steel. 1. Assemble and weld built-up secons by methods that will maintain alignment of axes. B. Provide bolt type and nish as specied and place bolt heads as indicated on the approved shop drawings. where specied. CISC AESS Guide – Appendix 2 AESS Sample Specicaon . Fabricate AESS with surface quality consistent with the AESS Category and visual samples if applicable. AESS Erecon tolerances: Erecon tolerances shall meet the requirements of standard frame tolerances for structural steel per CSA S16-01. 3.1 1. General: Meet requirements of Subsecons of Division 5 “Structural Steel”. Welded Connecons: Comply with CSA W59-03 and Secon 05120. PART 3 . A. 1. Temporary connecons shown shall be made at The Architect shall review the AESS steel in place and determine acceptability based on the Category and visual samples (if applicable). Bolt Head Placement : All bolt heads shall be placed as indicated on the structural design document. locaons not exposed to view in the nal structure or as approved by the Architect. Appearance and quality of welds shall be consistent with the Category and visual samples if applicable. and according to CSA S1601. bolted connecons. Welds at run-out tabs shall be removed to match adjacent surfaces and ground smooth. fabricaon sequence. The Architect shall review the AESS steel in place and determine acceptability based on the Category and visual samples (if applicable). B. 1. Bolted Connecons: Make in accordance with Secon 05120. C. kinks. approved prior to fabricaon.2 SPECIAL SURFACE PREPARATION A. Set AESS accurately in locaons and to elevaons indicated. Fabricate and assemble AESS in the shop to the greatest extent possible.6 ADJUSTING AND CLEANING A. 5.2 The erector shall check all AESS members upon delivery for twist. Specialty bolts must be specied. The Fabricator/Erector will advise the consultant the schedule of the AESS Work. Removal of eld connecon aids: Run-out tabs. Assemble and weld built-up secons by methods that will maintain alignment of members to the tolerance of this Subsecon. Welded Connecons: Comply with CSA W59-03 and Secon 05120.

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