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CONTENT

CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

LETTER OF TRANSMITTER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

CONTENT

iv

LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES

xii
xv

TABLE OF NOMENCLATURE

xvii

LIST OF APPENDIX

xxiii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

xxiv

CHAPTER I

ROJECT CONCEPTION LITERATURE SURVEY

1.1

Process Background

1.1.1

Introduction to Ammonia

1.1.2

History of Ammonia

1.1.3

Synthesis of Ammonia

1.1.3.1 Modified Haber-Bosch Process

1.1.3.2 The Claude Process

1.1.3.3 The Casale Process

1.1.3.4 The Fauser Process

1.1.3.5 The Mont Cenis Synthesis

Uses

1.1.4.1 Acids and Alkalies

1.1.4.2 Cleaning Agents

1.1.4

iv

1.2

1.1.4.3 Explosives

1.1.4.4 Fertilizers

1.1.4.5 Food and Beverages

1.1.4.6 Leather

1.1.4.7 Pharmaceuticals

1.1.4.8 Refrigeration

Market Survey

1.2.1

Demand

1.2.2

Ammonia Specification

1.2.3

Market Price

10

1.2.4

Uses

10

1.2.5

Strength

10

1.2.6

Weakness

11

1.2.7

Prospect

11

1.2.8

Production of Ammonia In United State

11

1.2.9

Worldwide Producers of Ammonia

12

1.2.10 Performance of The Manufacturing Sector In


Malaysia

1.3

14

1.2.11 Ammonia Industry In Malaysia

16

1.2.12 Future Outlook

17

1.2.13 Raw Material

17

1.2.14 Economic Potential

18

Project Feasibility Study and Site Study

19

1.3.1

General

19

1.3.2

Factors That Have To Be Consider In Selecting A

1.3.3

Site

19

1.3.2.1 Reasonable Land Price

20

1.3.2.2 Availability of Raw Material

20

1.3.2.3 Electricity and Water Sources

20

1.3.2.4 Man Power Availability

21

1.3.2.5 Transport Facilities

22

1.3.2.6 Government Incentives

23

1.3.2.7 Waste and Effluent Disposal Facilities

23

Overview of Location

24
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1.4

1.5

1.3.3.1 Teluk Kalong, Terengganu

24

1.3.3.2 Gebeng (Phase IV), Pahang

25

1.3.3.3 Tanjung Langsat, Johor

27

1.3.4

Site Selection

28

1.3.5

Proposed Site and Plant Layout

29

Review And Screening of Alternative Processes

31

1.4.1

Preparation of Hydrogen

31

1.4.2

Purification of Hydrogen In Synthesis Gas

32

1.4.2.1 Shift Conversion of CO to CO2

32

1.4.2.2 Removal of Carbon Dioxide

32

1.4.2.3 Methanation

34

1.4.3

Ammonia Synthesis

34

1.4.4

Process Selection

35

Physical And Chemical Properties

36

1.5.1

Physical Properties of Ammonia

36

1.5.2

Physical Properties of Hydrogen

37

1.5.3

Physical Properties of Nitrogen

37

1.5.4

Physical Properties of Methane

37

1.5.5

Chemical Properties of Ammonia

37

CHAPTER II

PROCESS MODELING AND FLOWSHEETING

42

2.1

Process Description

42

2.1.1

Ammonia Synthesis

43

2.1.2

Ammonia Purification

44

2.1.3

Recirculation

45

2.1.4

Process Flow Diagram

46

2.2

2.3

Basic Equipment Selection

47

2.2.1

Compressor

47

2.2.2

Heat exchanger

48

2.2.3

Reactor

48

2.2.4

Expander

49

2.2.5

Flash

49

Manual Material Balance

49

2.3.1

50

Pre-calculation

vi

2.3.2
2.4

2.5

Summary of Mass Balance Calculation

Manual Energy Balance

51

2.4.1

Summary of Energy Balance Calculation

53

2.4.2

Summary of Equipment Energy Balance

54

Computer Simulation
2.5.1

54

Comparison Result of Manual Calculation and


Result of Simulation

2.6

51

55

Optimization

55

2.6.1

Introduction

55

2.6.2

Parameter Optimization for Individual Equipment

56

2.6.3

General Procedure

57

2.6.4

Economic Tradeoffs

57

2.6.5

Brief Description

58

2.6.5.1 Optimization of Reactor System

58

2.6.5.2 Optimization of Flash Column

62

CHAPTER III

PROCESS ENERGY INTERGRATION

67

3.1

Introduction to Heat Exchanger Network Design

67

3.2

Stream Identification

68

3.3

The Pinch Technology

69

3.3.1

70

3.4

Energy Targeting Procedure

Maximum Energy Recovery (MER) Heat Exchanger


Network Design

73

3.4.1

Above Pinch Design

73

3.4.2

Below Pinch Design

74

3.4.3

Stream Pairing Below the Pinch

74

3.5

Process Flow Diagram After Heat Integration

76

3.6

Conclusion

77

CHAPTER IV

WASTE TREATMENT AND WASTE


MINIMIZATION

78

4.1

Introduction

78

4.2

Air and Water Quality Standards

79

4.2.1

