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a Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala

Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

Abstract

The present study emphases on effect of triangular shaped micro mixers that placed

between the main stream channels in micro channel heat sink (MCHS). These micro

mixers are constructed based on three parameters (inner and outer angle and depth

of the joining point) and positioned periodically at assigned distance. A single unit

wall with separated channels is selected from the simple MCHS and micro channel

with triangular shaped micro mixer (MTM) as the computational domain for the

numerical simulation. The performance both micro channels are compared at

identical boundary conditions. The effect of volume flow rate of the fluid, flow

direction, position of the micro mixer (parallel or alternating), and geometrical

parameters of micro mixer on the flow and heat transfer performance of MTM is

studied. It is found that the performance of MTM varies drastically with variation of

all geometrical parameters. It has to be also highlighted that overall enhancement

factor of MTM improved enormously up to 1.53 times compared to simple MCHS

with slight reduction in friction factor. This binary benefit of MTM makes it highly

possible to be implemented in the practical application.

Keywords: Micro channel heat sink; Micro mixer; Optimum design; Overall

enhancement factor.

Highlights

channels.

plot.

MCHS.

Nomenclature

area (m2)

A1

arrangement 1

A2

arrangement 2

cp

D1

direction 1

D2

direction 2

Dh

ks

heat transfer coefficient (W/Km2)

improvement factor

Nu

Nusselt number

temperature (K)

uin

x,y,z

Cartesian coordinate

Greek Symbols

density (kg/m3)

inner angle ()

outer angle ()

viscosity (Pas)

Subscripts

f

fluid

in

inlet

mean

ratio

solid

1.

Introduction

Micro channel heat sink (MCHS) appears to be one of the most promising and highly

effective thermal management technologies that is prominently used in a variety

kind of devices especially in electronic cooling. Researchers have given great deal of

interest to investigate the fluid flow and heat transfer in micro channel heat sink

after the pioneering work done by Tuckerman and Pease [1]. Steinke and Kandlikar

[2] proposed that for singlephase liquid flow in micro channel, the classical theory

Stokes and Poiseuille flow is still applicable from their review on existing literature of

experimental data on the friction in microchannels. In another review of heat

transfer in microchannels, Rosa et al. [3] suggested that standard theory and

correlations to describe heat transfer in microchannels but scaling effects has to be

considered critically.

However simple MCHS seems to not be enough for cooling as a result of

tremendous accession of power density and minuscule of electronic packages.

According to Moores Law, the microprocessor transistor count doubles up every two

year and increase the cooling demand of the device to run in operating

temperature. Thus, incentive researches have been conducted to improve the heat

transfer and fluid flow characteristics in MCHS actively and passive to resolve this

issue.

Xu et al. [4, 5] provided three-dimensional numerical simulations of conjugate heat

transfer in a newly proposed interrupted micro channel heat sink. The new silicon

micro channel heat sink consists of parallel longitudinal micro channels and several

transverse micro channels. Cheng [6] numerically studied the flow and heat transfer

in a stacked twolayer micro channels with easy-processing passive microstructures

and found that stacked micro channel has better thermal performance compared to

simple one. Korichi and Oufer [7] studied the flow and thermal performance of a

horizontal channel with obstacles mounted alternatingly on both upper and lower

walls numerically. It was found that a travelling wave generated by the vortex

shedding from the constriction and expansion contributes mainly to heat transfer

enhancement.

Promvonge et al. [8] numerically studied the laminar flow and heat transfer

characteristics in a three-dimensional isothermal wall square channel with 45angled baffles. Sui et al. [9] examined the performance rectangular wavy micro

channels at laminar condition. An enormous thermal enhancement was obtained

due to the secondary flow (Dean Vortices). Foong et al. [10] performed numerical

simulation on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of a square micro

channel with four longitudinal internal fins and analyzed the effect of the pin height

and flow condition on the performance of micro channels. It was found there is an

optimum pin height to achieve the best performance, Dogan and Sivrioglu [11]

performed experimental study on the mixed convection heat transfer from

longitudinal fins in a horizontal channel with a uniform heat flux at the bottom

surface and found optimum fin that dependent on the fin height and modified

Rayleigh number for heat transfer enhancement . Danish et al. [12] investigated

numerically the thermal-resistance and pumping-power characteristics of MCHS

with a grooved structure optimized the shape using a multi-objective evolutionary

algorithm. Decline in thermal resistance and increment in Nusselt number observed

in a grooved microchannels compared to a smooth MCHS with a small increment of

pumping power.

