Certifications: Subnetting Made Easy - written for my students at work

Posted by: lordflasheart - Product Manager and Support Technician, British Telecommunications plc Oct 17, 2007, 4:51am PST An IP address is made up of 32 bits, split into 4 octets. Some bits are reserved for identifying the network and the other bits are left to identify the host. There are 3 main classes of IP address that we are concerned with. Class A Range 0 - 127 in the first octet (0 and 127 are, however, reserved) Class B Range 128 - 191 in the first octet Class C Range 192 - 223 in the first octet Below shows you how, for each class, the address is split in terms of network (N) and host (H) portions. NNNNNNNN . HHHHHHHH . HHHHHHHH . HHHHHHHH Class A Address NNNNNNNN . NNNNNNNN . HHHHHHHH . HHHHHHHH Class B Address NNNNNNNN . NNNNNNNN . NNNNNNNN . HHHHHHHH Class C Address At each dot I like to think that there is a boundary, therefore there are boundaries after bits 8, 16, 24, and 32. This is an important concept to remember. Typical questions you may see are those asking what a host range is for a specific address or which subnet a certain address is located on. I shall run through examples of each, for each class of IP address. What subnet does 192.168.12.78/29 belong to? You may wonder where to begin. Well to start with let's find the next boundary of this address. Our mask is a /29. The next boundary is 32. So 32 - 29 = 3. Now 2^3 = 8 which gives us our block size. We have borrowed from the last octet as the 29th bit is in the last octet. We start from zero and count up in our block size. Therefore it follows that the subnets are:192.168.12.0 192.168.12.8 192.168.12.16 192.168.12.24 192.168.12.32 192.168.12.40 192.168.12.48 192.168.12.56 192.168.12.64 192.168.12.72 192.168.12.80 .............etc Our address is 192.168.12.78 so it must sit on the 192.168.12.72 subnet. What subnet does 172.16.116.4/19 sit on?

Our mask is /19 and our next boundary is 24. Therefore 24 - 19 = 5. The block size is 2^5 = 32. We have borrowed into the third octet as bit 19 is in the third octet so we count up our block size in that octet. The subnets are:172.16.0.0 172.16.32.0 172.16.64.0 172.16.96.0 172.16.128.0 172.16.160.0 .............etc Our address is 172.16.116.4 so it must sit on the 172.16.96.0 subnet. Easy eh? What subnet does 10.34.67.234/12 sit on? Our mask is 12. Our next bounday is 16. Therefore 16 - 12 = 4. 2^4 = 16 which gives us our block size. We have borrowed from the second octet as bit 12 sits in the second octet so we count up the block size in that octet. The subnets are:10.0.0.0 10.16.0.0 10.32.0.0 10.48.0.0 .............etc Our address is 10.34.67.234 which must sit on the 10.32.0.0 subnet. We will now change the type of question so that we have to give a particular host range of a subnet. What is the valid host range of of the 4th subnet of 192.168.10.0/28? Easy as pie! The block size is 16 since 32 - 28 = 4 and 2^4 = 16. We need to count up in the block size in the last octet as bit 28 is in the last octet. 192.168.10.0 192.168.10.16 192.168.10.32 192.168.10.48 192.168.10.64 .................etc Therefore the 4th subnet is 192.168.10.48 and the host range must be 192.168.10.49 to 192.168.10.62, remembering that the subnet and broadcast address cannot be used. What is the valid host range of the 1st subnet of 172.16.0.0/17? /17 tells us that the block size is 24-17 = 7 and 2^7 = 128. We are borrowing in the 3rd octet as bit 17 is in the 3rd octet. Our subnets are:172.16.0.0

172.16.128.0 The first subnet is 172.16.0.0 and the valid host range is 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.127.254. You must remember not to include the subnet address (172.16.0.0) and the broadcast address (172.16.127.255). What is the valid host range of the 7th subnet of address 10.0.0.0/14? The block size is 4, from 16 - 14 = 2 then 2^2 = 4. We are borrowing in the second octet so count in the block size from 0 seven times to get the seventh subnet. The seventh subnet is 10.24.0.0. Our valid host range must be 10.24.0.1 to 10.27.255.254 again remebering not to include our subnet (10.24.0.0) and the broadcast address (10.27.255.255). HTH Bookmark

