We present an automatic road sign detection and recognition service system for automatic
driving system. Artificial neural networks are models inspired by human nervous system that is
capable of learning. One of the important applications of artificial neural network is traffic symbol
Recognition. The traffic symbol system has been studies for many years. It is one of the most
important research area for enabling vehicle driving assistances. The automatic driving system
should be simple in order to detect symbol with high responses. The challenge gets more difficult in
order to make system simple while avoiding complex image processing techniques to detect symbol.
It uses images taken from the Data base. The propose system consist of three main phases: image
segmentation, recognition, and classification.

© All Rights Reserved

6 views

We present an automatic road sign detection and recognition service system for automatic
driving system. Artificial neural networks are models inspired by human nervous system that is
capable of learning. One of the important applications of artificial neural network is traffic symbol
Recognition. The traffic symbol system has been studies for many years. It is one of the most
important research area for enabling vehicle driving assistances. The automatic driving system
should be simple in order to detect symbol with high responses. The challenge gets more difficult in
order to make system simple while avoiding complex image processing techniques to detect symbol.
It uses images taken from the Data base. The propose system consist of three main phases: image
segmentation, recognition, and classification.

© All Rights Reserved

- pishty.txt
- Olympiad Combinatorics.pdf
- Networking
- Wigderson et al. - Expander graphs and their applications
- MC0063(A)-Unit3-fi
- Caltech Tutorial
- Manuscript- Clustering With Lower Bound on Similarity
- Gold Berg
- Lec01 Stable
- Pipe Network Analysis, By Mun-fong Lee, University of Florida, 1983, Fortran Program
- I CTA (Sy)181011053256.pdf
- Paper
- 14. Electronics - IJECE - Encoding Algorithm for Crosstalk Effect Minimization Using .....
- hw6pr2
- f2 paper2
- JOCO09
- Pre Algebra Lesson 2 3
- Graphs
- besint
- laporan sismik

You are on page 1of 5

1,

1,

2,

Department of Applied Mathematics, Sri Padmavati Womens University,

Tirupati - 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

Graph Theory is the fast growing area of research in Mathematics. The concepts of Number

Theory, particularly, the Theory of Congruence in Graph Theory, introduced by Nathanson[7],

paved the way for the emergence of a new class of graphs, namely, Arithmetic Graphs. Cayley

graphs are another class of graphs associated with the elements of a group. If this group is associated

with some arithmetic function then the Cayley graph becomes an Arithmetic graph. The Cayley graph

associated with Euler Totient function is called an Euler Totient Cayley graph and in this paper we

study the independent Functions of Euler Totient Cayley graphs. This paper is devoted to the study of

independent functions of Euler Totient Cayley Graph in two cases when n is prime and when n is nonprime.

I. INTRODUCTION

The concept of the domination number of a graph was first introduced by Berge [3] in his book on

graph theory. Ore [8] published a book on graph theory, in which the words dominating set and domination

number were introduced. Allan and Laskar [1], Cockayne and Hedetniemi [4], Arumugam [2], Sampath kumar

[9] and others have contributed significantly to the theory of dominating sets and domination numbers. An

introduction and an extensive overview on domination in graphs and related topics are given by Haynes et al.

[5].

Definition 2.1: The Euler totient Cayley graph is defined as the graph whose vertex set V is given by

Z n { 0 , 1, 2 ,......, n 1 } and the edge set is E = {(x, y) / x y S or y x S} and is denoted by

G ( Z n , ). where S denote the set of all positive integers less than n and relatively prime to n. That is

S ( n ).

Now we present some of the properties of Euler totient Cayley graphs studied by Madhavi [6].

1.

n (n)

edges.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Definition 3.1: Let G(V, E) be a graph. A subset I of V is called an independent set (IS) of G if no two

vertices of I are adjacent in G.

www.ijceronline.com

Page 34

Definition 3.2: Let G(V, E) be a graph. A function f : V [ 0 , 1 ] is called an independent function (IF),

if for every vertex v V with f ( v ) 0 , we have

f (u ) 1 .

u N [ v ]

RESULTS

Theorem 3.3: Let I be an IS of G ( Z n , ). Let a function f : V [ 0 , 1 ] be defined by

if v I ,

1,

f (v )

0,

otherwise

becomes an IF of G ( Z n , ).

