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Development Administration
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Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.

Q. 1. Describe the ideals of Development Administration.

Ans. There exists no uniform or universal definition of development administration. But we can trace
certain basic features and characteristics of development administration that would be uniformly acceptable. To understand the concept fully it is required to know the meanings of administration of development
and development of administration. State has an important role to play in bringing development through
administration, so distinct kind of administration is required to adapt development. On the other hand administrative development stands for the enlargement of administrative capabilities and structural and
behavioural change. However, these both are interrelated concepts. Both are interdependent and supportive
to each other. It is difficult to establish the superiority of one concept over other.
Development administration includes the strategy to achieve the progressive goals of development. It
works towards the proper utilization of available human and material resource so that the developmental
objectives could be fairly achieved. So we can say that development administration is a process of planned
change. Now-a-days administration is studied in the contextual perspective. As in other subjects comparison
is considered to be an ideal yardstick to know about the performance of any institution; same way comparative
analysis of the administrative system with organisation, administration and development management as the
objects, there come out two distinct elements of administration: (1) Administrative reform means the
improvement towards which each nation is logging so as to match administration with development needs;
and (2) Concentration of efforts at acceleration of rate of growth and change so as to meet the challenges of
socio-political development and nation building effectively. It is now important to demarcate and define the
scope of development administration in the form of a discipline and as a process.
Development administration logs to work for the purposes of a social order based on the principles of
equity, justice, freedom and offering equal opportunities for all. It implies that all the decisions related to
socio-economic upliftment and progress of community should be made by people whose commitment is
with society and not with any specific person or organisation. The economic aspect of development



administration aims to distribute the fruits of production in an equitable manner i.e. the benefits of economic
development must accrue more and more to the relatively less privileged classes of society and there should
be progressive reduction of concentration of income, wealth and economic power. The task of development
administration is not confined only upto the formulation of policies and schemes but also to develop the
institutions that could carry on these developmental objectives in its true spirit. Development administration
would lag behind if administration is not developed with same pace, so administrative development becomes
an integral part of development administration. Another aspect which runs with development administration
is communication, it infuses ideas and information into the system which brings about changes. Likewise,
peoples participatory role gives immense capacity to the process of development, as it inputs peoples aims
and aspirations and expectations into the system and allow themselves to act for themselves. Also, a basic
component of development administration is co-ordination because it acts as a means for planned change.
Q. 2. Examine the profile of Indias stagnant economy.
Ans. British ruled India from mid-eightienth century to mid-twentieth century. On the world map it was
an age of scientific and technological advancement. Europe, North America and Japan underwent extensive
social and economic growth during this time. They also dominated the world politically and economically.
But India faced a time of great economic and social crisis. The indeginous economic base of India, which
was agriculture oriented, was completely ruined. The domination of foreign rule pushed the economic,
social and technological fronts on the back-steps. The most adversely affected area was Indian cottage and
handicraft industry. Dumping of finished British goods made the local made articles hard to stand on the
front of price. The inductries that got growth during this time were plantation industry consisting of indigo,
tea, coffee, cotton and juts. Also there was a rise in coal mining industry. But the most remarkable feature
was the concentration of business into few hands creating monopolies and trusts.

A Profile of Indias Stagnant Economy

For a society to become developed i.e. to increase its qualities and services it needs a framework of
government, law, policies, common facilities and innovative environment that can support institutional growth.
In such conditions an individual will become a means and an end himself. The British rule in India was just
opposite to these conditions. In 1947, Indian economy was in very fragile situation. A major portion of
population was rural based. A large work-force was involved in agricultural only and with the increase in
population this dependency kept on increasing. The per capita income of India at the down of Independence
was just Rs. 265. In Agricultural arena also the major portion was concerned with labour work and few
people owned the land. The literacy rate in India was extremely low and health was in most bad condition,
the life expectancy rate was little over 32 years. Thus in terms of social and economic infrastructure, financial
development and availability of social services, the situation of India was indicative of gross inadequacy.
So, we can assess that the basic conditions of decent life were denied to Indians of that time.
Colonial Legacy of Under Development