Liu et al. [13] used CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and LB (lattice Boltzmann)

approaches to the numerical study of forced convection heat transfer occurring in

microchannels. The results implied that the shield shaped groove microchannel

possessed the high heat exchange performance with increment of Nusselt number

about 1.3 times that of plain surface structure. Chai et al. [14] studied the pressure

drop and heat transfer characteristics of the interrupted microchannel heat sink

with rectangular ribs in the transverse micro chambers and analyzed the effects of

dimension and position parameters of rectangular rib on these characteristics.

Xia et al. and Chai et al. [15-17] analyzed the effect of geometric parameters of fanshaped and triangular reentrant cavities on water flow and heat transfer

characteristics in MCHS. Optimal geometric parameter was obtained based on

thermal enhancement factor performance.

In numerical investigation of microchannel heat sink with grooved wall, Abouali and

Baghernezhad [18] found that grooved microchannel with thicker wall and lower

mass flow rate of cooling water has a higher heat dissipation and coefficient of

performance compared to simple microchannel with small wall thickness.

Kuppusamy et al. [19, 20] performed numerical analysis on the thermal and flow

performance of the MCHS with different shapes of grooves on the sidewall of the

significantly compared to simple MCHS using water with negligible pressure loss.

Lee et al. [21] attempted to enhance the performance of copper MCHS by

introducing periodic oblique cuts on the fins of MCHS in order to transform the fluid

flow. This could induce redevelopment of the thermal boundary layer that would

result in significant heat transfer enhancement with negligible pressure drop

penalty. The average Nusselt number increased up to 103%, from 11.3 to 22.9 and

the maximum temperature rise reduced by 12.6C. Kuppusamy et al. [22]

introduced secondary passage in the separating wall of the MCHS and found that

the slanted secondary passage significantly enhanced the Nusselt number of the

MCHS as well the with reduction in pressure drop compared to the simple one.

Therefore, significant overall enhancement is obtained compared to the simple

MCHS

It is clear from the literatures that two substantial techniques to enhance micro

scale heat transfer are vortices generation, thermal boundary layer interruption,

and induce the mainstream separation and mixing. On this basis, the present work

focuses introducing mixer in silicon MCHS that would possibly interrupt the

boundary layer, induce mainstream fluid separation and mixing as well as generate

fluid vortices. The effect of the geometrical parameters of the mixers in MCHS is

analyzed and presented in terms of friction factor, average Nusselt number and

overall enhancement coefficient. The heat transfer enhancement of micro channel

heat sinks with periodic triangular shaped transverse micro mixer (MTM) is

numerically investigated.

2.

A single unit wall with separated channels is chosen to perform the numerical

analysis in order to conserve the computational time. Fig. 1 portrays the schematic

diagram of MTM. Fig. 2 shows the computational domain of MTM together with its

geometrical parameters. A single micro channel has the width of 0.1 mm and the

depth of 0.2 mm and therefore the hydraulic diameter is 0.1333 mm. The total

length, width and height of the channel are 10 mm, 0.3 mm and 0.35 mm

respectively. The parameters of MTM; , and d represents the inner and outer

angle and the depth of meeting point of the two edges of the micro mixer (depth of

micro mixer). The geometrical parameters of the micro mixers are not dependent on

each other. The distance of the two adjacent micro mixers depends on its quantity

where the total distance of the channel is divided equal with the numbers of the

micro mixers and the integer value considered as the pitch between the micro

mixers and the floats are divided equally at entrance and exit of the channel.

3.