Then f

Let f be a function defined as in the hypothesis.

Case 1: Suppose n is a prime. Then G ( Z n , ) is a complete graph. So every single vertex forms an IS of

G ( Z n , ) and every neighbourhood N[ v ] of v V consists of n vertices.

Then

f ( u ) 1 00

.......

0 1 , v V .

u N [ v ]

( n 1 ) times

Hence f is an IF of G ( Z n , ).

Case 2: Suppose n is not a prime. Then G ( Z n , ) is S - regular graph. Let S

Let I be an independent set of G ( Z n , ). Then

= r.

> 1.

f ( u ) 1 00

..........

0 1 .

.

u N [ v ]

( r 1 ) times

Thus f is an IF of G ( Z n , ).

Therefore f is an IF of G ( Z n , ) for any n.

Remark 3.4: Let f : V [ 0 , 1 ] be defined by

if v I ,

k,

f (v )

0,

otherwise

Then f cannot be an IF of G ( Z n , ).

This is because for v I ,

f (u ) k 1 .

u N [v]

So for f ( v ) 0 ,

u N [v]

Figure 1: G(Z11,)

www.ijceronline.com

Page 35

Let I = {0} be the IS of G ( Z 11 , ).

1,

if v 0

0,

if v 1, 2 , 3 ,......, 10 .

Then f ( v )

f ( u ) 1 , v V with f ( v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

Thus f is an IF of G ( Z 11 , ).

Illustration 3.6: Consider G ( Z 8 , ). The graph is given below.

Figure 2: G(Z8,)

The graph is S = 4 regular.

Let I = {0, 4} be an IS of G ( Z 8 , ).

Then the summation values taken over every neighbourhood N[ v ] of v V is given below.

v:

f (v ) :

f (u ) :

u N [ v ]

f ( u ) 1 , v V with f ( v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

Hence f is an IF of G ( Z 8 , ).

Theorem 3.7: Let f : V [ 0 , 1 ] be a function defined by

f (v )

1

r 1

, v V .

Proof: Consider G ( Z n , ).

Let f ( v )

1

r 1

1.

Now

f (u )

u N [ v ]

1

1

r 1

.......... .

1.

r 1 r

1 r

1

r 1

( n times )

f ( u ) 1,

v V with f ( v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

Thus f is an IF of G ( Z n , ).

Case 2: Suppose n is not a prime. Then G ( Z n , ) is S regular graph and S

www.ijceronline.com

r.

Page 36

Now

f (u )

u N [ v ]

1

1

r 1

.......... .

1.

r 1 r

1 r

1

r 1

( S 1 times )

f ( u ) 1,

v V with f ( v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

Illustration 3.8: Consider G ( Z 7 , ). The graph is shown below.

Figure 3: G(Z7,)

Every neighbourhood N[ v ] of v V consists of 6 vertices.

Then r + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7.

Now define a function f : V [ 0 , 1 ] by

f (v )

, v V .

Then

f (u )

u N [ v ]

1

1

7

.......... ...

1.

7

7

7

7

7 times

f ( u ) 1 , v V with

f (v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

Thus f is an IF of G ( Z 7 , ).

Illustration 3.9: Consider G ( Z 15 , ). The graph is shown below.

Figure 4: G(Z15,)

It is a S = 8 - regular graph.

Then

f (u )

u N [ v ]

1

1

8

.......... ...

1.

8 8 8

8

S 1 times

f ( u ) 1 , v V with f ( v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

Thus f is an IF of G ( Z 15 , ).

Theorem 3.10: Let f : V [ 0 , 1 ] be a function defined by

www.ijceronline.com

Page 37

r,

f (v ) 1 r ,

0,

if v v i V ,

if v v j V , v i v j ,

otherwise

Then f becomes an IF of G ( Z n , ), when n is a prime.

Proof: Consider G ( Z n , ), when n is a prime. Since it is a complete graph, every neighbourhood N[ v ] of

v V consists of n vertices.

Then

f ( u ) r (1 r ) 00

.......

0 r (1 r ) 1 .

u N [ v ]

( n 2 ) times

f ( u ) 1, v V

f (v ) 0 .

with

u N [ v ]

Thus f is an IF of G ( Z n , ).

Theorem 3.11: A function f : V [ 0 , 1 ] is an IF of G ( Z n , ) if and only if P f B f .