80

Ambient Air Quality Standards

vii

4.2.2

4.2.1.1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards

80

Water Quality

81

4.3

Government Specifications

83

4.4

Type of Pollutants

83

4.4.1

Gaseous Pollutants

83

4.4.2

Particulate Pollutants

84

Ammonia Activated Sludge System

85

4.5

4.5.1

4.6

Material Balance Calculations for Waste


Treatment Plant

87

4.5.2

Kinetics of Bacterial Growth

90

4.5.3

Nitrification-Denitrification Process in Aeration


Tank

90

4.5.4

Material Balance

92

4.5.5

Energy Balance

93

Summary for Sizing and Costing of Waste Treatment


Equipment

94

CHAPTER V

EQUIPMENT SIZING AND COSTING

96

5.1

Introduction

96

5.2

Reactor R-4

97

5.2.1

Introduction

99

5.2.2

Summary for Reactor Chemical Design

99

5.2.3

Costing Summary

99

5.2.3.1 Material of Construction


100
5.2.3.2 Costing Summary
100
5.3

Compressor and Expander


100
5.3.1

Compressor C-2

100
5.3.1.1 Work for Compressor
101

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5.3.2

Expander E-5 and E-9

101
5.4

Flash Drum
102

5.5

Mixer
103

5.6

Storage Tank
104

5.7

Heat Exchanger
104

CHAPTER VI

PROCESS CONTROL

120
6.1

Introduction
120

6.2

Typical Control System


121
6.2.1

Level Control

6.2.2

Pressure Control

6.2.3

Flow Control

6.2.4

Cascade Control

6.2.5

Ratio Control

122
122
123
123
124
6.3

Control System Design


124

6.4

Control System Design for Individual Units


125
6.4.1

Reactor

125

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6.4.2

Flash

6.4.3

Heat Exchanger

6.4.4

Compressor and Expander

6.4.5

Mixer and Divider

128
129
133
136
6.5

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)


138

CHAPTER VII

PROCESS SAFETY STUDIES

142
7.1

Introduction
142
7.1.1

Hazards

7.1.2

Risk

7.1.3

The Chemical Hazards

143
144
145
7.1.3.1 Identification
146
7.1.3.2 Health and Safety Information
147
7.1.3.3 Recommendations for Respiratory Selection:
Niosh
147
7.1.3.4 Chemical Reactivity
148
7.1.3.5 Fire Information
149
7.1.3.6 First Aid
149
x

7.1.3.7 Environmental Information


150
7.2

General Process Safety Procedures


150
7.2.1

General Safety

7.2.2

Plant Safety

7.2.3

Worker Safety

7.2.4

Detection of Possible Hazards

7.2.5

Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment

7.2.6

First Aid (Poison Information)

151
152
154
155
157
159
7.3

Process Safety Study (Hazop Study)


160
7.3.1

General

7.3.2

Objective of HAZOP

7.3.3

HAZOP Technique

7.3.4

HAZOP Study In The Plant

160
161
162
164
7.3.4.1 HAZOP on Heat Exchanger
164
7.3.4.2 HAZOP on Compressor
168
7.3.4.3 HAZOP on Reactor
169
7.3.4.4 HAZOP for Flash
172
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7.3.5

Plant Start-Up and Shut Down

173
7.3.5.1 Introduction
173
7.3.5.2 Plant Start-Up
174
7.3.5.3 Summary of Plant Start-up Procedure
175
7.3.5.4 Plant Shut-Down
175
7.3.5.5 Summary of Plant Shut-down Procedure
176
7.3.5.6 Plant Emergency Shutdown
176
7.3.5.7 Emergency Control and Operator Response
176
CHAPTER VIII

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF MAJOR EQUIPMENT

179
8.1

Introduction
179

8.2

Equipment Specification Sheets


180
8.2.1

Reactor, R-4

8.2.2

Flash, F-7

8.2.3

Flash, F-10

8.2.4

Flash, F-17

8.2.5

Summary For Flash Drum Mechanical Design

180
182
183
184
185

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8.2.6

Heat Exchanger, X-15

8.2.7

Heat Exchanger, X-16

8.2.8

Heat Exchanger, X-3

8.2.9

Heat Exchanger, X-6

186
191
194
197
8.2.10 Heat Exchanger, X-8
200
8.2.11 Storage Tank Nitrogen
203
8.2.12 Storage Tank Hydrogen
204
8.2.13 Storage Tank Ammonia
205
CHAPTER IX

PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

206
9.1

Introduction
206

9.2

Gross Root Capital (GRC)


206

9.3

Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) and Total Capital


Investment (TCI)
208

9.4

Manufacturing Cost and Total Production Cost


209

9.5

Cash Flow Analysis


212

9.6

Conclusion
218

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CHAPTER X

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

219
10.1

Conclusion
219

10.2

Recommendations
220

BIBLIOGRAPHY
222
APPENDIXES

xiv