You are on page 1of 447

Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems:

Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods

Shin’ya Obara

Kitami Institute of Technology, Japan

A volume in the Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book Series

Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems: Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods Shin’ya Obara Kitami Institute of

Managing Director:

Lindsay Johnston

Production Editor:

Jennifer Yoder

Development Editor:

Allyson Gard

Acquisitions Editor:

Kayla Wolfe

Typesetter:

Lisandro Gonzalez

Cover Design:

Jason Mull

Published in the United States of America by Engineering Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust@igi-global.com Web site: http://www.igi-global.com

Copyright © 2014 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Obara, Shin’ya. Optimum design of renewable energy systems : microgrid and nature grid methods / by Shin’ya Obara. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4666-5796-0 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-4666-5797-7 (ebook) -- ISBN 978-1-4666-5799-1 (print & perpetual access) 1. Renewable energy sources. 2. Electric power distribution. 3. Electric power systems--Design and construction.

  • 4. Energy storage--Equipment and supplies. I. Title. TJ808.O23 2014

621.042--dc23

2013051299

This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies (AEEGT) (ISSN: 2326-9162; eISSN: 2326-9170)

British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.

All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.

For electronic access to this publication, please contact: eresources@igi-global.com.

M ission Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book Series ISSN: 2326-9162 EISSN: 2326-9170

Mission

Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book Series

ISSN: 2326-9162 EISSN: 2326-9170

Growing awareness and focus on environmental issues such as climate change, energy use, and loss of non-renewable resources have brought about a greater need for research that provides potential solutions to these problems. The field of environmental engineering has been brought increasingly to the forefront of scholarly research and, alongside it, environmentally-friendly, or “green,” technologies as well. Advances in Environmental Engineering & Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book Series is a mouthpiece for this research, publishing books that discuss topics within environmental engineering or that deal with the interdisciplinary field of green technologies.

Coverage

• Alternative Power Sources • Biofilters & Biofiltration • Contaminated Site Remediation • Green Transportation • Industrial Waste Management & Minimization • Policies Involving Green Technologies & Environ- mental Engineering • Pollution Management • Renewable Energy • Sustainable Communities • Waste Management

IGI Global is currently accepting manuscripts for publication within this series. To submit a pro- posal for a volume in this series, please contact our Acquisition Editors at Acquisitions@igi-global.com or visit: http://www.igi-global.com/publish/.

The Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book Series (ISSN 2326-9162) is published by IGI Global, 701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, PA 17033-1240, USA, www.igi-global.com. This series is composed of titles available for purchase individually; each title is edited to be contextually exclusive from any other title within the series. For pricing and ordering information please visit http://www.igi-global.com/book-series/advances-environmental-engineering-green-technologies/73679. Postmaster: Send all address changes to above address. Copyright © 2014 IGI Global. All rights, including translation in other languages reserved by the publisher. No part of this series may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphics, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, record- ing, taping, or information and retrieval systems – without written permission from the publisher, except for non commercial, educational use, including classroom teaching purposes. The views expressed in this series are those of the authors, but not necessarily of IGI Global.

Titles in this Series

For a list of additional titles in this series, please visit: www.igi-global.com

Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods

Shin’ya Obara (Kitami Institute of Technology, Japan) Engineering Science Reference • copyright 2014 • 303pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466657960) • US $235.00 (our price)

Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems for Safety and Security

Michael Yastrebenetsky (State Scientific and Technical Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Ukraine) and Vyacheslav Kharchenko (National Aerospace University- KhAI, Ukraine, and Centre for Safety Infrastructure- Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine) Engineering Science Reference • copyright 2014 • 470pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466651333) • US $265.00 (our price)

Computational Intelligence in Remanufacturing

Bo Xing (University of Pretoria, South Africa) and Wen-Jing Gao (Meiyuan Mould Design and Manufacturing Co., Ltd, China) Information Science Reference • copyright 2014 • 348pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466649088) • US $195.00 (our price)

Risk Analysis for Prevention of Hazardous Situations in Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

Davorin Matanovic (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Nediljka Gaurina-Medjimurec (University of Zagreb, Croatia) and Katarina Simon (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Engineering Science Reference • copyright 2014 • 433pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466647770) • US $235.00 (our price)

Marine Technology and Sustainable Development Green Innovations

Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju (University Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia) Abdul Hamid Saharuddin (University Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia) Ab Saman Ab Kader (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia) and Wan Mohd Norsani Wan Nik (University Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia) Information Science Reference • copyright 2014 • 338pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466643178) • US $195.00 (our price)

Sustainable Technologies, Policies, and Constraints in the Green Economy

Andrei Jean-Vasile (Petroleum and Gas University of Ploiesti, Romania) Turek Rahoveanu Adrian (Institute of Research for Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Romania) Jonel Subic (Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade, Serbia) and Dorel Dusmanescu (Petroleum and Gas University of Ploiesti, Romania) Information Science Reference • copyright 2013 • 390pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466640986) • US $180.00 (our price)

Energy-Aware Systems and Networking for Sustainable Initiatives

Naima Kaabouch (University of North Dakota, USA) and Wen-Chen Hu (University of North Dakota, USA) Information Science Reference • copyright 2012 • 469pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781466618428) • US $180.00 (our price)

Titles in this Series For a list of additional titles in this series, please visit: www.igi-global.com

701 E. Chocolate Ave., Hershey, PA 17033 Order online at www.igi-global.com or call 717-533-8845 x100 To place a standing order for titles released in this series, contact: cust@igi-global.com Mon-Fri 8:00 am - 5:00 pm (est) or fax 24 hours a day 717-533-8661

Table of Contents

Preface

viii

Acknowledgment

xv

Chapter 1

 

1

1

2

Fuel.Cell.Network.System.Considering.Reduction.in.Fuel.Cell.Capacity.Using.Load..

 

18

Chapter 2

 

38

38

39

53

Chapter 3

 

72

72

Effective.Improvement.in.Generation.Efficiency.due.to.Partition.Cooperation.Management..

 

73

Equipment.Plan.of.Compound.Interconnection.Microgrid.Composed.from.Diesel.Power..

 

87

Chapter 4

 

103

103

Installation.Plan.of.a.Fuel.Cell.Microgrid.System.Optimized.by.Maximizing.Power..

 

104

Fuel.Cell.Network.with.Water.Electrolysis.for.Improving.Partial.Load.Efficiency.of.a.

 

118

Chapter 5

 

136

136

137

154

Chapter 6

 

167

167

Amount.of.CO2.Discharged.from.Compound.Microgrid.of.Hydrogenation.City-Gas..

 

168

181

Chapter 7

 

198

198

Energy.Cost.of.an.Independent.Microgrid.with.Control.of.Power.Output.Sharing.of.a..

 

199

Improvement.of.Power.Generation.Efficiency.of.an.Independent.Microgrid.Composed.of.

 

216

Chapter 8

 

237

237

238

Exergy.Analysis.of.the.Woody.Biomass.Stirling.Engine.and.PEFC.Combined.System.with.

 

250

263

Chapter 9

 

282

282

Dynamic.Operational.Scheduling.Algorithm.for.an.Independent.Microgrid.with..

 

283

300

Chapter 10

 

321

321

Compound.Microgrid.Installation.Operation.Planning.of.a.PEFC.and.Photovoltaics.with.

 

322

Energy.Supply.Characteristics.of.a.Combined.Solar.Cell.and.Diesel.Engine.System.with.a.

 

335

Chapter 11

 

352

352

Power.Generation.Efficiency.of.Photovoltaics.and.a.SOFC-PEFC.Combined.Microgrid..

 

353

Power.Generation.Efficiency.of.an.SOFC-PEFC.Combined.System.with.Time.Shift..

 

367

Chapter 12

 

385

385

Hydrogen.Production.Characteristics.of.a.Bioethanol.Solar.Reforming.System.with.Solar.

 

386

Efficiency.Analysis.of.a.Combined.PEFC.and.Bioethanol-Solar-Reforming.System.for.

 

399

Compilation of

417

About the

427

428

viii

Preface

Control of global warming is a common subject in the world. Therefore, the challengers of various fields are considering methods to control global warming. Microgrid technology is expected as a next-gener- ation energy supply system. However, since renewable energy is unstable, in many cases, it requires support by the conventional energy equipment. We are investigating the compound energy system from the following two viewpoints. One is the development of highly efficient energy storage equipment represented by a battery and heat-storage tank. Another is development of the operation optimization technology of the compound energy system including green energy. It is thought that the energy supply method shifts from the individual operation of large-scale plant to distribution of small equipment or microgrid. Moreover, a microgrid develops into a smart-grid by various added values with IT technol- ogy. On the other hand, it was predicted that the reduction technology of the greenhouse gas of a microgrid progressed sharply, and we named the nature-grid. A microgrid, a smart grid, and a nature-grid require fusion of energy technology and an information technology. For example, the operation in consideration of the green energy change with load prediction and weather prediction of a compound energy system can be planned. This book describes the operation optimization technology by compound utilization of a PEFC, PEFC-SOFC combined system, bio-ethanol solar reforming, wind-power generation, woody biomass engine, city-gas engine, diesel power plant, etc. The technology described in this book plays a large role in the development of a small-scale power-generation system, a microgrid, a smart-grid, and a nature-grid, which are introduced into individual houses, apartment houses or local area power sup- plies. The book is organized into twelve chapters. A brief description of each of the chapters follows:

Chapter 1 has described operating schedule of a combined energy network system. In the 1st section, the chromosome model showing system operation pattern is applied to GA (genetic algorithm), and the method of optimization operation planning of energy system is developed. The optimization method of this operation planning was applied to the compound system of methanol steam reforming type fuel cell, geo-thermal heat pump and the electrolysis tank of water. The operation planning was performed for the energy system using the energy demand pattern of the individual residence of Sapporo in Japan. From analysis results, the amount of outputs of a solar module and the relation of the operation cost of the system which are changed by the weather were clarified. In the 2nd section, reduction in fuel cell capacity linked to a fuel cell network system is considered. An optimization plan is made to minimize the quantity of heat release of the hot water piping that connects each building. Such an energy network is analyzed assuming connection of individual houses, a hospital, a hotel, a convenience store, an office building, and a factory. Consequently, a reduction of 46% of fuel cell capacity is expected compared with the conventional system in the case study.

