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MESIN SINKRON

Disusun Oleh

Muhammad Nurdin

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Round Rotor
Machine
The stator is a ring
shaped laminated
iron-core with slots.
Three phase windings
are placed in the
slots.
Round solid iron rotor
with slots.
A single winding is
placed in the slots. Dc
current is supplied
through slip rings.

Concept (two poles)


A

Stator with
laminated iron-core

Slots with
winding

B
A

Rotor with dc
winding

C
A

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Concept (two poles)
Salient Rotor Machine

The stator has a laminated ironcore with slots and three phase
windings placed in the slots.

B-

C+
N

The rotor has salient


excited by dc current.

DC current is supplied to the


rotor through slip-rings and
brushes.

poles

The number of poles varies


between 2 - 128.

A+

AS

C-

B+

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Housing ,cooling ducts
Stator

Rotor

Shaft

Bearing
Rotor winding
Stator winding
Connections

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Construction
Construction

The picture shows the laminated


iron core and the slots (empty
and with winding).
The winding consists of copper
bars insulated with mica and
epoxy resin.
The conductors are secured by
steel wedges.
In large machines, the stator is
liquid cooled.
The iron core is supported by a
steel housing.

empty slots
insulated
winding

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Stator
Laminated iron core
with slots
Steel Housing

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Iron core

Stator details
Coils are placed in slots

Coil
Slots

Coil end windings are


bent to form the
armature winding.

End winding

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Round rotor
Round rotor

The round rotor is used


for large high speed
(3600rpm) machines.

A forged iron core (not


laminated,DC)
is
installed on the shaft.

Slots are milled in the


iron and insulated
copper bars are placed
in the slots.

The slots are closed by


wedges and re-enforced
with steel rings.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Rotor Details

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Round rotor

Steel ring
Shaft

Wedges
DC current terminals

Jalur Arus pada Rotor Silindris

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Salient pole rotor construction

The poles are bolted to the shaft.


Each pole has a DC winding.
The DC winding is connected to the slip-rings (not shown).
A DC source supplies the winding with DC through brushes
pressed into the slip ring.
A fan is installed on the shaft to assure air circulation and
effective cooling.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Construction

Low speed, large hydrogenerators may have more


than one hundred poles.

These
generators
are
frequently mounted vertically.

The picture shows a large,


horizontally
arranged
machine.

Rotors of Steam Turbine Generators


North American manufacturers normally do not
provide special damper windings
solid steel rotors offer paths for eddy currents,
which have effects equivalent to that of
amortisseur currents
European manufacturers tend to provide for additional
damping effects and negative-sequence current
capability
wedges in the slots of field windings
interconnected to form a damper case, or
separate copper rods provided underneath the
wedges

Konstruksi Rotor Silindris

Rotors of Hydraulic Units


Normally have damper windings or amortisseurs
non-magnetic material (usually copper) rods
embedded in pole face
connected to end rings to form short-circuited
windings
Damper windings may be either continuous or
non-continuous
Space harmonics of the armature mmf contribute
to surface eddy current
therefore, pole faces are usually laminated

Diagram skematik Mesin Sinkron

Rangkaian Stator dan Rotor


Mesin Sinkron

Short Circuit Currents of a Synchronous


Machine
In general, fault current has two distinct
components:
a) a fundamental frequency component which decays initially very rapidly
(a few cycles) and then relatively slowly (several seconds) to a steady
state value
b) a dc component which decays exponentially in several cycles
This is similar to the short circuit current in the case of the simple RL
circuit. However, the amplitude of the ac component is not constant
internal voltage, which is a function of rotor flux linkages, is not constant
the initial rapid decay is due to the decay of flux linking the subtransient
circuits (high resistance)
the slowly decaying part of the ac component is due to the transient
circuit (low resistance)
The dc components have different magnitudes in the three phases

Rangkaian Ekivalen -i Sumbu-d

Rangkaian Ekivalen Lengkap

Rangkaian Ekivalen Disederhanakan

Karakteristik Kejenuhan Inti

Karakteristik Rangkaian Terbuka


Efek Saturasi

Rangkaian Ekivalen dg. Kejenuhan Inti

Kurva Arus Jangkar Arus Medan Untuk


Beberapa Nilai P dan cos

Parameter Standar Mesin Sinkron

Nilai-nilai Tipikal Parameter Standar

Model Mesin Sinkron Yang Disederhanakan


Dengan Pengabaian p Stator

Model Mesin Sinkron Yang Disederhanakan


Dengan Pengabaian Amortisseur

Model Mesin Sinkron Yang Disederhanakan


Lingkup Fluksi Konstan
Rangkaian ekivalen sumbu-d dan sumbu-q
dengan masing-masing satu kumparan rotor:

Model Mesin Sinkron Yang Disederhanakan


Lingkup Fluksi Konstan Dengan Mengikut
sertakan Efek Amortisseur
Rangkaian ekivalen sumbu-d dan sumbu-q
dengan rangkaian subtransien

Resume Model-model yang


Disederhanakan