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- older adult as a group fosters their own norms, beliefs,
attitudes, expectation and behavior that differentiate them
from other groups- SUBCULTURE
- Their unique characteristics set them apart from other age segregation from the larger society.

- Some theorists have described the process of healthy
psychological aging as the least of the successful fulfillment
of developmental tasks.
- Erik Erikson – “INTEGRITY vs DESPAIR” - accept and find
the meaning of life the person has lived.
- Robert Peck described 3 specific challenges facing the
elderly that influence the outcome of ego integrity vs.
a. Ego differentiation versus role preoccupation
Body transcendence versus body preoccupation
Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation

- Recent theory that suggests aging entails a transition from a
rational, materialistic metaperspective to a cosmic and
transcendent vision (Tornstam, 1994).
- as they age , people are less concerned with material
possessions, meaningless relationships
- desire a life of more significance and a greater connection
with others.


Continuation… BIOLOGIC THEORIES OF AGING Genetic-Control theory  we are born with a unique genetic code  a predetermined tendency to certain types of physical and mental functioning  genetic inheritance has a great deal to say about how quickly we age and how long we live Neuroendocrine theory  The hypothalamus sets off various chain reactions whereby an organ releases a hormone which in turn stimulates the release of another hormone.  As we age the body produces lower levels of hormones which can have disastrous effects on our functioning. accounting for among other things. environmental toxins.  With age the body loses its ability to repair damage caused by diet. GOLDA MARIE CORTES . menstruation in women and high libido in both sexes. . it causes a decline in our body's ability to repair and regulate itself as well  hormone replacement therapy Wear and tear theory  the body and its cells were damaged by overuse and abuse  When we are young the body's own maintenance and repair systems keep compensating for the effects of both normal and excessive wear and tear. bacteria or a virus.  When we're young hormone levels tend to be high. which in turn stimulates yet another bodily response.

 Much of the damage from these exposures results from the generation of free radicals. in cell membranes Error theory  Ascribes aging to the accumulation of errors inthe process of info rmation flow from genes to proteins  The errors create faultyproteins that do not function normally. res ulting in impaired cell function and death. Thus many elderly people die of diseases that they could have resisted when they were younger.  Living a longer life is going to lead to the increased possibility of oxygen meeting glucose and protein and known cross-linking disorders include senile cataract GOLDA MARIE CORTES . or fats.  Free radicals disrupt the normal production of DNA and RNA and alter the lipids. (a process that occurs under the presence of oxygen) that causes various problems. Free radical theory  With age comes increasing environmental toxins. from heavy metals and pesticides to tobacco smoke and radiation. Cross linking theory  In this theory it is the binding of glucose (simple sugars) to protein.  Once this binding has occurred the protein becomes impaired and is unable to perform as efficiently.

are not a result of wear and tear or exposure. or organs  it allows one to contrast the ages of different  it can be used to identify tissues that show evidence of accelerated age due to disease.  Aging. according to this theory. the numbers of critical cells in the immune system decrease and become less functional. Immunity theory  The immune system theory of aging is that the rate of aging is largely controlled by the immune system. cell types. but are a programmed. GOLDA MARIE CORTES . must be inherent in the organism and not simply a result of environmental factors or disease.  So aging and death. and that aging is programmed into our body systems. therefore.  As we age. .Program theory  aging is an essential and innate part of the biology of people. Biologic clock theory  can be used to measure the age of most human tissues.we are programmed to age and die. natural and necessary part of genetics.