You are on page 1of 61


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany (disambiguation).
"Deutschland" redirects here. For other uses, see Deutschland (disambiguation).

Federal Republic of Germany

Bundesrepublik Deutschland


Coat of arms

Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen[1]

(English: "Song of the Germans")[a]

Location of Germany (dark green)

in Europe (green & dark grey)
in the European Union (green) [Legend]



and largest city

5231N 1323E

Official languages






- President

Joachim Gauck

- President of the Bundestag

Norbert Lammert

- Chancellor

Angela Merkel

- President of the Bundesrat

Volker Bouffier

- President of the

Andreas Vokuhle

- Upper house


- Lower house


- Holy Roman Empire

2 February 962

- German Confederation

8 June 1815

- Unification

18 January 1871

- Federal Republic

23 May 1949

- Reunification

3 October 1990

- Total

357,168 km2(63rd)
137,847 sq mi

- 2014 estimate


- 2011 census


- Density

226/km2 (58th)
583/sq mi


2014 estimate

- Total

$3.621 trillion[4](5th)

- Per capita

$44,741[4] (17th)

GDP (nominal)

2014 estimate

- Total

$3.820 trillion[4](4th)

- Per capita

$47,201[4] (16th)

Gini (2011)


HDI (2013)

very high 6th


Euro () [2] (EUR)

Time zone


- Summer (DST)
Drives on the



Calling code


ISO 3166 code


Internet TLD

.de [3]

^ Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisianare officially

recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages


^ Before 2002, the Deutschmark.


^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European

Union member states.

Germany ( /drmni/; German: Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of

Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [bndsepublik dtlant] (
listen)),[7] is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe. It consists of 16 constituent
states, which retain limited sovereignty, and covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres
(137,847 sq mi) with a largely temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Berlin.
Germany is amajor economic and political power and traditionally a leader in many cultural,
theoretical and technical fields.

With 80.7 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state in the European
Union. After the United States, it is also the second most popular migration destination in the
world.[8] Germany has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the fifth-largest by
PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's thirdlargest exporter and third-largest importer of goods. It is a developed country with a very high
standard of living, featuring comprehensive social security that includes the world's
oldest universal health care system. Known for its rich cultural and political history, Germany has
been the home of many
influential philosophers, artists,musicians, cineasts, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany was a founding member of the European Communities in 1957, which became the
European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and has been a member of
the Eurozone since 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20,
the OECDand the Council of Europe.
Various Germanic tribes have occupied what is now northern Germany and southern Scandinavia
since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented by the Romans before
AD 100. During the Migration Period that coincided with the decline of the Roman Empire, the
Germanic tribes expanded southward and established kingdoms throughout much of Europe.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman
Empire.[9] During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant
Reformation. The rise of Pan-Germanism inside the German Confederation, which had
been occupied by France during the Napoleonic Wars, resulted in the unification of most of the
German states in 1871 into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. As a result of the military
defeat in World War I, and the German Revolution of 19181919, the Empire was replaced by the
parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the Third Reich, or Nazi Regime, in 1933
eventually led to World War II and the Holocaust. In 1945, the remnants of the Nazi
regime surrendered to the Allied Powers. Over the next few years, Germany lost more of its
territory and was divided by the victors into Allied occupation zones, and evolved into two
states, East Germany and West Germany. On 3 October 1990, the country was reunified,
regaining full sovereignty about six months later.

1 Etymology


2 History

2.1 Prehistory

2.2 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire

2.3 Holy Roman Empire

2.4 German Confederation and Empire

2.5 Weimar Republic and the Third Reich

2.6 East and West Germany

2.7 German reunification and the EU

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

3.2 Biodiversity

4 Politics

4.1 Law

4.2 Constituent states

4.3 Foreign relations

4.4 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Infrastructure

5.2 Science and technology

5.3 Tourism

6 Demographics

6.1 National minorities

6.2 Immigrant population

6.3 Urbanization

6.4 Religion

6.5 Languages

6.6 Education

6.7 Health

7 Culture

7.1 Art

7.2 Music

7.3 Architecture

7.4 Literature and philosophy

7.5 Cinema

7.6 Media

7.7 Cuisine

7.8 Sports

7.9 Fashion and design

8 See also

9 Notes

10 References

11 External links

3. Etymology
Further information: Names of Germany
The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius
Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.
The German termDeutschland (originally diutisciu land, "the German lands") is derived
from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to
the diot ordiota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common
people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from ProtoGermanic*iudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *eud,
descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewth- "people".[11]

4. History
Main article: History of Germany

5. Prehistory

The Nebra sky disk is about 3,600 years old.

The discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible in 1907 shows that ancient humans were present in
Germany at least 600,000 years ago.[12] The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in
the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schningen in 1995 where three 380,000 year old
wooden javelins 67.5 feet long were unearthed. [13] The Neander Valley (German "Neanderthal")
was the location where the first ever non-modern human fossil was discovered and recognised in
1856, the new species of human was named Neanderthal man. The Neanderthal 1 fossils are
now known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found
in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm. The finds include 42,000 year old bird bone and
mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found, [14] the 40,000 year old
Ice Age Lion Manwhich is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered, [15] and the 35,000
year old Venus of Hohle Fels which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever
discovered.[16] The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk attributed to a site near Nebra,SaxonyAnhalt. UNESCO's Memory of the World Register calls it "one of the most important
archaeological finds of the 20th century."[17]

6. Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire

Main articles: Germania and Migration Period

Second- to fifth-century migrations in Europe

The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south, east and west from the 1st
century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes ofGaul as well as Iranian, Baltic,
and Slavic tribes in Central and Eastern Europe.[18] Under Augustus, Rome began to invade
Germania (an area extending roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains). In AD 9,
three Roman legions led by Varus weredefeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius. By AD 100,
when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube
(the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany; Austria,
southern Bavaria and the western Rhineland, however, were Roman provinces.[19]
In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes
emerged: Alemanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisii, Sicambri, andThuringii. Around 260, the
Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.[20] After the invasion of the Huns in 375,
and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes moved further south-west.

Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced the smaller
Germanic tribes. Large areas (known since the Merovingian period asAustrasia) were occupied
by the Franks, and Northern Germany was ruled by the Saxons and Slavs.[19]

7. Holy Roman Empire

Main article: Holy Roman Empire

Map of the Holy Roman Empire in 1648, after the Peace of Westphaliawhich ended the Thirty Years' War.

On 25 December 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor and founded
the Carolingian Empire, which wasdivided in 843.[21] The Holy Roman Empire comprised
the eastern portion of Charlemagne's original kingdom and emerged as the strongest. Its territory
stretched from the Eider River in the north to the Mediterranean coast in the south.[21] Under the
reign of the Ottonian emperors (9191024), several major duchies were consolidated, and the
German king Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor of these regions in 962. In 996 Gregory
V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned
Holy Roman Emperor.[22] The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under
the reign of the Salian emperors (10241125), although the emperors lost power through
the Investiture Controversy.[23]

Martin Luther initiated theProtestant Reformation

Under the Hohenstaufen emperors (11381254), the German princes increased their influence
further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs, preceding German settlement in these
areas and further east (Ostsiedlung). Northern German towns grew prosperous as members of
the Hanseatic League.[24] Starting with the Great Famine in 1315, then the Black Death of 1348
50, the population of Germany declined.[25] The edict of the Golden Bull in 1356 provided the basic
constitution of the empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who
ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.[26]
Martin Luther publicised The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 in Wittenberg, challenging the Roman
Catholic Church and initiating theProtestant Reformation. Lutheranism and the Reformed
faith became the official religions in many German states after 1530 and 1648, respectively.

Religious conflict led to the Thirty Years' War (16181648), which devastated German lands.
The population of the German states was reduced by about 30%.[28] The Peace of
Westphalia (1648) ended religious warfare among the German states. Throughout its entire
history, the empire was de facto divided into numerous independent principalities. In the 18th
century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1,800 such territories.[29]
From 1740 onwards, dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of
Prussia dominated German history. In 1806 the Imperium was overrun and dissolved as a result
of the Napoleonic Wars.[30]

8. German Confederation and Empire

Main articles: German Confederation, German Empire and Pan-Germanism

Origin of the Black-Red-Gold:German Revolution of 1848 (Berlin, 19 March 1848)

Foundation of the German Empirein Versailles, 1871. Bismarck is at the center in a white uniform.

Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded the
German Confederation (Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states. Disagreement
with restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of
repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic
unity in the German states.[31] National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained
increasing support among many, especially young, Germans. The Hambach Festival in May 1832
was a main event in support of German unity, freedom and democracy. In the light of a series of
revolutionary movements in Europe, which established a republic in France, intellectuals and
commoners started the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. King Frederick William IV of
Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the
proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement. [32]

The German Empire (18711918), with the dominant Kingdom of Prussiain blue

King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck the new Minister President of Prussia in 1862.
Bismarck successfully waged war on Denmark in 1864. Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian
War of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation(Norddeutscher Bund) and to
exclude Austria from the federation's affairs. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War,
the German Empire was proclaimed in 1871 in Versailles, uniting all scattered parts of Germany
except Austria. Prussia was the dominating constituent of the new state; the Hohenzollern King of
Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital. [32] In
the Grnderzeit period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy
as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation
by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war. As a result of
the Berlin Conference in 1884 Germany claimed several colonies including German East
Africa,German South-West Africa, Togo, and Cameroon.[33] Under Wilhelm II, however, Germany,
like other European powers, took an imperialistic course leading to friction with neighbouring
countries. Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed, and
new alliances excluded the country.[34]
The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 triggered World War I. Germany, as
part of the Central Powers, suffered defeat against the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all
time. In total, approximately two million German soldiers were killed in World War I.
The German Revolution broke out in November 1918, and Emperor Wilhelm II and all German
ruling princes abdicated. An armisticeended the war on 11 November, and Germany signed
the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919. Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and
it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Hitler.[36][37][38]

9. Weimar Republic and the Third Reich

Main articles: Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany
At the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918, Germany was declared a republic.
However, the struggle for power continued, with radical-leftCommunists seizing power in Bavaria.
The revolution came to an end on 11 August 1919, when the democratic Weimar Constitution was
signed by President Friedrich Ebert.[39] After a tumultuous period seeing the occupation of the
Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of
192223, a debt restructuring plan (the Dawes Plan) and the creation of a new currency in 1924
ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of increasing national confidence, artistic innovation,
liberal cultural life and economic prosperity. However, the economic situation was still quite
volatile and Germany remained politically tempestuous throughout. Historian David Williamson
connotes the period between 1924 and 1929 in Germany as one of "Partial Stabilization." [40]

Adolf Hitler was Chancellorand Fhrer of Nazi Germanyfrom 1933 to 1945.

