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Basic Tools of

Analytical Chemistry
By: Isman Kurniawan

Thursday, February 6, 14

Thursday, February 6, 14

Fundamental units of
measure
mass
volume
distance
time
temperature
current
amount of substance

Scientific notation
1 mole contain

602.213.670.000.000.000.000.000 particles

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1 mole = 6,02 x 1023

Scientific notation

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CONCENTRATION
the relative amount of solute per unit
volume or unit mass of solution

amount of solute
concentration =
amount of solution

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CONCENTRATION
Molarity (M)
the number of moles of solute per liter of
solution

moles solute
M=
liters solution
grams solute
1
=

FW
liters solution

FW = formula weight
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CONCENTRATION

Normality (N)

the number of equivalents of solute per liter of


solution

the number of equivalents (n): part of


chemical species involved in a reaction

example:
a.
b.

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H2SO4(aq) + NH3(aq)

HSO4-(aq)+ NH4+(aq) (n=?)

H2SO4(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

SO42-(aq)+ 2H2O(l) (n=?)

CONCENTRATION
Normality
moles equivalent solute
N=
liters solution
grams solute
1
=

EW
liters solution
FW
EW =
n
N =M n

EW = equivalent weight
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CONCENTRATION
Normality
example-1:

Calculate the equivalent weight and


normality for a solution of 6.0 M H3PO4
givent the following reactions:

a. H3PO4(aq) + 3OH-(aq)

PO4-(aq) + 3H2O(l)

b. H3PO4(aq) + 2NH3(aq)

HPO42-(aq) + 2NH4+(aq)

c. H3PO4(aq) + F-(aq)

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H2PO4-(aq) + HF(aq)

CONCENTRATION
Molality (m)
the number of moles of solute per
kilogram of solvent

moles solute
m=
kg solvent

temperature independent unit of


concentration

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CONCENTRATION
Weight percent (%w/w)
grams of solute per 100 g of solution
g solute
%w/w =
100 g solution

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CONCENTRATION
Volume percent (%v/v)
milliliters of solute per 100 mL of solution
mL solute
%v/v =
100 mL solution

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CONCENTRATION
Weight-to-volume percent (%w/v)
grams of solute per 100 mL of solution
g solute
%w/v =
100 mL solution

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CONCENTRATION
Part per million (ppm)
milligrams of solute per liter of solution
mg solute
ppm =
liters solution
g solute
= 6
10 mL solution

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CONCENTRATION
Part per billion (ppb)
micrograms of solute per liter of solution
g solute
ppb =
liters solution
g solute
= 9
10 mL solution

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CONCENTRATION
Converting between concentration units
example-2:

A concentrated solution of aqueous


ammonia is 28.0% w/w and has a density
of 0.899 g/mL. What is the molar
concentration of NH3 in this solution?
[14,8 M]

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CONCENTRATION
Converting between concentration units
example-3:

The maximum allowed concentration of


chloride in a municipal drinking water
supply is 2.50 x 102 ppm Cl-. When the
supply of water exceeds this limit, it often
has a distinctive salty taste. What is the
concentration in moles Cl-/ liter?
[7.05 x 10-3 M]

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CONCENTRATION
p-Functions
a function of the form pX
pX =

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log(X)

CONCENTRATION
p-Functions
convenient to express small changes of
concentration

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CONCENTRATION
p-Function
example-4

What is pNa for a solution of 1.76 x 10-3


M Na3PO4?

example-5

What is the
pH of 5.16?

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+
[H ]

in a solution that has a

STOICHIOMETRIC

example-6
The amount of oxalic acid in a sample of rhubarb was
determined by reacting with Fe3+ as following reaction:
2Fe3+(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

2Fe2+(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H3O+(aq)

In a typical analysis, the oxalic acid in 10.62 g of


rhubarb was extracted with a suitable solvent. The
complete oxidation of the oxalic acid to CO2 required
36.44 mL of 0.0130 M Fe3+. What is the weight percent
of oxalic acid in the sample of rhubarb?
[0.201%]

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STOICHIOMETRIC

example-7
One quantitative analytical method for tetraethylthiuram
disulfide, C10H20N2S4 (antabuse), requires oxidizing the
sulfur to SO2, and bubbling the resulting SO2 through
H2O2 to produce H2SO4. The H2SO4 is then reacted
with NaOH according to the reaction:
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq)

Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

What is the weight percent C10H20N2S4 in a sample of


antabuse if the H2SO4 produced from a 0.4613 g portion
reacts with 34.85 mL of 0.02500 M NaOH?
[7.001%]

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Thursday, February 6, 14

PREPARING
SOLUTIONS
Stock solutions

a solution of known concentration from


which other solutions are prepared

example-8:
Describe how you would prepare the
following three solutions: (a) 500 mL of
approximately 0.20 M NaOH using solid
NaOH; (b) 2 L of 4% v/v acetic acid using
concentrated glacial acetic acid.

PREPARING
SOLUTIONS
Dilution
the process of preparing a less

concentrated solution from a more


concentrated solution
no = nd
C o Vo = C d Vd

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PREPARING
SOLUTIONS
Dilution
example-9:

A laboratory procedure calls for 250 mL


of an approximately 0.10 M solution of
NH3. Describe how you would prepare
this solution using a stock solution of
concentrated NH3 (14.8 M).

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Thursday, February 6, 14

PREPARING
SOLUTIONS
Dilution

example-10:
A sample of an ore was analyzed for Cu2+ as follows.
A 1.25 g sample of the ore was dissolved in acid and
diluted to volume in a 250 mL volumetric flask. A 20
mL portion of the resulting solution was transferred
by pipet to a 50 mL volumetric flask and diluted to
volume. An analysis showed that the concentration
of Cu2+ in the final solution was 4.62 ppm. What is
the weight percent of Cu in the original one?
[0.231%]

The End

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