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# MM2030- METALLURGICAL THERMODYNAMICS ASSIGNMENT, 2014

## DETERMINING CALORIFIC VALUE OF FOOD

AKSHAY VARMA
MM13B006
1 NOVEMBER 2014

ABSTRACT
Diet control is a part of our day to day life.
Health conscious people keep a count of the
number of calories they eat each day. Ever wondered how the calories written on label are determined? In this paper you will find out how the
calories of our food items are calculated.
1 INTRODUCTION
Calorific value is defined as The amount of heat
produced by the complete combustion of a material or fuel.
A simpler definition is as follows
The amount of energy available from an item of
food when digested, mostly from carbohydrates
and fats.1
A method to calculate the calorific value food is
by using a bomb calorimeter.
2 CALORIFIC VALUES2
2.1

2.2

## Lower calorific value(LCV)

It is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapor from the higher heating value. This treats any H2O formed as a vapor.
The energy required to vaporize the water therefore is not released as heat.

## 2.3 Gross calorific value(GCV)

It accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as
vapor, and includes liquid water in the fuel prior
to combustion. This value is important for fuels
like wood or coal, which will usually contain
some amount of water prior to burning. It is almost equal to the HCV.

3 BOMB CALOROMETER3
3.1

Definition

## A bomb calorimeter is an constant volume calorimeterused to measure the heat created by a

sample burned under an oxygen atmosphere in a
bomb(closed vessel), surrounded by water, under
3.2

Principle

## It works on the principle of calorimetry.A known

unit mass of food is burnt and quantity of hear
produces is absorbed in water and measures. then
the heat produces by burning a unit mass of food
is calculated.

3.3

Construction4

## connected to a battery. As soon as the current is

switched on, the food in the crucible burns with
the evolution of heat. This increases the temperature of water and the maximum temperature attained is recorded.
3.5

## Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of A Bomb Calorimeter.

(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/72493/bomb-calorimeter)

Bomb calorimeter consists of a cylindrical stainless steel vessel called bomb which is capable of
withstanding high pressure and is covered by a
lid. The lid contains two stainless steel electrodes
and an oxygen inlet valve. The bomb is placed in
a copper calorimeter containing a known
mass of water. The copper calorimeter is provided with electrically operated stirrer and Beckmanns thermometer (it is
sensitive enough with a least count of 0.01K).
This calorimeter in turn is surrounded by an airjacket and then water jacket to prevent
A Beckmann thermometer can also be used. It is
a device used to measure small differences of
temperature, but not absolute temperature values.
3.4

Working

## A known amount of food sample is placed in the

crucible. The crucible is placed over a ring and a
Magnesium wire touching the food sample is
stretched across the electrodes. The bomb is
filled with oxygen upto 25atm pressure. The initial temp. is recorded. The electrodes are then

Assumptions

## No heat is lost to the environment - that

is, energy exchange only happens between the object of interest and water. No
heat is lost to the surroundings.

## The heat measured is then attributed to a

complete reaction. Hence, it is always assumed that the reaction is 100% complete.

## It is assumed that in whatever chemical

reaction is being studied, no side reaction
is occuring, and that no impurity is present in the system.

Temperature
uniform.

3.6

Calculations

## Mass of sample taken

Mass of water taken
into calorimeter
Water equivalent of
calorimeter
Initial temp. of water
in calorimeter
Final temp. of water
in calorimeter
Calorific Value
Heat liberated by
burning of fuel
Heat gained by water,
calorimeter

2

FACTORS6

4.1

(1)
By Formulae
(2)

3.7

## Other Uses Of Bomb Calorimeter5

1. Thermodynamic Studies
Bomb calorimetry at its most basic form
is the scientific study of thermodynamic
processes. A bomb calorimeter is used to
measures the heat of combustion of fuel,
hydrocarbons or any process in which
heat generation or burning is an important
factor.
2. Waste and Refuse Disposal
Several industries use hazardous waste as
an alternative fuel. Bomb calorimetry is
used to determine whether hazardous
waste fuel is safe and appropriate for
use.
3. Propellant and Explosive Testing
Propellants and explosives are tested using a bomb calorimeter to find theirheat
of detonation.

