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A.

How does the academic discipline influence the history of Industrial


System
Dunlop theory
There are various theories on explaining and practice the industrial relation, one of
the theories is Dunlop theory. This theory is created by John Dunlop in the 1950s.
the theory explain the industrial relation by using three aspect which is
management organizations, worker and formal/informal ways they are organized
and government agencies.

This actor will work or produce production in the

environment contain technology, labour, product market and the distribution power.
The actor will used all the aspect to interact with each other, negotiate and use
political power to determine the rules and regulation of industrial. John Dunlop
presents three parties in his theory which is employers, labor unions, and
government. The parties are a fundamental to the modern industrial relation
according to the Dunlop theory. There are no dominant or autonomous powers in
the parties but they must shaped together. This theory bring the union at least a
third of the work force and it assume will continues grow. The relation industrial
theory will deal with wages and other terms of employment and also bargaining and
conflict resolution.
The theory is focus on promote industrial relation research is more toward
systematically comparative. It not just see the system in a macro view but also in
micro view of the system relation labour. According to the elvender(2002), Dunlop
has present two-well-documented example of the shaping of the rule systems that
contain sector in different countries. The example presented on coal and building
industry produce same rule systems focus on wage formation, general term of
employment and industrial safety and the rule of conflict resolution is determined
by national level. Dunlop theory identified three key influences in conducting an
analysis of the management-labour relationship. The first is environment or external
economic, technological, political, legal and social force that impact employment
relationships. The second is characteristics and interaction of the key factor in the
employment relationship and lastly rules that derived from these interactions that
govern the employment relationship. The effect Dunlop theory will create rules of
the workplace.
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Marxist Theory
The radical theory of industrial relation or Marxist theory is disagree to capitalistic
source of power, namely, ownership and control extends beyond the corporate
limits to market labour. The Marxian though objects the right of labour, union and
collective bargaining. The theory objects the power of unionism because the union
have intentions to overcome the power state. The state helps in the consolidation of
power for employers and managers. Policies of economics growth and programs to
counter the business cycles in the capitalistic system have increase government
intervention in labour-management relations.

The radical theory of industrial

relations takes a macro or societal approach which focus into a concept of social
control, exploitation and radical class awareness with an main goal to eliminating
capitalism. The theory is also argue on weakness and contradiction in the capitalist
system can born in revolution and the power of socialism overcome the capitalism.
The theory also argues that wages must be minimized to subsistence level.

Pluralism Theory
The legislation and public policy, from 1850 onward, assisted western capitalism in
recovery with the corporate and property laws, ownership and collective bargaining.
The concept of pluralism become relevant for the analysis of social process in the
broader of social as well as in the industrial relation. The collective bargaining
become new process for resolving conflict between buyers and sellers, landlords
and tenants, money lenders and borrowers, labour and management. The pluralist
arrangement of the society make the society pursue their goals within limits, proper
checks and balances there emerges a safeguard against abuse of power. This make
the government and market processes to make sure the voluntary accommodation,
freedom and stability in the society. The pluralism created equal balance power
between interest group. The pluralism demolishes the group of a ruling class or
elites that dominate society and the state on the right and wealth.

Pluralism is a macro society which provided analytical tools for the


understanding of fundamental western value that same as liberal democratic
political system and free market system of production. The function structure and
philosophy of the trade union movement give support to a system of free collective
bargaining. The bilateral and trilateral system of conflict resolution and variations of
industrial democracy is not prohibited in the pluralism. The concept of pluralism
cause the industrial relation variable expand such as theory of the labour
movement, collective bargaining and industrial conflict, wage determination and
theory of society.
The conclusion, the academic discipline society cause the industrial relation
systems expand and touch every aspect in the society. Dunlop theory, Marxist, and
pluralism is the evidence academic discipline influence the development of the
industrial relation system. All of the theory has one main objective which is to see
the industrial have a similarities service and right among all class in the society and
not barrier when come to collective bargaining.

