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GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

BY

RALEIGH
IN

CHARGE

OF

SCHORLING
THE

MATHEMATICS,
COLLEGE,

LINCOLN
YORK

NEW

SCHOOL

OF

TEACHERS

CITY

AND

DAVID

WILLIAM
TEACHERS'
OF

TRAINING

COURSE
ANI"

EDUCATION,

IN

HEAD
THE

THE

BOSTON
ATLANTA

2883

"

"

IN

MATHEMATICS

OF

THE

NEW

DALLAS

"

MINNESOTA

COLUMBUS

171-50
m

CHICAGO

"

"

SAN

COLLEGE

MENT
DEPART-

COMPANY

AND

"

THE

SCHOOL

HIGH
OF

YORK

IN

MATHEMATICS

UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITY

GINN

REEVE

LONDON
FRANCISCO

1919,

COPYRIGHT,

RALEIGH

SCHORLING

DAVID

WILLIAM

AND

ALL,

BY

RESERVED

RIGHTS

819.11

7171

gtbenaum

GINN

COMPANY

AND

BOSTON
"

"

"

PRIETORS
PROU.S.A.

REEVE

"''A-

PREFACE

The
is

follows

as

of this book,

purpose
:

obtain

to

introductory mathematics

informed citizens of
achievements

the

expressionas

should possess.

situation.

There

wood"

of

measure

is still

in this text.

attained.

large

very

material

The

well-

It is, of

desires

our

in

give such careful

to

serve

democracy

not

are

of deud

factor

scholarlycourse

vital,modern

that may

introduction,

the

asserted that this ideal has been

not

the

impliedin

thinking and
quantitative

training in

course,

as

Our

to
"

prove
im-

safety

purposes

of algebra,
principles
presentsuch simple and significant
drawing, and statistics,
geometry, trigonometry,practical

to

along with

the
subjects,

few

modal

is here

and

to

The

an

attempt

here
some

in

1. The

work

in

this work

followingserve

man

and

to

use.

There

pupilsthings worth knowing


rigorouslyin things worth doing.
need not
thorough reorganization

current

attempts
to

conventional

cations
rigorousappli(more accurately

teach

to

great detail. But


of the major errors

instruction

brieflyhow

the average

likelyto remember

for

argument

enumerate

The

as

them
discipline

stated

be

is

man)

and

involving numerous

whole

of arithmetic,
the

of other mathematical

elementary notions

it will
of

matics
secondary-mathe-

practiceand
to

helpful to

be

improve

illustrate its purpose

to

indicate

the

situation.

and

program

first-year
algebracourse

terized
is charac-

drill
by excessive formalism; and there is much
largelyon nonessentials. The excessive formalism is

GENERAL

iv

MATHEMATICS

greatlyreduced in this text and the emphasis placed on


there is generalagreement,
those topicsconcerningwhich
graph,and formula. The time
namely,function,equation,
thus gained permitsmore
ample illustrations and applications
and the introduction of more
of principles
significant
material.
2. Instead

of

crowding

traditional geometry

the
into

course

one

difficulties of
year,

geometry

the

structi
in-

precedethe formal
and the relations are taughtinductively
course,
by experiment
and by measurement.
Many foreignschools and an
of American
this
schools proceed on
increasingnumber
basis. This givesthe pupilthe vocabulary,
common-sense
ideas of geometry.
the symbolism,and the fundamental
If the pupilleaves school or drops mathematics, he nevertheless
has an effective organization
of geometricrelations.
is

On

he

concentrate

"

spreadover

that

the other hand, if he later pursues

course,

and

the years

many

can
on

the formal

work

far

formal

geometry

because
he can
effectively
of space relations
the logical
organization
expressionof these relations. The longer
minimizes
the difficulties met in beginning
more

"

time

exposure
the

traditional

geometry

courses

and

avoids

the

forcingdeductive logicand philosophic


criticism in these earlyyears.
of
3. The
traditional courses
delay the consideration
and
much
valuable material that the field of
interesting
well
has to offer,and which
secondarymathematics
may
be used
to
give the pupil very early an idea of what
and something of the wonderful
mathematics
means
scope
and
The material of the seventh, eighth,
of its application.
ninth years is often indefensibly
pared
meaninglesswhen comwith that of many
foreigncurricula. Trigonometry,
serious

mistake

of

containing many
of

problems,furnishes

Other

delay.

