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WIND PRESSURE EFFECTS ON HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

ASHWIN NAYANAR
113701164
DISSERTATION 2014
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY

1.2 AIM
To study, analyze and control the windpressure effects on high rise buildings.

1.3 OBJECTIVES

To understand the basic concept of tall


building and its planning.
To have a complete study of wind effects
on tall buildings, their extents and
materials.
To understand their applications and
typology of buildings where these
designs have been used through case
studies.
Understanding
different
types
of
aerodynamic modifications.

1.4 METHODOLOGY

Case studies to understand the


concepts and technologies in detail.
A varieties of different secondary
sources
were
used
to
provide
information regarding the topic.
Study from books, various references,
journals and through online search.

1.5 SCOPE
To show that aerodynamic shaping of a
building has a great importance in the
design of a tall buildings and architects
must be aware of this fact when
designing a tall building. Thus, at the
early stages of the planning of tall
buildings, it must be certainly integrated
with the other design disciplines.

1.7 FOCUS
To get a clear understanding of the how
the wind-pressure affects the high rise
buildings and what are the adverse
effects caused by it on the building,

occupants and also at pedestrian level.


Moreover, to prevent and to take
measures so to avoid problems by
implementing proper design measures
collected by various study and research.

1.6 LIMITATIONS
The only limitation with this study is the
availability of primary case study. There
aren't any tall buildings in India which
has aerodynamic form and techniques
as its primary concept. With the limited
time period in mind, doing a case study
outside India is not possible. Hence I will
be depending on the secondary
sources.

INTRODUCTION:
The tall buildings are designed chiefly to
serve the needs of the occupancy, and,
in addition to the satisfied structural
safety, one of the leading design
requirements is to meet the necessary
standards for the ease of the building
users and the serviceability. In this
context, since wind can create extreme
building motion, the active nature of
wind is a critical issue, negatively
affecting occupancy comfort and
serviceability. Moreover, the human
response to building motion is a very
complex phenomenon concerning both
physiological
and
psychological
features. Furthermore, extreme building
motion can, create noise and crack
partitions,
damage
non-structural
elements such as curtain walls, reason
for glasses to break, reduce fatigue life,
malfunction of the elevators and
equipment, and result in structural
damages or even collapse. Therefore,
the extreme vibration is a greater

anxiety for both users as well as


designers of modern tall buildings, and
extreme acceleration experienced at the
top floors during recurrent windstorms
should be kept within acceptable limits
to minimalize discomfort for the building
occupants and to avoid these kinds of
undesirable events.

LITERATURE REVIEW:

Definition of Tall Building


There is not a convinced description for tall
building, high-rise building and skyscraper in
terms of height, or number of stories. Although
the terms all mean the same group of building
which is built extremely high, there is an implicit
difference
among
them.
Respectively,
skyscraper is a more self-confident term when
compared to tall building and high-rise
building. On the other hand, according to the
authors:
A building named as a tall building
must satisfy all of the following
conditions:
Its height has to exceed significantly its
plan dimensions. In other words, this
condition is directly related to the
slenderness ratio.
It has to be much taller than the local (in
which it is situated), but not necessarily
the global context.
WIND EFFECTS OF BUILDINGS:
Nature of wind
Wind, which is created by temperature
differences, could be labeled as an air motion,
generally applied to the natural horizontal motion
of the atmosphere. The vertical motion, on the
other hand, is called as a current. Air close to
the surface of the earth moves three
dimensionally, in which horizontal motion is
much better than the vertical motion. While the
vertical air motion is significant particularly in
meteorology, the horizontal motion is significant
in engineering. The surface boundary layer
about the horizontal motion of wind extends
upward to a certain height above which the
horizontal airflow is no longer pretentious by the
ground effect. Most of the human activity is
achieved in this boundary layer, and hence how
the wind effects are felt within this zone is of
great anxiety in engineering.