B. Based on Literature Review, write critique on Industrial Relation


system theories and other theories
Critique Of The System Theory
The most fundamental criticism of the system theory is it concept of the ideology
which effect to all actors. According to the hamee(1982), the ideology that the
system theory can be hold out as acceptable by all the actors is in fact with the
consistent managerial interest. In some event, the maintenance of industrial peace
and promotion productivity are commonly also shared by the government. The
worker interest which is distribution of income and power or industrial peace is
different with both management and government. The Dunlop theory cannot handle
the conflict and change the Dunlop theory is depand on the parsonian analysis. The
parson is obsess toward the society together make him forget or not seen the
disruptive or conflictive element in the society. This make the theory is not effective
in the all-time. The theory is not cover the lack personality-behavioral, motives and
interaction patterns, structured and unstructured workgroup relation. The theory
also not covers the behavior of trade unions. The theory is not prepared well to deal
with the future of industrial relation. This statement can be countered with the Blain
and Gennard equation of Dunlops framework but the hierarchies of actor,
complexities of technical, market and budgetary show we cannot generate simple
and operational hypotheses (Hamee, 1982).
Critique of Marxist Theory.
The radical theory rightly interpret the empirical world which the actor does not
have

same

ideology

but

the

ideas

of

reconcilability,

compromise

and

accommodation, between classes in the radical theory on behavioristic and


evidently in search of empirical evidence. The author question on way the individual
and group react when they are confronted with conflicting interest. The theory is
maintain that a society struggle is cannot avoided because production is controlled
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by the capitalist. The reality show the stand of capitalistic system which made the
worker gain economics as well as political gains in form of union that have a right to
strike. The theory is faced up the flexibility of the capitalistic system which the
union gives positive impact to the economy and the society welcome the union in
their institution.
The radical theory expended by the Hyman is overemphasized the gap
between the rank-and-file and the union official. His statement on incorporated
between capitalistic system and state but the official union are interested in
maintaining the collective bargaining relationship. The author said the problem is
not about the union but the membership which lack of interest about the issue and
it not always about the vicious control of the union officials. The radical theory also
fails to analyze the new social forces which have modified the laissez-faire
capitalistic system to welfare state. It is a fact that the inequalities in distribution on
wealth but the various social accommodation, economic policies, minimum wage is
improved the socio-economic condition in the society. The radical theory based on
the rank-and-files which defend and stood up increasing encroachment of the state
and incorporation of the trade union. The author said it bias because there is
evident misperception by radical theorists of all industrial conflict. Strikes, lockouts
and sit-ins are interpreted as a political error or revolutionary socialism. The political
sometimes make error management in the industrial but the intent of worker is
misconstrued as being revolutionary or directed a virtual takeover of plant.
A Critique Of Pluralism
Pluralism is an economic theory of society who talks of pluralistic industrialism who
seek the equality and greater avenues of liberty. The author critique that pluralism
as a theory of society fails on three major which are as a political theory it assumes
equality of power amongst various constituent group in the society which help the
government in evolving a public policy based on mutuality and consensus, the
theory not intercept the problem on economic society which is battle over scarce
resources and liberty and freedom are coveted goals and important elements in the
moralistic philosophy of pluralism and this will cause the ethical dilemma. This show
the pluralism assumption is unrealistic, not cover the resources conflict and it show
bas or an almost deliberate on the issue.
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The conceptual of pluralism is a collective bargaining model. In the real


situation of industrial relations, the successful of the bargaining process between
labour and management depends on an unconditional acceptance of particular
broad societal values such as industrial control my minority. Issues will become
serious when the unions begin to question the minority private property rights. This
will make the pluralism theory of industrial relation begin to crack up. This issue will
cause a negative effect to the economic sanctions. According to the Hamee(1982),
the relationship between the changing societal environment and the bargaining
arrangement makes the Pluralist theory broad to integrate different theoretical
strands which can make research and analysis.
Conclusion, the critiques show the industrial theories have a several
weakness and not broadly cover the societal aspect. however, it impossible to cover
all aspect in one theory because the event or the problem is not happen in that time
and maybe happen in future which human being cannot predict 100% right.
Individual cannot choose one the theory but must study and review all the theory.
The theories have tendency to be perfect because it can cover the weakness and
underplay of both theories. In future, the industrial relation theories should keep
expands and develops for better and balance industrial relation.

Reference
Dunlop's Contribution to industrial relation. (2014, october 24). Retrieved March 8,
2015, from NaukriHub: make your career leap:
http://www.naukrihub.com/industrialrelations/dunlop-model.html
Elvander, N. (2002). Indusrial relation: A Short History of ideas and Learning.
Stockholm: Arbetsliv l Omvandling work life in Transition.
Hameed, S. M. (1982). A critique of Industrial Relation Theory. Relation industrial,
15-31.

Marxist Perspective. (2014, October 24). Retrieved March 8, 2015, from NaukriHub:
http://www.naukrihub.com/industrialrelations/marxist-perspective.html