examples

of function, the

methods, the notion

good

found

are

slide rule, standardized

logarithms,the

of

use

this

real

easy

in

ample
ex-

the

graphical
construction

common

of precisemeasurement,
practicaldrawing, the motivation
in modern
a study of the
importance of measurement
It appears
life,and the introductoryideas of the calculus.
of

the

that

student

mathematics

should

be

given

an

tunity
oppor-

important tools very earlyin his study.


They lend to the subjecta power and interest that drills on
formal material
cannot
possiblygive.
Particular emphasis is given to graphicalrepresentation
to

these

use

The

of statistics.
makes

of

articles
demand

read

thingsin

order

that

logarithms and
that

an

the

the

devices
practical
labor-saving
function

in

everyday

life

may
in

the
or

of
and

student's
in

the

life. Brief

have

rule

greater number

of method.
differences
make
course,

the

needs

in order

and

in which

be
we

effective devices

study

of
more

The
sively
exten-

so

mathematics

chapters on

introduced
use

may

Actual

proved
for

these

whether

classroom

them

to

be

eighth-gradeand

reorganized on
now

in

that these devices

subsequent work,

classroom.

to

information

The

been

students

experience with these chapters has


relatively
simple and good material
ninth-gradestudents.
4. Mathematics

reader

methods.

magazines

current

life

elementary knowledge of these


pupil may not remain ignorantof

slide

the

social

our

intelligentgeneral

everyday things of

common,

order

in

of

of statistical

notions

elementary

hundreds

the

that

it necessary

possess

the

growing complexity

possess

the

side

of individual

supervisedstudy should
more
nearly a laboratory

in

effective work

can

be

done.

vi

(i

KN

M ATI

1 KM

AT1CS

teachingof algebra,
geometry,

5. The

separatefields

in

KJ{ A L

permit the

with

that correlate
sciences

an

artificial arrangement

or

trigonometry
that does not

of

solution

easy

of

is

and

problems concerningprojects
logical
problems met in the physicaland biothe manual
and fine arts. To rejectthe

algebra,to delay the

demands

of

logical
of
unit in geometry, and to present the simpleprinciples
of mathematics
in the introductory
the various branches
course
opens the door to a greatervarietyof problemsthat
The pupilsees the usefulness
to be real applications.
seem
of the various modes
of treatment
of the facts of quantity.
Power
is gained because the pupil is equipped with more
formalism

tools,in that the method


6. One

of the most

of attack is not
curious

limited to

one

field.

characteristics of American

instruction
is the obscurity
in the
secondary-mathematics
teaching of the function notion. It is generallyagreed
that functional thinking(thedependence of one magnitude
fundamental
another) constitutes one of the most
upon
notions

the

of mathematics.

equation,the formula,

Because

of the

interrelations

the function,the

graph,and

of
the

geometricrelations inductivelyacquired,the material is


easilycorrelated around the function idea as the organizing
The function concept (implicitly
and unifyingprinciple.
or
dominant
explicitly)
throughouthelpsto lend concreteness
and coherence to the subject.However, it would
be false
that this material is presentedto establish the
to assume
of correlation.
On the contrary,it happens that
principle
correlation around
the function notion, though incidental,
is a valuable
for accomplishing
instrument
the largeraim,
which is to obtain a compositeintroductory
matics
in mathecourse
that all future citizens of our
democracy should be
requiredto take as a matter of generalscholarship.

PREFACE

traditional

7. The

styleof

the

to

misleadinglength of

taught in

school

In the

in this

grade, five

recitations

also

Minnesota

and

have

which
possibilities

and

cooperatingteachers
;

remainder

in the ninth

(it was

(2)
used

so

be

started

achieved

good

may

in

in the
results

of the

teachers

other

familiar

than

the

David
material.

