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SCALING

In ancient times, simple objects and structures were built without detailed architectural plans, and
even without established dimensions. The outline of the structures and the position of each room could be
determined experimentally by *pacing off* approximate distances. The builder could then erect the
structures, using existing materials, by adjusting sizes and dimensions as necessary during the building
process.
Today, design requirements are so demanding, and materials are so diverse, that a complete
dimensioned set of drawings is absolutely necessary to insure proper execution of the design as conceived
by the designer. In the preparation of these drawings, the modern designer must use reduced-size scales.
The abilityto use the metric scale accurately is required not only in preparing drawings but in checking
existing plans and details (Hepler, D.E. and Wallach, P.I.,1982).
REDUCED SCALE

The architect*s scale is used to reduce the size of a structure or object so that, it can be drawn
smaller than actual size on paper. The metric scale is also used to enlarge a detail or small object for

clarityor to dimensionit accurately.

SCALESELECTION

The selection of the proper scale is sometimes difficult. If the structure to be drawn is extremely
large, a small scale must be used. Small structures can be drawn to a larger scale, since they willnot take
up mudi:space in the drawing sheet.
USE OF THE SCALE

Scale technique is governed largely by the requirements of accuracy and speed. Before a line can
D@

drawn, its relativepositionmust be found by scaling,and the speed with whichscale measurementcan

be made willgreatly affect the total drawing time.


The scale is orily as accurate as its user. In using the scale, do not accumulate distances. That is,
always layout overall dimensions first. The width and length will be correct and their position will not
change if you are slightly off in measuring any subdivisions that make-up the overall dimension.
To make a measurement, place the scale on the drawing where the distance is to be laid off, align
the scale-in the direction of the measurement, and make a light short dash with a sharp pencil at the
proper graduation mark. In layout work where extreme accuracy is required, a *pricker*, or needle point
set in a',wood handle, may be substituted for the pencil, and a small hole pricked into the pap~r in place of
the pencil mark. It is best to start with the *zero* of.the scale when setting off lengths or when
measuring distances (French, T. E. and Vierck,C. J., 1953).
To avoid cumulative errors, successi\Je measurements on the same line should, if possible, be made
.Without,shiftingthe scale. In representingobjectsthat are largerthan can be drawn to their naturalor full
size, it is necessary to reduce the size of the drawing in some regular proportion (French, T. E.'and Vierck,

C. J., 1953).

The important thing in drawing to scale is to think and speak of each dimension in its full size and
not in the reduced (or enlarged) size it happens to be on paper. This practice prevents confusion between
actual and re.presented size (French, T. E. and Vierck,C. J.,1953).

DIMENSIONING
PURPOSE OF DIMENSIONS
Dimensions are used on a drawing to supply detailed manufacturing, fabrication, or
construction information concerning the size and location of the components of an object. After a
drawing shows necessary completeness of shape, the size and relative location of its details are
indicated by means of dimensions and specifications (Rising, J. S. and Almfeldt, M. V., 1959).
An important consideration in dimensioning is that the values used should be those needed
for the production of a desired object. These dimensions sometimes differ from those used by the
draftsman. For example, the draftsman uses a radius to draw a circle which describes a drilled
hole. The machinist, however, must know the diameter of this same hole before he can select the
proper drill (Rising, J. S. and Almfeldt, M. V., 1959).
When applying dimensions to a drawing, the student should remember the following
important criteria:
1.
2.
3.
4.

ACCURACY - that dimension values are correct.


CLEARNESS - that each dimension is placed in its most appropriate position.
COMPLETENESS - that there are no omissions of specifications.
READABILITY - that lettering, numerals, and dimension lines are neat, uniform in size, and
very distinct.

SUMMARY OF GOOD DIMENSIONING PRACTICES


1. Dimensions should be placed outside of the views. Clearness, ease of reading, and shorter
extension lines sometimes make it practical to place some dimensions within the outline.
2. Dimensions should generally be placed between views rather than on the outside of related
views. However, due to the position of the contour, shape or to other reasons, this standard may
be violated for clearness.
3. A particular dimension should apply to one view only. Do not extend lines between related
views.

4. Sufficientdimensionsshould be given so that the piece can be madewithout any calculations


such as additionor subtraction.
5. Dimensions should not be duplicated.
6. Dimensions should be specified only on that view which shows the true length of the
dimension.
7. Dimensions should be given from "finished" or mating surfaces whenever possible.
8. Dimensions should never be crowded. A minimum space of 3/8 inch should be left between an
outline and a paralfel dimension and a 1/4 inch space between dimension lines.

