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MidTermStudyGuideandSummary

EnlightenmentandRevolution

1. Enlightenmentwasaperiodwhenmanyphilosophersbegantoviewtheworldthroughtheparadigm
of
reason.
2. Theyoftenbasedtheirviewoftheworldonthe
naturalrights
oflife,libertyandpropertyproposed
by
JohnLocke
whostressedtherightsoftheindividual.
3. Ideasabout
separationofpowers
givenby
Montesquieu
laterresultedinasystemofchecksand
balancesintheUSConstitution.
4. Rousseau
proposedthegovernmentwasa
SocialContract
betweenthepeopleandgovernment.
5. Thesephilosopherswereoftenfaced
censorship
becausetheycriticizedKingsandQueens.
6. TheidealsofEnlightenmentwouldsparkrevolution.TheAmericancoloniesrebelledagainstthe
Britishbecauseof
excessivetaxation
.TheAmericanswouldthrowoffBritishrule.The
DeclarationofIndependence
becomesamodelforotherrevolutions.The
Constitutionwithits
BillofRights
focusingonindividualfreedoms,alsobecomesamodelfortheworld.
7. TheideasoftheEnlightenmentreflectedtheideasoflimitedpoweroftheKing.Thisbeganwiththe
MagnaCarta
inBritainwhichlimitedthepowerofKingJohn.EventuallytheprocessofMonarchy
todemocracy(governmentbythepeople)wascomplete.
8. FrancehadbeenruledbyaMonarchyandpowerwasheldbyasmallgroupofelitethe
FirstEstate
theClergyandthe
SecondEstate
theNobles,whiletheThe
ThirdEstate
themadeupof98%of
thepopulationheldlittlepoliticalpower.
9. TheThirdEstatefinallyrevoltedformingthe
NationalAssembly
whichformeditsowngovernment.
Theypresentedthe
TennisCourtOath
wheretheydemandedajustconstitution.Theyissued
the
DeclarationofRightsofManandCitizen
,modeledattheAmericanDeclarationofIndependence,
whichstatedtherightsoftheFrenchandbecamethebasisfortheconstitution.Thefirstviolenceof
therevolutionoccurredwiththe
stormingoftheBastille
wantingweaponstodefendthemselves
vstheKingstroops.
10. TheKingwaseventuallyoverthrownandmanygroupsstruggledforpower.
Robespierre
believed
theonlywaythattherevolutionwouldsucceedwasthroughtheuseofterror.Asheadofthe
CommitteeofPublicSafety,
theyexecutedthereignofterror.
11. Eventuallytherevolutionfailedandwarhero
Napoleon
becameemperor.Hewouldbring
greatnesstoFrancewithhisGrandArmy.HeconqueredalmostallofEuropebeforetheRussian
Winterstoppedhisconquest.Forthelandsheconqueredhemadethe
NapoleonicCode
thelaw
oftheland.Itdeclaredthatallmenwereequal.Hewasexiled,butreturnedforonelastrunwhich
endedinhisfinaldefeatat
Waterloo
.
12. ToussantLOverture
leadaslaverevoltagainsttheFrenchinHaiti.

IndustrialRevolution
1. TheIndustrialRevolutionwasatimeofgreatchange.Itbeganin
Britain
.Britain,America,and
otherwesternnationswentfrombeinga
rural
nationstoan
urban
nations.Factoriesemergedand
productsweremadebymachines.
2. Steam
becamethepowersourcefortheRevolution.
JamesWatt
improvedthesteamengine
makeritmoreusable.Steampowerleadtotheriseofthe
railroad
whichbecamethemoresource
oftransportationduringtherevolution.
3. TheRevolutionstartedinthe
textile
industry.EliWhitneys
cottongin
whichseparatedseedsfrom
thecottonmadecottoneasiertouse.
4. The
Bessemerprocess
wasamethodofproducingsteelinmassquantitiesandcheaper.

5.

6.

7.
8.

AdamSmith
becamethefatherofcapitalism.Hebelievedthat
laissezfaire
governmentpolicies
towardbusinessallowingan
unrestrictedfreemarket
wouldleadtostrongereconomies.Hesaid
that
supplyanddemand
shoulddeterminewhatproductsshouldbemade.
InreactiontotheIndustrialRevolution,
KarlMarx
developedMarxism.Hesaidtheproblemwith
Capitalismwasthattherichcapitalistgotrich,whiletheworkersremainedpoor.Manyofthese
poorworkerslivedinpoorlivingconditionsinurban
tenements
.
Factorylawscameabouttotrytoaddresstheproblemof
childlabor
.
AsaresultoftheIndustrialRevolutioningeneralthe
standardofliving
ofpeopleimproved.

ImperialismandNationalism
1.
Imperialism
iswhenastrongercountrycontrolsaweakercountrypolitically,economically,and
socially.Thiswasoftenjustifiedby
SocialDarwinism
aswesternersthoughttheyhadadutyto
bringtheircivilizationtoinferiorraces.
2.
Manyofthesewesternnationshadbecomewealthyfromthebenefitsofslavelabor.
William
Wilberforce
inBritainworkedmostofhislifetoendtheslavetrade.Heoncefamouslysaid,you
maychoosetolooktheotherwaybutyoucanneversayagainthatyoudidnotknow.
3.
The
British Empirewasthelargest(the sun neverseton the BritishEmpire)andmostpowerfulof
the era.
Indiawasthejewelof the crown. The
Suez Canalwas key to supplying andcontrolling
India. The
Sepoy Rebellion by Indian Mercenaries for religious reasons over meat greased
cartridgeswascrushed.

WorldWarIandRiseofDictators
1. WWI will start in Europe as a result of
Imperialism,Nationalism, andAlliances
. Thesealliances
resulted in the
Allies (Russia, Britain, and France) and the
Central Powers (Germany, Austria
Hungary,andOttomanEmpire)
2. The western front of WWI became a stalemate due to
trench warfare which made it difficultfor
eithersidetowinanadvantage.
3. Inan attemptto keeptheUSoutofthewar, Germanytried toconvince Mexico to start awarwith
theUSbysendingthe
ZimmermanTelegram
whichtheUSintercepted.
4. During WWI the Russian Revolution occurred when
Vladimir Lenin led the
Bolsheviks to
overthrow the Czar of Russia. Theyformed the
Soviet Union asa
Communist Government and
pulledRussiaoutofthewar.
5. The UnitedStateswilleventually jointhewarbecauseoftheZimmermanTelegram, theSinkingof
the
Lusitania
,andtheUSWarLoanstotheAllies.
6. The
Treaty of Versaille ended the war but became a cause of WWII as the Allies punished
Germany by forcing them to pay
war reparations
,kept them from having amilitary, and blaming
themforthewar.
7. Benito Mussolini and his blackshirts took control of Italy. They formed a one party fascist
governmentwithMussoliniasdictator.