Mathematical Foundation

The governing equations that are conservation of mass, momentum, and energy

given as follows:

Continuity equation:

(1)

Momentum equation:

(2)

Energy equation:

(3)

Governing Equation for Solid.

(Solid) (4)

The governing equation stated above is developed with following assumption:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

The governing equations were solved using the finite volume based computational

fluid dynamics (CFD) solver FLUENT 6.3.26. The momentum and energy convective

term are discretized by the second order upwind differencing scheme and the

pressure-velocity decoupling is done with the SIMPLE algorithm. The solutions were

considered to be converged when the normalized residual values were less than

107 for all variables except for the energy equation less than 108.

3.1

Boundary conditions

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

independence study is conducted for simple MCHS with single wall and two

channels. For uin = 4m/s and q = 106 W/m2, the deviations of average Nusselt

number using 0.347, 0.465 and 0.667 million grids from that of 1.04 million grids

are 9.53%, 5.32%, 2.01% and 0.34% respectively. Considering the deviation is less

than 0.5%, MCHS with 0.667 million grids is selected for analysis to achieve

desirable accuracy and computational time.

3.2

The thermal performance of micro channel heat sink is determined by its Nusselt

number that can be calculated using Eq. (5).

(5)

where , Dh and kf are the average heat convection coefficient, hydraulic diameter

of the channel, and thermal conductivity of the fluid.

The average convective heat coefficient can be calculated as:

(6)

where L is the length of the channel.

The local convective heat transfer coefficient, h(x), can be evaluated using the

following equation:

(7)

Tw(x,y,z) is the local wall temperature and Tm(x) is local fluid bulk-mean

temperature given by:

(8)

The friction factor can be calculated as follows:

(9)

where p and um is the pressure drop and mean velocity.

In order to evaluate the increment ratio compared to simple MCHS. The increment

ratio of friction factor, Nusselt number and improvement factor are calculated as: ,

and respectively.

4.

Numerical that consist of a single wall and two channels with half of the actual

channel width is selected for the present study. This numerical model is compared

with a single micro channel and two walls with identical geometries and both of

these models are validated with existing analytical equations as shown in Fig. 3. The

Nusselt number and frictional factor at various Reynolds number matched well with

analytical equation [23] for similar boundary conditions (uin=4m/s, q=106W/m2).

4.2 Effect of micro mixer orientation, cooling fluid volume flow rate and its flow

direction.

Micro mixers are designed in two orientation of in order to predict the effect of flow

pattern in MTM; parallel and alternating. The volume flow rate of the cooling fluid is

studied from G = 4 to 10 10-7 m3/s with different inlet direction; D1 and D2. The

boundary conditions associated with different flow direction are explained in Section

3.1. The arrangement of the micro mixer is defined as A1 and A2 for alternating and

parallel arrangement respectively. Fig. 4 shows the schematic diagram of the flow

arrangement and the flow direction. It can be seen that the micro mixer is

converging with the flow direction in D1 and diverging in D1. A1 provides

alternating flow between one to another channel whereas flow diverts consistently

into only channel in A2. Heat flux of 1.2 106 W/m2 is supplied at the bottom

surface of the silicon substrate. Both the inner () and outer angle () are

constrained at 30. The numbers of the micro mixers between channels are fixed at

6.

4.2.1 Heat Transfer characteristic

The evaluation of the thermal characteristic is performed based on the Nusselt

number since heat transfer through advection is dominant. The propensity of Nuavg

and Nur with increment of G at different flow direction and micro mixer arrangement

is shown in Fig. 5. It is observed that Nuavg of MTM is outstandingly higher

compared to simple MCHS. Nuavg increases drastically with increment of G for both

micro mixer arrangement and flow direction with greater rising extent compared to

simple MCHS. A very trivial difference is found between D1 and D2 at G=410-7

m3/s for both arrangement. The flow direction doesnt seem to affect the thermal of

MTM for both arrangements at the lower flow rate. This trend prolonged for A1 until

G= 5 10-7 m3/s where Nuavg in both direction lie at the same point and gradually

disperses after that. In Direction 2, Nuavg begins to rise with larger accretion

compared to Direction 1 in both arrangements as G passes 5 10-7m3/s.

