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1.

0 Review of Functions

Discussion

1.1

Circles and Parabolas

Remark 1 Suppose r > 0 and a 6= 0.


1. The graph of (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 is the circle with center (h, k) with radius r.
2. The graph of y k = a(x h)2 is a vertical parabola with vertex (h, k) and opening upward
if a > 0 and downward if a < 0.
3. The graph of x h = a(y k)2 is a horizontal parabola with vertex (h, k) and opening to
the right if a > 0 and to the left if a < 0.
(See Example 11 and Exercise 13 for applications.)

1.2

Absolute Value

Definition 2 The

x,
|x| = 0,

x,

1.3

absolute value function is defined by


x<0
x=0
x>0

or

(
x,
|x| =
x

x<0
,x 0

(
x,
|x| =
x,

or

x0
x>0

Table of Signs

Remark 3 Let a R.
1. The expression x a is negative when x < a, zero when x = a, and positive when x > a.
2. The expression a x is positive when x < a, zero when x = a, and negative when x > a.
Illustration 4 Since x2 + 2 is always positive, the table of signs of
3(x ( 13 ))
3x + 1
=
(2 x)3 (x2 + 2)
(2 x)3 (x2 + 2)
is
( 13 )

x
2x
x2 + 2

3(x(1))
(2x)3 (x2 +2)

(, 13 )

+
+

31
0
+
+
0

( 13 , 2)
+
+
+
+

2
+
0
+
dne

(2, +)
+

In the table, dne means does not exist.

Theorem 5 If a 6= 0, then ax + bx + c = a x

b +

b2 4ac
2a

!
x

b2 4ac
2a

!
.

Illustration 6 Theorem 5 is used in factoring general quadratic expressions. For example,


!
!
!
!
4 + 40
4 40
2 + 10
2 10
2
3x 4x 2 = 3 x
x
=3 x
x
.
6
6
3
3
Thus, the table of signs of 3x2 4x 2 is



3 x

10
x 2+
3
2 10
x 
3

2+ 10
3


2 10
3

, 23 10

2 10
3

2 10 2+ 10
,
3
3

2+ 10
3

2+ 10
,
+
3

0
+

+
+

+
4

1.4

Greatest Integer Function

Definition 7 The greatest integer function (GIF) or floor function is defined by

..

1 , 1 x < 0
[[x]] = 0
,0 x < 1

1
,1 x < 2

..

.
or, more compactly, by
[[x]] = n

n x < n + 1,

if

(1.1)

where n Z. The expression [[x]] is also written as bxc.


Illustration 8 Let us write [[2x 3]] as a piecewise function. From (1.1), when n Z,
[[2x 3]] = n

n 2x 3 < n + 1

if

n + 3 2x < n + 4
n+4
n+3
x<
if
2
2
(Note that the inequalities did not change in the last step since the multiplier
an example of (1.2), n = 1 gives us
1+3
1+4
x<
[[2x 3]] = 1
if
2
2
5
if 2 x <
2
Similar computations give the branches of the piecewise function:

..

1 , 1 x < 2
[[2x 3]] = 0
, 32 x < 2

1
, 2 x < 52

..

.
if

We have the following:


2

(1.2)
1
2

is positive.) As

[[2x 3]] = 1= f (a) 1 immediately to the left of a = 23 (= 1.5)


[[2x 3]] = 0= f (a) immediately to the right of a = 32
[[2x 3]] = 0= f (a) 1 i.l. of a =2
[[2x 3]] = 1= f (a) i.r. of a =2
[[2x 3]] = 1= [[f (a)]] immediately to the left and right of a = 54 (= 1.25)
[[2x 3]] = 0= [[f (a)]] i.l.r. of a =1.8
[[2x 3]] = 1= [[f (a)]] i.l.r. of a =2.0001
4
Remark 9 Let f be a polynomial or rational function such that f (a) is defined.
If
f (a)
/Z
f (a) Z

and
f (x) < f (a)
f (x) > f (a)
f (x) > f (a)
f (x) < f (a)

i.l. of a
i.r. of a
i.l. of a
i.r. of a

then i.l. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[f (a)]]
[[f (x)]] = f (a) 1

then i.r. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[f (a)]]
[[f (x)]] = f (a)