ix

Chapter 2 has described characteristics of a fuel cell system and microgrid. In the 1st section, the dy- namic characteristics and generation efficiency of a microgrid structured from 17 houses were examined. A gas engine generator with a power generation capacity of 3 kW installed in a house is made to correspond to the base load, and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PECF) with a power generation capacity of 1 kW is installed in 16 houses. Moreover, when changing the load of a microgrid, the correspondence takes place by controlling the number of fuel cells. Using numerical analysis, the characteristics of the power quality of a fuel cell microgrid, and the generation efficiency of the fuel cell were examined. As a result, the relationship between the parameter of the controller and power quality and a fall in generation efficiency by a partial load were clarified. In the 2nd section, the method of determination of the control variables for a system controller, which controls the electric power output of a solid-polymer-membrane fuel cell system (PEFC) during electric power load fluctuations, was considered. The power load pattern of an individual house consists of loads usually moved up and down rapidly for a short time. This section investigates the relation of the control variables and power generation efficiency when adding change that simulates the load of a house to PEFC cogeneration. As a result, it was shown that an operation, minimally influenced by load fluctuations, can be performed by changing the control variables using the value of the electric power load of a system. Chapter 3 has described effective improvement in generation efficiency of a fuel cell microgrid. The fuel cell microgrid is expected as a distributed power supply with little environmental impact. In the 1st section, a microgrid is divided into multiple and each is optimized for the purpose of maximization of power generation efficiency. In the cooperation management of a microgrid, large fluctuations in load, or increases and decreases in a building, can be followed with a grid using a system-interconnection device. The system proposed in this section obtained results with high generation efficiency (from 21.1% to 27.6%) compared with the central system (generation efficiency is 20.6% to 24.8%) of a fuel cell mi- crogrid. In the 2nd section, an independent microgrid that compounds and connects a diesel power plant generator (DEG) and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is proposed. The operation of DEG is controlled to correspond to the base load of whole CIM (Compound Interconnection microgrid), and, on the other hand, the operation of PEFC is controlled to follow the load fluctuation of CIM. A com- plex community model and residential area model were used for analysis. In this section, the microgrid concerning the urban area (18 buildings) in Tokyo was investigated. From the results of analysis, it was confirmed that CIM could be operated with a high generation efficiency of 27.1 to 29.9%. Chapter 4 has described installation plan of a fuel cell cogeneration system. If energy-supplying microgrids can be arranged to operate with maximal efficiency, this will have a significant influence on the generation efficiency of the grid and will reduce greenhouse gas production. A means of opti- mizing the microgrid needs to be developed. In the 1st section, microgrids that use proton exchange membrane-type fuel cells (PEFC) may significantly reduce the environmental impact when compared with traditional power plants. The amount of power supplied to the grid divided by the heating value of the fuel is defined as the system generation efficiency. We find that when a set of PEFCs and a natural gas reformer are connected to the microgrid in an urban area, the annual generation efficiency of the system slightly exceeds 20%. When a PEFC follows the electricity demand pattern of a house, it operates at a partial load most of the time, resulting in a low efficiency of the microgrid. A method of improv- ing the generation efficiency of a fuel cell microgrid is proposed, where a supply system of power and heat with a high energy efficiency are constructed. In this section, a method of installing two or more microgrids is proposed (known as the partition cooperation system). The grids can be connected in an urban area to maximize generation efficiency. Numerical analysis shows that the system proposed in this

x

section (which has an annual generation efficiency of 24.6 to 27.6%) has a higher generation efficiency than conventional PEFC systems (central generating systems have annual generation efficiencies of 20.6 to 24.8%). In the 2nd section, fuel cell energy network which connects hydrogen and oxygen gas pipes, electric power lines and exhaust heat output lines of the fuel cell cogeneration for individual houses, respectively is analyzed. As an analysis case, the energy demand patterns of individual houses in Tokyo are used, and the analysis method for minimization of the operational cost using a genetic algorithm is described. The fuel cell network system of an analysis example assumed connecting the fuel cell co- generation of five houses. If energy is supplied to the five houses using the fuel cell energy network proposed in this study, 9% of city gas consumption will be reduced by the maximum from the results of analysis. 2% included to 9% is an effect of introducing water electrolysis operation of the fuel cells, corresponding to partial load operation of fuel cell co-generation. Chapter 5 has described fuel cell microgrid with wind power generation. Since the output of renew- able energy is unstable, other energy equipment needs to cover the stability of output. Thus, in the 1st section, the operating conditions of an independent microgrid that supplies power with natural power sources and fuel cells are investigated. If electric power is supplied using an independent microgrid connected to renewable energy, it can flexibly match the energy demand characteristics of a local area. The output of wind power generation and fuel cells is controlled by proportional-integral control of an independent microgrid for rapid power demand change. An independent microgrid that connects with renewable energy has the potential to reduce energy costs, and reduce the amount of greenhouse gas dis- charge. However, the frequency and voltage of a microgrid may not be stable over a long time due to the input of unstable renewable energy, and changes in short-period power load that are difficult to predict. Thus, when planning the installation of a microgrid in the 2nd section, it is necessary to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the power. About the microgrid composed from ten houses, a 2.5kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell is installed in one building, and this fuel cell operated corresponding to a base load is assumed. A 1kW PEFC is installed in other seven houses, in addition a 1.5kW wind turbine generator is installed. The microgrid to investigate connects these generating equipments, and supplies the power to each house. The dynamic characteristics of this microgrid were investigated in numerical analysis, and the cost of fuel consumption and efficiency was also calculated. Moreover, the stabiliza- tion time of the microgrid and its dynamic characteristics accompanied by wind-power-generation and fluctuation of the power load were clarified. Chapter 6 has described CO2 discharged from compound microgrid of hydrogenation city-gas engine and fuel cell. The independent microgrid is considered to be a technology in which maximum distributed energy is realizable. However, there are many subjects, such as the stability of the dynamic character- istics of power and development of an optimal design method. If the fuel cell system of the capacity corresponding to a load peak is installed, equipment cost will be high and energy cost will not be able to get any profile commercially. By increasing the hydrogen concentration at the time of low load, the power-generation efficiency of a city-gas-engine-generator (NEG) improves, and carbon dioxide emis- sions decrease. So, in the 1st section, a microgrid composed from a PEFC and a hydrogenation city gas engine was investigated using numerical simulation. The system with a small load factor of NEG and with a large load factor of PEFC system has few CO2 emissions. The system which combined base- load operation of PEFC and load fluctuation operation of hydrogenation city gas engine is the most advantageous for the comprehensive evaluation of equipment cost, power generation efficiency, and CO2 emissions. When the optimal system was installed into the urban area model of 20 buildings and analyzed, power generation efficiency was 25% and CO2 emissions were 1,106 kg/Day. Distribution of

xi

the independent energy source can be optimized with regionality in mind. The 2nd section examines the independent power supply system relating to hydrogen energy. Generally speaking, the power demand of a house tends to fluctuate considerably over the course of a day. Therefore, when introducing fuel cell cogeneration into an apartment house, etc., low-efficiency operations in a low-load region occur frequently in accordance with load fluctuation. Consequently, the hybrid cogeneration system (HCGS) that uses a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell fuel cell (PEFC) and a hydrogen mixture gas engine (NEG) together to improve power generation efficiency during partial load of fuel cell cogeneration is proposed. In this section, HCGS is introduced into 10 household apartments in Tokyo, and the power generation efficiency, carbon dioxide emissions and optimal capacity of a boiler and heat storage tank are investigated through analysis. Analysis revealed that the annual average power generation efficiency when the capacity of PEFC and NEG is 5 kW was 27.3%. Meanwhile, the annual average power genera- tion efficiency of HCGS is 1.37 times that of the PEFC independent system, and 1.28 times that of the NEG independent system respectively. Chapter 7 has described independent microgrid composed of distributed engine generator. In the 1st section, small kerosene diesel-engine power generators are introduced into an independent microgrid (IMG) that connects 20 houses, and power and heat are supplied to them. A 3 kW engine generator is installed in six houses, and a boiler and a heat storage tank are also installed, and exhaust heat to make up for insufficiency is supplied. The boiler is installed in the house that does not install the engine generator, and heat is supplied to the demand side. Partial load operation of the engine generator has a large influence on power generation efficiency. Therefore, this section discusses the system that controls the power of the engine generator by the power distribution control system using the genetic algorithm (GA), and the control system that changes the number of operations of the engine generators accord- ing to the magnitude of the power load. As a case study, the energy-demand model of the 20 houses in Sapporo was analyzed. As a result, the annual energy cost of the number of operations system and the power distribution control system is reducible with 16% and 8% compared with the conventional method, respectively. However, it depends for this cutback effect on the heat demand characteristic greatly, and when the proposed system is introduced into a community with little heat demand, effectiveness will decrease greatly. In the 2nd section, the power generation efficiency and power cost of an independent microgrid that distributes the power from a small diesel engine power generator was investigated using numerical analysis. The independent microgrid built using one to six sets of 20 average houses in Sap- poro and the distributed engine generators were examined using these test results. When a diesel engine power generator is distributed, since the power generation capacity per set decreases compared with the central system, the load factor of each engine generator rises. As a result, the operation of an engine at partial load with low efficiency can be reduced. When the number of distributions of the engine genera- tor increases as a result of numerical analysis, the cost of the fuel decreases. Chapter 8 has described characteristics of PEFC / woody biomass engine hybrid microgrid and exergy analysis. The combustion exhaust heat of woody biomass engine using Stirling cycle is high temperature. So, in the 1st section, this exhaust heat is used for the city gas reforming reaction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) system. The woody biomass engine generator has the characteristic that the greenhouse gas amount of emission with power generation is greatly reducible. In this study, the microgrid system that introduces PEFC / woody biomass engine hybrid cogeneration (PWHC) is pro- posed. It depends on the dynamic characteristics of the grid for the power quality at the time of load fluctuation being added to the microgrid. Especially, the dynamic characteristics of the independent microgrid are important on security of power quality. So, in this section, the response characteristic of

xii

PEFC and woody biomass engine was investigated by the experiment and the numerical analysis. Fur- thermore, the response characteristic of the PWHC independent microgrid including auxiliary machinery was investigated by the numerical simulation. Moreover, an improvement of dynamic characteristics is proposed using the method of adding proportional-plus-integral control to PWHC. If woody biomass engine is introduced into a house, 10.2s will be required to stabilize power quality at the maximum. On the other hand, when woody biomass engine corresponds to a base load and PEFC corresponds to the load exceeding the base load, settling time is less than 1.6 s. In this study, relation between the system configuration of the PWHC microgrid and the dynamic characteristices of the power was clarified. The woody biomass Stirling engine (WB-SEG) is an external combustion engine that outputs high-temperature exhaust gases. It is necessary to improve the exergy efficiency of WB-SEG from the viewpoint of energy cascade utilization. In the 2nd section, a combined system that uses the exhaust heat of WB-SEG for the steam reforming of city gas and that supplies the produced reformed gas to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is proposed. The energy flow and the exergy flow were analyzed for each WB-SEG, PEFC, and WB-SEG / PEFC combined system. Exhaust heat recovery to preheat fuel and combustion air was investigated in each system. In the 3rd section, the exergy flow and exergy efficiency of a 3kW PEFC were investigated, and the regional characteristic of the distributed energy system was considered. In the environmental temperature range of 263K to 313K, the difference of the total efficiency of the proposed system was 6%. On the other hand, the difference of the exergy total efficiency of the same temperature range was 30%. Moreover, as a result of examining how to improve the exergy efficiency of this system, certain improvement methods were proposed. (a) Preheat the city-gas and air supplied to the system using exhaust heat, and raise the combustion temperature, (b) Preheat the water supplied to the system using exhaust heat, (c) Change the catalyst material of each unit and reduce the amount of cooling of the reformed gas, (d) Examination of combined cycle power generation. The exergy ef- ficiency, in the case of introducing the proposed system into individual homes in Sapporo, Tokyo, and Kagoshima in Japan was evaluated. Consequently, when the system was introduced into a community with low outside air temperatures, exergy efficiency increased compared with communities with high outside air temperatures. Chapter 9 has described the design support using a neural network algorithm. A microgrid with the capacity for sustainable energy is expected to be a distributed energy system that exhibits quite a small environmental impact. In an independent microgrid, “green energy,” which is typically thought of as unstable, can be utilized effectively by introducing a battery. In the past study, the production-of- electricity prediction algorithm (PAS) of the solar cell was developed. In 1st section, a layered neural network is made to learn based on past weather data and the operation plan of the compound system of a solar cell and other energy systems was examined using this prediction algorithm. In this study, a dynamic operational scheduling algorithm is developed using a neural network (PAS) and a genetic algorithm (GA) to provide predictions for solar cell power output. We also do a case study analysis in which we use this algorithm to plan the operation of a system that connects nine houses in Sapporo to a microgrid composed of power equipment and a polycrystalline silicon solar cell. In this work, the relationship between the accuracy of output prediction of the solar cell and the operation plan of the microgrid was clarified. Moreover, we found that operating the microgrid according to the plan derived with PAS was far superior, in terms of equipment hours of operation, to that using past average weather data. In the 2nd section, the bioethanol reforming system (FBSR) using sunlight as a heat source is de- scribed. FBSR is a fuel production system for fuel cells with little environmental impact. An operation prediction program of the FBSR using a layered neural network (NN) with the error-correction learning