Arrangement A1 exhibits higher Nuavg for both flow direction until G<610-7 m3/s.

However, ascend of A2 becomes more precipitous and outperforms others at

G=1010-7 m3/s

perception of variation in Nur at different flow rate, flow direction and micro mixer

arrangement. Generally, a gradual increment is observed in Nur for all configuration

and D2, A1 reaches to the peak value at G=1010-7 m3/s. Higher heat transfer can

be achieved in a diverging micro mixer because of the reverse pressure gradient

micro mixer encourage the fluid to enter the micro mixer and spool up into vortices

before exiting that improve the convection heat transfer. Aside of that, alternating

flow orientation enhance the flow oscillations that too signifies the heat transfer.

4.2.2 Friction factor characteristic

It is known that reduces with increment in flow rate. As expected, in Fig. 6,

reduce gradually for both MTM and simple MCHS as G increases from 4 to 1010-7

m3/s. Ironically, of simple MCHS is higher compared all MTM at 410-7<G<510-7

m3/s. However, since descend degree of in simple micro channel is large

compared to MTM, it overlie all MTM except D2, A2 at G=710-7 m3/s. Since of

D2, A2 is much lower compared to other, simple MCHS only overlaps it at G=9107 m3/s. It is found that flow direction has negligible effect on for A2 for all given

flow direction and eventually had the least value of at G=910-7.

In Fig. 6, the 3D surface plot shows that r increases gradually with G. r of A2, D2

is found expressively smaller compared to others and it meet lowest point at G=4

10-7. Apical point of r is observed at A2, D1 at G=10 10-7. The fluid flow in

micro mixer in alternating direction has better performance compared to parallel

direction. This is because in parallel direction, the cooling fluid is repeatedly forced

into one channel while the other channel discharge the cooling fluid from the

mainstream continuously that results in pressure built up. On the other side, the

convergent micro mixers with flow direction have smaller outlet than inlet that

impedes the flow and deteriorates the pressure drop. Diverging micro mixers with

flow direction at alternating position demonstrates the least pressure loss and

overlap simple MCHS at G=9 10-7.

Water from the main stream channel slips over the micro mixer ensues less friction

factor compared simple channel at lower flow rate especially in Direction 2.

Nevertheless, this effect fades as the flow rate increases. The secondary flow

regime from the micro mixer interrupts the main stream flow the increases the

pressure loss of MTM as the flow rate increases.

4.2.3 Overall Enhancement

It is a general fact that increment of Nuavg always accompanied by additional

pressure drop. The compensation of Nur with r is verified based on overall

enhancement r. The 3D surface plot shows that Nur intensifies progressively with

increment of G as shown in Fig. 7.

and flow direction starts to increase at different acclivity. The most significant

improvement observed among a MTM is for A2, D1 where r increases from lowest

among the MTM to the highest. In terms of sensitivity of flow direction on the micro

mixer arrangement, A2 is more responsive to the flow direction where larger

difference is observed between the flow directions at higher G.

Drastically improved of r at A1, D2 from G = 4 to 10 10-7 m3/s. This followed by

A2, D2 where with slightly lower r for a given G. It should be noted that the

variation of Nur for both A1, D2 and A2, D2 with G are almost same but r of A1, D2

was significantly lower compared to A2, D2. This fact leads to significant

improvement of r at A1, D2.

