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Validation of the Instrument

The survey questionnaire was the principal instrument used by the researchers. Its
contents was deeply analyzed by each researcher to take up the problem stated in this
With the instructions of Dr. Baysa, the researchers deleted the Socio-Economic and
Environmental Impact part of the questionnaire to make it more appropriate to the study.
The survey questionnaire was then presented to Professor Liz() of CAF and Mr. Vicente
A. Argentera of Universal Robina Corporation, for comments, suggestion and further
revisions if there are any....
After the proof reading and presentation of the instruments to some experts, the
researcher measured the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Validity refers to
whether the questionnaire prepared is justifiable and appropriate for the respondents of
the study to answer, and whether the questions are relatively appropriate for the
particular factor. In knowing if the question in our survey questionnaires are valid, we
used the item analysis, by which the validity index (VI) of each item in test was
The Validity Index formula is:
VI= (Psa - Psd)
Where Psa= Percentage of Strongly Agree
Psd= Percentage of Strongly Disagree
The questionnaire used in conducting the dry run was the same set used to facilitate the
validity test. The size of the sample used in the dry run is at least fifteen percent (15%)
of the total respondents used. The researchers tallied those who answered Strongly
Agree on each item as well as those who answered Strongly Disagree.
Different ranges of values were used to interpret the results.
VI>= 0.75
Highly Discriminating
0.25<=VI<=0.75 Moderately Discriminating
Not Discriminating
Ranges of values above serve as guide in determing items that are Highly
Discriminating, Moderately Discriminating, and Not Discriminating. Items falling under
Highly Discriminating category are considered valid. Those that were categorized as
Moderately Discriminating maybe improved with slight modification. Modification and
elimination is for those items falling under Not Discriminating category. After applying

the item analysis to test validy of the questions, the table showed the results that many
items were marked as Highly Discriminating. See appendix for supporting computation.
After testing the validity, the researchers chrck the reliability of their questionnaire.
Reliability refers to the extent to which the measurement of the test remains consistent
over repeated test of the same subject. The split-half method was used to test the
reliability of the questionnaire. The total set of items was divided into halves and the
scores on the halves were correlated to obtain an estimate of reliability.
To obtain the value of Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient formula from raw data,
the following formula was used:
Since the split-half procedure was based upon the correlation between scores obtained
on only half the test, a correction was needed to determine the reliability of the entire
test. Tha halves can be considered approximation to alternate forms. The researcher
made used of Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. When used to correct the correlation
between scores of two halves of the test in determining split-half relisbility, the
Spearman-Brown prophecy formula becomes:
rsb= (very half relationship)
where: rsb = split-half reliability coefficient
r = represents the correlation between the two halves of the scale
The reliability of half test (r) was 0.9593 while the reliability of the whole test (rsb) was
0.9793. Since the reliability of the whole test obtained was high, the whole test is

Data Gathering Procedure

The group was formed in the second week of June. It took almost one week for the
researchers to finally select the subject of the study. The researchers' adviser told them
that they should select a company to be their subject, and Universal Robina Corporation
stood out among the choices. Luckily, one of the researchers knows someone from
URC, and he helped them in conducting this study. Just when the information seemed
to be within the reach, several problems aroused. One of this is the aspect to use in the
The group sought help from their adviser, who then suggested focusing their thesis'
aspect on factors affecting product cost management and control particularly with
materials, labor, and overhead aspect, cost control aspect, and problems encountered
and proposed solutions.

In (month) 2014, after the survey questionnaire had been tested for validity and
reliability, the researchers pushed through with their survey and interview proper at the
appointed date and time...
The results where tabulated according to the frequency of the items checked by the
participants. After data tabulation, results were interpreted using various statistical tools.
The results of technique used in data gathering ameliorated the research team in order
for them to arrive at the interpretation of the study.