xiii

method has been developed. The weather pattern (the amount of global solar radiation and the outside air temperature) and energy-demand pattern for the past one year are inputted into the NN. Moreover, training signals are calculated by a genetic algorithm. The training signals are given to the NN, and the operation pattern of the FBSR is made to learn. As a result of analyzing using the developed algorithm, when ±20% or less of power load fluctuation occurred, the operation plan was analyzable in 14% or less of error span. On the other hand, in operation prediction when ±50% or less of fluctuation is added to the outside temperature and global solar radiation, there was 16% or less analysis error. Chapter 10 has described Microgrid with Numerical Weather Information. A fuel cell microgrid with photovoltaics effectively reduces greenhouse gas emission. A system operation optimization technique with photovoltaics and unstable power is important. In the 1st section, the optimal operation algorithm of this compound microgrid is developed using numerical weather information (NWI) that is freely available. A GA (genetic algorithm) was developed to minimize system fuel consumption. Furthermore, the relation between the NWI error characteristics and the operation results of the system was clarified. As a result, the optimized operation algorithm using NWI reduced the energy cost of the system.The production of electricity from the solar cells continues to attract interest as a power source for distrib- uted energy generation. It is important to be able to estimate solar cell power to optimize system energy management. The 2nd section proposes a prediction algorithm based on a neural network (NN) to pre- dict the electricity production from a solar cell. The operation plan for a combined solar cell and diesel engine generator system is examined using the NN prediction algorithm. Two systems are examined in this section: one with and one without a power storage facility. Comparisons are presented of the results from the two systems with respect to the actual calculations of output power and the predicted electricity production from the solar cell. The exhaust heat from the engine is used to supply the heat demand. A back-up boiler is operated when the engine exhaust heat is insufficient to meet the heat demand. Elec- tricity and heat are supplied to the demand side from the proposed systems, and no external sources are used. When the NN production-of-electricity prediction was introduced, the engine generator operating time was reduced by 12.5% in December and 16.7% for March and September. Moreover, an operation plan for the combined system exhaust heat is proposed, and the heat output characteristics of the back- up boiler are characterized. Chapter 11 has described SOFC-PEFC Combined Microgrid. In the 1st section, the combined sys- tem of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) is examined. The proposed system consists of a SOFC-PEFC combined system and a photovoltaic system (PV) as the energy supply to a microgrid. The exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for the steam reforming of the bio-ethanol gas with time shift utilization of the exhaust heat of the SOFC in optional time. The SOFC- PEFC combined system with the PV was introduced in a microgrid of 30 residences in Sapporo, Japan. The operation plan of the system has three cases: without solar power, with 50% and with 100% of solar output power. Moreover, three types of system operation of using the SOFC independent opera- tion, PEFC independent operation and SOFC-PEFC combined system are used to supply the demand side. A comparative study between the types of system operation is presented. The power generation efficiency is investigated for different load patterns: average load pattern, compressed load pattern and extended load pattern. This study reported that the power generation efficiencies of the proposed sys- tem in consideration of these load patterns are 27% to 48%. In the 2nd section, a microgrid, with little environmental impact, is developed by introducing a combined SOFC and PEFC system. This section is investigated the operation of a SOFC-PEFC combined system, with time shift operation of reformed gas, into a microgrid with 30 houses in Sapporo, Japan. The SOFC is designed to correspond to base

xiv

load operation, and the exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for production of reformed gas. This reformed gas is used for the production of electricity for the PEFC, corresponding to fluctuation load of the next day. The relation between operation method, power generation efficiency, and amount of heat storage of the SOFC-PEFC combined system to the difference in power load pattern was investigated. The average power generation efficiency of the system can be maintained at nearly 48% on a representative day in February (winter season) and August (summer season). Chapter 12 has described bioethanol solar reforming system for distributed fuel cell. The 1st section has described hydrogen production of a bioethanol solar reforming system for dis- tributed fuel cell. The development of a bioethanol steam reforming system (FBSR) is considered as a means of distributing energy using PEFCs. Small-scale solar collectors (collection areas on the order of several m2) are installed in a house as a method for applying the FBSR. However, the temperature distribution of a reforming catalyst fluctuates under conditions of unstable solar insolation. Therefore, heat transfer analysis applied in reforming the catalyst layer of the reactor and the temperature distribu- tion and transient response characteristics of the gas composition of the process were investigated. In the 2nd section, the development of a bioethanol reforming system for fuel cells (FBSR) using sunlight as a heat source was investigated. The system was investigated using the experimental result of catalyst performance, and numerical analysis. The overall efficiency of the production of electricity and heat power of this system was determined by examining its thermal output characteristic. The FBSR was introduced into standard individual houses in Sapporo, Japan for analysis. The amount of hydrogen production, the production-of-electricity characteristic, and the thermal output characteristic were examined using meteorological data on representative days in March and August. As a result, the overall efficiency of the system, defined as the rate of power and heat output compared to the amount of solar heat collected, was calculated to be 47.4% and 41.9% on the representative days in March and August, respectively.

xv

Acknowledgment

Special thanks also go to the publishing team at IGI Global, Ms. Jan Travers, Allyson Gard, Ms. Chris- tine Smith, Ms. Erika L. Carter, Ms. Emily E. Golesh, and Mr. Mike Killian, whose contributions throughout the whole process from inception of the initial idea to final publication have been invaluable. In particular to Jan Travers, who assisted in keeping this project on schedule.

Shin’ya Obara Kitami Institute of Technology, Japan October 2013

1

Chapter 1

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

ABSTRACT

This chapter consists of two sections, ‘Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System with Fuel Cell’ and ‘Fuel Cell Network System Considering Reduction in Fuel Cell Capacity Using Load Leveling and Heat Release Loss’. The chromosome model showing system operation pattern is applied to GA (genetic algorithm), and the method of optimization operation planning of energy system is devel- oped in the 1st section. In the case study, the operation planning was performed for the energy system using the energy demand pattern of the individual residence of Sapporo, Japan. Reduction in fuel cell capacity linked to a fuel cell network system is considered in the 2nd section. Such an energy network is analyzed assuming connection of individual houses, a hospital, a hotel, a convenience store, an office building, and a factory.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The summary of the 1st section is as follows. The optimization method of this operation planning was applied to the compound system of methanol steam reforming type fuel cell, geo-thermal heat pump and the electrolysis tank of water. In the case study, the operation planning was performed for the energy system using the energy demand pattern of

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5796-0.ch001

the individual residence of Sapporo, Japan. From analysis results, the amount of outputs of a solar module and the relation of the operation cost of the system which are changed by the weather were clarified. The representation day in February of the ratio of the operation cost in case of (0% of output rates) the rainy weather to the time of fine weather (100% of output rates) is 1.12. And the representation day in July is 1.71. Furthermore, the

Copyright © 2014, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

optimal capacity of accumulation-of-electricity and thermal storage was estimated, and they are 308MJ and 23MJ, respectively. The summary of the 2nd section is as follows. When the power demand of the whole network is small, some of the electric power generated by the fuel cell is supplied to a water electrolysis device, and hydrogen and oxygen gases are generated. Both gases are compressed with each compres- sor and they are stored in cylinders. When the electric demand of the whole network is large, both gases are supplied to the network, and fuel cells are operated by these hydrogen and oxygen gases. Furthermore, an optimization plan is made to minimize the quantity of heat release of the hot water piping that connects each building. Such an energy network is analyzed assuming connection of individual houses, a hospital, a hotel, a con- venience store, an office building, and a factory. Consequently, compared with the conventional system, a reduction of 46% of fuel cell capacity is expected.

OPERATING SCHEDULE OF A COMBINED ENERGY NETWORK SYSTEM WITH FUEL CELL

Introduction

Until now, various energy devices with individual controls have been used in buildings. However, renewable energy and unused energy are positively utilized from the viewpoint of global environment problems from now on. In order to utilize renew- able energy and unused energy, it is necessary to use active energy device for stabilization of an energy output. The object of study is to develop the method of the operation plan and optimum design of the combined system of active energy device and unutilized energy. The energy network is structured using an electric power system, a hot water system, and a fuel system. For the opera- tional plan of the energy network that conducts the

cooperative operation of complex energy devices, it is necessary to solve the nonlinear problem of many variables with objective functions provided beforehand. In the optimization calculations of system operational planning of a complex energy system, linear approximation calculations based on the mixed-integer plan-making method was used (Ito, Shibata, & Yokoyama, 2002). However, to analyze the operational planning of a complex energy system with high accuracy, it is necessary to solve the nonlinear problem with many variables. Until now, the operation planning of an energy system has been managed as a linear problem. So, in this Section, the method of analyzing a compound energy system by many variables and nonlinearity is developed. A genetic algorithm (Goldberg, 1989) is there- fore introduced to analyze operational planning in this Section. Previously, an analysis method of a large-scale energy system that combined a genetic algorithm and an annealing algorithm (Hongmei et al., 2000) was developed (Srinivas & Patnaik, 1994; Fujiki. et al., 1997; Yu et al., 2000). However, an analysis method that optimizes the operational pattern with the application of a genetic algorithm (GA) to the compound system built using an active energy device, a renewable enegy device, and an unutilized energy device has not yet been developed. In this Section, a GA analysis method for a compound energy system is developed as a preliminary survey of the energy network that conducts cooperative operation. The analysis software using GA developed in this Section is introduced in an individual house in Sapporo, Japan, which is a cold, snowy area, and the operational plan is investigated. The opera- tional planning of the compound energy system is analyzed using the minimization of operational costs and the maximization of renewable energy use, and the operational planning of an active energy device is considered. Although operation costs and facility costs need to be considered for a feasibility study of the system, the facility costs of a proton exchange membrane (PEFC) fuel cell

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

are changing greatly. Since estimating facility costs is difficult, the analysis in this Section only considers operation costs. Furthermore, the device capacity for the accumulation of electricity and thermal storage is estimated.

