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# 1.

0 Review of Functions

Discussion

1.1

## Remark 1 Suppose r > 0 and a 6= 0.

1. The graph of (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 is the circle with center (h, k) with radius r.
2. The graph of y k = a(x h)2 is a vertical parabola with vertex (h, k) and opening upward
if a > 0 and downward if a < 0.
3. The graph of x h = a(y k)2 is a horizontal parabola with vertex (h, k) and opening to
the right if a > 0 and to the left if a < 0.
(See Example 11 and Exercise 13 for applications.)

1.2

Absolute Value

Definition 2 The

x,
|x| = 0,

x,

1.3

## absolute value function is defined by

x<0
x=0
x>0

or

(
x,
|x| =
x

x<0
,x 0

(
x,
|x| =
x,

or

x0
x>0

Table of Signs

Remark 3 Let a R.
1. The expression x a is negative when x < a, zero when x = a, and positive when x > a.
2. The expression a x is positive when x < a, zero when x = a, and negative when x > a.
Illustration 4 Since x2 + 2 is always positive, the table of signs of
3(x ( 13 ))
3x + 1
=
(2 x)3 (x2 + 2)
(2 x)3 (x2 + 2)
is
( 13 )

x
2x
x2 + 2

3(x(1))
(2x)3 (x2 +2)

(, 13 )

+
+

31
0
+
+
0

( 13 , 2)
+
+
+
+

2
+
0
+
dne

(2, +)
+

## In the table, dne means does not exist.

Theorem 5 If a 6= 0, then ax + bx + c = a x

b +

b2 4ac
2a

!
x

b2 4ac
2a

!
.

## Illustration 6 Theorem 5 is used in factoring general quadratic expressions. For example,

!
!
!
!
4 + 40
4 40
2 + 10
2 10
2
3x 4x 2 = 3 x
x
=3 x
x
.
6
6
3
3
Thus, the table of signs of 3x2 4x 2 is



3 x

10
x 2+
3
2 10
x 
3

2+ 10
3


2 10
3

, 23 10

2 10
3

2 10 2+ 10
,
3
3

2+ 10
3

2+ 10
,
+
3

0
+

+
+

+
4

1.4

## Definition 7 The greatest integer function (GIF) or floor function is defined by

..

1 , 1 x < 0
[[x]] = 0
,0 x < 1

1
,1 x < 2

..

.
or, more compactly, by
[[x]] = n

n x < n + 1,

if

(1.1)

## where n Z. The expression [[x]] is also written as bxc.

Illustration 8 Let us write [[2x 3]] as a piecewise function. From (1.1), when n Z,
[[2x 3]] = n

n 2x 3 < n + 1

if

n + 3 2x < n + 4
n+4
n+3
x<
if
2
2
(Note that the inequalities did not change in the last step since the multiplier
an example of (1.2), n = 1 gives us
1+3
1+4
x<
[[2x 3]] = 1
if
2
2
5
if 2 x <
2
Similar computations give the branches of the piecewise function:

..

1 , 1 x < 2
[[2x 3]] = 0
, 32 x < 2

1
, 2 x < 52

..

.
if

2

(1.2)
1
2

is positive.) As

## [[2x 3]] = 1= f (a) 1 immediately to the left of a = 23 (= 1.5)

[[2x 3]] = 0= f (a) immediately to the right of a = 32
[[2x 3]] = 0= f (a) 1 i.l. of a =2
[[2x 3]] = 1= f (a) i.r. of a =2
[[2x 3]] = 1= [[f (a)]] immediately to the left and right of a = 54 (= 1.25)
[[2x 3]] = 0= [[f (a)]] i.l.r. of a =1.8
[[2x 3]] = 1= [[f (a)]] i.l.r. of a =2.0001
4
Remark 9 Let f be a polynomial or rational function such that f (a) is defined.
If
f (a)
/Z
f (a) Z

and
f (x) < f (a)
f (x) > f (a)
f (x) > f (a)
f (x) < f (a)

i.l. of a
i.r. of a
i.l. of a
i.r. of a

then i.l. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[f (a)]]
[[f (x)]] = f (a) 1

then i.r. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[f (a)]]
[[f (x)]] = f (a)