Vortex Shedding
Along wind and across wind are two
important terms, used to clarify the vortexshedding phenomenon. Along wind or simply
wind is the term used to refer to drag forces. The
across wind reaction is a motion, which happens
on a plane perpendicular to the direction of wind.
When a building is subjected to a wind flow, the
initially parallel wind stream lines are displaced
on both transverse sides of the building, and the
forces produced on these sides are called
vortices.

Cladding pressures
The cladding design for lateral loads is a
very significant subject for architects and
engineers.
Even though the wrecked glass resulting from
the exterior cladding failure may be a less
significant consideration than the structural
collapse during an earthquake, the cost of
replacement and risks for pedestrians require
cautious concentration in its design. Wind forces
play a major role in glass breakage, also
affected by solar radiation, mullion and sealant
details, tempering of the glass, double or single
glazing of glass, and exhaustion. Breaking of
large panels of glass in tall buildings can badly
damage the neighboring properties and injure
the pedestrians.

Tall buildings cause accelerated wind at


ground level, which may affect the comfort
and safety of the pedestrians. The general
massing of the building and its orientation
towards the prevailing wind are serious
factors that dictate how much the impact will
be.

Pedestrian wind studies


With the introduction of tall buildings, the
wind environment around them has become a
significant technological and social problem. The
shape of the building or structure may create
inhospitable
or
even
dangerous
wind
environmental conditions for pedestrians at
street level.

with smooth lines and curves so that it, like a


plane, is highly aerodynamic, and that the wind
will just move smoothly over it, without pushing
too much. Some modifications such as,
modifications of cross-sectional shape of the
building, its corner geometry, sculptured building
tops, openings through building are also an
tremendously important and active design tool to
mitigate wind induced motion.

Types of Wind Excited Motion

Along wind motion


Across wind motion
Torsional motion

Methods to Control Wind Excitation of Tall


Buildings
The wind induced dynamic retort of tall buildings
can be controlled by global design modifications.
These are:
-increasing building mass (not feasible or
practical because of the resulting magnification
of the seismic force, and the great additional
cost),
-increasing stiffness by using an effective
structural system, aerodynamic modifications in
architecture,
-accumulation of damping systems including
passive, active, hybrid and semi-active control.
Besides these, if suitably designed, claddings,
which are selected for weather resistance quality
and pleasing appearance, can also deliver a
significant amount of damping.
Aerodynamic modifications in architecture:
The wind induced motion of a tall
building can be measured either by reducing the
wind loads or by reducing the response. A
proper selection of building shape and
architectural modifications can result in the
decrease of motion by altering the flow pattern
around the building. A building can be planned

Addition of damping systems:


In the design of tall buildings, engineers
must accept a level of the natural damping in the
structure to measure the building habitability
during frequent wind storms. The actual
damping in building structures is a difficult
quantity to measure and differs according to the
response levels, type of structural systems,
cladding system and materials used for
construction.
Recognizing this ambiguity associated with
estimating the natural damping in structural
systems, engineers have presented energy
dissipating systems into the design of buildings.
These devices are called dampers in short and
like the dampers used for slowing down the
closing of the doors they dampen the motion of
the building. The addition of damping is then
another approach towards the reduction of the
effects of the wind induced motion on a tall
building.
Damping systems can be mainly classified into
two groups:
1- Soil damping;
2- Auxiliary damping.
Wind resistant structural systems
Outrigger-belt, framed tube, exterior braced and
bundled tube systems are the most effectual
structural systems alongside wind loading.
Basically there are three types of buildings.

i.

Steel Buildings
Most of the tall buildings have steel
structural system due to great strength to weight
ratio ease of assembly and field installation
economy in transport to the site, accessibility of
various strength levels and wider assortment of
sections.
ii. Reinforced concrete buildings

The invention of reinforced concrete


amplified the significance in use of concrete in
the construction industry to a great extend
mobility characteristics and its structural
fireproof properties.
iii. Composite buildings
Composite construction, essentially
described by steel frame stabilized by reinforced
concrete.