System Description

Network of Distributed Energy Devices

In a dispersed arrangement of small energy devices, a reduction in power transmission loss and heat dissipation loss is expected. Since the discharge of carbon dioxide is predicted, renewable energy devices and unutilized energy devices are connected along with established active energy devices in an energy network, and research on sup- plying energy to two or more houses is required. A network model of the fuel cell cogeneration (CGS) installed in individual houses, as assumed for the final target of this research, is shown in Figure 1(a). The fuel cell CGS installed in each house is connected with hydrogen gas system piping, an electric system power line, and hot water piping of an exhaust heat system. The hot water system recovers heat from fuel cells and supplies thermal energy to individual houses. Hot water flows in one direction, as shown by the arrows in Figure 1(a). The energy devices are connected to the electric power and thermal energy network, and the operational planning of a system that fulfills the energy demands of individual buildings is considered. The energy devices installed in each house were controlled by autonomous distribution. The objective of an energy network is to control the devices linked to the network cooperatively, and to obtain a better effect than conventional autonomous distribution control. Figure 1(b) shows a model of the cooperative operational control of an energy network. The control device of the energy network is composed of a computer, a communication device, and a LAN that communicates control information for

each energy device. In this system, the opera- tional state of each energy device linked to LAN, weather information and maintenance information can be communicated to the outside.

The Combined Energy System

A feasibility study of the operational planning analysis method of the energy network with cooperative control, shown in Figure 1(a), is the target of this Section. The analysis method in the case of operating the compound energy system consisting of an active energy device, a renew- able energy device, and an unutilized energy device has been developed. Figure 1(c) shows the model of the compound energy system. The analysis method for operational planning using GA has been developed to minimize costs, and the estimated device capacities and an operational plan for a complex energy system are determined.

The Combined Energy System to be Assumed

A block diagram of the energy system for houses adopted in this study is shown in Figure 1(a). In this system, methanol fuel is stored, and its distributed power supply is also possible in the residential areas of local cities where the city gas piping networks are not well developed. In individual houses and apartments, load changes are sharp and abrupt, and partial load operation of the energy system increases (Obara et al., 2005). Therefore, to improve energy efficiency, a dynamic operational plan for the energy system is required, wherein thermal storage and electric energy storage are introduced. A water electrolytic bath and gas tanks are added to the electric power storage device, and electric power generated with a fuel cell and a solar cell is supplied to the water electrolysis bath. Since the output of a solar cell changes according to the weather, the operational plan is defined by considering the amount of power

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 1. Combined energy network system

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 1. Combined energy network system 4

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

generation as a variable. Furthermore, when in- stalling the fuel cell cogeneration system in houses in cold regions, since the supply of heat energy is insufficient, there is additional combined use of the geothermal heat pump system.

Operation Method of Combined Energy System

Figure 2(a) shows the compound energy system for individual houses, and is investigated by this study. Active energy device is a fuel cell with a methanol reformer, and unutilized energy device is a solar module and a geo-thermal heat pump. This Section does not describe the equipment cost of the system of Figure 2(a). The equipment cost of PEFC and unutilized energy device is not commercially realized in the present condition. However, such equipment costs may be reduced rapidly from now on. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the operation plan of a compound energy system. Methanol fuel (mole ratio of methanol/water = 1.0/1.4), which is contained in the methanol tank (3), is supplied to the reformer (2), and hydrogen and carbon dioxide are formed. The methanol reformer is always warmed up. The piping system of hydrogen and reformed gas assumes use of a stainless steel tube. The specifi- cation of the reformer and the fuel cell stack was shown in Table 1. The heat source of the reformer drives the catalytic combustion of methanol, and the air for combustion is supplied by the blower. The reformed gas generated by the methanol steam reformer is sent to the anodes, air is supplied to the cathodes by a blower, and electricity is gener- ated by the PEFC (1). The energy supply path for this system is shown in Figure 2(b). The electric power generated by the fuel cell is supplied us- ing one of the following methods: (a) Alternating current electric power is generated by the DC/

AC converter (8), and demand is fulfilled; (b) Hydrogen and oxygen are generated in the water electrolyzer (5) and stored in a hydrogen tank (6) and an oxygen tank (7), respectively; (c) Electric power is changed into heat by an electric heater (9) in a thermal storage tank (10). It is possible to drive a fuel cell at any time using the stored hydrogen and oxygen. Selecting the appropriate energy supply path among (a) to (c) above is also possible for electric power generated by the solar cell. Because the capacity of a water electrolyzer and a thermal storage tank differs in the opera- tion plan of a system, they are determined from analysis output. However, electric power from the system to the demand side is supplied only via one of the following systems, without multiple supply sources: (a) Methanol fuel is reformed to generate hydrogen, which is supplied to a fuel cell, and electric power is generated; (b) Electric power is generated by the solar cell; (c) Stored hydrogen and oxygen, formed by water electroly- sis, are used in the fuel cell to generate electric power. In order to reduce the discharge of carbon dioxide, methanol fuel is not used to the extent possible. Therefore, as many renewable energy supply sources as possible are used with priority set in decreasing order to be (b), (c) and (a). A thermal storage tank has the following three heat input sources: (a) Exhaust heat from a fuel cell and the reformer; (b) Heat conversion of the electric power generated by the fuel cell and the solar cell; (c) Heat generated by the geothermal heat pump (11). The low-temperature source of heat pump is obtained from a bore hole with a depth of 30m installed in soil. And maximum output is 12 kW and COP is 3. However, when the heat input exceeds the thermal storage capac- ity, some of the surplus is released. After the heat from the thermal storage tank heats city water via the heat medium inside the thermal storage tank,

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 2. Outline of the proposal system

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 2. Outline of the proposal system it

it is supplied to the demand side. A thermal stor- age medium is water and the maximum tempera- ture of thermal storage is 353 K. For the specifications of other system compo- nent devices, we used the values shown in Table 1, which are typical for houses in cold regions such as Sapporo. Since a geothermal heat pump was used, the capacity of a fuel cell was set at 4.2 kW. With respect to device costs, installing a complex energy system such as shown for individual houses in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) is difficult.

Analysis

Analysis Method Using Genetic Algorithm (GA)

1. Indication of Device Operation by the Chromosome Model

Figure 3(a) shows the chromosome model intro- duced in GA, and expresses information on elec-

tric energy output E D t

i

,

k

for each time

t k

of

device D i , heat output H D t

i

,

k

, amount of electric

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Table 1. Energy device initial specifications

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Table 1. Energy device initial specifications energy storage

energy storage S E D t

,

i

,

k

, amount of thermal storage

Ss t D t

,

i

,

k

, and device selection switch

S W D t

,

i

,

k

using the gene model with 0 and 1 (Obara and Kudo, 2003). When two or more devices do not

yield a simultaneous energy supply, S W D t

,

i

,

k

is

introduced in order to select the device that sup- plies energy. As the chromosome model deter- mined above expresses the operational pattern of the device from t k to t k +1 . As shown in Figure

3(b), sets of the chromosome model of each sam-

pling time of

k = 0, 1, 2, , R

represent all the

operational patterns for operational period R .

'

Although a number of chromosome models N dv

are created as an initial generation, either 0 or 1 is selected. If the value of the random number is less than 0.5, the gene model is set at 0, and 1 is selected if the random number is 0.5 or more.

2. Production, Selection and Reproduction

'

The fitness values of the number of N dv

chromo-

some model groups (they indicate the patterns of the system operation) of an initial generation are calculated, and proliferation or selection is judged based on the values. The combination method is introduced in the calculation of the ranking selec-

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 3. Chromosome model

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 3. Chromosome model tion (Baker, 1985) and

tion (Baker, 1985) and roulette selection (Gold- berg, 1989). In the first reproduction calculation, the chromosome models of the initial generation are selected based on the number of N dv (here,

'

N dv

> N dv ), and these chromosome models are

used in subsequent calculations.

3. Crossover and Mutation of the Chromo- some Model

The calculation process of crossover and mutation is given to the chromosome model group, and the diversity of genes is maintained. Using the cal- culation for the last generation, the chromosome model with the best fit is determined as the opti- mal operational pattern. However, the number of generations in the analysis is decided beforehand. When using the chromosome model group with the crossover process, only a specific chromosome model evolves beyond a certain generation, and a model with high fitness cannot be found beyond

it. In the calculation of crossover, two parent chromosomes are chosen by probability P cros , parent chromosomes are combined, and one child chromosome is generated in the intersection posi- tion decided at random. Subsequently, the calcu- lation process of the mutation described below is added. In the mutation, parent chromosome mod- els are chosen at random using probability P mut , and the number and the position of the genes of the parent chromosomes are also decided at ran- dom. If the original value of a gene is 1, it has to change to 0, and if it is 0, it has to change to 1. In order to progress to the next generation, the fitness value is again evaluated with respect to all the operational patterns of number N dv with added crossover and mutation. Proliferation and selection are performed using these results. The above analysis is repeated up to the number of the last generation, and the gene arrangement of the model that has the highest fitness value in the

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

chromosome model group of the last generation is decoded, and the optimal operational pattern is decided.

4. Analysis Flow

chromosome models of N dv higher ranks are determined by the combination of ranking selec- tion and roulette selection. Furthermore, the calculation of production and selection described in previous is added to these N dv chromosome models, and a chromosome model with a large fitness value is obtained, maintaining diversity
chromo- by the calculation of crossover and mutation described in previous Section. This calculation is repeated, and the chromosome model with the highest fitness value when reaching the number

The flow of calculation of the operational plan-

ning analysis of the complex energy system using

'

GA is shown in Figure 4(a). First, N dv

some model groups described in previous Section are generated at random. The fitness values for each chromosome model are calculated, and the

Figure 4. Analysis flow, energy demand pattern, and output characteristics of equipment

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System chromosome model group of the last generation is

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

of the last generation, decided beforehand, is determined as an optimal model. Operational planning of all energy devices for each sampling time is decided by decoding the optimal model.

Cold-Region Houses

  • 1. Characteristics of Weather in Sapporo in

Japan

Sapporo is a cold, snowy region, and the annual

average temperature for the past five years is 282 K (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2003). The average temperature in February is 270 K, and the highest and the lowest tempera-

tures on a representative day are 273 K and 266 K, respectively. Moreover, there is an average

  • 25 days of snowfall in February. On the other

hand, the highest and the lowest temperature on a representative July day for the past five years are 298 K and 290 K, respectively, and the aver- age temperature is 293 K. Since air heat-source heat pumps cannot be used in winter, the use of a geothermal heat pump is assumed in this Section. Air conditioning is not needed during summer.

  • 2. Characteristics of Individual Houses in

Sapporo

The average individual house in Sapporo is a 2-story wooden house with a 140-m 2 living area (Narita, 1996). The model of the average electric power and thermal energy demand of the representative February day and July day for individual houses in Sapporo is shown in Figure 4(b). The thermoelectric ratio of representative days is 0.90:0.1 in February and 0.5:0.5 in July.

Characteristics of Energy Devices

  • 1. Fuel Cell Cogeneration

Figure 4(c) is the result of examining the rela-

tionship between electric power and thermal energy output, and the fuel amount of supply. The characteristic curve is divided into two or more regions, and each region is approximated

by the least-squares method with an equation of secondary order. The characteristics of electric power shown in Figure 4(c) are for a model that includes the power consumption of blowers and electric power loss of the DC/AC converter. Moreover, the values of the joule heat of the fuel cells, the battery reaction heat, and the exhaust

heat of the reformer have been included in the heat characteristics in the figure. Methanol fuel using a burner for the heat sources of the reformer is also included on the horizontal axis of Figure 4(c). In addition, to start the fuel cell system, consumption of methanol fuel equivalent to 900 kJ (250 Wh) is considered (Takeda, 2004). In order to collect the hydrogen and oxygen generated by water elec- trolysis, tanks are installed in the electric energy

storage device. For fuel cell systems using not the gas obtained by steam reforming of methanol but the hydrogen and oxygen in each tank, the power generation efficiency is 0.75 and the heat output is set at 0.05 (Obara et al., 2005).