India own a strong legacy of diversity which became prey to the exploitation of British rule. They
gained a support base for their reign from a large mass in the form of large market and cheap raw material
source. This pushed India into the situation of over whelming poverty. Indias were denied to gain skills and
knowledge in order to keep them only upto the stage of cheap labour and ignorant people. To make things
worse, the crucial state support needed for acceleration of the processes of development was totally denied.
The outcome of such situations was that there was a stagnant and crippted social and economic state of
affairs, where the growth of domestic production barely kept pace with the growth of population and the per
capita income remained very low.



Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q. 3. Discuss the relationship between politicians and bureaucrats in policy formulation.
Ans. There are two types of officials in government. One are non-permanent kind i.e., politicians and
other are permanent officials. These form the executive branch of government and function together to gain
the objectives. It is necessary for smooth functioning of government that both must have cordial relations
with each other. But problem occurs and reason is nature of their role. Politicians represent the people and
take care of their interests; permanent officials, on the other hand provide expertise and add experience.
Their way of recruitment and tenure are also different. The politicians are elected and do not have any fixed
tenure while members of bureaucracy are appointed after going through set procedure and their term is
fixed. The difference is social background of both creates difference in their respective attitudes. The bureaucracy comes from salaried, urban, middle class while most of the politicians belong to rural and agricultural past. The relationship between the politicians and bureaucrats can be examined on three grounds i.e.
Relationship in the course of Policy Formulation; Relationship in the course of Policy Implementation and
Problems in Relationship which have further sub-divisions.
Relationship in the Course of Policy Formulation: Policy formulation has from traditional time thought
to be responsibility of political leaders and bureaucracy been imparted the responsibility of policy
implementation. But it is not so today. Our political leadership is not so expert and educated that can understand
the roots of problems and formulate wide and long-term policies containing various in between complexities
and thought to solve them in advance. Also political leadership is always in flux which cannot work for
developmental planning which requires a lot of time. So, bureaucracy which is permanent in nature can
work to formulate policies. But, at the same time policy initiatives come from political leadership as it has to
fulfil the commitments made with the people. Thus political leadership and bureaucracy together in cooperation
in the course of policy formulation and then in policy implementation.

Q. 4. Write a note on development goals in India.

Ans. Development is a multi-dimensional concept. The goals of development corresponds to the concepts of development which is directly dependent upon the socio-economic and political conditions of the
country. Development does not only mean to grow economically i.e. economic growth and increased per
capita income. It is an integral concept which is related to the every aspect of social existence in their
organic unity. Development involves a rise in the standard of living of the people and not merely an increase
in aggregate output. As far as goals of development are concerned, they can be short-term as well long-term.
They can also be real or stated, depend on whether they are actually taken on or not. In India development
goals are adopted within the framework of mixed economy by means of planning. The prime objective was
to achieve increase in output, and then social equity gained importance as the condition of India was of
grave unemployment, poverty, income inequalities and regional imbalances. Other goals of development
which India opted to achieve included attaining modernisation, industrialisation and self-reliance. But the
paths of development are not very smooth, there are various problems which appear in between the way and
require proper planning to tackle. So, in India planned development is taking place with a view to achieve
minimum in minimum period of time.
Growth and development remains the prime targets of policies, adopted by both the development and
developing countries. Everywhere state gains an important role in achieving development, this role may
differ qualitatively and quantitatively among various countries. It is dependent upon the objective or goal of