Proof: Consider G ( Z n , ).

Suppose f : V [ 0 , 1 ] is an IF of G ( Z n , ).

The boundary set B

u V

Positive set P f u V

f ( u ) 1.

u N [ v ]

f ( u ) 0 .

Let v P f . Then f ( v ) 0 .

Since f is an IF, for all f ( v ) 0 ,

f (u ) 1 .

u N [ v ]

v Bf.

Therefore P f B f .

Conversely, suppose v P f . Then v B f , since P f B f .

Then

f ( u ) 1 , for

f (v ) 0 .

u N [ v ]

f is an IF of G ( Z n , ).

REFERENCES

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

[8].

[9].

Allan, R. B., Laskar, R. C. On domination and independent domination numbers of a graph, Discrete Math, 23 (1978), 73-76.

Arumugam, S. Uniform Domination in graphs, National Seminar on graph theory and its Applications, January (1983).

Berge, C. The Theory of Graphs and its Applications, Methuen, London (1962).

Cockayne, E. J., Hedetniemi, S. T. Towards a theory of domination in graphs, Networks, 7 (1977), 247 261.

Haynes, T. W., Hedetniemi, S. T., Slater, P. J Fundamentals of domination in graphs, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1998).

Madhavi, L. Studies on domination parameters and enumeration of cycles in some Arithmetic Graphs, Ph.D.Thesis,submitted to

S.V.University, Tirupati, India, (2002).

Nathanson, Melvyn, B. Connected components of arithmetic graphs, Monat. fur. Math, 29 (1980), 219 220.

Ore, O. Theory of Graphs, Amer. Math. Soc. Colloq. Publ. vol. 38. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, (1962).

Sampath Kumar, E. On some new domination parameters of a graph. A survey. Proceedings of a Symposium on Graph Theory and

Combinatorics, Kochi, Kerala, India, 17 19 May (1991), 7 13.

www.ijceronline.com

Page 38

- pishty.txtUploaded byKanu Priya
- Olympiad Combinatorics.pdfUploaded byKrutarth Patel
- NetworkingUploaded byapi-3816734
- Wigderson et al. - Expander graphs and their applicationsUploaded byPedoPope
- Caltech TutorialUploaded bysuperECE
- MC0063(A)-Unit3-fiUploaded bySanjeev Malik
- Manuscript- Clustering With Lower Bound on SimilarityUploaded bylathait
- Gold BergUploaded byNeki Tamo
- Lec01 StableUploaded byMarco Collantes
- Pipe Network Analysis, By Mun-fong Lee, University of Florida, 1983, Fortran ProgramUploaded byJorGitop LUje
- I CTA (Sy)181011053256.pdfUploaded byvvvvm
- PaperUploaded bynicholas_nash+123
- 14. Electronics - IJECE - Encoding Algorithm for Crosstalk Effect Minimization Using .....Uploaded byiaset123
- hw6pr2Uploaded byapi-241454978
- f2 paper2Uploaded byteamieyl
- JOCO09Uploaded byHoang Dinh
- Pre Algebra Lesson 2 3Uploaded by412137
- GraphsUploaded byHasham Anjum
- besintUploaded byQwaAlmanlawi
- laporan sismikUploaded byAdonia Getse Halel
- r2013 Cse Vii Cs6702 Gta QbankUploaded byPadma Naban
- MSc_guideUploaded byet
- python-week7-lecture3-handout.pdfUploaded bykanyadhara poojitha
- Study on Flexibility of Sensor Network for Linear Processes 2002 Computers Chemical EngineeringUploaded byCarlos Alberto Augusto Sánchez Quiñones
- s8_btech_cs1484031389Uploaded bykiran
- Predicting New Collaborations in Academic Citation Networks of IEEE and ACM ConferencesUploaded bySaad
- 399304_391935_Latihan_UASUploaded byArmando Fransisco Ongko
- guidednotesUploaded byapi-431410685
- TheoryUploaded bySamjana Kasaju
- ArangoDB GraphCourse BeginnersUploaded byMihajlo Andjelic