  • 2. Geothermal Heat Pump

Based on the examination results of hydrocarbon binary vapor (HC-TECH Inc, 1997), we simplify

the analysis by setting the temperature T L (= 277 K) of the low-temperature heat source and the condensation temperatureT H (= 347 K) to be constant, and the coefficient of pump COP t k

at 3.0 .

  • 3. Water Electrolyzer

If direct current power is supplied to a water

electrolyzer, hydrogen can be produced at a rate

of Equation (1). E EL

,

t k

indicates the amount of

electric energy supplied to the water electrolysis

bath, and ϕ EL expresses the efficiency of the

charge. The flow rate of hydrogen Q H t

2

,

k

gener-

ated from sampling time t k to t is calculated by the equation below. The oxygen flow rate is also determined by the same calculation. In a

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

report on the water electrolysis bath for hydrogen

generation, efficiency ϕ EL of charge is given as

0.85 (Kosaka et al., 2000). Here, E c , F d , and E V

shows the chemical equivalent, Faraday constant

and voltage, respectively.

Q

H t

2 ,

k

=

E

EL t

,

k

E

c

F E

d

V

ϕ

EL

(1)

4. Thermal Storage Tank

S St ,max is the maximum thermal energy storage,

and T St ,max is the maximum temperature of the

heat medium. Equations (2) and (3) are restrictions

for thermal storage. V is the capacity of a thermal

storage medium volume (calcium chloride is as-

sumed), C p is the specific heat and T

is the air

temperature outside the thermal storage tank. The

thermal storage temperature during sampling time

t k is calculated by:

T

=

S

/ (ρ

C V

St t

,

k

0 S

St t

T

t

,

k

St t

,

k

,

k

S

St

, max

T

St t

,

k

T

St

p

, max

).

(2)

(3)

The following equation is an expression of the

thermal energy storage between time t k and t .

S

St t

,

k

S

St t

,

k

1

= {

H

St in t

,

,

k

H

St out t

,

,

k

ϕ

St

ρ C

p

V

(

T

St t

,

k

T

,

t

k

)}

⋅ ∆

t

(4)

H St in t

, , and H St out

k

,

,

t k

show the input and output

heat energies of the thermal storage tank, respec-

tively, and the loss of thermal storage is the 3rd

term within { } on the right-hand side of Equation

(4) when it depends on open-air temperature T

,

t k

.

ϕ ST and ρ shows the efficiency of thermal stor-

age and the density of thermal storage medium,

respectively. In this Section, thermal storage loss

at time t k of the representative day will be con-

sidered as 1% of the value on the left-hand side

of Equation (4) in July and 2% in February. These

heat losses were calculated and determined from

the difference of temperature of ambient air and

a thermal storage medium.

  • 5. Solar Modules

Figure 4(d) shows the results for a solar cell in

Sapporo in winter (representative days in Febru-

ary) (Obara & Kudo, 2003; Nagano, 2002). The

solar cell is a roof installation-type device installed

perpendicularly so that it does not become covered

with snow. The characteristics for the represen-

tative days in July shown in the figure are the

predicted results. Each characteristic curve is the

amount of power generated during fair weather,

and power generation falls during cloudy or rainy

weather. Using the output characteristic perfor-

mance of the solar cell as 0% in snowfall, 50%

under cloudy conditions and 100% in fair weather

in Figure 4(d), the operational planning for the

representative day for each month is analyzed.

Objective Function and Energy Equation

  • 1. Objective Function

Only methanol is used as the fuel supplied to the

system as shown in Figure 4(b). Therefore, op-

erational planning to minimize costs requires an

operational pattern where the methanol fuel con-

sumption is minimum for each sampling time t k .

D i represents the energy device and the subscript

i ( i = 1 , 2 , 3 , , M and

...

M is the total number

of devices) corresponds to the device number used

here. The operational costs of device D i during

sampling time t k to t are equal to fuel input

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

flow F D t

i

,

k

of the device multiplied by unit fuel

price C fuel . The operational costs of the whole

system are estimated using Equation (5). There-

fore, the total operational costs of all working

periods of a system are calculated using Equation

(6) and called the “best-fit solution,” so that the

value of Equation (6) should be small. In the

example of the application of operational planning

in the following Section, C fuel of methanol fuel

is calculated to be 0.463 $/kg (Energy and Indus-

trial Technology Development Organization in

Japan, 1999))

and H System ,

t k

are decided on the basis of energy

demand patterns. The left-hand side of Equation

(7) shows electric power output from the fuel cell

( E FS

,

t k

) and solar cell ( E SL

,

t k

). The right-hand

side of Equation (7) shows the electric power

consumption of the water electrolyzer ( E EL

,

t k

),

electric power consumption of the heat pump (

E HP

,

t k

), and electric power converted into heat

by the electric heater ( E H

,

t k

), respectively. The

left-hand side of Equation (8) shows thermal

energy output from the fuel cell heat exhaust, heat

 

pump ( H HP

,

t k

), electric heater ( H H

,

t k

) and thermal

  • C System t

,

k

=

  • M (

  • i = 1

C

fuel

F

D t

i

,

k

t

)

(5)

storage tank ( H St

,

t k

), respectively. α FS , F FS

,

t k

,

C

System day

,

=

and ϕ FS shows the calorific power of methanol

23

  • M fuel, the quantity of methanol fuel mass flow and

∑ ∑

t

k

0

= i =

1

C

System t

,

k

(6)

the fuel cell stack efficiency. ϕ FS is calculated

from the relations between the amount of supply

2. Energy Balance

Equations (7) and (8) are the electric power and

thermal energy balance equations of this system,

respectively.

of a methanol fuel, and a power output shown in

Figure 4(c). The right-hand side of Equation (8)

shows heat loss from the thermal storage tank (

H St

,

t k

) and heat release from the radiator (

H Rad ,

t k

), respectively.

E

FS t

,

k

+

E

SL t

,

k

Operation Planning

= E

System t

,

k

+ E

EL t

,

k

+ E

HP t

,

k

+ E

H t

,

k

α

FS

F

FS t

,

k

(1

ϕ

FS

)

(7)

+H

HP t

,

k

+ H

H t

,

k

+ H

St t

,

k

= H

System t

,

k

+ H

St t

,

k

+ H

Rad t

,

k

(8)

The left-hand sides of Equations (7) and (8)

correspond to the output energy from the system,

and the right-hand sides correspond to the amount

of consumption energy of the system. E System

,

t k

1. Analysis Method of System Operational

Planning

The “mixed-integer plan-making” method has

been studied to analyze the operational planning

of an energy system (Ito K, Shibata T, & Yo-

koyama R., 2002). In this method, the nonlinear

input-and-output characteristics of energy de-

vices are expressed as a linear model and analyzed.

An example of the test results of electric power

and thermal energy output characteristics of a fuel

cell with a reformer is shown in Figure 4(c). If

the nonlinear characteristics of an energy device

can be made to fit a linear approximation problem,

an increase in analysis error is predicted. In the

mixed-integer plan-making method, the charac-

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

teristics of the electric power output are approxi-

mated by three straight lines l 1 to l 3 in Figure

4(c), and heat output is approximated by four

straight lines l 4 to l 7 . Generally, since the output

of small energy equipment is nonlinear, we should

use the nonlinear model for analysis. In the

analysis of the operational planning of the system

with a number of energy devices, many variables

associated with each device operation are used.

Therefore, if many variables can be calculated

simultaneously, the efficiency of the analysis will

increase. A genetic algorithm, where simultaneous

calculations of many variables and the calculation

of a nonlinear problem are possible, is introduced

in the software developed in this study. However,

neither the application of a GA to a small-scale

energy system nor a design method that opti-

mizes the operational pattern and device capac-

ity has been studied previously. In particular, no

research reports on the optimization of the op-

erational plan for a compound system of an active

energy device, a renewable energy device and

unutilized energy device or their optimal capac-

ity can be found in the literature.

  • 2. Operation of a Chromosome Model

The chromosome model operated by the GA

calculation needs to satisfy the energy balance

in Equations (7) and (8). However, the chromo-

some model must also satisfy conditions (a) and

(b) described below:

  • 1. A quantity that excludes electric energy consumption (sum of all E ) from the amount of electric energy output of the fuel cell and the solar cell satisfies the electric energy demand.

  • 2. A quantity excluding heat loss (

H

Rad t

,

k

+ ∆

H

St t

,

k

) from the sum total of the

exhaust heat of the reformer and fuel cell,

heat pump, electric heater, and the heat

energy output of the thermal storage tank

should satisfy the heat energy demand.

When an operational pattern (chromosome

model) that does not fulfill one of these condi-

tions arises, it is forced to a very low value of fit

so that it cannot proceed to the next generation.

Similarly, a low fitness value is given for an op-

erational pattern that does not satisfy the energy

balance of Equations (7) and (8).

For the chromosome models of the initial

generation for the power generation of a fuel

cell, the total power generated by the fuel cell is

decided at random within the electric power

capacity. In addition, the total power generated

is distributed to the amounts of electric power

output ( E FS

,

t k

), the quantity supplied to a water

electrolyzer and stored as electricity ( E EL

,

t k

),

and the quantity conducting heat conversion (

E H

,

t k

) in an electric heater at random. The total

amount of power generated in fine weather in

sampling time

t k

in a solar cell is decided as

shown in Figure 5(a). The total power generated

from the solar cell is distributed to the electric

power supplied to the electric power output (

E SL ,

t k

), the amount of accumulated electricity (

E EL

,

t k

) and amount of electric power supplied

to a heater ( E H

,

t k

) for every chromosome mod-

el at random. Moreover, the power consumption

( E HP

,

t k

) of the geothermal heat pump for every

chromosome model is estimated from the amount

of heat output that was decided at random

within the limits of the device capacity and

coefficient of performance (COP).

Case Study

Analysis Conditions

Operational period R of a system is split into 23

parts, and:

t k (k = 0 , 1 , 2,

.....

, 23)

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 5. Output characteristics of solar power generation and fuel cell, and system device cost

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 5. Output characteristics of solar power generation

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

defines the sampling time. Moreover, the number

of devices M is set at five including the fuel cell

with the reformer, solar cell, geothermal heat

pump, water electrolyzer, and thermal storage

tank. In the analysis described below, the number

of initial-generation chromosome model groups

'

N dv

is set at 3000, and the number of chromosomes

operational after reproduction N dv is set at 2500.

The last generation is analyzed as 100 generations.

Moreover, considering the maintenance of the

diversity of gene models, the number of intersec-

tions is selected randomly. That is, with one in-

tersection, 0.2% of the total number of chromo-

somes is extracted as parent chromosomes, at

maximum. The frequency of mutations governed

is about 4% of the genes in a mutated chromosome

model, at maximum. These parameters of the SGA

confirm that the value of the optimal solution is

in agreement within several percent, as a result

of trial calculations with two or more parameters.

The minimum operational costs for every

generation when performing an operational plan

by GA to minimize the operational costs with the

application of the energy demand pattern of rep-

resentative days in July and February are shown

in Figure 5 (a). In this calculation, we assumed

fair weather and the electric power output of a

solar module to be 100% (same as in Figure 4(d)).