The Great Depression hit Germany in 1929. After the federal election of 1930, forming a coalition
government proved impossible and Chancellor Heinrich Brning's government asked President
Paul von Hindenburg to grant him Article 48 powers so that he could enact emergency policies
without parliamentary approval. Hindenburg approved the request and Brning's government
pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused higher unemployment and left
Germans, especially the unemployed, with fewer social services. By 1932 nearly 30% of
Germany's workforce was unemployed[41] and in the special federal election of 1932 the Nazi
Party won 37% of the vote but could not form a coalition government. After a series of
unsuccessful cabinets, President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of
Germany on 30 January 1933.[42] On 27 February 1933 the Reichstag building went up in flames,
the Reichstag Fire Decree was passed abrogating basic civil rights and the Enabling Act of
1933 gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power. Hitler established a centralised totalitarian
state and opened Germany's first concentration camps in February 1933. In September 1933
Germans voted to withdraw from the League of Nations and Hitler began to pursue military

Deportation of ethnic minorities inside Nazi Germany to concentration camps, action which foreshadowed
theHolocaust, 22 May 1940

In 1935 the Nazi regime reintroduced compulsory military service, withdrew from the Treaty of
Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other groups. Germany
reacquired control of the Saar in 1935 and in 1936 sent troops into the Rhineland, which had
been forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles.[44] Austria was annexed in 1938 and despite theMunich
Agreement in September 1938, Germany occupied Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939. Hitler's
government then prepared for the invasion of Poland by signing the MolotovRibbentrop
pact and planning a fake Polish attack. On 1 September 1939 the German Wehrmacht launched
their invasion, and swiftly occupied Poland along with the Soviet Red Army. The United Kingdom
and France responded to the invasion by declaring war on Germany, marking the beginning
of World War II.[45] On 22 July 1940, the French signed an armistice with the Germans after Nazi
troops had occupied most of France. The British successfully repelled the German attacks of
1940, known as the Battle of Britain, and continued to fight against the Axis powers. On 22 June

1941, Germany broke the MolotovRibbentrop pact and invaded the Soviet Union. At that point,
Germany and the other Axis powers controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa. In
early 1943, the German troops begun to retreat from the Soviet Union after their defeat in
the Battle of Stalingrad, which is considered a turning point in the war.[45]
In September 1943 Germany's ally Italy surrendered, and additional German troops were needed
to defend against Allied forces in Italy. The D-Day invasion of France opened a Western front in
the war and despite a German counter offensive Allied forces had entered Germany by 1945.
Following Hitler's suicide and the Battle of Berlin, the German armed forces surrendered on 8
May 1945.[46] The war was humanity's bloodiest conflict and caused the deaths of
around 40 million people in Europe alone.[47] German army war casualties were between 3.25
million and 5.3 million soldiers,[48] and approximately 2 million German civilians were killed. [49]
In what later became known as The Holocaust, the Nazi regime enacted policies which targeted
minorities as well as political and religious opposition. Over 10 million civilians were executed by
the Nazis during the Holocaust, including 6 million Jews, between 220,000 and
1,500,000 Romani people, 275,000 persons with mental and/or physical disabilities, thousands
of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of members of
the political and religious opposition.[50] 2.7 million Poles[51] and 1.3 million Ukrainians,[52] along with
an estimated 2.8 million Soviet war prisoners were also killed by the Nazi regime.

Berlin in ruins after World War II. View of the Brandenburg Gate andUnter den Linden boulevard, July 1945

Losing the war resulted in territorial losses for Germany, the expulsion of millions of ethnic
Germans from the former eastern territories of Germany and formerly occupied countries.
Germany, like many of the countries it had occupied,[53] suffered mass rape[54] and the destruction
of numerous cities and cultural heritage due to bombing and fighting during the war. After World
War II, some Nazis, former Nazis and others were tried for German war crimes, including crimes
related to the Holocaust, at theNuremberg trials.[55]

10. East and West Germany

Main article: History of Germany (19451990)

Occupation zones in Germany, 1947. The territories east of the Oder-Neisse line, under Polish and
Soviet de jure administration and de factoannexation, are shown as white, as is the detached Saar

After the surrender of Germany, the remaining German territory and Berlin were partitioned by
the Allies into four military occupation zones. Together these zones accepted more than 6.5
million of the ethnic Germans expelled from eastern areas.[56]The western sectors, controlled by
France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form
the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or BRD); on 7 October 1949, the
Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik or
DDR). They were informally known as "West Germany" and "East Germany". East Germany
selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to
emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporarystatus quo.[57]
West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market
economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under
the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry (especially coal).[58] Konrad Adenauer was
elected the first Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) of Germany in 1949 and remained in office
until 1963. Under his and Ludwig Erhard's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic
growth beginning in the early 1950s, that became famous as an "economic miracle"
(Wirtschaftswunder).[citation needed] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of
the European Economic Community in 1957.
East Germany was an Eastern Bloc state under political and military control by the USSR via the
latter's occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Though East Germany claimed to be a
democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbro) of the
communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), supported by the Stasi, an
immense secret service,[59] and a variety of sub-organisations controlling every aspect of society.
A Soviet-style command economy was set up; the GDR later became a Comecon state (an
economic organization under the leadership of the Soviet Union).[60]

The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gatebehind. Today the Gate is often regarded
as Germany's main national landmark.

While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and
the alleged constant threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for
freedom and prosperity.[61] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961 to stop East Germans from escaping to
West Germany, became a symbol of the Cold War,[32] hence its fall in 1989 became a symbol of
the Fall of Communism, German Reunification and Die Wende.
Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the early 1970s by Chancellor Willy
Brandt's Ostpolitik. In summer 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the
borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary.
This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrationsreceived increasing
support. The East German authorities unexpectedly eased the border restrictions, allowing East
German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state,
the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process. This
culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September 1990, under which the four
occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender, and Germany
regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the
accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR (new states or "neue Lnder").[32]

11. German reunification and the EU

Main articles: German reunification and History of Germany since 1990

The German Unity Flag, raised outside the Reichstag building on 3 October 1990 as a national memorial
toGerman reunification. Since its completed renovation in 1999, the Reichstag is the meeting place of
theBundestag, the German parliament.

Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act, adopted on 10 March 1994, Berlin once again became the capital
of the reunified Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city)
retaining some federal ministries.[62] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999.
Following the 1998 elections, SPD politician Gerhard Schrder became the first Chancellor of
a redgreen coalition with the Alliance '90/The Greens party, lasting until the 2005 elections.
Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union and NATO.
Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of German
troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to providesecurity in that country after the ousting
of the Taliban.[64] These deployments were controversial since, after the war, Germany was bound
by domestic law only to deploy troops for defence roles.[65]
In 2005, Angela Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand
coalition ("Black-Red coalition").[32] In 2009, a liberal-conservative coalition under Merkel assumed
leadership of the country. In 2013, another grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel
cabinet, with the FDP Liberals not present in the Bundestag for the first time. Since 2014, the
newly established conservative Alternative for Germany (AfD) party were elected for
various Landtag mandates. Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century
are the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake"
(Schuldenbremse) for balanced budgets, the reform of German immigration laws, the legislation
for a general minimum wage, and high-tech strategies for the informatization and future transition
of the German economy, summarized as Industry 4.0.[66]

Main article: Geography of Germany

Topographic map

Germany is in Western and Central Europe, with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and
the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France and Luxembourg to
the southwest, and Belgium and the Netherlands to the northwest. It lies mostly between
latitudes 47 and 55 N (the tip of Sylt is just north of 55), and longitudes 5 and 16 E. The
territory covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land
and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and
the 62nd largest in the world.[1]
Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres or
9,718 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic
Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of
northern Germany (lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are
traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Glaciers are found in the Alpine
region, but are experiencing deglaciation. Significant natural resources are iron ore, coal, potash,
timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel,arable land and water.[1]

13. Climate

Steep coast of Dar, Western Pomerania typical of the Baltic coastal landscape in northern Germany

Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate in which humid westerly winds predominate.
The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern
European climate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of
the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in
the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Germany gets an average of 789 mm
(31 in) precipitationper year. Rainfall occurs year-round, with no consistent dry season. Winters
are mild and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 C (86 F).[67]
The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and
longer dry periods can occur. Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary
from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that

predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser
degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower
temperatures and greater precipitation.[67]

14. Biodiversity

The golden eagle is a protected bird of prey.

The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean

montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.[68] As of 2008 the majority of Germany
is covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30.1%); only 13.4% of the area
consists of permanent pastures, 11.8% is covered by settlements and streets. [69]
Plants and animals are those generally common to middle Europe. Beeches, oaks, and other
deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of
reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are
found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals
include deer, wild boar, mouflon, fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of beavers.
The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[71]
The 14 national parks in Germany include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon
Area National Park, the Mritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National
Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National
Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In addition, there
are 14 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and
animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.
The Berlin Zoo, opened in 1844, is the oldest zoo in Germany, and presents the most
comprehensive collection of species in the world.[73]

15. Politics
Main article: Politics of Germany
See also: Judiciary of Germany and Law enforcement in Germany

The Reichstag building in Berlin is the site of the German parliament (Bundestag)

Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political

system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitutional document known as
the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both
chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the
articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule
of law are valid in perpetuity.[74]
The president, currently Joachim Gauck, is the head of state and invested primarily with
representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal

convention), an institution consisting of the members of theBundestag and an equal number of

state delegates. The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is
theBundestagsprsident (President of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and
responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The third-highest official and the head
of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundesprsident after being elected by

Joachim Gauck

Angela Merkel

President since 2012

Chancellor since 2005

The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive
power, similar to the role of aPrime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.
Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of theBundestag (Federal Diet)
and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag is
elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (mixed-member).[1] The members
of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federated states and are members of
the state cabinets.[32]
Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and
the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of
these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party (which had members in the
Bundestag from 1949 to 2013) and the Alliance '90/The Greens (which has had seats in
parliament since 1983) have also played important roles.[75]

16. Law
Main article: Law of Germany

German state police officers, with a typical German police car

Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.
The Bundesverfassungsgericht(Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court
responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[32][76] Germany's supreme court
system, called Oberste Gerichtshfe des Bundes, is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the

highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts
are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and
the Federal Administrative Court. TheVlkerstrafgesetzbuch regulates the consequences
of crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes, and gives German courts universal
jurisdiction in some circumstances.[77]
Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and
the Brgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system is aimed towards
rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the general public. [78] Except for petty crimes,
which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are
tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schffen) sit side by side with professional
judges.[79][80] Many of the fundamental matters ofadministrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the

17. Constituent states

Main article: States of Germany
Germany comprises sixteen states which are collectively referred to as Lnder.[81] Each state has
its own state constitution[82] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation.
Because of differences in size and population the subdivisions of these states vary, especially as
between city states (Stadtstaaten) and states with larger territories (Flchenlnder). For regional
administrative purposes five states, namely Baden-Wrttemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North RhineWestphalia and Saxony, consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). As of
2013 Germany is divided into 402 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 295 rural
districts and 107 urban districts.[83]

Lower Saxony

North RhineWestphalia



Area (km)


































Lower Saxony




North Rhine-Westphalia













Area (km)



















18. Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Germany

Chancellor Angela Merkel hosting the G8 summit in Heiligendamm

Germany has a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad[85] and maintains relations with more
than 190 countries.[86] As of 2011 it is the largest contributor to the budget of the European
Union (providing 20%)[87] and the third largest contributor to the UN (providing 8%).[88] Germany is
a member of NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD),
the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It has played a
leading role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with
France since the end of World War II. Germany seeks to advance the creation of a more unified
European political, defence, and security apparatus.[89][90]
The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an independent area of German
foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and
Development (BMZ) and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government
sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[91] It is the world's
third biggest aid donor after the United States and France. [92][93]
During the Cold War, Germany's partition by the Iron Curtain made it a symbol of EastWest
tensions and a political battleground in Europe. However, Willy Brandt'sOstpolitik was a key factor
in the dtente of the 1970s.[94] In 1999, Chancellor Gerhard Schrder's government defined a new
basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo
War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since World War II. [95] The
governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies. [32] The 1948 Marshall
Plan and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond between the two countries, although
Schrder's vocal opposition to the Iraq War suggested the end of Atlanticism and a relative
cooling of German-American relations.[96] The two countries are also economically interdependent:
8.8% of German exports are US-bound and 6.6% of German imports originate from the US. [97]

