Math 53
Functions
Piecewise

© All Rights Reserved

3 views

Math 53
Functions
Piecewise

© All Rights Reserved

- Untitled
- height of a zero gravity parabolic flight answers
- 15 quadratic functions tue
- Maths 4U 1968 HSC.pdf
- 1010 zero gravity chris thurman
- 0-g project
- 13 parametric vs explicit rules
- BHHS_E1_TRIAL_2008
- Quadratic Functions and Modelling
- Function 3 Edited
- Conic Sections Equations
- Fuzzy Logic Examples using Matlab.pdf
- 1010 zero gravity updated fall 2015 1 -1-1 2
- Ujian Chapter 1 Add Math
- ilovezach
- 661
- 1010 zero gravity updated fall 2015
- 1010 zero gravity updated fall 2015 2 due 217
- ex-ch-4-5
- alg 2019-20 1

You are on page 1of 5

0 Review of Functions

Discussion

1.1

1. The graph of (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 is the circle with center (h, k) with radius r.

2. The graph of y k = a(x h)2 is a vertical parabola with vertex (h, k) and opening upward

if a > 0 and downward if a < 0.

3. The graph of x h = a(y k)2 is a horizontal parabola with vertex (h, k) and opening to

the right if a > 0 and to the left if a < 0.

(See Example 11 and Exercise 13 for applications.)

1.2

Absolute Value

Definition 2 The

x,

|x| = 0,

x,

1.3

x<0

x=0

x>0

or

(

x,

|x| =

x

x<0

,x 0

(

x,

|x| =

x,

or

x0

x>0

Table of Signs

Remark 3 Let a R.

1. The expression x a is negative when x < a, zero when x = a, and positive when x > a.

2. The expression a x is positive when x < a, zero when x = a, and negative when x > a.

Illustration 4 Since x2 + 2 is always positive, the table of signs of

3(x ( 13 ))

3x + 1

=

(2 x)3 (x2 + 2)

(2 x)3 (x2 + 2)

is

( 13 )

x

2x

x2 + 2

3(x(1))

(2x)3 (x2 +2)

(, 13 )

+

+

31

0

+

+

0

( 13 , 2)

+

+

+

+

2

+

0

+

dne

(2, +)

+

Theorem 5 If a 6= 0, then ax + bx + c = a x

b +

b2 4ac

2a

!

x

b2 4ac

2a

!

.

!

!

!

!

4 + 40

4 40

2 + 10

2 10

2

3x 4x 2 = 3 x

x

=3 x

x

.

6

6

3

3

Thus, the table of signs of 3x2 4x 2 is

3 x

10

x 2+

3

2 10

x

3

2+ 10

3

2 10

3

, 23 10

2 10

3

2 10 2+ 10

,

3

3

2+ 10

3

2+ 10

,

+

3

0

+

+

+

+

4

1.4

..

1 , 1 x < 0

[[x]] = 0

,0 x < 1

1

,1 x < 2

..

.

or, more compactly, by

[[x]] = n

n x < n + 1,

if

(1.1)

Illustration 8 Let us write [[2x 3]] as a piecewise function. From (1.1), when n Z,

[[2x 3]] = n

n 2x 3 < n + 1

if

n + 3 2x < n + 4

n+4

n+3

x<

if

2

2

(Note that the inequalities did not change in the last step since the multiplier

an example of (1.2), n = 1 gives us

1+3

1+4

x<

[[2x 3]] = 1

if

2

2

5

if 2 x <

2

Similar computations give the branches of the piecewise function:

..

1 , 1 x < 2

[[2x 3]] = 0

, 32 x < 2

1

, 2 x < 52

..

.

if

2

(1.2)

1

2

is positive.) As

[[2x 3]] = 0= f (a) immediately to the right of a = 32

[[2x 3]] = 0= f (a) 1 i.l. of a =2

[[2x 3]] = 1= f (a) i.r. of a =2

[[2x 3]] = 1= [[f (a)]] immediately to the left and right of a = 54 (= 1.25)

[[2x 3]] = 0= [[f (a)]] i.l.r. of a =1.8

[[2x 3]] = 1= [[f (a)]] i.l.r. of a =2.0001

4

Remark 9 Let f be a polynomial or rational function such that f (a) is defined.

If

f (a)

/Z

f (a) Z

and

f (x) < f (a)

f (x) > f (a)

f (x) > f (a)

f (x) < f (a)

i.l. of a

i.r. of a

i.l. of a

i.r. of a

then i.l. of a

[[f (x)]] = [[f (a)]]

[[f (x)]] = f (a) 1

then i.r. of a

[[f (x)]] = [[f (a)]]

[[f (x)]] = f (a)

[[f (x)]] = f (a) 1

[[f (a)]],

f (a) 1

or

f (a)

i.l. or i.r. of a. Since these three are constants, [[f (x)]] is just a constant i.l. or i.r. of a!