Although the fitness value of the representative

day for both months decreases rapidly, the op-

erational costs, to almost ten generations, shows

a gradual change in successive generations. For

the best-fitness solution after 10 generations, the

mutation calculation is important. However, if

analysis conditions are changed, the number of

generations for convergence changes.

Objective of Analysis Calculation

The operational planning of a system is analyzed

using the energy demand pattern of the represen-

tative days in February and July in Sapporo. We

assume that the active energy device (fuel cell

cogeneration with a methanol reformer) is already

installed in individual houses in Sapporo in this

analysis. The renewable energy device (solar cell),

unutilized energy device (geothermal heat pump),

electricity accumulation device (water electrolyz-

er), and thermal storage tank are connected to an

active energy device, and the complex independent

energy system shown in Figure 4(b) is built. It is

difficult to introduce such a complex system into

individual houses because of the device costs. This

section investigates the energy network system of

the distributed energy device. This Section also

examines, the operational planning method of the

active energy device with the maximum use of

renewable energy using the information obtained

from the analysis. Furthermore, the capacity of

devices to accumulate electricity and thermal

storage is estimated.

Results and Discussion

Results of Operational Planning

Figure 5(b) shows the analytical results of op-

erational planning assuming fair weather with

the energy demand pattern for the representative

day in each month, and it shows the device energy

output for every time period. However, the output

results of the fuel cell include the output values of

both the electric energy and the heat energy. The

breakdown of the energy output of the fuel cell is

shown in Figure 5(c). Hydrogen has been formed

by the steam reformation of methanol in the time

period with high thermal output (0:00 and 1:00

on the representative day for July and 0:00~9:00

and 19:00 and 21:00 on the representative day for

February). A thermal output is small when sup-

plying and generating the hydrogen and oxygen

produced by water electrolysis to the fuel cell.

The reason for this is that the use of renewable

energy (solar cell) is a top priority. Therefore, if

the amount of power generated by a solar cell

exceeds the electricity demand, the fuel cell will

not operate by driving the reformer. If, from night

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

to early morning, power generation from a solar

cell is not conducted, the fuel cell operates by the

driving reformer. On a representative day, power

from a fuel cell by the operation of the reformer is

generated from 0:00 at 9:00 in February, and the

heat pump is operated using this electric power.

From the analysis results of the operational plan,

thermal storage of the heat generated by the heat

pump occurs, and the stored thermal energy is

used to conduct the time shift and to fulfill heat

demand during the daytime.

Figure 5(d) shows the analytical results of the

system operational costs for conducting opera-

tional planning in which the output proportion of

the solar cell is a variable, for the representative

day in each month. Using the characteristic output

performance of the solar cell of 0% in snowfall,

50% under cloudy conditions and 100% in fair

weather in Figure 4(d), operational planning for

the representative day in each month is analyzed.

The total value of one day of electric power and

thermal energy demand is set at 100. The repre-

sentative days in February and July of the total

electric power obtained in the solar cell for fine

weather are 95 and 28, respectively. On the other

hand, from Figure 5(d), the system operation costs

during fine weather when setting the operation

costs in case of rainy weather and snowfall at 100

for February and July representative days are 88

and 29, respectively. The difference of the opera-

tion cost of every month is equal to the difference

of the consumption of a methanol fuel. Therefore,

the difference of operation cost is the difference

of a carbon-dioxide discharge.

The difference in the operational costs of the

system according to the difference in weather for

the representative days in February (100-88 = 12)

is larger than the difference in solar cell output

(100-95 = 5) due to the weather. The main reasons

for this are that fuel cell efficiency improves by

reducing operation because of low loads in Figure

4(c), and because the driving period to operate

a fuel cell by generating hydrogen and oxygen

using a solar cell is long. On the other hand, for

the representative July day, the generation of hy-

drogen and oxygen is conducted by a solar cell,

and operation of a fuel cell in most periods is

performed with high energy demand. Therefore,

the difference in the output of a solar cell due to

the weather directly affects the operational costs

of the system.

Design of the Capacity of the Water Electrolyzer and Thermal Storage

Figure 6(a) shows the results of the operational

planning of the amount of thermal storage, and

the accumulation of electricity for a represen-

tative February day. The largest quantity of

thermal storage and electric energy storage in

the analytical results approximates the design

capacity of each device in fair weather because

it increases as the output proportion of the solar

cell increases. Figure 6(b shows the analytical

results of the thermal storage quantity and electric

energy quantity where the output proportion of

the solar cell was 100% in the energy demand

pattern for the representative day in each month.

From these results, the maximum value of the

thermal storage quantity is 308 MJ (representative

February day), and the maximum value of electric

energy storage quantity is 23 MJ (representative

July day). Thermal storage capacity is reduced

by lengthening the operational period of a fuel

cell with the reformer and the heat pump.

Conclusions

Analysis software for operational planning, when

two or more energy devices were introduced in

an individual house, was developed. A genetic

algorithm (GA), which can analyze nonlinear

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 6. Quantity of energy storage

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 6. Quantity of energy storage problems and

problems and many variables at a time, was used

for the analysis software for the operational plan-

ning of the complex energy system developed in

this Section.

The operational planning to introduce an active

energy device (fuel cell cogeneration), a renewable

energy device (solar cell), and an unutilized energy

device (geothermal heat pump) in an individual

house in Sapporo, Japan, which is a cold, snowy

region, as an analysis example was conducted using

the developed software. Furthermore, the device

capacity of accumulation for an electricity storage

device and a thermal storage tank were estimated.

From the results of the analysis, a fuel cell with

a reformer operates from night to early morning

when a solar module is not operational. A heat

pump also operates from night to early morning.

The thermal storage of heat generated by the heat

pump is conducted, and this heat is supplied to

the heat load during the daytime.

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

FUEL CELL NETWORK SYSTEM CONSIDERING REDUCTION IN FUEL CELL CAPACITY USING LOAD LEVELING AND HEAT RELEASE LOSS

Introduction

In order for installation of the fuel cell system to

houses or a small-scale and middle-scale building

to spread, it is necessary to reduce equipment cost.

Consequently, a fuel system network (hydrogen

piping and oxygen piping) and an energy network

(a power transmission line and hot water piping)

of distribution fuel cells are proposed (Obara &

Kudo, 2005). In this system, common auxiliary

machinery is installed in a machinery room. In

this chapter, in order to reduce the capacity of the

fuel cell connected to the network, the method

of leveling the load is proposed. By this method,

hydrogen and oxygen are generated by water

electrolysis at the time of low load with little

power demand, and each gas is compressed and

stored. On the other hand, the stored gas is sup-

plied and generated to the fuel cell in a period of

large power load. The experimental result shows

that the power generation characteristics improve

greatly compared with air supply, when supplying

oxygen to the fuel cell (Badami &Caldera, 2002).

Therefore, if the oxygen generated when load

is small can be used for a high-load period, the

installed capacity of the fuel cell can be reduced.

Moreover, the heat-energy network is hot water

piping, and supplies heat to each building. Hot

water piping distributes heat via each building.

When there is heat excess with some buildings,

it can also recover this heat through the hot water

piping. In a heat-energy network, the hot water

temperature in a building outlet changes with the

heat consumed by each building and the fuel cell

exhaust heat of each building. Therefore, the heat

release of the overall network differs according

to outside air temperature, piping distance, the

starting point of the hot water supply, and the

flow direction of the hot water. Consequently,

to counteract the piping heat release loss of the

heat-energy network, the minimum piping route

is examined.

In the analysis case, the capacity reduction

effect of a fuel cell when installing load leveling

using the water electrolyzer described above is

investigated regarding a local energy network that

includes houses, a hospital, a factory, an office, and

a convenience store. Furthermore, the hot water

piping route and the fuel cell capacity placed on

each building when optimizing the system with

the object of minimizing the hot water piping heat

release are considered.

Load Leveling and Arrangement Plan of Fuel Cell

Fuel Cell Network System

The network model with the proton exchange

membrane fuel cell (PEFC) installed that is as-

sumed in this chapter is shown in Figure 7 and

Figure 8. As shown in each figure, the fuel system

(hydrogen piping and oxygen piping), the power

system (power transmission line), and the heat-

energy network (hot water piping) between the

fuel cells installed in each building are connected.

A heat transfer medium (hot water) is flowed in

hot water piping, the exhaust heat of a fuel cell is

recovered, and heat is distributed to each building.

The route of the hot water piping can be set up

arbitrarily, and the flow direction is one way as

the arrow in each figure shows. Figure 7 shows

the system that supplies the power to Buildings A

to G from one set of the fuel cell installed in the

machinery room, and is described as the R1 type

below. A machinery room can be installed in an

arbitrary building (Building A in Figure 7). As

shown in Figure 7 (c), the fuel cell (1: this number

corresponds to that in Figure 7), water electrolyzer

(6), city gas reformer (7), hydrogen and oxygen

compressor (9 and 11), cylinders (10 and 12), geo-

thermal heat pump (13), heat storage tank (14),

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 7. Fuel cell network system model (R1 type)

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 7. Fuel cell network system model (R1

Figure 8. Fuel cell network system model (R2 type)

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 7. Fuel cell network system model (R1

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

etc. are installed in the machinery room. The heat

output by fuel cell exhaust heat, the heat storage

tank, and the geo-thermal heat pump is distributed

to each building through a heat transfer medium.

The piping route can be planned arbitrarily and

it is in the order of Building ABCFEDGA in the

example of Figure 7 (a). As shown in Figure 7

(b), headers (4 and 5) are set in each building at

a hot water gate. The heat of the radiator (3) and

a heat exchanger connected to the header is used

for space heating and hot water supply. Figure 8

shows the system that distributes a fuel cell in all

the buildings, and this system is described as the

R2 type below. Although the number of fuel cells

increases and the equipment cost increases for the

R2 type, heat release loss with heat transport is

small. The hot water piping route of the R2 type

and the building with a machinery room can be

planned arbitrarily. In the example of Figure 8

(a), hot water is supplied in the order of Building

ADGBFECA. The machinery room of Figure

8 (c) is installed in Building A. The equipment

scheme installed in the building and machinery

room in the R2 type is shown in Figure 8 (b) and

Figure 8 (c).

Ambient air is usually supplied to the fuel cell

installed in R1 and R2 from a blower. However,

both types can also supply oxygen through piping.

Moreover, it is assumed that reformed gas of the

city gas reformer and hydrogen of the cylinder

can be supplied to the fuel cells at arbitrary times

through the network.

Power Generation Characteristics of the Fuel Cell

Figure 9 shows the power generation characteris-

tics when hydrogen and oxygen are supplied, and

when supplying hydrogen and air by the results

of the performance measurement of a PEFC. The

differences in these power generation characteris-

tics are considered to be due to the difference in

Figure 9. Single cell performance

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System etc. are installed in the machinery room. The

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

oxygen partial pressure, the water balance inside

the cell, and the electrical receptivity change of

the ion exchange membrane. The power genera-

tion characteristics differ between supplying re-

formed gas to a fuel cell, and supplying hydrogen.

However, since there are few differences in the

power generation characteristics of reformed gas

or hydrogen, this difference is ignored.

Figure 10 shows the characteristics of the

power and heat output when supplying air or

oxygen to a cathode using the same fuel cell (the

electrode surface is 1 m 2 ) as shown in Figure 9.