9. Numerals are inserted about. midway between the arrowheads except they may need to be
staggered on adjacent dimension lines.
10. When a series of dimensions relate to one view, the smaller dimensions should be nearer to
the view, longer ones further away. Overall dimensions should be outside of all others.
11. Center lines are extended as witness lines, but never used as dimension lines.
12. If it is possible, extension or dimension lines should not cross each other.
13. Dimensions should not be referred to invisible lines if the specification can be given
otherwise.
14. All center lines should be located by coordinate dimensions. Do not assume that the center
line is in the middle of a piece, locate it by dimension.
15. Chain dimensioning is poor practice except in special cases. If necessary to use chain
dimensions, leave one "link" out of the chain and include an overall dimension. If no dimension is
omitted, from the chain,.the overall should be marked REF.
16. The point of all arrowheads should touch the line to which the dimension refers. Leaders
used for circle diameters should proceed radially from the circumference and terminate in a
horizontal bar at the mid-height of the note. The arrow end of the leader touches the
circumference, not the center of the circle.

17. Avoidthe use of "spokedimensions"for circles exceptfor large diameters. It is betterto use a
leader from the circular view or a dimension related to the rectangular view of the cylindrical
shape.
18. Dimension a circle by giving the diameter ; arcs by giving the radius. When not obvious, the
letter D, or Dia., follows a diameter dimension; the letter R follows a radius.
19. Blank out any section lines for the dimension line and numerals if a dimension must be placed
within a sectioned area.
20. All numerals should be of uniform height, in most cases 1/8 inch. Fractions are 1/4 inch high
with the bar in line with the dimension line, never at an angle.
21. Numerals for angles in degrees are placed to read from the bottom of the sheet.

22. Finish marks should show on all edge views of machined or "smoothed surfaces".
23. If a dimension given on a drawing is not to the scale of the drawing because of a "change" or
an error in the layout, rather than remaking the drawing a wavy line can be placed under the
dimension thus: 4.75.
24. The four essentials of dimensioning are ACCURACY, CLEARNESS, COMPLETENESS, AND
READABILITY (Rising, J. S. and Alrnfeldt, M. W., 1959).

O'tJECT
.1

I
i

OBJECT LINE
Define shape.
Outline and deIai objects:

. I

lINE

g_
HIDDEN

. HIDDEN

LINE

hidden

1eaIures.

Show

LINE

CENTER lINE

_Jr~.(1.=~_~

CENTER LINE
locate centerpoints of
arcs and cirdes. .

t"(3mmH\.CENTERPOINT

i" (18 nun) TO 11" (36 nun)

DIMENSION
Show

LINE

DIMENSION

size or location.

LINE

~IMENSION

EXTFNSION LINE
DefIl1Elsize or location.

LEADER
Call out specificfeatures.

2'-6"
EXTENSION

EAD

ARROWHEAD

Cl='&

---r
..
r
~

DIMENSION
LINE

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LINE

OPEN ARROWH

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LINE.

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:

LEADER

THIN

t:::~
r
IV

LETTERIDENTIFIES
SECTIONVIEW

CUTTING PLANE
Show

internal

features.

~CUTTING
PLANE

-=1"

SECTION LINE
Identify internal features.

Iii

1.5 mm)~_

TIjIIN

I~
~

~SECTION

,,

long breaks.

LINE

SHORT
LINE BREAK

BREAK
Show

naCK

LINE

---t

short breaks.

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LINES

LONG BREAK

BREAK LINE
Show

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O'tJECT
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OBJECT LINE
Define shape.
Outline and detail objects:

. I

lINE

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HIDDEN

. HIDDEN

LINE

I*iden

Ieatures.

Show

LINE

CENTER lINE

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CENTER LINE
Locate oenterpoints of
arcs and circles, .

t"

(3 mmr-ll-CENTERPOINT

-iN (18 mm) TO t-t" (36 mm)

DIMENSION
Show

LINE

LINE

EXTFNSION LINE
DefIl1Elsize or location.

LEADER
Call out specificfeatures.

DIMENSION

size or location.