- Comparison of Different Evapotranspiration Estimation Techniques for Mohanpur, Nadia District, West BengalUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Analysis of Metamaterial Based Microstrip Array AntennaUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- The Effect of Bottom Sediment Transport on Wave Set-UpUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Wave-Current Interaction Model on an Exponential ProfileUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Analysis of the Pedestrian System In Jayapura City (A Case Study of Pedestrian Line on Percetakan StreetUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Stiffness Analysis of Two Wheeler Tyre Using Air, Nitrogen and Argon as Inflating FluidsUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- An Analysis of the Implementation of Work Safety System in Underpass Development Projects of the Intersection of Mandai Makassar-IndonesiaUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- An Analysis of the Noise Level at the Residential Area as the Impact of Flight Operations at the International Airport of Sultan Hasanuddin Maros In South Sulawesi ProvinceUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Parametric Study on Analysis and Design of Permanently Anchored Secant Pile Wall for Earthquake LoadingUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- A Real Time Abandoned Object Detection and Addressing using IoTUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- The Influence of Price Offers for Procurement of Goods and Services on the Quality of Road ConstructionsUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Drag Optimization of Bluff Bodies using CFD for Aerodynamic ApplicationsUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Modeling the Frictional Effect on the Rip Current on a Linear Depth ProfileUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Effect of the Nipah Mall Development on the Performance Roads of Urip Sumohardjo in Makassar CityUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Multi-Response Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters of Monel 400 using Integrated RSM and GAUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Investigation of Vibration on Suspension Systems at Different Load and Operating ConditionsUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Anatomy Of The Traffic Accidents On The RoadUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- A Holistic Approach for Determining the Characteristic Flow on Kangsabati CatchmentUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Effect of Turbulence Model in Numerical Simulation of Single Round Jet at Low Reynolds NumberUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Time-History Analysis on Seismic Stability of Nuclear Island Bedrock with weak InterlayerUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Urban Town PlanningUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Location of Zeros of PolynomialsUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- An Evaluation of the Taxi Supply Management at the International Airport of Sultan Hasanuddin in Makassar - IndonesiaUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- PCB Faults Detection Using Image ProcessingUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Wi MAX Deinter leaver’s Address Generation Unit through FPGA ImplementationUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Study of the Class and Structural Changes Caused By Incorporating the Target Class Guided Feature Subsetting in High Dimensional DataUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- Modelling, Fabrication & Analysis of Pelton Turbine for Different Head and MaterialsUploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)

- 1324e2sp11aUploaded bydanhse7en
- Ps1 Solution(VERY IMP)Uploaded byOmega Man
- Multiobjective Production Scheduling a SurveyUploaded bybiz
- 16.323 Optimal Control Problems Set 1Uploaded byGene Perez
- Quantitative Techniques QuestionsUploaded bymstfahmed76
- simlex1Uploaded byLizi Zhu
- 2011-2012-TestUploaded byAdela Adeoye
- SCI Courses in English 2015-2016Uploaded byHạng Vũ
- COMP484 Machine Learning Syllabus Undergraduate Fall 2018Uploaded byConor
- Context Free LanguagesUploaded byJack Jumper
- 17330 Dsu SolutionUploaded byvaishali rane
- caimUploaded byPayal
- Compliance TableUploaded byccarnero
- Developing Machine Learning Applications with TensorFlowUploaded byMarc Reyes
- 2E3_BinaryTreeUploaded bydavidsmith24026
- InheritanceUploaded bySuresh Sanga
- Javascript - The Good PartsUploaded bymagayue
- A Compressive Sensing and Swarm Optimization Algorithm ForUploaded byHashimoto Laboratory
- class10.pptUploaded byabcd
- Dynamic Survey of Graph LabelingsUploaded byprabu201
- Evolutionary Algorithms PDFUploaded byAdam
- Conjugate Gradient MethodUploaded byYash Menon
- The Quine-McCluskey MethodUploaded byJohn
- Advance Structural AnalysisUploaded byChristian Consigna
- 2 Decision TreesUploaded byBabu Chintapalli
- 09 SLR ParsingUploaded byقرين لطفي
- Chapter-4 AP - FormattedUploaded byMaxy Giuli
- Particle Swarm Optimization to Solve Multiple Traveling Salesman ProblemUploaded byAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- Lecture 6 Dynamic ProgrammingUploaded byBhaskar Mitra
- Philo 11 (TFD) Predicate Logic Guide.pdfUploaded bypinkishbloo

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.