19. Military
Main article: Bundeswehr

The Eurofighter Typhoon is part of the Luftwaffe

Leopard 2 tanks of the German Army

Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into Heer (Army), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air
Force), Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service and Streitkrftebasis (Joint Support Service)
branches. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in theConstitution of Germany (Art. 87a) as
absolutely defensive only. After a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term
"defense" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also
crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany
anywhere in the world. In 2011, military spending was an estimated 1.3% of the country's GDP,
which is low in a ranking of all countries; in absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th
highest in the world.[98] In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.
In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[99]
As of March 2012 the Bundeswehr employs 183,000 professional soldiers and 17,000 volunteers.
The German government plans to reduce the number of soldiers to 170,000 professionals and
up to 15,000 short-term volunteers (voluntary military service).[101] Reservists are available to the
Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad. [101] As of January
2015, the German military has about 2,370 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of
international peacekeeping forces, including about 850 Bundeswehr troops in the NATOled ISAF force in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, 670 German soldiers in Kosovo, and 120 troops
with UNIFIL in Lebanon.[102]
Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month
tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (civilian
service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or
the Red Cross. On 1 July 2011 conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a
voluntary service.[103][104] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction,
but they have not been subject to conscription. There are presently some 17,500 women on
active duty and a number of female reservists.[105]

20. Economy
Main article: Economy of Germany
See also: Mittelstand

Frankfurt is Germany's financial capital (New ECB HQ pictured)

Germany is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a
low level of corruption,[106] and a high level of innovation.[107] It has the largest and most powerful
national economy in Europe, the fourth largest by nominal GDP in the world,[108] and the fifth
largest by PPP.[109] The service sector contributes approximately 71% of the total GDP
(including information technology), industry 28%, and agriculture 1%.[1] The official average
national unemployment rate in April 2014 was 6.8%. [110] The harmonized unemployment rate of
Germany published by the EU's statistical agency Eurostat amounts to 4.7% in January 2015.
This is the lowest rate of all 28 EU member states ahead of Austria (4.8%) and the United
Kingdom (5.6%). Germany also has with 7.1% the lowest youth unemployment rate of all EU
member states ahead of Austria (8.2%) and Denmark (10.8%).[111] Germany has one of the
highest labour productivity levels in the world, according to OECD.[112]
Germany is an advocate of closer European economic and political integration. Its commercial
policies are increasingly determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and
by EU legislation. Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, on 1 January
2002.[113][114] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in
Frankfurt. Two decades after German reunification, standards of living and per capita incomes
remain significantly higher in the states of the former West Germany than in the former East.
The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy is a long-term process
scheduled to last until the year 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to
roughly $80 billion.[116] In January 2009 the German government approved a 50 billion economic
stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn and a subsequent rise in unemployment
Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2010,
the Fortune Global 500, 37 are headquartered in Germany. 30 Germany-based companies are
included in the DAX, the German stock market index. Well-known global brands
include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, SAP, Siemens, Volkswagen, Adidas, Audi, Allianz, Porsche, Baye
r, Bosch, and Nivea.[118] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and
medium enterprises, globally known and followed as the Mittelstand model. Around 1,000 of
these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelledhidden champions.

The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in 2011:




(Mil. )

(Mil. )



Volkswagen AG












Daimler AG






Siemens AG

Berlin, Mnchen






Ludwigshafen am Rhein











Metro AG






Schwarz Gruppe (Lidl/Kaufland) Neckarsulm





Deutsche Telekom AG






Deutsche Post AG





Allianz SE





Deutsche Bank AG

Frankfurt am Main




21. Infrastructure
Main articles: Transport in Germany and Energy in Germany

The ICE 3 in Cologne railway station

With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent. [121] Like its
neighbours in Western Europe, Germany's road network is amongst the densest in the world.
The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the third-largest worldwide in length and is known
for its lack of a general speed limit.[123] Germany has established a polycentric network of highspeed trains. The InterCityExpress or ICE network of the Deutsche Bahn serves major German
cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 kph (186 mph).
The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport, both hubs of Lufthansa,
while Air Berlin has hubs at Berlin Tegel and Dsseldorf. Other major airports include Berlin
Schnefeld, Hamburg, Cologne/Bonn and Leipzig/Halle. Both airports in Berlin will be
consolidated at a site adjacent to Berlin Schnefeld, which will become Berlin Brandenburg
Airport.[125] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[126]
In 2008, Germany was the world's sixth-largest consumer of energy,[127] and 60% of its primary
energy was imported.[128]Government policy promotes energy conservation and renewable energy
commercialisation. Energy efficiency has been improving since the early 1970s; the government
aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 40% renewable sources by 2020 and 100%
by 2050.[129] In 2010, energy sources were: oil (33.7%); coal, including lignite (22.9%); natural gas
(21.8%); nuclear (10.8%); hydro-electric and wind power (1.5%); and other renewable sources
(7.9%).[130] In 2000, the government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out
all nuclear power plants by 2021.[131] Germany is committed to theKyoto protocol and several other
treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, recycling, and the use of renewable
energy, and supports sustainable development at a global level.[132] The German government has
initiated wide-ranging emission reduction activities and the country's overall emissions are falling.
Nevertheless the country's greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2010,
while it is also the largest country by population and economical output. [134]The German energy
transition (German: Energiewende) is the globally recognised move to a sustainable economy by
means of renewable energy, energy efficiency and sustainable development. The final goal is the
abolition of coal and other non-renewable energy sources.[135]

22. Science and technology

Main articles: Science and technology in Germany and List of German inventors and discoverers

Albert Einstein was born in what is today the German city of Ulm.

Germany's achievements in the sciences have been significant, and research and
development efforts form an integral part of theeconomy.[136] The Nobel Prize has been awarded
to 104 German laureates.[137] For most of the 20th century, German laureates had more awards
than those of any other nation, especially in the sciences (physics, chemistry, and physiology or
Notable German physicists before the 20th century include Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von
Fraunhofer and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Albert Einstein introduced the relativity
theories for light and gravity in 1905 and 1915 respectively, which remain mainstream theories in
physics to this day. Along with Max Planck, he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum
mechanics, in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.
Wilhelm Rntgen discovered X-rays and was the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in
1901.[141] Otto Hahn was a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry and
discovered nuclear fission,[142] while Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch were founders
of microbiology. Numerous mathematicians were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich
Gauss, David Hilbert, Bernhard Riemann, Gottfried Leibniz, Karl Weierstrass, Hermann
Weyland Felix Klein. Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society,
the Helmholtz Association and the Fraunhofer Society. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is
granted to ten scientists and academics every year. With a maximum of 2.5 million per award it
is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world. [143]
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes
Gutenberg, credited with the invention ofmovable type printing in Europe; Hans Geiger, the
creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first fully automatic digital
computer.[144] German inventors, engineers and industrialists such as Count Ferdinand von
Zeppelin, Otto Lilienthal, Gottlieb Daimler, Rudolf Diesel, Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz helped
shape modern automotive and air transportation technology.[145] German institutions like
the German Aerospace Center (DLR) are the largest contributor to ESA.Aerospace
engineer Wernher von Braun developed the first space rocket and later on was a prominent
member of NASA and developed the Saturn V Moon rocket, which paved the way for the success
of the US Apollo programme. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic
radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.[146]
Germany is one of the leading countries in developing and using green technologies. Companies
specialising in green technology have an estimated turnover of 200 billion. Key sectors of
Germany's green technology industry are power generation, sustainable mobility, material
efficiency, energy efficiency, waste management andrecycling, and sustainable water
management.[147] With Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald, Germany also hosts a leading facility in the
research of fusion power.[148]

23. Tourism
Main article: Tourism in Germany
See also: List of museums in Germany and List of spa towns in Germany

A church in the Berchtesgadenregion of Bavaria. Bavaria is the most popular German state for international

Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [149][150] with a total of 407.26 million
overnights during 2012.[151] This number includes 68.83 million nights by foreign visitors. In 2012,
over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Germany, bringing over US$38 billion in
international tourism receipts to the country.[152] Additionally, more than 30% of Germans spend
their holiday in their own country, with the biggest share going to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
According to Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Reports, Germany is rated as one of the safest
travel destinations worldwide. The official body for tourism in Germany is the German National
Tourist Board (GNTB). Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute
over EUR43.2 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry
contributes 4.5% of German GDP and supports 2 million jobs (4.8% of total employment). [153]
Germany is well known for its diverse tourist routes, such as the Romantic Road, the Wine Route,
the Castle Road, the Timber-Frame Road and the Avenue Road. There are 39 UNESCO World
Heritage Sites in Germany, including the old town
cores ofRegensburg, Bamberg, Lbeck, Quedlinburg, Weimar, Stralsund and Wismar. Germany's
most-visited landmarks include i. e.Neuschwanstein Castle, Cologne Cathedral, Berlin
Bundestag, Hofbruhaus Munich, Heidelberg Castle, Dresden Zwinger,Fernsehturm
Berlin and Aachen Cathedral. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular
theme park resort, following Disneyland Paris.[154] Its nature-protected national parks, biosphere
reserves and other nature parks are popular destinations for ecotourism.

24. Demographics
Main articles: Demographics of Germany, Germans, Social issues in Germany and List of cities
in Germany by population
With a population of 80.2 million according to the May 2011 census,[3] Germany is the most
populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe
after Russia, and ranks as the 16th most populous country in the world.[155] Its population
density stands at 225 inhabitants per square kilometre. The overalllife expectancy in Germany at
birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females). [1] The fertility rate of 1.41
children born per woman (2011 estimates), or 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants, is one of
the lowest in the world.[1] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has continuously exceeded
its birth rate.[156]The Federal Statistical Office of Germany has forecast that the population could
shrink to between 65 and 70 million by 2060 (depending on the level of net migration).
However, Germany is currently witnessing increased birth rates [158] and migration rates since
the beginning of the 2010s. It is notably experiencing a strong increase in the number of welleducated migrants.[159][160] In 2012 the country's population increased in part due to 300,000
more immigrants than emigrants, with most immigrants coming from the crisis effected countries
of southern and eastern Europe and settling in urban but not rural areas.[161]

25. National minorities

Four sizable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" (nationale Minderheiten)
because they have lived in their respective regions for centuries: Danes,Frisians, Roma and Sinti,
and Sorbs.[162] There is a Danish minority (about 50,000, according to government sources) in the
northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein.[162] Eastern and Northern Frisians live on SchleswigHolstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony. They are part of a wider
community (Frisia) stretching from Germany to the northern Netherlands. The Sorbs, a Slavic
population of about 60,000 (according to government sources), are in theLusatia region
of Saxony and Brandenburg.[162]