The maximum power output when supplying air

to the cathode is E fca ,max =1.05 kW, and it is

E fco ,max =1.9 kW in the supply of oxygen. In this

way, if oxygen is supplied to the cathode, the

power output will increase. Therefore, if oxygen

is supplied and generated to a fuel cell when there

is high power demand, the fuel cell can be min-

iaturized compared with the design capacity by

Figure 10. Output characteristics of a fuel cell

air supply. If the fuel cell with the characteristics

shown in Figure 10 is used with maximum output,

the fuel cell facility capacity will decrease by the

value of ( E

fco ,max

E

fca ,max

).

Load Leveling Using Water Electrolysis

Figure 11 shows the model indicating power

demand amount E need ,t to which is added the

power demand amount of each building in Figure

7 or Figure 8 for every sampling time t . E

sep

in

this figure is the threshold value of the region of

low load and high load. By using this threshold

value, load leveling is attempted using the meth-

od described below. When E need ,t is less than E sep ,

it generates electricity by supplying reformed gas

and air to the fuel cell. However, the production

of electricity of the fuel cell is always E sep , it

supplies power whose value is the difference

between

E sep

and E need ,t to the water electro-

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System oxygen partial pressure, the water balance inside the

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 11. Fuel cell operation

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 11. Fuel cell operation lyzer, and produces

lyzer, and produces hydrogen and oxygen (the

black area in Figure 11). After compressing these

gases, they are stored in each cylinder. When

E need ,t exceeds E sep , it generates electricity by

supplying the hydrogen and oxygen in the cylin-

ders to the fuel cell through the network. In the

proposed method of load leveling, it is necessary

to determine E sep , where hydrogen and oxygen

are produced at the time of low load, and the

amount is consumed at the time of high load bal-

ance.

Distribution of the Fuel Cell

Figure 12 shows the model of (a) the hot water

piping route, (b) fuel cell capacity of each build-

ing, (c) change of hot water temperature, and (d)

piping heat release per unit length of the R1 type

and R2 type. The machinery room of both types

is installed in Building A, and hot water flows in

the order of Building ABCDEFGA for the R1

type, and it flows in the order of ADGBFECA for

the R2 type as shown in Figure 12 (a). As shown

in Figure 12 (a) and Figure 12 (b), one fuel cell

is installed in Building A (F A ) for the R1 type,

and the fuel cell of the capacity of F A to F G is

installed in Building A to G for the R2 type. Hot

water of temperature T A,in ,t is input into Building

A in the R1 type. Heat is supplied for the hot

water from the fuel cell exhaust heat (F A ), heat

storage tank, and geo-thermal heat pump, and as

shown in Figure 12 (c), hot water of temperature

T A,out ,t is output from Building A. After this, there

is no heat input to for the hot water, and hot water

of temperature T A,in ,t returns to the machinery

room of Building A due to the heat consumption

of Building B to G, and piping heat release. The

temperature falls as the hot water of the R1 type

progresses to Building G from Building A. There-

fore, since the difference in temperature of the

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 12. Arrangement plan of fuel cell units

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 12. Arrangement plan of fuel cell units

outside air and hot water is small, as shown in

Figure 12 (d), the piping heat release per unit

length is small. On the other hand, in the R2 type,

heat is supplied to hot water from distributed fuel

cells. Therefore, the outlet hot water temperature

of each building fluctuates, as shown in Figure

12 (c). As a result, the heat release per unit length

of piping also fluctuates, as shown in Figure 12

(d).

Energy Balance Equation

At sampling time t , the water electrolyzer installed

in the machinery room and the fuel cells of M

installed in M buildings are operating ( M =1 in

the R1 type). The power balance equation in this

case is expressed with the following equation.

M

M

m 1

=

E

f m t

,

,

=

m

=

1

E

need m t

,

,

  • V (9)

+

E

el t

,

+

E

hp t

,

+

E

sub v t

,

,

  • v = 1

The left-hand side of Equation (9) expresses

the power output in the DC-AC converter outlet

of the fuel cells of M . Moreover, the 1st term on

the right-hand side is the power demand amount

in each building, the 2nd term expresses the

power consumption of the water electrolyzer, the

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

3rd term expresses the power consumption of the

heat pump, and the 4th term expresses the power

consumption of the auxiliary machinery (the pump

of the hot water network, and the compressor of

hydrogen and oxygen).

The heat balance of the system is expressed

below.

M

m = 1

M

m = 1

H

f m t

,

,

+

H

st t

,

+

H

hp t

,

=

H

need m t

,

,

+

M

m =

1

H

hw mm t

,

,

(10)

The 1st term of the left-hand side of Equation

(10) expresses the exhaust heat of the fuel cell of

M , and the 2nd term and the 3rd term express

the heat output from the heat storage tank and the

heat pump, respectively. The right-hand side of

Equation (10) expresses heat consumption, the

1st term is the heat demand of each building con-

nected to the network, and the 2nd term express-

es the heat release of the hot water piping that

connects each building. H hw ,mm ,t expresses the

heat release of the hot water piping that connects

Building m to Building m , and is calculated

from Equation (11).

H

',

hw mm t

,

=

h

π

D

p

l

mm

'

(

T

m out t

,

,

T

atm t

,

)

(11)

Equation (12) is the balance equation of hy-

drogen. The 1st term of the left-hand side of

Equation (12) expresses the quantity of hydrogen

production of the water electrolyzer, and the 2nd

term expresses the hydrogen quantity supplied to

the network from the cylinder, and the 3rd term

expresses the quantity of hydrogen production of

the reformer. Moreover, the right-hand side ex-

presses the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell

of M . Equation (13) is a balance equation of

oxygen. The 1st term of the left-hand side ex-

presses the oxygen concentration of the water

electrolyzer, the 2nd term expresses the amount

of oxygen supplied from the cylinder, and the 3rd

term expresses the amount of oxygen in the air

supply of the blower. The right-hand side is the

amount of oxygen consumed with the fuel cell.

Q

el H t

,

2

,

+

Q

a H t

,

2

,

+

Q

r H t

,

2

,

=

M

m

= 1

Q

f m H t

,

,

2

,

Q

el O t

,

2

,

+

Q

a O t

,

2

,

+

Q

bw O t

,

2

,

=

M

  • m = 1

Q

f m O t

,

,

2

,

(12)

(13)

Operating Method of the System

The exhaust heat of each fuel cell connected to the

network is used for buildings in which a fuel cell

is installed, which is given priority. The surplus

heat of each building is recovered in the hot water

network. On the other hand, when the heat of a

certain building runs short, heat is received from

the hot water piping. Moreover, when the heat

of the overall network system runs short, heat is

supplied to the network from the heat storage tank

and the heat pump. When the network has excess

heat, surplus heat is stored in the heat storage tank.

The heat pump is operated when the heat of the

heat storage tank is insufficient.

Analysis Method

Procedure of Analysis

The analysis follows steps (1) to (3).

1. Load Leveling Using Water Electrolysis,

and Calculation of E

sep

The load-leveling method using water electrolysis

is employed in the R1 type (the R2 type also uses

the same procedure). In order to determine E

sep

in Figure 11, an initial value is decided at random

concerning the given power demand pattern. At

this time, the amount of production of hydrogen

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

and oxygen in a low-load period is calculated, and

hydrogen and oxygen consumption in a high-load

period are also calculated. The balance is calcu-

lated from the amount of production and consump-

tion of hydrogen and oxygen. The value of E

sep

is changed, and it is repeatedly calculated until

the balance of hydrogen and oxygen becomes

sufficiently small. In the analysis case in next

section, the time of less than 1% of the balance

error was adopted. Balance Equation (9) of the

power, balance Equation (12) of the hydrogen and

oxygen, and Equation (13) are iused for the cal-

culation of the balance of hydrogen and oxygen.

Figures 10 and 13 are used as the power genera-

tion characteristics of the fuel cell and the char-

acteristics of the water electrolyzer. When the fuel

cell capacity in the analysis exceeds that of Figure

10, it is assumed that the relation of Figure 10 can

be extrapolated.

2. Calculation of Heat Release from the Hot

Water Piping

Figure 14 shows the heat release model of the hot

water piping. The fuel cell is installed in four

houses, Building A to D. Each building is con-

nected with piping, and hot water returns to

Building A. The machinery room is set in Build-

ing A, and the heat outputs of heat storage tank

and heat pump installed in this machinery room

are H st ,t and H hp ,t . There is heat demand of

H need ,A,t to H need ,D ,t in Building A to D, respec-

tively. In the fuel cell installed in each building,

there is exhaust heat power output of H f ,A,t to

H f ,D ,t . Therefore, the heat balance of Building A

to D is calculable from Equation (10). Moreover,

the heat release (from H hw ,AB ,t to H hw ,DA,t )

of the hot water piping that connects each build-

ing is calculated using Eq, (11). T atm ,t in Equation

(11) employs the outside air temperature in Tokyo

as shown in Figure 15 (Inoue U., 1996).

3. Route Planning of Hot Water Piping Con-

sidering Heat Release Loss

Since a fuel cell is placed in each building for the

R2 type, it is necessary to determine the capacity

of each fuel cell. The outlet hot water temperature

of a certain building is decided by the heat balance

in the building, and the heat release of the hot

water piping is calculated from the difference in

the outlet hot water temperature and the outside

air temperature. Therefore, the heat release of the

overall network differs according to the capacity

of the fuel cell installed in each building. In this

Figure 13. Characteristics of water electrolysis device

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System and oxygen in a low-load period is calculated,

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 14. Heat energy network model

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 14. Heat energy network model Figure 15.

Figure 15. Outside aie temorerure

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 14. Heat energy network model Figure 15.

chapter, as shown in Figure 16, information on the

capacity of the fuel cell installed in each building

and the piping route is expressed with a gene, and

these are installed into a genetic algorithm. It is

evaluated as a solution with high fitness, so that

there are few values in Equation (14) showing heat

release from the hot water piping. The calculation

is iterated, chromosomes are evolved and a solution

with high fitness is sought. In the last generation’s

chromosomes, a solution with the highest fitness

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 16. Chromosome model

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 16. Chromosome model is determined as an

is determined as an optimal solution. From the

information on the optimum chromosome, the

capacity of the fuel cell installed in each building

and the piping route are determined.

F =

Period M

∑ ∑

t

=

1

l =

1

H hw , l , t

Solution Parameters

(14)

As parameters of the genetic algorithm employed

in the analysis in the following section, the popu-

lation is 10,000, the generation number is 20,

and the crossover probability is 0.5. The gene

manipulation of mutation is not added. Search of

the hot water piping route in the R1 type is also

analyzed using the genetic algorithm.

Case Study

Energy Demand Pattern and Network System

In this case study, an energy network composed

of seven buildings is investigated. The energy

need pattern in winter (January), mid-term

(May), and summer (August) of each building

is shown in Figure 17(Architectural Institute of

Japan, 2002; Yamano, 2002; Ozaki & Tuziki,

1990). These energy-demand patterns are as -

sumed to be in Tokyo. Space-cooling power

in summer is included in the power demand

shown in Figure 17, and hot water supply and

space heating are included in the heat demand.

However, the heat for convenience stores, of -

fices, and factories is supplied from an electric

heat pump. Figure 18 shows the sum of the

power demand amount of these seven buildings.