development. The difference in objectives of countries is due to the different conditions and approaches of
countries depending upon their history, natural conditions, political and social systems. In Indian concept
particularly, the goals are: economic growth, self-reliance, modernisation, industrialisation and social justice.
Q. 5. Planning procedure at the state levels is very systematic. Elucidate.
Ans. Formation of a State Plan is a process of coordinated effort between the centre and the states. State
plans can not be formulated detached from the national plans which give a substantial space to planning
commission to act. In five year plans commission interact with the states and ask them to formulate their
plan on the basis of their needs and resources, then National Development Council discusses with the states
around the approach paper and work to fit the state plan into the boundaries of given approach paper. With
the endorsement of the NDC, the national five year plan is accepted by the States. But formulation on annual
plan is a bit simple process. It includes the short-term priorities of states.
State Planning is an important component of national planning process and also of national development.
The responsibility of planning in states rests with State Planning Boards. They prepare five year and longterms plans. But the principal agency that works to perform planning at the state level is state planning
department. So there exists two agencies for planning in India which create a confusion over the real
responsibility of planning or over the importance of one. Planning in states do not take place in isolation
because any how states are the units of union so they have to move along or in supportive way of national
plan, and therefore Planning Commission do play very important role in state planning. But in comparison
to the centre states remain weak in their planning process it is because the technical competence and machinery
available with the states is not very developed. It is suggested to debureaucratize the planning process if it
has to perform efficiently. Also autonomy is demanded for the state so that they can draw their plan exclusively
according to the needs and availabilities of their area. So, it is required to give greater responsibility to the
states and strengthen their capabilities in order to make state planning more effective.

Q. 6. Describe the functions of Development Corporations.

Ans. In developing all the development corporations perform a number of functions. These functions
can be classified under four broad categories i.e. Financial, Promotional, Technical and Operative. Under
financial functions, the development corporations provide loans to industry, trade or agriculture; they may
also take part in the equity of an enterprise whereby they are able to promote an enterprise. Promotional
functions are of various kinds, it can be pre-investment study of the viability of the project; or they can set
up industrial estates where promoters are given incentives to locate their establishment and land is provided
at a concessional rate. Technically the development corporations can help through research and development. And a development corporation may promote and operate the activities of any enterprise under its
own control or before transferring it into private hands.
Development corporation means an autonomous agency established in public sector with the aim of
promoting, rather than operating economic activities through providing financial assistance by any system.
These corporations aims at achieving some external returns and benefits against its own profit.
These agencies serve some important functions in developing countries to speed up the process of
development. They work to
(1) promote an activity which otherwise may not be supported by the private sector or where the
private initiative is absent;
(2) accelerate those activities which may materialise but at a slow pace, in a small size and that too, in
a sectorally unbalanced manner;



(3) promote a desired economic activity as envisaged by the government.

So, the central focus of development corporations is a planned and deliberate promotional initiative in
the public sector which is desirable but is not expected through private initiative.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
Q. 7. Write a note on the role of Panchayati Raj.
Ans. Panchayati Raj play very important role in planning and development. Development in true sense
would be complete only when the lowest level gain something. In India the lowest level is village which is
under poverty, misery, starvation and unemployment. So, if planning and development could include this
level in decision-making then only the true meaning of development would be achieved.
There is one other point of view, that Panchayati Raj Institutions have become the connecting link
between the Parliament and state legislature on the one hand and local bodies on the other so that the
respective members can exchange views on the objective of plan and its priorities. The local members talk
about the local needs, urgencies and difficulties in the implementation whereas the members of Parliament
and state legislatures can explain the possible solution since they decide national priorities and at the same
time they are financially in a better position to help the rural bodies. This two way link has served the dual
purpose of modifying the State policies at the points of maladjustments as well as communicated the message
from centre to the remote corner of the rural society. Thus, the Panchayati Raj bodies can play an important
role in the sphere of planning and development.

Q. 8. Explain the rationale of Mixed Economy.

Ans. In mixed economy, the state has a positive and important role to play. It performs the function of
intermediation between private and public sector to promote the course of public welfare. Mixed economy
operates under the divergent and often conflicting set of motivations, the conflicting issues are that of self
interest on the one hand and social gain on the other. The state here acts to reconcile the conflict so that they
subserve the national interest. In India, state is pledged for protecting the weaker section of society which
requires control of distribution of essential commodities, promotion of infrastructural facilities, prevention
of monopolies and reduction of inequalities. With these responsibilities India was left only to topt for mixed
economy model. It ensures Indias commitment of democracy and also to socialism.