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Pressure Vessel Design Calculations,
DRAFT Stainless steel vessel with Copper Liner D

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D. Shuman, 10/14/2011

rXe = 0.53 m

l Xe = 1.3 m

We consider using a field cage solid insulator/light tube of 2 cm thk. and a copper liner of 6 cm thickness

t fc := 2cm

t Cu := 6cm

Pressure Vessel inner radius is then:

R i_pv := rXe + t fc + t Cu

R i_pv = 0.61 m

DRAFT

R i_pv = 61 cm

We choose to use division 2 rules, which allow thinner walls at the expense of performing more strict material

acceptance and additional NDE post weld inspection, as we will be performing these steps regardless, due

to the high value of the vessel contents. For flat-faced flanges we use div. 1, as no methodology exists in div

2. Div. 1 is more typically conservative than div. 2, when div. 2 quality control is implemented.

Maximum allowable material stresses, for sec VIII, division 2 rules from ASME 2009 Pressure Vessel code,

sec. II part D, table 5B (div. 1 stress from table 1A):

Youngs modulus

Smax_304L_div2 := 16700psi

Smax_304L_div1 := 16700psi

Smax_316L_div2:= 16700psi

Smax_316L_div1 := 16700psi

ESS_aus := 193GPa

we use the L grades for weldability

input

check result (all conditions should be true (=1)

xx := 1 xx > 0 = 1

Choose material:

Smax := Smax_304L_div2

Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), gauge:

Minimum Pressure, gauge:

MOPpv = 14 bar

the extra 0.5 atm maintains an upgrade path to a water or scintillator tank

Pmin = 1.5 bar

Maximum allowable pressure, gauge (from LBNL Pressure Safety Manual, PUB3000)

at a minimum, 10% over max operating pressure; this is design pressure at LBNL:

MAWPpv := 1.1MOPpv

MAWPpv = 15.4 bar

Vessel wall thickness, for internal pressure is then ( div 2):

MAWPpv

Smax

t pv_d2_min_ip := Ri_pv e

1

t pv_d2_min_ip = 8.325 mm

t pv_d1_min_ip :=

Ew := 1

MAWPpv Ri_pv

t pv_d1_min_ip = 8.337 mm

There seems to be little difference between using division 1 or 2 for a 304L stainless steel vessel. We continue with

div 2 rules, since we have high quality assurrance standards anyway. We set wall thickness to be:

t pv := 10mm

t pv > t pv_d2_min_ip = 1

Maximum Allowable External pressure using ASME PV code Sec. VIII div 2 rules, 4.4.5

Step 1- trial thickness, outer radius, diameter longest length between flanges:

R o_pv := Ri_pv + t pv

Do := 2Ro_pv

Lff := 1.4m

Ey := ESS_aus Ey = 193 GPa

Step 2 compute the following:

or greater

Lff

M x :=

Do

2

tpv

for

1.058

C h := 1.12M x

Fhe :=

M x = 17.78

R o_pv t pv

1.6 C h Ey t pv

( )

2 Do

.94

= 185.715

Fhe

Sy

Fhe

Sy

Fic

Fha :=

2

= 0.241

.552 = 1

tpv

Pa_div2 := 2Fha

Do

Flange thickness:

inner radius

R i_pv = 0.61 m

Sy := Sy_Ti_g2

C h = 0.053

Fic := Fhe

FS := 2

Sy_Ti_g2 := 40000psi

MAWPpv = 15.4 bar (gauge pressure)

The flange design for helicoflex or O-ring sealing is "flat-faced", with "metal to metal contact outside the

bolt circle". This design avoids the high flange bending stresses found in a raised face flange (of Appendix

2) and will result in less flange thickness, even though the rules for this design are found only in sec VIII

division 1 under Appendix Y, and must be used with the lower allowable stresses of division 1.

Flanges and shells will be fabricated from 304L or 316L (ASME spec SA-240) stainless steel

plate. Plate samples will be helium leak checked before fabrication, as well as ultrasound inspected. The

flange bolts and nuts will be inconel 718, (UNS N77180) as this is the highest strength non-corrosive

material allowed for bolting.

We will design to use one Helicoflex 5mm gasket (smallest size possible) with aluminum facing

(softest) loaded to the minimum force required to achieve helium leak rate.