In

Professors
be
to

Smith

Eugene

Nunn,

obliged to
point out

our

thinking we
Smith,

who

such

errors

as

per

the

week

pupils
for

books

indebted

to

are

reasons

stories

Professor
historical

indebted
particularly

may

Myers.

think

We

it worth

still exist.
THE

and

of human

of the well-known
are

is

consciously,the

Something

Breslich, and

all teachers

and

which

questions relatingto

on

daily

work.

stimulate

these

with

We

with

material

taken

been

by relatingsome

of great mathematicians.

authors

the

by

eighth year

where

obligationsinvolved.

interest is added

which

School) ; (3) the course


provided the class has
year

given
has

it

following are

previous arithmetic

are

taught

schools

recitations

three

and

taught

eighthyear

in the

being chieflyto

become

to

seventh

stock

common

however,

purpose,

Lincoln

in

tested

in the

with

year,

the

Specificreferences
not

(1)

half of the book

recitations

it will be

the

years

result

hundred

In

is

easilybe

schools

week.)

been

The

can

one

high

eighth

earlyyears.

age.
book

The

per

matics
mathe-

rigidlymathematical,

less

typicalhigh school

(The

seventh

in the

approximately

first year.

the

pupils

the book.

in the

made

has

texts

pupils'mental

of

year

sixty recitations.

control

for

book, though

nearly adapted

more

is

this

of

reticence

unnecessarilydifficult
The

vii

AUTHORS

to

shall
while

CONTENTS
PAGE

CHAPTER

I.

THE

EQUATION

Solving

of

Translation
Solution

equation

an

of

12

equation

an

16

problems

verbal

21

Axioms

II.

LINEAR

EQUATION

THE

MEASUREMENT.

APPLIED

TO

26

LENGTH
Different

Squared
Sum

of

of

units

28

length

32

paper
two

segments

geometric

PROPERTIES

44

ANGLES

OF

for

Notation

of

angles

angles

Measuring

of

Comparison
Geometric

50

; the

54

protractor

drawing

56

angles

angles

addition

Parallel

47

reading angles

Measurement

IV.

36

Polygons
III.

addition

and

subtraction

of

61

angles

lines

How

to

THE

EQUATION

68

construct

70

parallelogram
AREA

TO

APPLIED

74

Formula

78
for

Formula
Geometric

the

of

area

79

parallelogram

of

interpretation

products

85

Algebraic multiplication
The

V.

accuracy

THE

of

EQUATION

Measurement
Formula

59

for

the

89

result

APPLIED

of

volume

the

volume

93

VOLUME

TO

98
99

of

rectangular
ix

parallelepiped

99
.

GE^'EKAL

MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER

PAGE

for the

Formula

of

volume

cube

102
102

Exponents
to geometric figures
principles
Applicationof algebraic
.

VJ.

EQUATION

THE

APPLIED

FUNDAMENTAL

TO

ANGLE

Ill

RELATIONS
The

of

all the

of

sum

about

angles

point

of all the

Vertical

112

angles about

THE
The

plane

119

relatingto parallellines
TO

APPLIED

of the

sum

interior

126
....

TRIANGLE

THE

130

....

131

angles
-.

angles of

of

construction

POSITIVE

135
.

139

triangle
triangles

NEGATIVE

AND

113

122

theorems

EQUATION

Exterior

VIII.

116

Right triangle
The

angles

Important
VII.

side

one

on

straightline

point in
Supplementary angles; supplement
Complementary angles
Sum

105

142

NUMBERS.

ADDITION

AND

SUBTRACTION

150
,

Use

of

151

signs

Geometric
Geometric

representationof positivenumbers.
representationof negative numbers

Origin
.

153
.

Algebraic addition
Subtraction

162

illustrated

by

the

number

scale

170

....

Algebraic subtraction
of

Subtraction
IX.

POSITIVE

AND

AND

DIVISION.

Law

of

171
173

polynomials
NEGATIVE

NUMBERS.

MULTIPLICATION

FACTORING

illustration

Geometric

178

of law

signs illustrated by

of

178

signs

balanced

bar

Multiplicationof positiveand negative numbers


Specialproducts
Law

of

signs in

Factoring

152

division

180
182
.