26. Immigrant population

Main article: Immigration to Germany
See also: Blue Card (European Union)
Germans by nationality make up 92.3% of the population of Germany as of 9 May 2011. [3] As of
2011, about six million foreign citizens (7.7% of the population) were registered in Germany.
Regarding ethnic background, 20%[163] of the country's residents, or more than 16 million people,
were of foreign or partially foreign descent in 2009 (including persons descending or partially

descending from ethnic German repatriates), 96% of whom lived in the former West Germany or
Berlin.[164] In 2010, 2.3 million families with children under 18 years were living in Germany, in
which at least one parent had foreign roots. They represented 29% of the total of 8.1 million
families with minor children. Compared with 2005 the year when the microcensus started to
collect detailed information on the population with a migrant background the proportion of
migrant families has risen by 2 percentage points.[165]
Most of the families with a migrant background live in the western part of Germany. In 2010, the
proportion of migrant families in all families was 32% in the pre-unification territory of the Federal
Republic. This figure was more than double that in the new Lnder (including Berlin) where it
stood at 15%.[165] Families with a migrant background more often have three or more minor
children in the household than families without a migrant background. In 2010, about 15% of the
families with a migrant background contained three or more minor children, as compared with just
9% of the families without a migrant background. [165]
The United Nations Population Fund lists Germany as host to the third-highest number of
international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants.[166] As a
consequence of restrictions to Germany's formerly rather unrestricted laws on asylum and
immigration, the number of immigrants seeking asylum or claiming German ethnicity (mostly from
the former Soviet Union) has been declining steadily since 2000. [167] In 2009, 20% of the
population had immigrant roots, the highest since 1945. [168] As of 2008, the largest national group
was from Turkey (2.5 million), followed by Italy (776,000), Poland (687,000),
and Albania (550,000).[169]Since 1987, around 3 million ethnic Germans, mostly from the former
eastern bloc, have taken advantage of their right of return and emigrated to Germany.[170]

27. Urbanization
See also: List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population
Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in
Germany and since 2006, 34 cities have been identified which can be called
a regiopolis (metropolitan area). The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11.7 million in
2008), including Dsseldorf (the capital of North RhineWestphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.[171]

Largest cities or towns in Germany

List of statistical offices in Germany 24 December 2010

























Lower Sa


North Rhine-Westphalia










North Rh






North Rh


North Rhine-Westphalia




North Rh


North Rhine-Westphalia




North Rh


North Rhine-Westphalia




North Rh



Bremen (state)






28. Religion
Main article: Religion in Germany

The Catholic Cologne Cathedral at the Rhine river is aUNESCO World Heritage Site

Berlin Cathedral, one of the main Evangelical cathedrals in Germany

According to the latest official nationwide census of 2011, Christianity is the largest religion in
Germany, claiming 66.8% of the total population.[172] The census provided detailed statistics on
religion in the Federal Republic. Results for the total population of Germany were as follows:
30.8% declared themselves as Roman Catholics; 30.3% as Protestants as represented by
the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD); 5.7% were reported to be other Christians (including
Protestants outside the EKD).[173] Newer statistics indicate that the proportion of Christians in

Germany has decreased to 62%.[174] Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the

northern, central and eastern parts of the country, mostly within the Evangelical Church, while
Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. People with no or other religions are
concentrated in the former East Germany and major metropolitan areas.[175]
Islam is the second largest religion in the country. In the 2011 census only 1.9% declared
themselves to be Muslims,[173] however other sources estimate 3.8 to 4.3 million adherents (4.6%
to 5.2%).[176] Of these roughly 4 million Muslims, most are Sunnis andAlevites from Turkey, but
there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations.[176] German Muslims,
a large portion of whom are of Turkish origin, lack full official state recognition of their religious
Other religions comprising less than 1% of Germany's population [173] are Buddhism with 250,000
and Judaism with around 200,000 adherents (both roughly 0.3%). Hinduism has some 100,000
adherents (0.1%). All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50,000 adherents
each.[177] Germany has Europe's third largest Jewish population (after France and the United
Kingdom).[178]Approximately 50% of the Buddhists in Germany are Asian immigrants.[179]
The remaining 32%35% are not members of any religious body-a proportion that has grown
steadily over recent decades. German reunification in 1990 greatly increased the country's nonreligious population, a legacy of the state atheism of the previously Soviet-controlled East. The
Christian population has decreased in recent decades, particularly among Protestants. [175]

29. Languages
Main article: Languages of Germany

Knowledge of German in the European Union

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[180] It is one of 24 official and
working languages of the European Union,[181] and one of the three working languages of
the European Commission. The German language is the most widely spoken first language in
the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[182]
Recognized native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany,
and Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority
Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Kurdish, Polish, theBalkan
languages, and Russian. 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one
foreign language and 27% in at least two languages other than their own. [180]
Standard German is a West Germanic language and is closely related to and classified alongside
English, Low German, Dutch, and the Frisian languages. To a lesser extent, it is also related to
the East (extinct) and North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the
Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.[183] Significant minorities of words are
derived from Latin and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most recently English
(known as Denglisch). German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects, traditional
local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard
German by their lexicon, phonology, andsyntax.[184]

30. Education
Main articles: Education in Germany and List of universities in Germany

Heidelberg University is the oldest of Germany's universities and among its best ranked.[185] It was
established in 1386.

Over 99% of Germans aged 15 and above are estimated to be able to read and write.
Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the
individual federal states. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung ("dual education")
allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run vocational
school.[186] This successful model is highly regarded and reproduced all around the world. [187]
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after
which school attendance iscompulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for
four to six years and public schools are not stratified by academic ability at this stage. [186] In
contrast, secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different
academic levels: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for
university studies; the Realschule for intermediate students lasts six years;
the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education.[188] Since the 1960s, a reform movement
has attempted to unify secondary education in a Gesamtschule (comprehensive school); several
West German states later simplified their school system to two or three tiers.

Wendelstein 7-X, a research facility at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics in Greifswald.
Independent institutes have a great share of research in Germany.

The general entrance requirement for university is the Abitur, a qualification normally based on
continuous assessment during the last few years at school and final examinations; however there
are a number of exceptions, and precise requirements vary, depending on the state, the
university and the subject. Germany's universities are recognised internationally: in the Academic
Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) for 2008, six of the top 100 universities in the world are in
Germany, and 18 of the top 200.[189]
Most of the German universities are public institutions, funded by the Lnder governments, and
students have traditionally studied without fee payment. In 2005 the public universities introduced
tuition fees of around 60 per semester (and up to 500 in the state of Niedersachsen) for each
student for a trial period;[190][191] however, the German public was not amenable to the experiment
and the temporary fee-based system was mostly abolished, the two remaining universities were
due to abolish the fee requirement by the end of 2014.[192]
Academic education is open to most citizens and is increasingly common in Germany.[193] The dual
education system that combines practical and theoretical learning, but does not lead to an
academic degree, is typical for Germany and is recognised as a model for other countries. [194]
The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg
University being the oldest in Germany (established in 1386). Heidelberg is followed by Leipzig

University (1409), Rostock University (1419), Greifswald University (1456), Freiburg

University (1457), LMU Munich (1472) and theUniversity of Tbingen (1477). Academic research
is also performed at independent non-university research institutions, such as the Max
Planck, Fraunhofer, Leibnizand Helmholtz institutes.

31. Health
Main article: Healthcare in Germany

Hospice of the Holy Spirit in Lbeck one of the world's oldest humanitarian institutions and a precursor to
modern hospitals[195]

Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating back to Bismarck's social
legislation in 1883.[196] Since then there have been many reforms and provisions to ensure a
balanced health care system. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan
provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance
contract instead. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was
77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2005. [197] In 2005, Germany spent 11% of
its GDP on health care. Germany ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for
men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births).

In 2010, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 41%, followed by malignant
tumours, at 26%.[198] In 2008, about 82,000 Germans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26,000
had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982).[199]According to a 2005 survey, 27% of
German adults are smokers.[199]

32. Culture
Main article: Culture of Germany

Ludwig van Beethoven (17701827), composer

From its roots, culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular
currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically Germany has been called Das Land

der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[200]because of the major role its
famous writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought and culture.
The federated states are in charge of the cultural institutions. There are 240 subsidised theatres,
hundreds of symphonic orchestras, thousands of museums and over 25,000 libraries spread in
Germany. These cultural opportunities are enjoyed by many: there are over 91 million German
museum visits every year; annually, 20 million go to theatres and operas; 3.6 million per year
listen to the symphonic orchestras.[201] As of 2013 the UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in
Germany on the World Heritage List.[202]
Germany has established a high level of gender equality,[203] promotes disability rights, and is
legally and socially tolerant towards homosexuals. Gays and lesbians can legally adopt their
partner's biological children, and civil unions have been permitted since 2001.[204] Germany has
also changed its attitude towards immigrants; since the mid-1990s, the government and the
majority of Germans have begun to acknowledge that controlled immigration should be allowed
based on qualification standards.[205] Germany has been named the world's second most valued
nation among 50 countries in 2010.[206] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is
recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011,[207] and for being the most
positively viewed nation in the world, in 2013[208] and 2014.[209]
There are a number of public holidays in Germany. The country is particularly associated with its
traditional Oktoberfest celebrations, its carnival culture and globally influential Christmas customs
known as Weihnachten.[210][211] 3 October is the national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as
the German Unity Day (Tag der Deutschen Einheit).

33. Art
Main article: German art

Chalk Cliffs on Rgen(1818) by Caspar David Friedrich, the most prominent artist of Romanticism

German painters have been influential on western art throughout history. Albrecht Drer, Hans
Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grnewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German
artists of the Renaissance, Peter Paul Rubens and Johann Baptist
Zimmermann of Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max
Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernstof Surrealism.
Several German artist groups formed in the 20th century, such as the November Group or Die
Brcke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) in Expressionism. The New
Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, main
movements of Neo-expressionism, performance art and Conceptual art evolved, with notable
artists such as Joseph Beuys,Gerhard Richter, Jrg Immendorff, HA Schult, Aris Kalaizis, Neo
Rauch (New Leipzig School) and Andreas Gursky (photography). Major art exhibitions and
festivals in Germany are the documenta, transmediale and Art Cologne.

34. Music
Main article: Music of Germany

J.S. Bach

L.v. Beethoven

R. Wagner

Prludium und Fuge

5. Sinfonie

Die Walkre

German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known
composers. Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Hndel were influential composers of
the Baroque period. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a prolific and influential composer of
the Classical era. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between
theClassical and Romantic eras. Franz Schubert was an important figure in the late Classical era
and earlyRomantic era. Carl Maria von Weber and Felix Mendelssohn were important in the
early Romantic period. Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in theRomantic
idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of
the late Romantic and early modern eras. Carl Orff used colorful, unusual combinations of
instruments in his orchestration. Karlheinz Stockhausen is one of the most important composers
of the 20th and early 21st centuries.
Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.
German popular music of the 20th and 21st century includes the movements of Neue
Deutsche Welle (Nena, Trio), Pop (Alphaville, Modern
Talking), Ostrock (City, Keimzeit), Metal/Rock (Rammstein, Scorpions), Punk (Die rzte, Die
Toten Hosen), Pop rock (Beatsteaks, Tokio Hotel), Indie (Tocotronic, Blumfeld) and Hip Hop (Die
Fantastischen Vier, Deichkind). German Electronic music gained global influence,
with Kraftwerk being a pioneer group in this genre[213] and the Minimal, Techno and House scenes
of Germany being very influential (e.g. Paul van Dyk,Tomcraft, Paul Kalkbrenner, Wolfgang
Voigt and Scooter).[214]

35. Architecture
Main articles: Architecture of Germany, Altstadt, World Heritage Sites in Germany, Castles in
Germany and List of spa towns in Germany
Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were
precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic in medieval times and Brick Expressionism in modern
times are two distinctive styles that developed in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art,
regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser
Renaissance and Dresden Baroque). Among many renowned Baroque masters
were Pppelmann, Balthasar Neumann, Knobelsdorff and theAsam brothers. Germany is
especially renowned for its timber frame old towns, with many well-kept examples to be found
along the German Timber-Frame Road.