Maximum allowable material stresses, for sec VIII, division 1 rules from ASME 2010 Pressure Vessel

code, sec. II part D, table 2B:

Maximum allowable design stress for flange

Sf := Smax_304L_div1

Sf = 115.1 MPa

Maximum allowable design stress for bolts, from ASME 2010 Pressure Vessel code, sec. II part D, table 3

Smax_N07718 := 37000psi

Inconel 718 (UNS N07718)

Sb := Smax_N07718

Sb = 255.1 MPa

From sec. VIII div 1, non-mandatory appendix Y for bolted joints having metal-to-metal contact outside of

bolt circle. First define, per Y-3:

g0 := t pv

g1 := t pv

g0 = 10 mm

corner radius:

g1 = 10 mm

Flange OD

A := 1.35m

Flange ID

B := 2R i_pv

define:

B 1 := B + g1

B = 1.22 m

B 1 = 1.23 m

C := 1.3m

Gasket dia

G := 2 Ri_pv + .75cm

G = 1.235 m

2

H := .785G MAWPpv

H = 1.869 10 N

for O-ring, 0.275" dia., shore A 70 F= ~5 lbs/in for 20% compression, (Parker o-ring handbook); add

50% for smaller second O-ring. (Helicoflex gasket requires high compression, may damage soft Ti

surfaces, may move under pressure unless tightly backed, not recommended)

Helicoflex has equivaluses Y foas the frce teme and gives several v=possible values

for 5mm HN200 with aluminum jacket:

N min value for our pressure

Y1 := 30

mm and required leak rate (He)

for gasket diameter

Dj := G

Fm := 2Dj Y1

or

N

Y2 := 150

mm

regardless of pressure or leak rate

Dj = 1.235 m

Fj := 2 Dj Y2

6

5

Fj = 1.164 10 N

Fm = 2.328 10 N

Helicoflex recommends using Y2 ( 220 N/mm) for large diameter seals, even though for small diameter one

can use the greater of Y1 or Ym=(Y2*(P/Pu)). For 15 bar Y1 is greater than Ym but far smaller than Y2.

Sealing is less assured, but will be used in elastic range and so may be reusable. Flange thickness and bolt

load increase quite substantially when using Y2 as design basis, which is a large penalty. We plan to

recover any Xe leakage, as we have a second O-ring outside the first and a sniff port inbetween, so we thus

design for Y1 (use Fm) and "cross our fingers" : if it doesn't seal we use an O-ring instead and recover

permeated Xe with a cold trap. A PCTFE O-ring may give lower permeability, but have a higher force

requirement, than for an normal butyl or nitrile O-ring; designing to Y1 will account for this. Note: in the cold

trap one will get water and N2, O2, that permeates through the outer O-ring as well.

Start by making trial assumption for number of bolts, root dia., pitch, bolt hole dia D,

n := 116

d b := 12.77mm

p t := 1.0mm

d t := .614 p t

Nominal bolt dia is then;

d b_nom_min := d b + 2d t

d b_nom_min = 13.998 mm

Set:

d b_nom := 14mm

Check bolt to bolt clearance, for box wrench b2b spacing is 1.2 in for 1/2in bolt twice bolt dia ( 2.4xdb ):

C 2.5n d b_nom 0 = 1

Check nut, washer clearance:

OD w := 2d b_nom

Flange hole diameter, minimum for clearance :

Dtmin := d b_nom + 0.5mm

Set:

Dt := 15mm

Dtmin = 14.5 mm

Dt > Dtmin = 1

5

HG := Fm

HG = 2.328 10 N

h G := 0.5 C G

h G = 3.25 cm

HD := .785 B MAWPpv

h D := Dt

HD = 1.824 10 N

h D = 1.5 cm

4

HT := H HD

h T := 0.5 C B

HT = 4.512 10 N

h T = 40 mm

4

M P := HD h D + HT h T + HG h G

M P = 3.673 10 J

Appendix Y Calc

6

P := MAWPpv

P = 1.561 10 Pa

t := 3.0cm

D := Dt

D = 1.5 cm

C + B1

:=

= 1.028 h C := 0.5 A C

2B1

A+C

a :=

2B 1

1

rB :=

n

AR :=

a = 1.077

4

2

1 AR

n D

C

AR = 0.426

1 + AR 2AR

1 AR

atan

h C = 0.025 m

h 0 :=

B g0

rB = 3.895 10

h 0 = 0.11 m

We need factors F and G, most easily found in figs 2-7.2 and 7.3 (Appendix 2)

since

g1

=1

g0

Y-5 Classification and Categorization

F := 0.90892 V := 0.550103

We have identical (class 1 assembly) integral ( category 1) flanges, so from table Y-6.1, our applicable

equations are (5a), (7)-(13),(14a),(15a),16a)

2 hD hC

+

+ rB

B1

a

1

JS :=

(5a)

g0 h 0 + F t

F' :=

F' = 2.504 10

A = 1.35 m

JP :=

hD hC

+

+ rB

B1

a

1

JP = 0.043

M P = 3.673 10 N m

B = 1.22 m

2

K +1

K = 1.107 Z :=

Z = 9.91

2

K 1

A

K :=

JS = 0.055

f := 1

t s := 0mm

no spacer

l := 2t + t s + 0.5d b

l = 6.638 cm

sec Y-6.2(a)(3)

