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1. Define Retrace time and Fly-back time?

Retrace time is defined as the time for which the horizontal deflection plates sweep the electron beam form left to
right of the screen. Flyback time is the time for which the electron gun is blanked (turned off)
2. Differentiate Dual beam and Dual trace oscilloscope?

3. Compare Moving Coil and Moving Iron Instruments?

Moving Coil
Uniform scale
Can be used only for DC measurement
Cost is High
Free from hysteresis error

Moving Iron
Non uniform scale
Can be used for both AC and DC
Cost is less
Series error occur due to hysteresis

4. A set of independent current measurements were recorded as 10.03A, 10.10A, 10.11A and 10.08A. Calculate the
range of error?
For sample problem refer Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques by William D
Cooper, Page No. 4.

5. Define Accuracy and Precision?

The degree of closeness with which the instrument reading approaches the true value of quantity to be
measured. It indicates the ability of an instrument to indicate the true value of quantity. It is the measure
of consistency or repeatability of measurements. It denotes the amount by which the individual reading
are departed about the average of number.
6. What are Lissajous pattern?

The various patterns obtained on CRO by applying simultaneous two different sine waves to horizontal
and vertical deflection plates are called lissajous figures.
The shapes depends on,
Amplitude of two waves.
Phase difference between two waves.
Ratio of frequencies of two waves.
7. What is meant by Aluminizing a CRT and explain its advantages?

Aluminizing a CRT is depositing a thin layer of aluminium on the non viewed side of the phosphor
screen. It has 3 major functions its original function was to build up of changes on the phosphor which
tends to slow down the electron and limit brightness. Also aluminizing layer, the light emitted back in to
the tube is reflected again towards the viewer and thus increases the brightness. The aluminium layer
acts as a heat sink for the phosphor and thus materially reduces the danger of phosphor burning.
8. List out the various dynamic characteristics of a measurement system?

Step change
Linear change
Sinusoidal change
Speed of response
Dynamic error

9. A set of independent voltage measurements taken by four observers was recorded as 117.02V, 117.11V, 117.08V
and 117.03V. Calculate the average voltage and range of error?
For sample problem refer Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques by William D
Cooper, Page No. 4.

10. Prepare a comparison table between analog and digital storage oscilloscope?
Refer text / notes

11. Define measurement?

The measurement of a given parameter or quantity is the act or result of quantitative comparison
between a predefined standard and an unknown quantity.

12. What are the basic elements of measurements?

Primary sensing element

Data conditioning element
Data transmission element
Presentation element.

13. Why the PMMC instrument is not used for A.C measurement?

When the PMMC instruments are connected to a.c, the torque reverse as the current reveres and the
pointer cannot follow the rapid reversals. Hence the deflection corresponding to mean torque is zero thus
making the PMMC instrument not suitable for A.C. measurements.
14. What are the main parts of CRT?
Refer text / notes
15. Define fluorescence effect?
Refer text / notes


1. Explain in detail the different functional elements of generalized instrumentation system?
2. Explain in detail about various errors in measurement system with statistical analysis?
3. Explain the working of electronic multimeter in detail?
4. How do you measure unknown inductance using Hays bridge?
5. Enumerate the main static characteristics of measuring instruments and explain?
6. A circuit was tuned for resonance by eight different students and values of resonant frequency was
recorded as 532, 548, 548, 535, 546, 531, 532, 536. Calculate the arithmetic mean, average deviation
and variance?
7. Draw the block diagram of general purpose oscilloscope and explain?
8. Draw the circuit diagram of Maxwells inductance bridge and explain the measurement
procedure for measuring unknown inductance using this bridge?