Types of structural systems

sq .
w=800 kg /(m)
Where;

u=1.2 kg /(sq . m)

g=9.8 m/ s2

-Rigid frame systems


-Braced frame systems
-Shear walled frame systems
-Outrigger systems
-The frame tube systems

Modification of tall buildings against


wind excitation
-Modifications to Building Shape
-Modifications to Corner Geometry
-Effects of Roundness of Corners
-Effects of Tapering and Changing the
cross Sectional Shape along the Height
-Effects of Twisting or Rotating of
Buildings

-Addition of Openings
-Effects of Fins and Vented fins
-Effects
of
Slotted
corners,
Chamfered corners and Corner
recession

WIND TUNNEL TEST


Wind Tunnel Analysis is conducted so as to
calculate the different velocity and intensity of
wind-pressure effects on a high rise at different
points of the building.
This gives us a better understanding of the flow
of wind patterns around a building.

TUBE_1 (mm)
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.9
3.5
5.0

TUBE_2 (mm)
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.6
3.0
3.9
4.8

Test Section Size : c/s = 600mm x 600 mm


length = 200 mm
Maximum
speed:
45m/s
(But required on 15m/s 17m/s for test project)
Honey comb size : 50mm x 50mm x 450mm
Power : 22KW/30HP AC motor

To calculate the Coefficient of pressure;


( PPr ) w . g . H ( m )
Cp=
=
Pr
0.5 u . vu2
To calculate the Velocity at a particular
point;

PPo= w . g . H ( m )
0.5 v 2= w . g . H ( m )
2

v =2 w . g . H ( m )

w . g . H (m)
2 / u
v=

CASE STUDIES:
5.1 PETRONAS TWIN TOWERS, Kuala Lumpur
5.2 TAIPEI 101, Taipei
5.3 BURJ KHALIFA, Dubai
5.4 IMPERIAL TOWERS, Mumbai
HEIGHT/
CLIMATE/WIND
STORIE
SPEED
S
PETRONAS
TOWER,
KUALA
LUMPUR

451.9m/
88
STORIE
S

TAITEI 101,
TAIPEI

508m/10
1
STORIE
S

BURJ KHALIFA,
DUBAI

828m/16
3
STORIE
S

IMPERIAL
TOWER,
MUMBAI

254m/60
STORIE
S

442.1m/
108
STORIE
S
5.5 WILLIS TOWER, Chicago
WILLIS TOWER,
CHICAGO

TROPICAL
RAINFOREST
CLIMATE

DESERT
CLIMATE

HOT AND
HUMID
COLD AND
HUMID
13kph-20kph
max

STRUCTURAL
SYSTEM/MATERIAL

MATERIALS

OUTRIGGER/
COMPOSITE

CURTAIN
WALLS

OUTRIGGER/
COMPOSITE

CURTAIN
WALLS

CONCRETE WITH
STRUCTURAL
STEEL SPIRE/
STEEL & CONCRETE
CONCRETE SHEAR
WALL AND STEEL
RIGID FRAME/
STEEL AND
CONCRETE.
9 SETS OF
BUNDLED TUBE/
STEEL

CURTAIN
WALLS

MODIFICATIONS
USE OF TMD AND
THE EXTERIOR IS
DESIGNED SUCH A
WAY THAT IT
CONFUSES THE
WIND.
CORNER
SOFTENING AND
THE USE OF TMD
AND HYDRALIC
DEVICES TO
CONTROL ALL WIND
LOADS.
Y SHAPED PLAN,
SO IT HELPS IN
CHANALISING THE
WIND.

CONCRETE,
GLASS

SCULTUPERD
HEAVY TOP, AND
SETBACK
EXTERIOR.

CURTAIN
WALLS

ITS STRUCTURAL
SYSTEM ITSELF
BINDS UP THE
WHOLE BUILDING.

Tall buildings are always very stimulating to design, in terms of safety, occupant luxury, structurally etc.
Any building which is tall will have to take wind as a chief factor as a lateral load.
These wind loads can be controlled by certain methods i.e.
Using aerodynamic shape and form altering of the building according to the site conditions.
Designing the building that is structurally stable to endure these forces etc.