It is a common fact that with increase of flow rate, the magnitude of vortex

enhances and the thermal boundary layer in the constant cross-sectional area

shrinks. Inclusion of micro mixers in MCHS signifies this effect as vortices are

formed in it. The cooling fluid temperature in the center of vortex region is higher

compared to the surrounding vicinity. Fig. 8 portrays the pressure contour plots and

isotherms of micro mixer at A1, D2 at G = 9 10-7 m3/s and A2, D1 from G = 4

10-7 m3/s. While former has a large fluid vortex, the latter has two vortices that are

comparatively smaller where each of them swirls at opposing direction. These

inimical whirlpools are formed owing to the repetitive diversion of the mainstream

fluid into the same channel (upper channel) that makes it very repulsive. It can be

observed in Fig.8b that pressure at end of latter mainstream, the pressure at upper

channel is much lower compared lower channel unlike in former channel, the exit

pressure of both mainstreams are almost same. Thus, the fluid in micro mixer is

deterred from entering the channel and it circulates at different stationary focal

point in opposing direction continuously. Unfortunately, such adverse fluid

circulation impeded the heat transfer and increased the pressure seriously. A very

high temperature is observed in this proximity and this can seriously deteriorates

the heat transfer.

4.3

Effect of variation in the inner angle and outer angle on the thermal and flow

characteristic is studied. These two parameters determine the shape of the micro

mixer. Even though the highest performance is obtained from A1, D1 from the

previous analysis, it had higher friction factor compared to the simple at G = 9

10-7 m3/s. Since the objective of the study is to attain thermal enhancement

without additional pressure loss, configuration D2, A2is selected at G = 9 10-7,

for this analysis. The width of the micro mixer and numbers micro mixers are fixed

at 10 m and 6 respectively.

4.3.1 Heat Transfer characteristic

Nuavg increase greatly with increment of for all as shown Fig. 8a. While having

the baseline value of simple MCHS at Nuavg= 10.08, a noticeable relation is also

observed and . For a given , Nuavg accretes with . Indeed, the accession

progression of with has also improved at =30.

Micro mixer =50, =30 exhibits a very poor heat transfer by cause of its sharp

diversion angle and confined area. Thus, only a small amount of fluid from the main

stream channel redirect into the micro mixer. Aside of that, there is no fluid

circulation observed in the micro mixer and the cooling fluid directly flow towards

the lower main stream channel. It also observed that the micro mixer environed

with very high fluid temperature. This suggests that poor fluid mixing in that region

consequently lowered the thermal enhancement.

As 50 and 30, the convective heat transfer progressively improved as

illustrated in Fig. 8b. Besides the changes in the shape, the size of the micro mixer

also enlarged. This has encouraged more fluid to imping into the micro mixer and

engendered more vortices that consequently improved the fluid mixing and shorten

the thermal boundary layer.

Laminar stagnation has built up in fringe of the mainstream and the micro mixer

outlet due to the sudden reduction cooling fluid velocity as flow from these two

regime consolidates. This laminar stagnation zone has slightly hampers the heat

transfer. In spite of this impediment, the overall heat transfer improved due to

several factors (1) multiple fluid recirculation; (2) redevelopments of boundary

layer; and (3) enlargement in the heat transfer area at solid- fluid interface.

Enormous heat transfer intensification due to these factors has compensated the

minor heat transfer deterioration that happened at the pressure stagnation.

4.3.2 Friction factor characteristic

A tremendous reduction in is observed with decline of especially for =30 as

portrayed in Fig. 9. The escalate amplitude of varies depending on where; as

reduces, the reduction of becomes more vigorous with increment of . For

instance, for =30, crosses the simple MCHS with only a small increment of

(<30) since the descent scope is very large. This followed by =40 at 40 < <

50. Whereas for =50, remains compared to of simple MCHS for all values of .

From trend of , it can be inferred that increment in the inner angle and reduction in

the outer angle reduces greatly.

Reduction of provide smaller diversion angle and ease cooling fluid to impinge

from the mainstream channel to mixer section. Likewise, increment of results in

inverse pressure that also to invades the fluid into the micro mixer section. Besides,

the micro mixer area enlarged and fluid in mainstream channel slips over this area.

The velocity of fluid decreases and it redirects at brink of the micro mixer exit and

mainstream channel because of the wall stagnation and viscosity of fluid. This

results in a bigger area of laminar stagnation area in this section that also helps the

fluid to slip over this region. These are the two major reasons of significant

reduction in friction factor in this analysis.