Important! We will use Remark 9 in computing limits of expressions involving the GIF.

Illustration 10 Let

f (x) = 2x3,

a

5

4

g(x) = 32x,

Since

/Z

f ( 45 ) = 21

f (2) = 1 Z

g( 54 ) = 12

/Z

g(2) = 1 Z

5

4

h( 54 )

5

4

2

0

and

f (x) < 1 i.l. of 2

f (x) > 1 i.r. of 2

g(x) > 1 i.l. of 2

g(x) < 1 i.r. of 2

98

/Z

h(2) = 3 Z

k(0) = 1 Z

then i.l. of a

[[f (x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 1*

[[f (x)]] = 1 1 = 0*

[[g(x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 0

[[g(x)]] = 1

[[ 98 ]]

h(x) < 3

h(x) > 3

k(x) > 1

k(x) > 1

i.l. of 2

i.r. of 2

i.l. of 0

i.r. of 0

[[h(x)]] =

= 2

[[h(x)]] = 3 1 = 2

and

then i.r. of a

[[f (x)]] = [[ 21 ]] = 1*

[[f (x)]] = 1*

[[g(x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 0

[[g(x)]] = 1 1 = 2

[[h(x)]] = [[ 98 ]] = 2

[[h(x)]] = 3

[[k(x)]] = 1

[[k(x)]] = 1

4

Examples

4x x2 and g(x) = 1 4x x2 .

Solution. Sketch

of

solution.

Note

that,

whenever

defined,

4x x2 is always nonnegative and

2

hence 1 4x x is always at most 1. Hence, the graph of g is the same as that of

p

y = 1 4x x2

p

y 1 = 4x x2

Example 11 Sketch the graphs of f (x) = 1 +

(y 1)2 = 4x x2 ,

2

y 1

(x 4x + 4) + (y 1) = 4,

(y 1)2 + (x 2)2 = 22 ,

y 1

(2.1)

Thus, by (1) of Remark 1 and the restriction y 1, the graph of g is the lower semicircle with

center (2, 1) and radius 2. From (2.1), the x-intercepts of the graph of g are given by

(0 1)2 + (x 2)2 = 22

(x 2)2 = 3

x=2

3

4

Example 12 Write

|3 5x|

as a piecewise function.

|x| 1

(

x,

|x| =

x,

x0

x>0

and

(

(3 5x), 3 5x < 0

|3 5x| =

3 5x,

3 5x 0

(

5x 3, x > 35

=

3 5x, x 35

(

3 5x, x 35

=

5x 3, x > 35

Therefore,

35x ,

|3 5x| x1

= 35x

x1 ,

|x| 1

5x3

x1 ,

x < 0, x 6= 1

0 x 35

3

5 < x, x 6= 1

4

Exercises

q

Exercise 13 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 2 21 x.

Exercise 14 Write

|2x + 1| |2x 1|

as a piecewise function.

x

f (x) =

x3

,

4 x2

f 0 (x) =

x2 (x2 12)

(4 x2 )2

and

f 00 (x) =

8x(x2 + 12)

.

(4 x2 )3

The functions f 0 and f 00 are called the first and second derivatives of f , respectively. You will

learn how to compute derivatives in Unit II. In Unit III, you will learn how to sketch the graph

of a function using its first and second derivatives, particularly their table of signs. So for the

meantime, construct the table of signs of f 0 and f 00 separately. Then, construct a table of signs

of f 0 and f 00 simultaneously.

Prepared by Jade T. Ventura

Instructor, Institute of Mathematics, UP Diliman

In the beginning was the Word (Jesus),

and the Word was with God,

and the Word was God.

To all who did receive him,

to those who believed in his name,

he gave the right to become children of God.

The Word became flesh

and made his dwelling among us.