The arrangement of the buildings is shown in

Figure 19. Moreover, the broken line in Figure

  • 19 is the hot water piping route of the shortest

distance. In these analyses, in order to make

the hot water flow rate in the piping 1 m/s or

less, the inside diameter of the piping was set at

  • 60 mm. The hot water piping is equipped with

a 40-mm-thick polystyrene-foam system heat

insulating mould. Moreover, the overall heat

transfer coefficient on the surface of the heat

insulating mould is set at 8.0 W/m 2 K. Under

the conditions described above, reduction in

fuel cell capacity using load leveling, and the

route of the hot water piping for minimum heat

release are investigated.

Reduction Effect of Fuel Cell Facility Capacity

When threshold value E sep of a low-load region

and a high-load region is calculated according to

the procedure of previous section, a representative

day in January is 109 kW and a representative

day in May and August is 125 kW. By installing

E sep into the load leveling described in previous

section the fuel cell is made to follow the power

load pattern of Figure 18. Figure 20 shows the

fuel cell exhaust heat in this case. In the heat bal-

ance on a representative day in January shown in

Figure 20, since heat runs short in the 7:00 to

17:00 period, the heat pump is operated. On the

other hand, the heat supply and demand on rep-

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 17. Energy demand patterns

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 17. Energy demand patterns resentative days in

resentative days in May and August show much

heat surplus. Moreover, Figure 21 shows the

calculation result of the electrode surface of the

fuel cell at the time of installing E sep and perform-

ing load leveling. The fuel cell electrode surface

in Figure 21 expresses fuel cell capacity. The data

enclosed within the broken line in Figure 21 are

power generation using hydrogen and oxygen.

These gases are produced using the power gener-

ated with reformed gas and air. The fuel cell

generated with reformed gas and air is operated

at time other than the broken-line region in Figure

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 18. Demand patterns of total electric energy

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 18. Demand patterns of total electric energy

Figure 19. Arrangements of buildings

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 18. Demand patterns of total electric energy

21. At the time of high load from 12:00 to 16:00

on a representation day in August, about 180-m 2

electrode surface was conventionally taken. If

load leveling using water electrolysis is employed,

the fuel cell can be reduced to a 120-m 2 electrode

surface, which is equivalent to 2/3 at the peak at

20:00.

Route Planning Result of Hot Water Piping

The result of the outlet hot water temperature of

each building that composes the network is de-

scribed. The outlet hot water temperature differs

according to the R1 type or the R2 type. Moreover,

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 20. Demand patterns of total heat energy

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 20. Demand patterns of total heat energy

Figure 21. Results of electrode area

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 20. Demand patterns of total heat energy

since the heat release of the hot water piping dif-

fers according to the outside air temperature, the

sampling time is different. The result of 4:00 and

16:00 on representative days in January and August

is shown in Figure 22. As Figure 18 shows, the sum

of the power demand of each building connected

to the network at 4:00 on representative days in

January and August is small. On the other hand,

this value is large at 16:00. The horizontal axis

in Figure 22 is the route order (No. 1 to No. 7)

of the hot water piping. Letters A to G in Figure

22 corresponds to the building number shown in

Figure 19. For example, in the analysis result at

4:00 and 16:00 for the R1 type on a representa-

tive day in January, hot water flows in order of

GFDCABE. The optimal path on a representative

day in January for the R1 type is GFDCABE, and

the optimal path on a representative day in August

is BEGFDCA. In this way, the starting points of

the hot water differ according to each month.

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 22. Hot water temperature of outlet piping of .buildings in January and August

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 22. Hot water temperature of outlet piping

Moreover, the route of both month’s representa-

tive days for the R2 type is GEBACDF. All routes

GFDCABE, BEGFDCA, and GEBACDF are the

same as a result of the shortest route shown in

Figure 19. However, GFDCABE and BEGFDCA

are clockwise rotations and GEBACDF is counter

clockwise. The outlet hot water temperature of

each building differs in the starting point of the

hot water piping, route, and flow direction, as

shown in Figure 23. Figure 23 shows the result of

the hot water temperature when setting the start-

ing point of the hot water piping as B, E, or G.

Figure 24 shows the result of the hot water piping

heat release relevant to the piping routes in Figure

23. Figure 25 shows the result of the piping heat

release in the network on a representative day

every month. Under these analysis conditions,

the difference in the heat release for the R1 type

and R2 type on a representative day is less than

3% every month. Considering the analysis error

of the genetic algorithm, these can be estimated

as the same value. Therefore, if the heat release

Figure 23. Hot water temperature of outlet piping of .buildings

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 22. Hot water temperature of outlet piping

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 24. Quantity of heat loss of piping between buildings

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 24. Quantity of heat loss of piping

Figure 25. Waste heat of hot water supply

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 24. Quantity of heat loss of piping

of the R1 type and R2 type is optimized, it will

converge on almost the same value. However,

since the R1 type in this case assumes that the

starting point of the hot water piping is movable

to arbitrary buildings according to the month, it

is not realistic.

Result of a Fuel Cell Arrangement Plan

Figure 26 shows the result of the fuel cell arrange-

ment plan for the R2 type. The fuel cell capacity

installed in each building is a circle of the broken

line in Figure 26. When the electrode surface of

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Figure 26. Quantity of heat loss of piping between buildings

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System Figure 26. Quantity of heat loss of piping

each building shown in Figure 26 is added, it is

97 m 2 . The electrode surface when installing the

installed capacity reduction by load leveling is 120

m 2 . Furthermore, if the optimum arrangement plan

of a fuel cell is installed, the electrode surface will

be reduced to 97 m 2 . When load leveling using water

electrolysis and optimization of fuel cell distribution

are installed, the fuel cell electrode surface is redu-

ced by 46% compared to the conventional system.

Conclusions

For the fuel cell energy network system, the

load-leveling method that supplies air and water

electrolysis oxygen to the cathode of the fuel cell

was proposed. Furthermore, the optimum opera-

tion plan of the hot water network was proposed,

and the fuel cell capacity of each building, posi-

tion of the machinery room, piping route, and

hot water flow direction were investigated. The

fuel cell energy network composed of individual

houses, a hospital, a hotel, a convenience store,

an office building, and a factory was analyzed,

and the following Conclusions were obtained.

  • 1. If the load-leveling method is used, the in- stalled capacity of by fuel cell will be reduced by 34% compared with the conventional system.

  • 2. Moreover, when fuel cell distribution is op- timized, in accordance with the effectiveness of (1), there is a 46% reduction compared with the conventional system.

REFERENCES

Architectural Institute of Japan. (2002). The na-

tionwide research study concerning the energy

consumption in the house in the 2001 fiscal year.

3, 3-6. In Japanese.

Badami, M., &Caldera, C. (2002). Dynamic model

of a load-following fuel cell vehicle: Impact of

the air system. SAE Technical Paper (SAE-2002-

01-100), 1-10.

Baker, J. E. (1985). Adaptive selection methods

for genetic algorithms. In Proc. 1 st Int. Joint Conf.

on Genetic Algorithms, ICGA85, 101-111.

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Energy and Industrial Technology Development

Nagano, K., Mochida, T., Shimakura, K.,

Organization in Japan. (1999). The researches-

Murashita, K., & Takeda, S. (2002). Develop-

and-developments trend of the low carbon

ment of thermal-photovoltaic hybrid exterior

fuel for vehicle. In Japanese. Retrieved from

wallboards incorporating PV cells in and their

http://www.nedo.go.jp/kankobutsu/foreigninfo/

winter performances. Solar Energy Materials

html9912/12119.html

and Solar Cells , 77 , 265–282. doi:10.1016/

Fujiki K., Akagi S., Hirokawa T., & Yoshida K.

S0927-0248(02)00348-3

(1997). Optimal planning method of energy plant

Narita, K. (1996). The research on unused energy

configurations based on a genetic algorithm.

of the cold region city and utilization for the dis-

Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Series C, 64(617),

trict heat and cooling (Ph.D. thesis). Hokkaido

354-361. In Japanese

University, Japan.

Goldberg, D. E. (1989). Genetic algorithms in

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

search, optimization and machine learning. Ad-

(2003). Chronological scientific tables. Japan:

dison Wesley.

Maruzen K.K.

HC-TECH Inc. (1997). HC12a and HC22a Prop-

Obara, S., & Kudo, K. (2003). Operational op-

erties and Performance Tests Data sheets.

timization and scheduling of multi-kind small

capacity energy devices for cold region houses.

Hongmei, Y., Haipeng, F., Pingjing, Y., & Yi,

Y. (2000). A combined genetic algorithm/simu-

In Proceedings of 9th ITES, 1, 297-302.

lated annealing algorithm for large scale system

Obara, S., & Kudo, K. (2005). Study on improve-

energy integration. Computers & Chemical En-

ment in efficiency of partial load driving of in-

gineering, 24, 2023–2035. doi:10.1016/S0098-

stalling fuel cell network with water electrolysis

1354(00)00601-3

operation. Transactions of the JSME, Series B,

Inoue, U. (1996). Air-conditioning handbook, 14.

71(701), 237-244. In Japanese

Japan: Maruzen. In Japanese

Obara, S., Kudo, K., & Kuroda, A. (2005). Study

on small-scale fuel cell cogeneration system with

Ito, K., Shibata, T., & Yokoyama, R. (2002).

Optimal operation of a cogeneration plant in

combination with electric heat pumps. Trans.

ASME J. Energy Resource Technol., 116, 56–64.

doi:10.1115/1.2906010

methanol steam reforming considering partial load

and load fluctuation. Transactions of the ASME.

Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 127,

265–271. doi:10.1115/1.1926310

Ozaki, S., & Tuziki, I. (1990).Trial calculation of

Kosaka, K., Tani, T., & Yoshida, S., (2000). Ther-

mal analysis of solid polymer water electrolysis

system, Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., 66 (642), B,

547-554. In Japanese

the quantity of public electric power and city gas

to be replaced by a distributed energy system. In

Proceedings of the 9th Energy-resources seminar,

9, 174-179. In Japanese.

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

Srinivas, M., & Patnaik, L. M. (1994). Genetic

algorithms: A survey. IEEE Computer, 27(6),

17–26. doi:10.1109/2.294849

Takeda, Y., Iwasaki, Y., Imada, N., & Miyata, T.

(2004). Development of fuel processor for rapid

start-up. In K. Kimura (Ed.), Proc. 20 th Energy

System Economic and Environment Conference,

Tokyo, (pp. 343-344). In Japanese

Yamano, Y. (2002). Development of a load-level-

ling technique. [In Japanese]. Denki, 629, 56–61.

Yu, H., Fang, H., Yao, P., & Yuan, Y. (2000). A

combined genetic algorithm/simulated annealing

algorithm for large scale system energy integration.

Computers & Chemical Engineering, 24(8), 2023–

2035. doi:10.1016/S0098-1354(00)00601-3

Operating Schedule of a Combined Energy Network System

APPENDIX

Nomenclature

C : Cost [US Dollar]

D i : Energy device

E : Electric power [W]

D p : Heat-insulating-mould outside diameter of hot water piping [m]

E : Power [kW]

E : Power consumption [kW]

E c : Chemical equivalent (equivalent)

E EL : Amount of electric power storage [J]

E V : Voltage [V]

E : Consumption of electric power [W]

F : Quantity of fuel mass flow [g/s]

F d : Faraday constant [C/g]

f m : Objective function

H : Thermal energy [kW]

H