## The Atwater general factor system

The Atwater general factor system was developed by W.O. Atwater .The system is based on
the heats of combustion of protein, fat and carbohydrate, which are corrected for losses in digestion, absorption and urinary excretion of urea.
The energy values are 17 kJ/g (4.0 kcal/g) for
protein, 37 kJ/g (9.0 kcal/g) for fat and 17 kJ/g
(4.0 kcal/g) for carbohydrates.
4.2

## A more extensive factor system has been made

by modifying and refining the Atwater general
factor system. In 1970, Southgate and Durnin
(1970) added a factor for available carbohydrate
expressed as monosaccharide (16 kJ/g [3.75
kcal/g]).
4.3

## The Atwater specific factor system, a refinement

based on re-examination of the Atwater system,
was introduced in 1955 by Merrill and Watt.
There are ranges in the heats of combustion and
in the coefficients of digestibility of different
proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Based on these considerations, a system was created with substantial variability in the energy factors applied to various foods. Energy conversion
factors in the Atwater specific factor system
vary, for example, from 10.2 kJ/g (2.44 kcal/g)
for some vegetable proteins to 18.2 kJ/g (4.36
kcal/g) for eggs. Factors for fat vary from 35 kJ/g
(8.37 kcal/g) to 37.7 kJ/g (9.02 kcal/g), and those
for total carbohydrate from 11.3 kJ/g (2.70
kcal/g) in lemon and lime juices to 17.4 kJ/g
(4.16 kcal/g) in polished rice. These ranges for
protein, fat and carbohydrate are, respectively,
44, 7 and 35 percent.
3

## MM2030- METALLURGICAL THERMODYNAMICS ASSIGNMENT, 2014

Protein
kcal/g (kJ/g)

Fat
kcal/g (kJ/g)

Total cabohydrate
kcal/g(kJ/g)

Eggs

4.36 (18.2)

9.02 (37.7)

3.68 (15.4)

Meat/fish

4.27 (17.9)

9.02 (37.7)

Milk/milk products

4.27 (17.9)

8.79 (36.8)

3.87 (16.2)

Butter

4.27 (17.9)

8.79 (36.8)

3.87 (16.2)

Margarine, vegetable
Other vegetable
fats and oils
All, except lemons, limes
Fruit juice, except
#
lemon, lime
Lemon, limes

4.27 (17.9)

8.84 (37.0)

3.87 (16.2)

--

8.84 (37.0)

--

3.36 (14.1)

8.37 (35.0)

3.60 (15.1)

3.36 (14.1)

8.37 (35.0)

3.92 (15.1)

3.36 (14.1)

8.37 (35.0)

2.48 (10.4)

## Lemon juice, lime

#
juice
Barley, pearled

3.36 (14.1)

8.37 (35.0)

2.70 (11.3)

3.55 (14.9)

8.37 (35.0)

3.95 (16.5)

Cornmeal, whole
ground
Macaroni, spaghetti
Oatmeal - rolled
oats
Rice, brown

2.73 (11.4)

8.37 (35.0)

4.03 (16.9)

3.91 (16.4)

8.37 (35.0)

4.12 (17.2)

3.46 (14.5)

8.37 (35.0)

4.12 (17.2)

3.41 (14.3)

8.37 (35.0)

4.12 (17.2)

## Rice, white or polished

Rye flour - whole
grain
Rye flour - light

3.82 (16.0)

8.37 (35.0)

4.16 (17.4)

3.05 (12.8)

8.37 (35.0)

3.86 (16.2)

3.41 (14.3)

8.37 (35.0)

4.07 (17.0)

Sorghum wholemeal
Wheat - 97-100%
extraction
Wheat t - 70-74%
extraction
Other cereals refined
Mature dry beans,
peas, nuts
Soybeans

0.91 (3.8)

8.37 (35.0)

4.03 (16.9)

3.59 (14.0)

8.37 (35.0)

3.78 (15.8)

4.05 (17.0)

8.37 (35.0)

4.12 (17.2)

3.87 (16.2)

8.37 (35.0)

4.12 (17.2)

3.47 (14.5)

8.37 (35.0)

4.07 (17.0)

3.47 (14.5)

8.37 (35.0)

4.07 (17.0)

Potatoes, starchy
roots
Other underground crops
Other vegetables

2.78 (11.6)

8.37 (35.0)

4.03 (16.9)

2.78 (11.6)

8.37 (35.0)

3.84 (16.1)

2.44 (10.2)

8.37 (35.0)

3.57 (14.9)

## Table 1: Atwater specific factors for selected foods

(http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5022e/y5022e04.htm)

References:
1

## Wiktionary. Calorific Value. [Online]. Available from:

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/calorific_value [Accessed October 28th, 2014 ]

## Wikipedia. Heat of combustion. [Online]. Available from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion [Accessed October 28th, 2014 ]

Dr. B.S. Chauhan (2009). Engineering Chemistry (3rd Ed) (pp. 507-508). University science press.

## Scribd. Calorific value and Bombs calorimeter. [Online]. Available from:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/41276569/Calorific-value-and-Bomb-s-calorimeter [Accessed October
27th, 2014 ]

## Ashley Black. Uses of a bomb calorimeter. [Online]. Available from:

http://www.ehow.com/info_8062648_uses-bomb-calorimeter.html [Accessed October 28th, 2014 ]

FAO Corporate Document Repository. Calculation Of The Energy Content Of Foods. [Online].
Available from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5022e/y5022e04.htm [Accessed October 29th, 2014 ]