John 1:1,12,14a

- UntitledUploaded byapi-168512039
- height of a zero gravity parabolic flight answersUploaded byapi-271507611
- 15 quadratic functions tueUploaded byapi-309350695
- Maths 4U 1968 HSC.pdfUploaded byKingom 885
- 1010 zero gravity chris thurmanUploaded byapi-324964116
- 0-g projectUploaded byapi-302243877
- 13 parametric vs explicit rulesUploaded byapi-280530282
- BHHS_E1_TRIAL_2008Uploaded byRuchika Vera
- Quadratic Functions and ModellingUploaded byEbookcraze
- Function 3 EditedUploaded bySharvinder Singh
- Conic Sections EquationsUploaded byMindy Dyar
- Fuzzy Logic Examples using Matlab.pdfUploaded byCarlos Muñinovich
- 1010 zero gravity updated fall 2015 1 -1-1 2Uploaded byapi-231509454
- Ujian Chapter 1 Add MathUploaded byJulie Lewis
- ilovezachUploaded bydsdsdsdasd
- 661Uploaded byIqbal A Mir
- 1010 zero gravity updated fall 2015 2 due 217Uploaded byapi-309278557
- 1010 zero gravity updated fall 2015Uploaded byapi-302695491
- ex-ch-4-5Uploaded byapi-230427224
- alg 2019-20 1Uploaded byapi-472656698
- Arithmetic Sequences201314(1)Uploaded byJairick Cris Rodrigo
- Gen MathUploaded byNarlen Joyce Mabanglo
- Mata31 Final 2013wUploaded byexamkiller
- piecewise projectUploaded byapi-298436417
- Calculus Mathematics for BusinessUploaded byR. Mega Mahmudia
- GEN MATH 1ST QUARTER EXAMUploaded byGladzangel Loricabv
- ch13-1Uploaded byshazarafia
- How to use VLOOKUP in Excel.docxUploaded bysoochien_11
- Create functionUploaded byMichael Ndavi
- fg 3 the 12 basic functions notes answer keyUploaded byapi-291889212

- StuFAP Application FormUploaded byArvin F. Villodres
- DrawingUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Chem16 Part3 Lect1 LiquidsandsolidsUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Math samplexUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Age ProblemsUploaded byYeahkevinrocks
- Learn html programmingUploaded byDejan Vujanovic Gàngster
- Math 17 Midterm ExamUploaded byJairus Rammir Azagra Octubre
- Paced Syllabus Math17.pdfUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONFLICT BETWEEN LANDLORDS AND MIGRANT FARMERS IN GHANA: AN EXAMINATION OF ISSUES AFFECTING DAGARA MIGRANTS IN THE BRONG AHAFO REGIONUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- String Theory.docxUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Creative ProjectsUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- LCO Game MechanicsUploaded byEugene
- Copyreading NotesUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Graphs Exer 3Uploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Sack Race ReportUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- PE Notes Tiklos DanceUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Sets_LawsUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- 2D Isometric Drawing in AutoCADUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Paper SizesUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Derivatives ListUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Proofread SymbolsUploaded bymandewdok
- Analytic Geometry FormulasUploaded byken_mijares
- Boysen Paints CalculatorUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Exponential Equations WorksheetUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Roles of Arts in Different FieldsUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- 17th RTSPC (1)Uploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Conversion of Metric and English Systems and Polynomial ExercisesUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- Past Tense Irregular Verbs ListUploaded byJoshua Berrios
- Shifting-Transfer-Forms-Requirements.pdfUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata
- BUCET_Flyer.pdfUploaded byAlvin Louie Diata

- Elementary Number TheoryUploaded bynonearch
- Table of Math SymbolsUploaded byJohn Lau
- Ninteger ManualUploaded byAhmedEL-Naggar
- William Mendenhall, Robert J. Beaver, Barbara M. Beaver - Introduction to Probability and StatisticsUploaded byAdriana Araujo
- Parallel Transform FunctionsUploaded byashish10mca9394
- Ders 5 Problemler.pdfUploaded byJaveria Hamid
- Help - Eclipse PlatformUploaded byDaniel Sánchez
- PHP 4 ChaptersUploaded bynishasaiyed2304
- List of Mathematical SymbolsUploaded bytantantan
- Fib FormulaeUploaded byAnonymous L4GY7kq
- Basic Simulation Lab FileUploaded byBharat
- Bertrands TheoremUploaded byn
- Python Workbook OlivieriUploaded byjoniakom
- Aviation Formulary V1Uploaded byruiop98
- Math1081 Topic1 NotesUploaded byBenjamin Leung
- Simbol Matematik 2Uploaded byAnonymous Ztyzc5
- Mathematical symbols list (+,-,x,_,=,_,_,..Uploaded byVarun Narisetty
- Metastock Fomula Language_AnhUploaded bygulfa77
- 2007.pdfUploaded bySamik Saha
- Game Math Case StudiesUploaded byAlex Fierăscu
- Microsoft Excel Functions & Formulas (2007)Uploaded byAdrián
- PRO E RelationUploaded bybalaji
- List of Mathematical SymbolsUploaded byAntonio C. Keith
- FoxProUploaded bysneha
- ContinuityUploaded bysurya
- Mathematical CryptographyUploaded bymy291287
- Absolute Value Functions.docUploaded byRenalyn Claire Ventura
- Mathematics for Computer Science.pdfUploaded byShrey Dixit
- Matlab Module 2010Uploaded bykasawati
- Excel 2003 - Tutorial 3Uploaded byGlenn