4.3.3 Overall Enhancement

For comparison of tendency of r and Nur, the variation of r with is plotted at

different . While in one hand, the variation of is recedes drastically with , on

the other hand, Nuavg improved considerably, an appreciable improvement is

noticed in r. As shown in Fig. 10, the proclivity is very much similar to Nur but at

greater ratio proportion due to the reason mentioned above.

Fig.11 shows that the angle of micro mixer is very steep and the size is very

slender. Therefore, only partial amount of fluid enter this region and directly flow

towards the lower main stream channel. No fluid recirculation is observed due to

the limited space. As 50 and 30, the micro mixer becomes sharper in its

shape and therefore, the pressure gradient becomes much larger. Besides, the

micro mixer size is also enlarged and consequently increases the solid-fluid

interface area. This let the convection heat transfer in the micro mixer increase

immensely. As more fluid enters the micro mixer, multiple vortices are generated

with high intensity due to the reverse pressure difference across it.

Isotherms in Fig. 11b shows that higher cooling fluid temperature in core of the

vortices in =50, =50 implies that greater heat transfer happens in this micro

mixer. The fluid pressure in the same locality, nevertheless is lower compared to the

neighboring region.

The pressure plot in the micro mixer =50, =50 shows that pressure stagnation

formed at the adjoining point of the micro mixer and lower main stream channel. A

low pressure area is typically formed at the area flow split from the mainstream

region and the high pressure area (pressure stagnation) is normally built when fluid

merge from different directions.

4.4

Variation in thermal and flow performance with increment in depth (d) and numbers

(n) of micro mixer in the micro channel heat sink is analyzed. The analysis is

performed by maintaining and at 50 and 30 respectively in micro mixer

A1,D2 at G = 9 10-7 m3/s. The range analysis performed is from 0.1 to 0.2 m

and 6 to 10 in for d and n respectively. It has to be underlined that, varying of d

direct affect the size of the micro mixer and combination of d and n will determine

the sectional length of the of constant segment of MTM.

4.4.1 Heat Transfer characteristic

Fig. 12(a) displays that Nuavg increased progressively with increment of d. Besides

that, a visible increment is observed in the variation of n. However, smaller

increment is observed at 8<n<10 compared 6<n<10. This trend suggests that

increment of numbers of micro mixer has reached to its maximum potential to

enhance the thermal performance. Two possible reasons can propose for the

reduced in the ascent scope: (1) the thermal boundary layer has shrunken

sufficiently; (2) the breadth of vortex begins to increase rather than its quantity.

Further increment d and n would probably not improve the heat transfer or

deteriorate the thermal performance in worst case. Nur reached to its peak at d=0.2

and n=10 as corollary from increment and reduction of d and n as portrayed in Fig.

12(b). This trend makes sense as increment of size of the micro mixer would provide

larger area in micro mixer that consequently enhance the fluid diversion from the

main stream flow region and its mixing in the micro mixer. Similarly, increment of

numbers of micro mixer also results in more fluid quivering and mixing. Aside of

that, repetitive boundary layer development in constant cross sectional area also

improves the thermal enhancement.

As discussed earlier, the significance of the forced convection is dependent of fluid

recirculation it is directly affected the size and intensity of vortices. Enlargement of

the micro mixer augments the peripheral area of vortex that increases the size of

vortex and eventually improves the fluid mixing in the bulk flow. As d and n

increase, the numbers of vortex amplified and the thermal boundary development

shortened that impede the heat transfer rate. The fluid oscillation, concurrently

outweigh heat transfer rate drawback over the shorter length of total constant

cross-sectional area.

4.4.2 Friction factor characteristic

Opposing trend is seen in compared to Nuavg in Fig. 13(a). A drastic reduction is

observed with increment of d. Increment of n also reduced the friction factor of MTM

even though the tendency of the reduction is found inconsistent. Based on this

phenomenon, it is found in Fig. 13(b) that combined effect of d and n weighted

based the simple MCHS had a peak value at d=0.1 and n=6 and lowest point at

d=0.2 m and n=10. It can be inferred that larger area between the micro mixer

and the mainstream flow could reduce the flow friction. This could happen possibly

due slip fluid flow over the micro mixer area. Aside of that, the velocity of cooling

fluid abates and the redirects due to the wall stagnation, fluid viscosity and fluid

association from mainstream region and micro mixers. Consequently, a large

stagnation area is formed in this section that enables the fluid to slip over it and

diminishes the friction factor.