Kurhaus Binz on Rgen, a typical example of resort architecture. This style is common on the
German Baltic Sea coast.

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style

of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Grnderzeit style, due to the
economical boom years at the end of the 19th century. Resort architecture and Spa
architecture are sub-styles, that evolved since the 18th century in Germany, with the first
modern spas and seaside resorts of Europe. Many architects formed this era,
with Schinkel, Semper, Stler, von Grtner, Schwechten and Lipsius among them.
Jugendstil became a dominant architectural style at the turn of the 20th century, with a strong
influence of the Art Nouveau movement.[215] Expressionist architecture spread across the country,
with e.g. Hger, Mendelsohn, Bhm and Schumacherbeing influential architects. Germany was
particularly important in the early modern movement: it is the home of Werkbundinitiated
by Hermann Muthesius, and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. Thus
Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design. Ludwig Mies van der
Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century.
He conceived of the glass facade skyscraper.[216]
Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Hans Kollhoff, Helmut
Jahn, Graft, Behnisch, Sergei Tchoban, Albert Speer Junior, Frei
Otto, GMP, Ingenhoven, Sauerbruch Hutton, AWA, Hadi Teherani, Oswald Mathias
Ungers, Gottfried Bhm, Stephan Braunfels and Anna Heringer.[217]

36. Literature and philosophy

Main articles: German literature and German philosophy

The Brothers Grimmcollected and published popular German folk tales.

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such
as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors
include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing andTheodor
Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German
folklore on an international level. Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart
Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Bll and Gnter Grass.[218]Germanspeaking book publishers produce some 700 million books every year, with about 80,000 titles,
nearly 60,000 of them new. Germany comes third in quantity of books published, after the
English-speaking book market and the People's Republic of China.[219]The Frankfurt Book Fair is
the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over
500 years.[220]
German philosophy is historically significant. Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism;
the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German
idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation
of communist theory by Karl Marxand Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development
of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin
Heidegger's works on Being; and the development of the Frankfurt school by Max

Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno,Herbert Marcuse and Jrgen Habermas have been particularly
influential. In the 21st century, Germany has contributed to the development of contemporary
analytic philosophy in continental Europe.[221]

37. Cinema
Main article: Cinema of Germany

Babelsberg Studio near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio

German cinema dates back to the earliest years of the medium, it has made major technical and
artistic contributions to film, as with the work of the Skladanowsky Brothers, who showed the first
film sequences ever to an audience, in 1895. The renownedBabelsberg Studio in Berlin's
suburb Potsdam was established in 1912, and thus was the first large-scale film studio in the
world; today it is Europe's largest studio.[222] Early German cinema was particularly influential
with German expressionists such asRobert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz
Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film, although predated by
the Homunculus series (1916) of Otto Rippert.[223] In 1930 Josef von Sternberg directed The Blue
Angel, the first major German sound film.[224] With the rise of Nazi Germany, Jewish and leftleaning directors and actors were expelled, while the propaganda films of Leni Riefenstahl came
to international fame and were stylistically copied in several productions, especially in post-war
During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlndorff, Werner
Herzog, Wim Wenders, andRainer Werner Fassbinder put West German cinema on the
international stage.[226] In the 21st century, several German movies have had international
success, such as The Experiment (2001), Good Bye, Lenin! (2003), The Wave (2008), The White
Ribbon (2009), Pandorum (2009), Soul Kitchen(2009), Animals United (2010), Combat
Girls (2011) and Cloud Atlas (2012). The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language
Film ("Oscar" trophy) went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979,
to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of
Others) in 2007.[227]
The annual European Film Awards ceremony awarding the "Felix" trophy is held every other year
in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy (EFA). The Berlin Film Festival, known as
"Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's
leading film festivals.[228] The "Lolas" are annually awarded also in Berlin, at the German Film
Awards, that have been presented since 1951.

38. Media
Main articles: Television in Germany, List of radio stations in Germany, List of newspapers in
Germany and Video gaming in Germany

Headquarters of Deutsche Welle inBonn

The largest globally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel
Springer SE andProSiebenSat.1 Media. The German Press Agency DPA is also of global
Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.
Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view
public and commercial channels.[230] The most watched television broadcast of all-time in Germany
was the Germany vs Argentina final game of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, that Germany won. The
top ten most watched television broadcasts of all-time in Germany all feature the German national
football team.[231]
There are more than 500 public and private radio stations in Germany, with the public Deutsche
Welle being the main German radio (and television) broadcaster in foreign languages.
Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The papers
with the highest circulation are Die Zeit, Sddeutsche Zeitung,Frankfurter Allgemeine
Zeitung and Die Welt, the largest magazines include Der Spiegel, Stern and Focus. The Bild is
a tabloid and has the largest circulation of all German papers. The largest regional newspapers
are Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Rheinische Post, Augsburger Allgemeine, Sdwest
Presse and Freie Presse.[232]
The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.
The Gamescom in Cologne is the world's leading gaming convention.[234] Popular game series
from Germany include Turrican, the Anno series, The Settlers series,
the Gothic series, SpellForce, the X series, the FIFA Manager series, Far Cry and Crysis. The
most relevant game developers and publishers are Blue Byte, Crytek, Deck13, Deep
Silver, Egosoft, Kalypso Media, Koch Media, Nintendo Europe, Piranha Bytes,Related
Designs and Yager Development. Bigpoint, Gameforge, Goodgame and Wooga are globally
leading developers of online and social games.[235]

39. Cuisine
Main article: German cuisine

An array of bratwurst

German cuisine varies from region to region. The southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia, for
instance, share a culinary culture with Switzerland and Austria. In all regions, meat is often eaten
in sausage form.[236] Organic food has gained a market share of about 4 percent in 2012, and is
expected to increase further.[237]
Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially from German
wine regions,[238] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person is
declining, but at 121.4 litres in 2009 it is still among the highest in the world.[239] The Michelin
Guide of 2015 has awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, the highest designation,

while 38 more received two stars and 233 one star, and 470 are listed for "good food at
reasonable prices".[240] Overall, German restaurants have become the world's second-most
decorated after France.[241][242]

40. Sports
Main article: Sport in Germany

The German national football teamafter winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is
the most popular sport in Germany.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million
pursue sports individually.[243] Association football is the most popular sport. With more than
6.3 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fuball-Bund) is the
largest sports organisation of its kind worldwide, and the German top league, the Bundesliga,
attracts the second highest average attendanceof all professional sports leagues in the world.
The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and
2014 and the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996. Germany hosted the FIFA
World Cup in 1974 and 2006 and the UEFA European Championship in 1988.
Other popular spectator sports include winter sports, boxing, handball, volleyball, basketball, ice
hockey, tennis, horse riding andgolf. Water sports like sailing, rowing, and swimming are popular
in Germany as well.[243]
Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors
like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Additionally, Porsche has
won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, an annual endurance race held in France, 16 times, and Audi has
won it 11 times. The Formula One driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records
during his career, having won moreFormula One World Drivers' Championships with seven titles,
and more Formula One races than any other driver; he is one of the highest paid sportsmen in
history.[244]With four championship titles, Sebastian Vettel is also among the top three most
successful Formula One drivers of all time.[245]
Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking
third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count, combining East and West German medals. In
the 2012 Summer Olympics, Germany finished fifth in the medal count, while in the 2006 Winter
Olympics they finished first.[246] Germany has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in Berlin
in 1936 and in Munich in 1972. The Winter Olympic Games were held in Germany once,
in 1936 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

41. Fashion and design

Main articles: German fashion and Made in Germany

Claudia Schiffer, Germansupermodel

German designers were leaders of modern product design, with the Bauhaus designers like Mies
van der Rohe, and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential.[247]
Germany has also been influential on western fashion throughout history. Today it is a leading
country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1,300 companies
with more than 130,000 employees in 2010, which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro. Almost
44 percent of the products are exported. The textile branch thus is the second largest producer of
consumer goods after food production in the country.[248]
German fashion is famed for its elegant lines, as well as unconventional young designs and its
great variety of styles. Berlin is the center of young and creative fashion in Germany, prominently
displayed at Berlin Fashion Week (twice a year). It also hosts Europe's largest fashion trade fair
called Bread & Butter. Besides Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Dsseldorf, also smaller
places are important design and production hubs of the German fashion industry.[249] Globally
renowned fashion designers from Germany include Karl Lagerfeld, Wolfgang Joop, Jil
Sander and Michael Michalsky. Important fashion brands include Hugo
Boss, Escada and Triumph, as well as special outfitters like Adidas, PUMA, Jack Wolfskin and Dr.
Martens. German fashion is popular in celebrity circles and with high fashion models. [250]

42. See also

Germany portal

Outline of Germany

43. Notes

Jump up^ Only the third stanza of the song is used as the national

44. References

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h "Germany". CIA World Factbook. United

States: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 August 2014.


Jump up^ Statistische mter des Bundes und der

Lnder: Bevlkerung Deutschland 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2014.


^ Jump up to:a b c d Zensus 2011: Bevlkerung am 9. Mai 2011.

Retrieved 1 June 2013.


^ Jump up to:a b c d "Germany". International Monetary Fund.

October 2014. Retrieved2 November 2014.


Jump up^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income

(source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 13 August 2013.


Jump up^ "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United

Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 2125. Retrieved 27
July 2014.


Jump up^ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden,

Aussprachewrterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag.
pp. 271, 53f. ISBN 978-3-411-20916-3.


Jump up^ "Germany Top Migration Land After U.S. in New OECD
Ranking". Bloomberg. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.


Jump up^ The Latin name Sacrum Imperium (Holy Empire) is

documented as far back as 1157. The Latin name Sacrum
Romanum Imperium (Holy Roman Empire) was first documented in
1254. The full name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation"
(Heiliges Rmisches Reich Deutscher Nation) dates back to the
15th century.
Zippelius, Reinhold (2006) [1994]. Kleine deutsche
Verfassungsgeschichte: vom frhen Mittelalter bis zur
Gegenwart [Brief German Constitutional History: from the Early
Middle Ages to the Present] (in German) (7th ed.). Beck.
p. 25. ISBN 978-3-406-47638-9.