In some cases we might have to include both these factors i.e.


Architectural modifications
Structural modifications
to make the building stable from wind loads and other forces acting on tall structures.
Architectural modifications to corner geometry, such as chamfered corners, slotted corners, rounded
corners, corner cuts, can also significantly reduce wind induced response of buildings. Addition of
openings completely through the building, particularly near the top, is another very useful way of
improving the aerodynamic response of that structure against wind.
The following table shows the type of modifications that can be done for tall buildings according to the
height.
HEIGHT(m)
MODIFICATIONS
ARCHITECTURAL
STRUCTURAL
0 - 200m
FORM HAS IMPORTANCE AT THIS
RIGID FRAMES, SHEAR
HEIGHT ALSO. DEPENDS ON THE
WALLS ETC, USE OF
SITE AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
PASSIVE DAMPING
CAN BE USED.
MODIFICATIONS TO THE BUILDING
FORM CAN BE CHANGED FOR
SAFETY
AND
FOR
NATURAL
VENTILATION.
201 - 400m
AERODYNAMIC
FORM
HAS
BUNTTLED TUBE,
IMPORTANCE
AT
THIS
LEVEL.
MEGA COLUMNS,
BUILDING SHOULD BE DESIGND
OUTRIGGER
SUCH THAT IT SHOULD NOT
USE OF TUNED MASS
CAPTURE THE WIND AND CAUSES
DAMPERS WILL GIVES
DAMAGE TO THE BUILDING.
ADDITIONAL CONTROL
ARCHITECTURAL
MODIFICATIONS
AND SUPPORT FOR
SUCH AS CORNER SOFTNEING,
THE STRUCTURE
SCULPTURED TOP, AND OPENINGS
FROM WIND LOADS.
AT THE TOP ETC SHOULD BE
CONSIDERD WHILE DESIGNING.
401 and above
AERODYNAMIC FORM IS VERY
OUTRIGGER
IMPROTANT
FACTOR
WHILE
STRUCTURES,
DESIGNING. DESIGNING SUCH TALL
BUTTRESSED CORES
STRUCTURES SHOULD BE IN SUCH
DEEP
PLIE
A WAY THAT THE FORM CAN
FOUNDATIONS
CHANALIZE THE WIND.
DAMPIND DEVICES,
ANY BUILDING WHICH IS 400 OR
HYDRAULICS ETC
500m ABOVE THE SEA LEAVEL WILL
EXPERIENCE A CONSTANT WIND
LOADS
ON
THE
BUILDING
EXTERIOR.
A
COMBINATION
OF
BOTH
ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS WILL MAKE THE
BUILDINGS AT THIS HIGH STABLE
FROM WIND FORCES.
DEPENDING ON THE WIND SPEED
AND OTHER NATURAL FORCES THE
MATERIALS ARE ALSO IMORTANT,
FOR CLADDING, INTERIOR ETC.

REFERENCES
(1) 780 Third Avenue Building, http:// www.780third.com, accessed November 15, 2005.
(2) Ali, M., and Armstrong, P., Architecture of Tall Buildings, Council on Tall Buildings
and Urban Habitat Committee, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1995.
(3) Kim, Y., You, K., and Ham, H., Aeroelastic Responses of Tall Building to Wind Loads
Using TLD, CTBUH 2004, p. 510-515, Seoul, Korea, 2004.
(4) Taranath, B., Structural Analysis, and Design of Tall Buildings, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, 1988.
(5) William J. LeMessuriers Super Tall Structures: A Search for the Ideal,
Architectural Record, Vol. 173, p. 144-150, 1985.
(6) Baker, W., The Worlds Tallest Building-Burj Dubai, U.A.E., CTBUH 2004, p. 11681169, Seoul, Korea, 2004.
(7)Ali, M.M. (2005). The skyscraper: epitome of human aspirations. In Proceedings of the 7 th World
Congress of the
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat: Renewing the Urban Landscape
[CD-ROM]. Chicago