[[f (x)]] = f (a)


[[f (x)]] = f (a) 1

By the last two columns, [[f (x)]] is either


[[f (a)]],

f (a) 1

or

f (a)

i.l. or i.r. of a. Since these three are constants, [[f (x)]] is just a constant i.l. or i.r. of a!
Important! We will use Remark 9 in computing limits of expressions involving the GIF.
Illustration 10 Let
f (x) = 2x3,
a
5
4

g(x) = 32x,

Since
/Z
f ( 45 ) = 21
f (2) = 1 Z

g( 54 ) = 12
/Z
g(2) = 1 Z

5
4

h( 54 )

5
4

2
0

h(x) = 2x2 x3 = (2x3)(x+1)

and
f (x) < 1 i.l. of 2
f (x) > 1 i.r. of 2
g(x) > 1 i.l. of 2
g(x) < 1 i.r. of 2

98

/Z
h(2) = 3 Z
k(0) = 1 Z

then i.l. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 1*
[[f (x)]] = 1 1 = 0*
[[g(x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 0
[[g(x)]] = 1
[[ 98 ]]

h(x) < 3
h(x) > 3
k(x) > 1
k(x) > 1

i.l. of 2
i.r. of 2
i.l. of 0
i.r. of 0

[[h(x)]] =
= 2
[[h(x)]] = 3 1 = 2

and

k(x) = x2 2x+1 = (x1)2 .

then i.r. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[ 21 ]] = 1*
[[f (x)]] = 1*
[[g(x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 0
[[g(x)]] = 1 1 = 2
[[h(x)]] = [[ 98 ]] = 2
[[h(x)]] = 3

[[k(x)]] = 1
[[k(x)]] = 1
4

*compare with Illustration 8 above

Examples

4x x2 and g(x) = 1 4x x2 .

Solution. Sketch
of
solution.
Note
that,
whenever
defined,
4x x2 is always nonnegative and

2
hence 1 4x x is always at most 1. Hence, the graph of g is the same as that of
p
y = 1 4x x2
p
y 1 = 4x x2
Example 11 Sketch the graphs of f (x) = 1 +

(y 1)2 = 4x x2 ,
2

y 1

(x 4x + 4) + (y 1) = 4,

y 1 (completing the square)

(y 1)2 + (x 2)2 = 22 ,

y 1

(2.1)

Thus, by (1) of Remark 1 and the restriction y 1, the graph of g is the lower semicircle with
center (2, 1) and radius 2. From (2.1), the x-intercepts of the graph of g are given by
(0 1)2 + (x 2)2 = 22
(x 2)2 = 3
x=2

3
4

while the y-intercept is g(0) = 1.


Example 12 Write

|3 5x|
as a piecewise function.
|x| 1

Solution. From Definition 2,


(
x,
|x| =
x,

x0
x>0

and
(
(3 5x), 3 5x < 0
|3 5x| =
3 5x,
3 5x 0
(
5x 3, x > 35
=
3 5x, x 35
(
3 5x, x 35
=
5x 3, x > 35
Therefore,

35x ,
|3 5x| x1
= 35x
x1 ,

|x| 1
5x3
x1 ,

x < 0, x 6= 1
0 x 35
3
5 < x, x 6= 1
4

Exercises

q
Exercise 13 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 2 21 x.
Exercise 14 Write

|2x + 1| |2x 1|
as a piecewise function.
x

Exercise 15 (From past exam) Let


f (x) =

x3
,
4 x2

f 0 (x) =

x2 (x2 12)
(4 x2 )2

and

f 00 (x) =

8x(x2 + 12)
.
(4 x2 )3

The functions f 0 and f 00 are called the first and second derivatives of f , respectively. You will
learn how to compute derivatives in Unit II. In Unit III, you will learn how to sketch the graph
of a function using its first and second derivatives, particularly their table of signs. So for the
meantime, construct the table of signs of f 0 and f 00 separately. Then, construct a table of signs
of f 0 and f 00 simultaneously.
Prepared by Jade T. Ventura
Instructor, Institute of Mathematics, UP Diliman
In the beginning was the Word (Jesus),
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.
To all who did receive him,
to those who believed in his name,
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The Word became flesh
and made his dwelling among us.
John 1:1,12,14a