10. Jump up^ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History.

Harvard University Press. p. 4.ISBN 0-674-80688-3.
11. Jump up^ Lloyd, Albert L.; Lhr, Rosemarie; Springer, Otto
(1998). Etymologisches Wrterbuch des Althochdeutschen, Band
II (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 699704. ISBN 3525-20768-9. (for diutisc) Lloyd, Albert L.; Lhr, Rosemarie;
Springer, Otto (1998). Etymologisches Wrterbuch des
Althochdeutschen, Band II(in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
pp. 685686. ISBN 3-525-20768-9. (for diot)
12. Jump up^ "Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo
heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany". PNAS. 27 August 2010.
Retrieved 27 August 2010.
13. Jump up^ "World's Oldest Spears". 3
May 1997. Retrieved27 August 2010.
14. Jump up^ "Earliest music instruments found". BBC. 25 May 2012.
Retrieved 25 May 2012.
15. Jump up^ "Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative
sculpture". The Art Newspaper. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31
January 2013.
16. Jump up^ "The Venus of Hohle Fels". 14 May
2009. Retrieved 14 May2009.
17. Jump up^ "Nebra Sky Disc". Unesco memory of the World. 2013.
18. Jump up^ Claster, Jill N. (1982). Medieval Experience: 3001400.
New York University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8147-1381-5.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b Fulbrook 1991, pp. 913.
20. Jump up^ Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil
(2005). The crisis of empire, A.D. 193337. The Cambridge Ancient
History 12. Cambridge University Press. p. 442. ISBN 0-52130199-8.
21. ^ Jump up to:a b Fulbrook 1991, p. 11.

22. Jump up^ McBrien, Richard (2000). Lives of the Popes: The
Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. HarperCollins. p. 138.
23. Jump up^ The lumping of Germanic people into the generic term
'Germans' has its roots in the Investiture Controversy according to
historian Herwig Wolfram, who claims it was a defensive move
made by the papacy to delineate them as outsiders, partly due to
the papacy's insecurity and so as to justify counterattacks upon
them. See: Wolfram, Herwig (1997). 'The Roman Empire and its
Germanic Peoples. California University Press. pp. 1113.
24. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 1324.
25. Jump up^ Nelson, Lynn Harry. The Great Famine (13151317)
and the Black Death (13461351). University of Kansas.
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
26. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, p. 27.
27. Jump up^ Philpott, Daniel (January 2000). "The Religious Roots of
Modern International Relations". World Politics 52 (2): 206
245. doi:10.1017/S0043887100002604.
28. Jump up^ Macfarlane, Alan (1997). The savage wars of peace:
England, Japan and the Malthusian trap. Blackwell.
p. 51. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0.
29. Jump up^ Gagliardo, G (1980). Reich and Nation, The Holy
Roman Empire as Idea and Reality, 17631806. Indiana University
Press. pp. 1213.
30. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, p. 97.
31. Jump up^ Henderson, W. O. (January 1934). "The
Zollverein". History 19 (73): 119.doi:10.1111/j.1468229X.1934.tb01791.x.
32. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i "Germany". U.S. Department of State. 10
November 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
33. Jump up^ Black, John, ed. (2005). 100 maps. Sterling Publishing.
p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4027-2885-3.
34. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 135, 149.
35. Jump up^ Crossland, David (22 January 2008). "Last German
World War I Veteran Believed to Have Died". Spiegel Online.
Retrieved 25 March 2011.
36. Jump up^ Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser,
Elisabeth (1998). "Introduction". Versailles: A Reassessment after
75 Years. Publications of the German Historical Institute.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 120. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.
37. Jump up^ Klein, Fritz (1998). "Between Compigne and
Versailles: The Germans on the Way from a Misunderstood Defeat
to an Unwanted Peace". In Boemeke, Manfred F.;Feldman, Gerald
D.; Glaser, Elisabeth. Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years.

Publications of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge

University Press. pp. 203220. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.
38. Jump up^ Keylor, William R. (1998). "Versailles and International
Diplomacy". In Boemeke, Manfred F.; Feldman, Gerald D.; Glaser,
Elisabeth. Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years. Publications
of the German Historical Institute. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 469505. ISBN 978-0-521-62132-8.
39. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 156160.
40. Jump up^ Williamson (2005). Germany since 1815: A Nation
Forged and Renewed. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 186204.
41. Jump up^ "PROLOGUE: Roots of the Holocaust". The Holocaust
Chronicle. Retrieved28 September 2014.
42. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 155158, 172177.
43. Jump up^ "Industrie und Wirtschaft" (in German). Deutsches
Historisches Museum. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
44. Jump up^ Fulbrook 1991, pp. 188189.
45. ^ Jump up to:a b Fulbrook 1991, pp. 190195.
46. Jump up^ Steinberg, Heinz Gnter (1991). Die
Bevlkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland im Zweiten Weltkrieg: mit
einem berblick ber die Entwicklung von 1945 bis 1990 (in
German). Kulturstiftung der dt. Vertriebenen. ISBN 978-3-88557089-9.
47. Jump up^ "Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead". BBC News. 9
May 2005. Retrieved18 March 2011.
48. Jump up^ Overmans, Rdiger (2000). Deutsche militrische
Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg. ISBN 3-486-56531-1.
49. Jump up^ Winter, JM (2003). "Demography of the war". In Dear, I;
Foot, M. The Oxford Companion to World War II (ebook ed.).
Oxford University Press.ISBN 9780191727603.
50. Jump up^ Niewyk, Donald L.; Nicosia, Francis R. (2000). The
Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press.
pp. 4552. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0.
51. Jump up^ Institute of National Remembrance (Poland), Polska
19391945 Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema
okupacjami. Materski and Szarota. page 9 "Total Polish population
losses under German occupation are currently calculated at about
2 770 000".
52. Jump up^ Maksudov, S. (1994). "Soviet Deaths in the Great
Patriotic War: A Note". Europe-Asia Studies 46 (4): 671680.
53. Jump up^ Fleischhauer, Jan (8 April 2011). "Nazi War Crimes as
Described by German Soldiers". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 8
April 2011.

54. Jump up^ Beevor, Antony (2003) [2002]. Berlin: The downfall
1945. Penguin. pp. 3132, 107108, 409412. ISBN 978-0-14028696-0.
55. Jump up^ Overy, Richard (17 February 2011). "Nuremberg: Nazis
on Trial". BBC History. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
56. Jump up^ Evans, Richard. "The Other Horror, Review of Orderly
and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans After the Second
World War, by R.M. Douglas". New Republic. Retrieved 28
September 2014.
57. Jump up^ Wise, Michael Z. (1998). Capital dilemma: Germany's
search for a new architecture of democracy. Princeton Architectural
Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-56898-134-5.
58. Jump up^ Crafts, Toniolo, p.464[full citation needed]
59. Jump up^ maw/dpa (11 March 2008). "New Study Finds More
Stasi Spooks". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
60. Jump up^ "Germany (East)", Library of Congress Country
Study, Appendix B: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
61. Jump up^ Protzman, Ferdinand (22 August 1989). "Westward Tide
of East Germans Is a Popular No-Confidence Vote". The New York
Times. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
62. Jump up^ "Gesetz zur Umsetzung des Beschlusses des
Deutschen Bundestages vom 20. Juni 1991 zur Vollendung der
Einheit Deutschlands" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz.
26 April 1994. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
63. Jump up^ "Brennpunkt: Hauptstadt-Umzug". Focus (in German).
12 April 1999. Retrieved19 March 2011.
64. Jump up^ Dempsey, Judy (31 October 2006). "Germany is
planning a Bosnia withdrawal".International Herald Tribune.
Retrieved 7 May 2011.
65. Jump up^ Merz, Sebastian (November 2007). "Still on the way to
Afghanistan? Germany and its forces in the Hindu Kush" (PDF).
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. pp. 2, 3.
Retrieved 16 April 2011.
66. Jump up^ "Government declaration by Angela Merkel". ARD
Tagesschau (German). 29 January 2014. Retrieved 15
December 2014.
67. ^ Jump up to:a b "Climate in Germany". GermanCulture.
Retrieved 26 March 2011.
68. Jump up^ "Terrestrial Ecoregions". WWF. Retrieved 19
March 2011.
69. Jump up^ Strohm, Kathrin (May 2010). "Arable farming in
Germany". Agri benchmark. Retrieved 14 April 2011.

70. Jump up^ Bekker, Henk (2005). Adventure Guide Germany.

Hunter. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-58843-503-3.
71. Jump up^ Marcel Cleene; Marie Claire Lejeune
(2002). Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe:
Herbs. Man & Culture. The Cornflower was once the floral emblem
of Germany (hence the German common name Kaiserblume).
72. Jump up^ "Zoo Facts". Zoos and Aquariums of America.
Retrieved 16 April 2011.
73. Jump up^ "Der Zoologische Garten Berlin" (in German). Zoo
Berlin. Retrieved 19 March2011.
74. Jump up^ "Basic Law for the Federal Republic of
Germany". Deutscher Bundestag. Btg-bestellservice. October
2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
75. Jump up^ "Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union".
U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
76. Jump up^ "Federal Constitutional Court".
Bundesverfassungsgericht. Retrieved 26 March2011.
77. Jump up^ "Vlkerstrafgesetz Teil 1 Allgemeine Regelungen" (in
German). Bundesministerium der Justiz. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
78. Jump up^ " 2 Strafvollzugsgesetz" (in German).
Bundesministerium der Justiz. Retrieved26 March 2011.
79. Jump up^ Jehle, Jrg-Martin; German Federal Ministry of
Justice (2009). Criminal Justice in Germany. Forum-Verlag.
p. 23. ISBN 978-3-936999-51-8.
80. Jump up^ Casper, Gerhard; Zeisel, Hans (January 1972). "Lay
Judges in the German Criminal Courts". Journal of Legal
Studies 1 (1): 141. doi:10.1086/467481.JSTOR 724014.
81. Jump up^ "The Federal States". Bundesrat of Germany.
Retrieved 17 July 2011.
82. Jump up^ "Example for state constitution: "Constitution of the
Land of North Rhine-Westphalia"". Landtag (state assembly) of
North Rhine-Westphalia. Retrieved17 July 2011.
83. Jump up^ "Kreisfreie Stdte und Landkreise nach Flche und
Bevlkerung auf Grundlage des ZENSUS 2011 und
Bevlkerungsdichte - Gebietsstand 31.12.2013" (XLS) (in
German). Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland. October 2014.
Retrieved 2 February2015.
84. Jump up^ "Bevlkerungszahlen 2011 und 2012 nach
Bundeslndern" (in German).Statistisches
Bundesamt Deutschland. August 2013. Retrieved 16
December 2013.
85. Jump up^ "German Missions Abroad". German Federal Foreign
Office. Retrieved 26 March2011.

86. Jump up^ "The Embassies". German Federal Foreign Office.

Retrieved 18 July 2012.
87. Jump up^ "The EU budget 2011 in figures". European
Commission. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
88. Jump up^ "United Nations regular budget for the year 2011". UN
Committee on Contributions. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
89. Jump up^ "Declaration by the Franco-German Defence and
Security Council". French Embassy UK. 13 May 2004.
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
90. Jump up^ Freed, John C. (4 April 2008). "The leader of Europe?
Answers an ocean apart".The New York Times. Retrieved 28
March 2011.
91. Jump up^ "Aims of German development policy". Federal Ministry
for Economic Cooperation and Development. 10 April 2008.
Retrieved 26 March 2011.
92. Jump up^ "Net Official Development Assistance 2009". OECD.
Retrieved 26 March 2011.
93. Jump up^ "Speech by Chancellor Angela Merkel to the United
Nations General Assembly".Die Bundesregierung. 21 September
2010. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
94. Jump up^ Harrison, Hope (2004). "American dtente and German
ostpolitik, 19691972".Bulletin Supplement (German Historical
Institute) 1. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
95. Jump up^ "Germany's New Face Abroad". Deutsche Welle. 14
October 2005. Retrieved26 March 2011.
96. Jump up^ "Ready for a Bush hug?". The Economist. 6 July 2006.
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
97. Jump up^ "U.S.-German Economic Relations Factsheet". U.S.
Embassy in Berlin. May 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
98. Jump up^ "The 15 countries with the highest military expenditure
in 2011". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
September 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
99. Jump up^ "Grundgesetz fr die Bundesrepublik Deutschland,
Artikel 65a,87,115b" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz.
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
100. Jump up^ "Die Strke der Streitkrfte" (in
German). Bundeswehr. 23 March 2012. Retrieved20 April 2012.
101. ^ Jump up to:a b "Ausblick: Die Bundeswehr der Zukunft" (in
German). Bundeswehr. Retrieved5 June 2011.
102. Jump up^ "Einsatzzahlen Die Strke der deutschen
Einsatzkontingente" (in German).Bundeswehr. Retrieved 11
January 2015.