## [[f (x)]] = f (a)

[[f (x)]] = f (a) 1

## By the last two columns, [[f (x)]] is either

[[f (a)]],

f (a) 1

or

f (a)

i.l. or i.r. of a. Since these three are constants, [[f (x)]] is just a constant i.l. or i.r. of a!
Important! We will use Remark 9 in computing limits of expressions involving the GIF.
Illustration 10 Let
f (x) = 2x3,
a
5
4

g(x) = 32x,

Since
/Z
f ( 45 ) = 21
f (2) = 1 Z

g( 54 ) = 12
/Z
g(2) = 1 Z

5
4

h( 54 )

5
4

2
0

## h(x) = 2x2 x3 = (2x3)(x+1)

and
f (x) < 1 i.l. of 2
f (x) > 1 i.r. of 2
g(x) > 1 i.l. of 2
g(x) < 1 i.r. of 2

98

/Z
h(2) = 3 Z
k(0) = 1 Z

then i.l. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 1*
[[f (x)]] = 1 1 = 0*
[[g(x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 0
[[g(x)]] = 1
[[ 98 ]]

h(x) < 3
h(x) > 3
k(x) > 1
k(x) > 1

i.l. of 2
i.r. of 2
i.l. of 0
i.r. of 0

[[h(x)]] =
= 2
[[h(x)]] = 3 1 = 2

and

## k(x) = x2 2x+1 = (x1)2 .

then i.r. of a
[[f (x)]] = [[ 21 ]] = 1*
[[f (x)]] = 1*
[[g(x)]] = [[ 12 ]] = 0
[[g(x)]] = 1 1 = 2
[[h(x)]] = [[ 98 ]] = 2
[[h(x)]] = 3

[[k(x)]] = 1
[[k(x)]] = 1
4

## *compare with Illustration 8 above

Examples

4x x2 and g(x) = 1 4x x2 .

Solution. Sketch
of
solution.
Note
that,
whenever
defined,
4x x2 is always nonnegative and

2
hence 1 4x x is always at most 1. Hence, the graph of g is the same as that of
p
y = 1 4x x2
p
y 1 = 4x x2
Example 11 Sketch the graphs of f (x) = 1 +

(y 1)2 = 4x x2 ,
2

y 1

(x 4x + 4) + (y 1) = 4,

## y 1 (completing the square)

(y 1)2 + (x 2)2 = 22 ,

y 1

(2.1)

Thus, by (1) of Remark 1 and the restriction y 1, the graph of g is the lower semicircle with
center (2, 1) and radius 2. From (2.1), the x-intercepts of the graph of g are given by
(0 1)2 + (x 2)2 = 22
(x 2)2 = 3
x=2

3
4

## while the y-intercept is g(0) = 1.

Example 12 Write

|3 5x|
as a piecewise function.
|x| 1

## Solution. From Definition 2,

(
x,
|x| =
x,

x0
x>0

and
(
(3 5x), 3 5x < 0
|3 5x| =
3 5x,
3 5x 0
(
5x 3, x > 35
=
3 5x, x 35
(
3 5x, x 35
=
5x 3, x > 35
Therefore,

35x ,
|3 5x| x1
= 35x
x1 ,

|x| 1
5x3
x1 ,

x < 0, x 6= 1
0 x 35
3
5 < x, x 6= 1
4

Exercises

q
Exercise 13 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 2 21 x.
Exercise 14 Write

|2x + 1| |2x 1|
as a piecewise function.
x

## Exercise 15 (From past exam) Let

f (x) =

x3
,
4 x2

f 0 (x) =

x2 (x2 12)
(4 x2 )2

and

f 00 (x) =

8x(x2 + 12)
.
(4 x2 )3

The functions f 0 and f 00 are called the first and second derivatives of f , respectively. You will
learn how to compute derivatives in Unit II. In Unit III, you will learn how to sketch the graph
of a function using its first and second derivatives, particularly their table of signs. So for the
meantime, construct the table of signs of f 0 and f 00 separately. Then, construct a table of signs
of f 0 and f 00 simultaneously.