In previous sections, it can is observed that increment of d and n has multiplied the

benefits of MTM by increasing the Nuavg as well as reducing . This has result in

tremendous improvement in r. As d0.2 m and n10, r increased up to 1.53 as

shown in Fig. 15.

The detailed study of the flow and thermal field in Fig. 16 shows that multiple

vortices are developed in both micro mixers. In virtue of large impinging area, the

fluid flows into the micro mixer and then whirls up creating recirculation due to

converse pressure difference across the micro mixer. It has also noted that, the

laminar pressure stagnation at verge of main stream and the micro mixer outlet

becomes larger with increment of d and n. The streamlines, temperature and

pressure plot for both micro mixers (d=0.2m, n=10 and d=0.1m, n=10) are

observed to be similar (except for numbers and size of vortices).

The isotherms shows the cooling fluid temperature is much higher in MTM with

d=0.2m and n=10 that suggest higher heat transfer compared to d=0.1m and

n=6. Even though vortices are observed in both micro mixers, more vortices is seen

in the former at larger size in three different position; one at the entry section and

two at the exit section. Higher temperature is observed in the focal vicinity of the

vortices as in previous analysis. The cooling fluid pressure in the same locale, on the

other hand, is lower compared to the neighboring region. Thus, it can be reckoned

that the more vortices are generated, the greater heat absorption induced in the

micro mixer.

As mentioned above, increment of d directly reflects increment of the size of micro

mixers. The significance of the forced convection is dependent on fluid recirculation

and it is directly affected by the size and intensity of vortices. Enlargement of the

micro mixer augments the peripheral area of vortex that increases the quantity and

size of vortices. Increase of n the also increased the number of vortices and these

eventually improves the fluid mixing in the bulk flow tremendously. Besides the size

and numbers of vortices, the solid-fluid interface area and repetitive development of

boundary layer also increase as corollary of increment of d and n. Increase of d and

n might shorten the thermal boundary development that could impede the heat

transfer rate. The fluid oscillation, concurrently outweigh heat transfer rate

drawback against the shorter entire length of constant. Excessive increase of d

could shorten the step-wise constant cross-sectional length that would impede the

thermal boundary layer redevelopment and reduce the intensity of the vortices as

mentioned previously. It can be inferred that moderate increase of d and n can

improve heat transfer, but if done overly, the thermal performance is deteriorated.

5.

Conclusion

A newly designed micro channel heat sink with micro mixer (MTM) is proposed in

the present study. The primary objective this numerical study is to obtain the

appropriate flow rate, micro mixer angle and its size in order to achieve highest

thermal enhancement possible without additional pressure drop. From the data

obtained in the study, it can be deduced that there is an optimum flow rate,

appropriate flow direction and micro mixer arrangement to achieve thermal

enhancement without additional pressure loss that. The optimum volume flow rate

is at 9 10-7 m3/s. In fact, the pressure loss of MTM is slightly lesser compared to

the simple MCHS. Besides, reduction of the outer angle and increment of the inner

angle of micro mixer also enhances thermal enhancement and reduces the pressure

loss significantly. Increment in number of micro mixer and enlargement of its depth

improve the performance of the MTM as well. In virtue of repetitive alternating flow,

large and intense vortices are generated in the micro mixer. Besides, the thermal

boundary layer is shortened and thickened. Therefore, thermal performance of MTM

intensified exceptionally. The slip of main stream flow over the micro mixer and

laminar stagnation zone are the prime reason of drastic reduction of friction factor

in MTM. Ultimately, the overall performance has escalated tremendously by virtue

of these reasons.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Higher Education of

Malaysia and the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for the financial

support under the project UM.C/HIR/MOHE/ENG/40.

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