103. Jump up^ Connolly, Kate (22 November 2010). "Germany to

abolish compulsory military service". The Guardian. Retrieved 7
April 2011.
104. Jump up^ Pidd, Helen (16 March 2011). "Marching orders for
conscription in Germany, but what will take its place?". The
Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
105. Jump up^ "Frauen in der Bundeswehr" (in
German). Bundeswehr. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
106. Jump up^ "CPI 2009 table". Transparency International.
Retrieved 15 May 2012.
107. Jump up^ "The Innovation Imperative in Manufacturing: How the
United States Can Restore Its Edge". Boston Consulting Group.
March 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
108. Jump up^ "Gross domestic product (2009)". The World Bank:
World Development Indicators database. World Bank. 27
September 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
Field listing GDP (official exchange rate)
109. Jump up^ "Gross domestic product (2009)". The World Bank:
World Development Indicators database. World Bank. 27
September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
Field listing GDP (PPP exchange rate)
110.Jump up^ "Arbeitslosenquote in Deutschland von Mai 2013 bis
April 2014".
111. ^ Jump up to:a b Eurostat: Euro area unemployment rate at 11.2%,
Press release of 2 March 2015
112.Jump up^ "Labour productivity levels in the total economy".
OECD. Retrieved 12 December2014.
113.Jump up^ Andrews, Edmund L. (1 January 2002). "Germans Say
Goodbye to the Mark, a Symbol of Strength and Unity". The New
York Times. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
114.Jump up^ Taylor Martin, Susan (28 December 1998). "On Jan. 1,
out of many arises one Euro". St. Petersburg Times. p. National,
115.Jump up^ Berg, S.; Winter, S.; Wassermann, A. (5 September
2005). "The Price of a Failed Reunification". Spiegel Online.
Retrieved 28 November 2006.
116.Jump up^ Kulish, Nicholas (19 June 2009). "In East Germany, a
Decline as Stark as a Wall". The New York Times. Retrieved 27
March 2011.
117.Jump up^ "Germany agrees on 50-billion-euro stimulus
plan". France 24. 6 January 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
118.Jump up^ "The 100 Top Brands 2010". Interbrand. Retrieved 27
March 2011.

119.Jump up^ Gavin, Mike (23 September 2010). "Germany Has

1,000 Market-Leading Companies, Manager-Magazin
Says". Businessweek. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
120. Jump up^ "Global 500: Countries Germany". Forbes. 26 July
2010. Retrieved 27 March2011.
121. Jump up^ "Assessment of strategic plans and policy measures
on Investment and Maintenance in Transport
Infrastructure" (pdf). International Transport Forum. 2012.
Retrieved 15 March 2014.
122. Jump up^ "Road density (km of road per 100 sq. km of land
area) | Data | Table". World Bank. 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
123. Jump up^ "Autobahn-Temporegelung" (Press release) (in
German). ADAC. June 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
124. Jump up^ "Geschftsbericht 2006" (in German). Deutsche Bahn.
Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 27
March 2011.
125. Jump up^ "Airports in Germany". Air Broker Center International.
Retrieved 16 April 2011.
126. Jump up^ "Port of Hamburg authority". The official website of
the Port of Hamburg. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
127. Jump up^ "Overview/Data: Germany". U.S. Energy Information
Administration. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
128. Jump up^ "Energy imports, net (% of energy use)". The World
Bank Group. Retrieved18 April 2011.
129. Jump up^ "Renewable energy Germany targets switch to 100%
renewables for its electricity by 2050". The Guardian. Reuters
Berlin. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
130. Jump up^ "Primrenergieverbrauch nach Energietrgern" (in
German). Bundesministerium fr Wirtschaft und Technologie.
December 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
131. Jump up^ "Germany split over green energy". BBC News. 25
February 2005. Retrieved27 March 2011.
132. Jump up^ "Deutschland erfllte 2008 seine
Klimaschutzverpflichtung nach dem Kyoto-Protokoll" (Press
release) (in German). Umweltbundesamt. 1 February 2010.
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
133. Jump up^ "Germany greenest country in the world". The Times
of India. 21 June 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
134. Jump up^ "Record High 2010 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions
from Fossil-Fuel Combustion and Cement Manufacture Posted on
CDIAC Site". Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
Retrieved 15 May 2012.

135. Jump up^ Federal Ministry for the Environment (29 March
2012). Langfristszenarien und Strategien fr den Ausbau der
erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland bei Bercksichtigung der
Entwicklung in Europa und global [Long-term Scenarios and
Strategies for the Development of Renewable Energy in Germany
Considering Development in Europe and Globally ]. Berlin,
Germany: Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU).
136. Jump up^ "Federal Report on Research and Innovation
2010" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Education and Research. June
2010. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
137. Jump up^ "Nobel Prize". Retrieved 27
March 2011.
138. Jump up^ "Swedish academy awards". ScienceNews.
Retrieved 1 October 2010.
139. Jump up^ National Science Nobel Prize shares 19012009 by
citizenship at the time of the award and by country of birth.
From Schmidhuber, J. (2010). "Evolution of National Nobel Prize
Shares in the 20th century". Retrieved 27 March 2011.
140. Jump up^ Roberts, J. M. (2002). The New Penguin History of
the World. Allen Lane. p. 1014.ISBN 978-0-7139-9611-1.
141. Jump up^ "The First Nobel Prize". Deutsche Welle. 8 September
2010. Retrieved 27 March2011.
142. Jump up^ "Otto Hahn". Retrieved 15
December 2011.
143. Jump up^ "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize". DFG. Archived
from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
144. Jump up^ Bianchi, Luigi. "The Great Electromechanical
Computers". York University. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
145. Jump up^ "The Zeppelin". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission.
Retrieved 27 March 2011.
146. Jump up^ "Historical figures in telecommunications".
International Telecommunication Union. 14 January 2004.
Retrieved 27 March 2011.
147. Jump up^ Roland Berger Strategy Consultants (2010). Green
Growth, Green Profit How Green Transformation Boosts
Business. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-28543-9
148. Jump up^ "Preparations for operation of Wendelstein 7-X
starting". PhysOrg. 13 May 2014. Retrieved 12
December 2014. Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in
Greifswald in May started the preparations for operation of this the
world's largest fusion device of the stellarator type.
149. Jump up^ "Interim Update". UNWTO World Tourism
Barometer (UNWTO). April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.

150. Jump up^ "UNWTO Annual Report" (PDF). UNWTO. 2010.

Retrieved April 2011.
151. Jump up^ Zahlen Daten Fakten 2012 (in German), German
National Tourist Board
152. Jump up^ "Tourism Highlights 2013 edition". UNWTO.
Retrieved 26 November 2013.
153. Jump up^ "2013 Travel & Tourism Economic Impact Report
Germany". WTTC. Retrieved26 November 2013.
154. Jump up^ "Top Tourist Attractions of Germany". Germany.Travel,
official site. Retrieved12 December 2014.
155. Jump up^ "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA.
Retrieved 26 June 2011.
156. Jump up^ "Demographic Transition Model". Barcelona Field
Studies Centre. 27 September 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
157. Jump up^ "Im Jahr 2060 wird jeder Siebente 80 Jahre oder lter
sein" (Press release) (in German). Destatis. 18 November 2009.
Retrieved 6 April 2012.
Details on the methodology, detailed tables, etc. are provided
at"Bevlkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland bis 2060" (in
German). Statistisches Bundesamt. 18 November 2009. Archived
from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 15
February 2011.
158. Jump up^ "Birth rate on the rise in Germany". The Local.
Retrieved 28 September 2014.
159. Jump up^ "The New Guest Workers: A German Dream for Crisis
Refugees". Spiegel Online. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 28
September 2014.
160. Jump up^ "More skilled immigrants find work in
Germany". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved28 September 2014.
161. Jump up^ "German population rises thanks to
immigration". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved28 September 2014.
162. ^ Jump up to:a b c "National Minorities in Germany" (pdf). Federal
Ministry of the Interior (Germany). May 2010. Article number:
BMI10010. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
163. Jump up^ Bevlkerung und Erwerbsttigkeit: Bevlkerung mit
Migrationshintergrund Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2010, p. 64
164. Jump up^ "Population and employment: Population with migrant
background Results of the 2010 microcensus". 13 March 2012.
Retrieved 28 September 2014.
165. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Publikation STATmagazin Population
Families with a migrant background: traditional values count
Federal Statistical Office (Destatis)". 13 March 2012.
Retrieved 4 November 2012.

166. Jump up^ "International Migration 2006". UN Department of

Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
167. Jump up^ "Germany". Focus-Migration. Retrieved 28
March 2011.
168. Jump up^ "20% of Germans have immigrant roots". Burlington
Free Press. 15 July 2010. p. 4A.
169. Jump up^ "Bevlkerung nach Migrationshintergrund" (in
German). German Federal Statistical Office. Archived from the
original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved28 March 2011.
170. Jump up^ "Fewer Ethnic Germans Immigrating to Ancestral
Homeland". Migration Information Source. February 2004.
Retrieved 19 July 2014.
171. Jump up^ "Regionales Monitoring 2010 Daten und Karten zu
den Europischen Metropolregionen in Deutschland" (in German).
Bundesamt fr Bauwesen und Raumordnung. 2010. p. 10.
Retrieved 11 April 2012.
172. Jump up^ Pressekonferenz Zensus 2011 Fakten zur
Bevlkerung in Deutschland" am 31. Mai 2013 in Berlin
173. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Bevlkerung am 9. Mai 2011 Statistisches
Bundesamt Deutschland Bundesrepublik". (PDF) (in
German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany. 9 May 2011.
p. Zensus 2011 Page 6. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
174. Jump up^ "Statistic data of REMID". Retrieved 28
September 2014.
175. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace,
and World Affairs. Retrieved15 December 2011.
176. ^ Jump up to:a b "Chapter 2: Wie viele Muslime leben in
Deutschland?". Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland (PDF) (in
German). Bundesamt fr Migration und Flchtlinge. June 2009.
pp. 80, 97. ISBN 978-3-9812115-1-1. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
177. Jump up^ "Religionen in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen" (in
German). Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und
Informationsdienst. 31 October 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
178. Jump up^ Blake, Mariah (10 November 2006). "In Nazi cradle,
Germany marks Jewish renaissance". Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
179. Jump up^ Schnabel, U. (15 March 2007). "Buddhismus Eine
Religion ohne Gott". Die Zeit(in German). Retrieved 19
March 2011.
180. ^ Jump up to:a b European Commission (2006). "Special
Eurobarometer 243: Europeans and their Languages
(Survey)". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 28 March 2011.
European Commission (2006). "Special Eurobarometer 243:
Europeans and their Languages (Executive Summary)". Europa
(web portal). Retrieved 28 March 2011.