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Replied by: howtonetwork - Oct 18, 2007, 3:46am PST Hi,

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That is a great explanation. Thanks for that. There is video below which makes it pretty simple: http://www.subnetting-secrets.com/easy_way_to_subnet.html Paul

| E-Mail this Message Replied by: bchoi9999 - Oct 20, 2007, 10:15pm PST
Here are some affordable learning resources: http://easysubnet.com/ http://www.subnettingquestions.com/custom/bren/

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Replied by: quantico24 - Oct 21, 2007, 7:45am PST It's seems to be easy but I don't understand the term block size...And all the time when you have for example a /15 mask you count forward to the next boundary so it's 24-15=9 and 2^9=.....right??? Do you have like a book about subnetting? Thank you ...

| E-Mail this Message Replied by: lordflasheart - Product Manager and Support Technician, British Telecommunications plc - Oct 21, 2007, 10:36am PST

Hi, The term "block size" refers to the size of a subnet. Your example is incorrect as the next boundary is at 16 (i.e. where is the next dot in the IP address?) For your example the boundary being at 16 means that your block size is 2^(16-15) = 2. So in the 2nd octet (remember that the 15th bit is within the 2nd octet) you have subnets at each even number: e.g. 10.0.0.0/15 10.2.0.0/15 10.4.0.0/15 ........... 10.254.0.0/15 Another example: To which subnet does the host address 172.16.31.224/19 reside on? The next boundary is at 24. Your CIDR is /19 so 24-19 = 5. 2^5 = 32 which gives you the block-size. Therefore count up in blocks of 32 in the 3rd octet (bit 19 is in the third octet); 0, 32, 64, etc. Look at the IP address given. The 3rd octet is 31 so the subnet address must be 172.16.0.0/19. In essence though you are correct in your assumption that you count forward to the next boundary, just the excecution was flawed. Keep practicing and I promise you that if you stick to that technique you will be subnetting with your eyes shut sooner than you would believe. Good luck! Chris

http://www.subnetting-secrets.com/subnet_zero.html www.wvup.edu
http://easysubnet.com/ http://www.subnettingquestions.com/custom/bren/

Studying for the CCNA 802 test and using the Lammle 6th addition study book. Here is his "Written lab 3.1" on page 159, question 3... "Write the subnet, broadcast address, and valid host range for the following: 192.168.100.66/27. His answer is 255.255.255.224, broadcast address is 192.168.100.63, and valid host range is 33-62. My answer is 255.255.255.224, broadcast address is 192.168.100.95 and the valid host range is 65-94. Who's right? I'm not trying to slam Lammle here, he's put some great books out there, but I wanna know if I'm doing

this right. Thanks Bookmark

| Outline | Subscribe | E-Mail this Message | | Replied by: rayroyaleverest - IT Specialist, Air Force - Oct 18, 2007, 10:23am PST
I believe your answer is correct. I have noticed that Sybex publishes some errors.

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Replied by: NateBattle - Asst manager for technology, - Oct 18, 2007, 10:28am PST Your answer is correct.

| E-Mail this Message Replied by: cyrilomatsola - Network Admin, - Oct 19, 2007, 4:48am PST
My answer is: Broadcast = 192.168.100.95 Valid Host Range = 192.168.100.65-94 Mask 224 = 32 IP block size Subnetwork-----0 32 64 96 First host-----1 33 65 97 Last host------30 62 94 126 Broadcast------31 63 95 127 Cyril Omatsola (Nigeria)234-806-354-5331 Hey! dont blame todde for that he has many of us get certified

| E-Mail this Message Replied by: fdmtester - Oct 22, 2007, 5:35pm PST
Yep, You are correct. Lammle is not responsible for the printing. Cheer Fdmtester