Ab := n .785d b

http://www.hightempmetals.com/techdata/hitempInconel718data.php

Elastic constants

E := ESS_aus

(7-13)

M S :=

JP F' M P

EInconel_718 := 208GPa

Ebolt := EInconel_718

M S = 1.4 10 J

t + JS F'

B :=

5.46

E t

HC :=

(JS MS + JP MP)

MP + MS

B = 5.008 10

E B = 96.648 MPa

HC = 1.413 10 N

hC

Wm1 := H + HG + HC

Wm1 = 3.515 10 N

b :=

Wm1

b = 236.7 MPa

Ab

E

rE :=

Ebolt

rE = 0.928

2

Si := b

Sb = 255.1 MPa

1.159 h C M P + M S

3

a t l rE B1

6 MP + MS

SR_BC :=

2

t C n D

2F t

MS

SR_ID1 :=

+ 6

h0 + F t

B1 t2

Si = 225.1 MPa

Sf = 115.1 MPa

t E B

ST1 :=

2F t Z

MS

1.8

h0 + F t

B1 t2

B1

t E B

ST3 :=

B1

h 0 E B f

SH :=

g1

SH = 17.337 MPa

0.91

B1 V

g0

(a)

Sf = 115.1 MPa

b < Sb = 1

(b)

Sn not applicable

(2)

not applicable

(c)

SR_BC < Sf = 1

SR_ID1 < Sf = 1

(d)

ST1 < Sf = 1

ST3 < Sf = 1

(e)

SH + SR_BC

2

SH + SR_ID1

2

(f)

< Sf = 1

< Sf = 1

not applicable

M sh := 1000kg

lip :=

t lip := 3mm

M sh g

Ri_pv t lip

Fbolt := b .785 d b

Tbolt_min := 0.2Fbolt d b

Tbolt_min = 77.4 N m

this value

ANGEL Torispheric Head Design, using (2010 ASME PV Code Section VIII, div. 2, part 4 rules)

2 nozzle head using standard dimension head

D. Shuman, LBNL, July12, 2011

DRAFT

4.3.6.1Torispheric head with same crown and knuckle thicknessestandard dimensions.

(a) Step 1, determine I.D. and assume the following:

thickness:

t ts := t pv

I.D.

Di := 1.14m

t ts = 1 cm

O.D.

D := Di + 2t ts

Crown radius:

Lcr := 1Di

D = 1.16 m

Knuckle radius:

Lcr = 1.14 m

rkn := 0.1Di

rkn = 0.114 m

Lcr

0.7

rkn

Di

20

Di

1.0 = 1

0.06 = 1

Lcr

t ts

2000 = 1

(c) Step 3 calculate:

thickness, this is an iterated value after going through part 4.5.10.1 (openings) further down in the

document

0.5Di rkn

Lcr rkn

th := acos

th :=

R th :=

Lcr t ts

th = 0.937 rad

rkn

0.5Di rkn

cos th th

+ rkn if th < th

0.5Di if th th

R th = 0.577 m

(d) Step 4 compute:

th = 1.11 rad

th < th = 1

th th = 0

C 1ts :=

rkn

rkn

9.31 D 0.086 if D 0.08

i

i

rkn

rkn

0.692 D + 0.605 if D > 0.08

i

rkn

Di

rkn

Di

0.08 = 0

> 0.08 = 1

(4.3.12)

(4.3.13)

C 1ts = 0.674

C 2ts :=

rkn

1.25 if

Di

rkn

0.08

Di

rkn

rkn

rkn

if

> 0.08

Di

Di

1.46 2.6

Di

0.08 = 0

> 0.08 = 1

(4.3.14)

(4.3.15)

C 2ts = 1.2

(e) Step 5, internal pressure expected to cause elastic buckling at knuckle

C1ts E t ts

Peth :=

C 2ts R th 0.5R th rkn

Peth = 1 10 bar

(4.3.16)

(f) Step 6, internal pressure expected to result in maximum stress (Sy) at knuckle

time independent

Sy_304L := 25000psi

C 3ts := Sy_304L

Py :=

C3ts t ts

Rth

C2ts Rth 0.5

1

rkn

(4.3.17)

Py = 16 bar

Peth

for:

Gth :=

Gth = 66.219

Py

th

th

th

P P = 32 bar

Pck :=

1 + 0.19014G 0.089534G 2 + 0.0093965G 3 y ck

th

th

th

Pck

Pak :=

Pak = 21.656 bar

1.5

(i) Step 9 - allowable pressure based on rupture of the crown

2Smax 1

Pac :=

Pac = 19.8 bar

Lcr

+ 0.5

t ts

(j) Step 10 - maximum allowable internal pressure

P = 15.4 bar

Pa_ip > P = 1

(4.3.19)

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