181. Jump up^ European Commission. "Official Languages".

Retrieved 29 July 2014.
182. Jump up^ Marten, Thomas; Sauer, Fritz Joachim, eds.
(2005). Lnderkunde Deutschland, sterreich, Schweiz und
Liechtenstein im Querschnitt [Regional Geography An Overview
of Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein] (in German).
Inform-Verlag. p. 7. ISBN 3-9805843-1-3.
183. Jump up^ European Commission (2004). "Many tongues, one
family. Languages in the European Union". Europa (web portal).
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
184. Jump up^ "Sprechen Sie Deutsch?". The Economist. 18 March
2010. Retrieved 16 April2011.
185. Jump up^ Bjrn Bertram. "Rankings: Universitt Heidelberg in
International Comparison". Retrieved 28 September 2014.
186. ^ Jump up to:a b "Country profile: Germany". Library of Congress.
April 2008. Retrieved28 March 2011.
187. Jump up^ "A German model goes global". Financial Times.
Retrieved 28 September 2014.
188. Jump up^ "The Educational System in Germany". Cuesta
College. 31 August 2002. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
189. Jump up^ "Top 100 World Universities". Academic Ranking of
World Universities. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
190. Jump up^ "Tuition Fees at university in Germany". 2009. Retrieved19 March 2011.
191. Jump up^ "Ein Zwischenruf Studiengebhren? Was sonst!". 2012. Retrieved21 March 2013.
192. Jump up^ Tim Pitman; Hannah Forsyth (18 March
2014). "Should we follow the German way of free higher
education?". The Conversation. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
193. Jump up^ Von Markus Verbeet (18 July 2011). "Mehr
Studienanfnger denn je: Jetzt kommt die Flut". Spiegel Online (in
German). Retrieved 17 March 2014.
194. Jump up^ "Vocational Education and Training Germany's
Dual System as a Role Model?". Deutsche Welle. 2 March 2012.
Retrieved 17 March 2014.
195. Jump up^ "Hospital of the Holy Spirit Lbeck". Lbeck +
Travemnde. Retrieved12 December 2014.
196. Jump up^ Health Care Systems in Transition: Germany.
European Observatory on Health Care Systems. 2000. p. 8. AMS
5012667 (DEU). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
197. ^ Jump up to:a b "Core Health Indicators". World Health
Organization. Retrieved 6 June 2011.

198. Jump up^ "2010: Herz-/Kreislauferkrankungen verursachen

41 % aller Todesflle" (in German). Retrieved 6
April 2012.
199. ^ Jump up to:a b "Country Profile Germany" (PDF). Library of
Congress Federal Research Division. April 2008. Retrieved 7
May 2011.
This article may incorporate text from this source, which is in the
public domain.
200. Jump up^ Wasser, Jeremy (6 April 2006). "Sptzle
Westerns". Spiegel Online International. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
201. Jump up^ "Unbelievable Multitude". Deutsche Welle.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
202. Jump up^ "World Heritage Sites in Germany". UNESCO.
Retrieved 3 October 2010.
203. Jump up^ "Human Development Report 2010 Table 4 Gender
Inequality Index". United Nations Development Programme.
pp. 156160. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
204. Jump up^ "Germany extends gay rights". News24. 29 October
2004. Retrieved 19 March2011.
205. Jump up^ Heckmann, Friedrich (2003). The Integration of
Immigrants in European Societies: national differences and trends
of convergence. Lucius & Lucius. pp. 51 ff. ISBN 978-3-8282-01811.
206. Jump up^ "2010 Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index" (Press
release). GfK. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
207. Jump up^ "Views of US Continue to Improve in 2011 BBC
Country Rating Poll" 7 March 2011.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
208. Jump up^ "BBC poll: Germany most popular country in the
world". BBC. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
209. Jump up^ "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia
on the rise". 4 June 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
210. Jump up^ MacGregor, Neil (28 September 2014). "The country
with one people and 1,200 sausages". BBC. Retrieved 11
December 2014.
211.Jump up^ "Christmas Traditions in Austria, Germany,
Switzerland". German Ways. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
212. Jump up^ "The Recorded Music Industry In Japan" (PDF).
Recording Industry Association of Japan. 2013. p. 24. Retrieved 8
February 2014.
213. Jump up^ "Kraftwerk maintain their legacy as electro-pioneers".
Deutsche Welle. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2013.

214. Jump up^ Nye, Sean. "Minimal Understandings: The Berlin

Decade, The Minimal Continuum, and Debates on the Legacy of
German Techno". Journal of Popular Music Studies, Volume 25,
Issue 2. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
215. Jump up^ "Art Nouveau Art Nouveau Art".
Retrieved 25 March 2013.
216. Jump up^ A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape
Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2006. p. 880. ISBN 0-19860678-8.
217. Jump up^ Jodidio, Philip (21 January 2008). 100 Contemporary
Architects (1 ed.). Taschen.ISBN 3836500914.
218. Jump up^ Espmark, Kjell (3 December 1999). "The Nobel Prize
in Literature". Retrieved 28 March 2011.
219. Jump up^ "Land of ideas".
Retrieved 19 March 2011.
220. Jump up^ Weidhaas, Peter; Gossage, Carolyn; Wright, Wendy
A. (2007). A History of the Frankfurt Book Fair. Dundurn Press Ltd.
pp. 11 ff. ISBN 978-1-55002-744-0.
221. Jump up^ Searle, John (1987). "Introduction". The Blackwell
Companion to Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell.
222. Jump up^ Studio Babelsberg Mit der Erschlieung des direkt
in der Nachbarschaft befindlichen Filmgelndes mit den Studios
Neue Film 1 und Neue Film 2 konnte Studio Babelsberg seine
Studiokapazitten verdoppeln und verfgt so ber Europas
grten zusammenhngenden Studiokomplex., retrieved 3
December 2013 (German)
223. Jump up^ "SciFi Film History Metropolis (1927)". Retrieved 28
September 2014.
224. Jump up^ Bordwell, David; Thompson, Kristin (2003) [1994].
"The Introduction of Sound".Film History: An Introduction (2nd ed.).
McGraw-Hill. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-07-115141-2.
225. Jump up^ Rother, Rainer (1 July 2003). Leni Riefenstahl: The
Seduction of Genius. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1441159010.
226. Jump up^ "Rainer Werner Fassbinder". Fassbinder Foundation.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
227. Jump up^ "Awards:Das Leben der Anderen". IMDb. Retrieved 28
March 2011.
228. Jump up^ "2006 FIAPF accredited Festivals Directory".
International Federation of Film Producers Associations.
Retrieved 28 March 2011.
229. Jump up^ "Distribution of TV in Germany (German)". Astra Sat.
19 February 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.

230. Jump up^ "Country profile: Germany". BBC News. Retrieved 28

March 2011.
231. Jump up^ "Allzeitrekord bei TV-Quote mit knapp 35 Millionen".
232. Jump up^ ZDB OPAC: German journal database
233. Jump up^ Purchese, Robert (17 August 2009). "Germany's video
game market". Retrieved 4 March 2012.
234. Jump up^ Tatr (en), Susanna (14 August 2014). "How NVIDIA
Will Be Going Big at Gamescom, the World's Biggest Gaming
Show". Nvidia. Retrieved 17 September2014.
235. Jump up^ "Made in Germany: The most important games from
Germany (German)". PC Games Hardware. 27 November 2011.
Retrieved 9 December 2014.
236. Jump up^ "Guide to German Hams and Sausages". German
Foods North America. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
237. Jump up^ "Numbers, data, facts about the organic food sector
(German)". Foodwatch. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
238. Jump up^ "German Wine Statistics". Wines of Germany,
Deutsches Weininstitut. Retrieved14 December 2014.
239. Jump up^ Schneibel, Gerhard (23 April 2010). "Brewers not
worried by beer consumption drop". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 6
April 2012.
240. Jump up^ "Michelin Guide restaurants for Germany".
Retrieved 26 January 2015.
241. Jump up^ "German cuisine beats Italy, Spain in gourmet stars".
Reuters. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
242. Jump up^ "Schnitzel Outcooks Spaghetti in Michelin
Guide". Deutsche Welle. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 6
April 2012.
243. ^ Jump up to:a b c "Germany Info: Culture & Life: Sports". Germany
Embassy in Washington, D.C. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
244. Jump up^ Ornstein, David (23 October 2006). "What we will
miss about Michael Schumacher". The Guardian. Retrieved 19
March 2011.
245. Jump up^ "Vettel makes Formula One history with eighth
successive victory". Irish Independent. 17 November 2013.
246. Jump up^ "Turin 2006 Medal Table". International Olympic
Committee. Retrieved 19 March2011.
247. Jump up^ "Bauhaus: The Single Most Influential School of
Design". gizmodo. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

248. Jump up^ "BMWI Branchenfokus Textil und Bekleidung".

Retrieved 28 September 2014.
249. Jump up^ "Die deutsche Mode kommt aus der
Provinz". BRIGITTE. Retrieved28 September 2014.
250. Jump up^ "Stars tragen deutsche Mode". VOGUE. Retrieved 28
September 2014.

Work cited Fulbrook, Mary (1991). A Concise History of Germany. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36836-0.

45. External links

Listen to this article (2 parts) (info)
Part 1 Part 2

This audio file was created from a revision of the "Germany" article dated 2008-06-24, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the
article. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

Find more about

at Wikipedia's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary

Media from Commons

News stories from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote

Source texts from Wikisource

Textbooks from Wikibooks

Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Learning resources from

Official site of the Federal Government

Official site of the Federal President

Official site of German Chancellor

Official Germany Tourism website Topical website about Germany

Germany entry at The World Factbook

Germany at University of Colorado Boulder Libraries

Germany at DMOZ

Wikimedia Atlas of Germany

Geographic data related to Germany at OpenStreetMap


Articles related to Germany

Germany portal

NATO portal

European Union portal

Europe portal

Geography portal



Central Europe

Countries in Europe

Federal constitutional republics

G7 nations

G8 nations

G20 nations

German-speaking countries and territories

Germanic countries and territories

Liberal democracies

Member states of NATO

Member states of the European Union


Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean

Member states of the United Nations

States and territories established in 1871

Western Europe

Navigation menu

Create account

Log in

View source
View history





Main page
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Donate to Wikipedia
Wikimedia Shop
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact page
What links here
Related changes
Upload file
Special pages
Permanent link
Page information
Wikidata item
Cite this page
Create a book
Download as PDF
Printable version






Aymar aru

Basa Banyumasan

Bikol Central




Chavacano de Zamboanga

Din bizaad


Emilin e rumagnl


Fiji Hindi





Bahasa Indonesia


Basa Jawa




Kreyl ayisyen





Bahasa Melayu
Baso Minangkabau
Mng-d ng-ng

Dorerin Naoero


Norfuk / Pitkern
Norsk bokml
Norsk nynorsk





Tok Pisin

Reo tahiti
Runa Simi

Gagana Samoa


Simple English

/ srpski
Srpskohrvatski /

Basa Sunda







/ Uyghurche



Vepsn kel

Ting Vit












Edit links

This page was last modified on 9 March 2015, at 18:30.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License;

additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of

Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of theWikimedia

Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Privacy policy

About Wikipedia


Contact Wikipedia


Mobile view