---r

~IMENSION

"~

~I

ARROWHEAD

Cl~&

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LINE

Ij
i I .11

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LEADER

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r
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CUTTING
Show

internal

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EXTENSION
LINE.

LETTER IDENTIFIES
SECTION VIEW

PLANE
features.

"-

CUTTING
PLANE UNE

I~

SECTION LINE

Identify internal features.

~SECTION

LINES

LONG BREAK
BREAK
Show

LINE

LINE

long breaks.

SHORT
BREAK
LINE

!
.

BREAK
Show

LINE

T..aCK

---t

short breaks.

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THE ALPHABET OF LlNE$


THIC,K

Visibleline

Hidden line

2----------------

Section line

Thickness may vary 10


suit size 01 drawing.

MEDIUM

~
"

Dashes f" x.
Spaces f," x.

il

'I
~,

THIN

Spaced evenly. See


Fig. 11-9.
'If

Center line

Extension

Longdashes -i", to 1t' x"

'

Extension line. See

EXTE'NSIOJ'~ LINE

line

i1,

Short dashes -k' :f:.

Fig. 10-2.

LEADER
Dimension

line

Unbroken e~~,ept~t
ligure. Arrowheads at
ends.
"

<

.,{ i l:,

. ,': ~..':

Dimension

line!"

2'-3

cibov,e:u~pr'oken
line used 10; i::1vif a,nd

Rgure
,

structural drawing""

CUHing-plane line
or viewing-plane
line

Long dashe,S

eL--

CuHing-plane line
or viewing-plane
line

---

Breakline

10

Break
line

II

Phantom line

12

-~

t ' d::

to'

r :I: . .
Spaces,-N'x.

',I

"

"

---AI'

\\

. Equaldashes ' :I:

FreehcmdJlne for short


~ 'Jaks.'
.

Ruled lines aild Ireehand


zigz<!Igs lor long brealts.

t" to H":I:
Short dashes t" :f:.
Spaces #'x. Far alternate'
positions. repeated
;.
deta.iI, etc.
.

Long dashes

'~'

;' i:~;
pI

,-l"'

- --'
v

,--1.

t"

Short dashes

-~{
-.-P ~.~~

t
TYPES OF
LINES

USES

LlNEWEIGHT

IllUSTRATION

EXERCISE

AOL1 ~/S"

C/I"

I DATE

I RATING

STUDENT==~==-~.~-=-~~:= :.~:--INSTRUCTOR"

42

TYPES OF
LINES

EXTENSION

LINE

DIMENSION
LINE

lEADER

LONG
BREAK

SHORT
BREAK

USES

LlNEWEIGHT

LINE THAT EXTENDS


FROMOBJECT LINES TO
PERMIT DIMENSIONING

FINE

LINE UPONWHICH THE


DIMENSIONIS PLACED

INDICATESA DIMENSION
OR CONNECTSA NOTE

A RULED LINE WITH


FREEHANDBREAKS
USED FOR LONG

IllUSTRATION

7.5
FINE

FINE

25 mm DRILL,3 HOLES
EQUALLYSPACED

FINE

I/

STRAIGHT BREAKS.
A WAVY UNEVEN
FREEHAND LINE USED
FOR SMALL IRREGULAR
BREAI<S

UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS


TECHNOLOGICAL CENTER
SUBJECT
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----SCHEDULE
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BOLD

TITLE
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EXERCISEAOL2 /'" :It

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L.INES

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DATE

RATING

STUDENTINSTRUCTOR

43

,IVEN:
0-1: 10<.m.
0-2' 10c.m.
R:S,.m.

10

RH
()
("I

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FILLET CIRCLE

___HOUNDANY ANGLE
GIVEN:
R,1.3M
R1:UM
AB:(,.2M

FIGURE

SCALE

I: 5,.1'1'\.

GIVEN:
R:.50mm
R1:

2011I11'I

R1:12m'"
AB:+Omlll
SCALE 1: 1.!!'M

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ILLETCIRCLETOA LINE OUNDINGTWO CIRCLES'


USC.TC
TANGENCY,SCALING,
StJBjECf,
ES 1:1ANDDIMENSIONING
SCHEDUI.E.1:~O.',}O..",.(t'I'

F I GUR~
.TE NO:

'2

f.D

lENT: C.ARI. BENSON M. C\),A


INSTRucrOR:

ARCHT. ICTROIANO

$CAL. 1:10c.lI'I.

PERFORMANCE

I RATING