192
195

198

CONTENTS

xi

CHAPTER

PAGE

between

Distinction
Use
X.

identityand

factoring in identities

of

for

REPRESENTATION

GRAPHICAL
GRAPH

LINEAR

OF

204

equation

calculatingareas
STATISTICS;

OF

205

THE

EQUATION

214

Pictograms
Practice
How

interpretingthe bar diagram

in

to construct

Practice
How

214

bar

222
224

diagram

in

231

interpreting
graphic curves
is drawn
the. graphic curve

233

distribution

Normal

257

Symmetry of a curve
cost relations
Graph of constant
Graphs of linear equations
XI.

CONTROL

GAINING

OF

INTERPRETATION

262

263

FORMULA;

THE

GRAPHICAL

FORMULAS

OF

Solving a formula
Graphical illustration

259

273
276

of

problem

motion

283

Translatingrules of procedure into formulas


formula
Graph of the centigrade-Fahrenheit
Evaluating a
XII.

288

....

formula

290

FUNCTION

299

Graph of a
Solving the
Direct

XIII.

287

....

function

301

function

set

equal to

304

zero

variation

Graphing

direct

Graphing

inverse

SIMILARITY;

305
variation

308

variation

CONSTRUCTION

OF

...

SIMILAR

mean

proportional

Fourth

proportionalconstruction

Verbal

problems

solved

of
Proportionality

areas

by proportion

314
.

......

of

311
.

TRIANGLES

for similar triangles


Summary of constructions
Algebraicproblems on similar figures
Proportion

Construction

317
.

319

322
332
334
336
341

'

GENERAL

xii

MATHEMATICS

CHAPTER

XIV.

PAGE

SCALE

MEASUREMENT;

INDIRECT

DRAWINGS;

ONOMETRY
TRIG345

righttriangles

Similar

Trigonometric
of

Table
Verbal
XV.

:;.",:,

ratios

:;f"!t

trigonometricratios

361

trigonometry problems

362

THEORY

APPLICATION

AND

LINEAR

SIMULTANEOUS

OF

EQUATIONS

367

solution

Graphic

369

methods

Algebraic

for

solving

simultaneous

linear
373

equations

XVI.

Summary

of methods

Classified

verbal

GEOMETRIC

The

OF

390

Pythagoras

397

of

root

square

of

another

exponents
and

roots

INTERPRETATION

POWERS

Constructing the
Fractional

384

ALGEBRAIC

AND

theorem

379

problems

AND

ROOTS

of elimination

number

404
....

of

means

indicating
412

powers
*

XVII.

424

LOGARITHMS

....

"

Logarithms

427

defined
,

443

Exponential equations
Interest
XVIII.

XIX.

THE

SLIDE

Verbal

problems

The

to

by

solved

by

slide rule

455
.

the

slide rule

QUADRATIC

FUNCTIONS;

solve

of the

means

458
462

EQUATIONS

quadratic equation graphically


.

465
.

467

parabola

More
Maxima
INDEX

449
.

found

roots

QUADRATIC

444

by logarithms

RULE

Square

How

solved

problems

powerful methods
and

minima

of

solving quadraticequations

determined
algebraically

471

479
.

481

INTRODUCTION

The

mathematics
the

is

part of

of

materials

serviceable.

and

that

provide

to

movement

The

the

of

science, civics, art,

work

of

the

these

be

the

grades

of

asserted, first,that

instead

of

waste

in

like,which

to

into

early

to

the

of

get

do

not

science

of

futile

socialize

and

revitalize

from

have

time

of

of

of

its

time

the

their

lead
this

to

real

all

of

meaning

work

abstract

meaningless
the

careers

with

great
;

juggling

number

it also

into

the

in

important

of

wastes

especial ability

early insight
mathematics.

anything

in

scope

and

of

pupils
that

matics
matheforced

are

in

difficult
and

the

mathematics.
fails

symbolism

pupils

time
the

time

Secondly,

applications, they
on

to

teaching

induce

to

attempt

mathematicians.

idea

an

range

of

needs

pupils
an

reorganization

secondary-mathematics

by

deal

down"

by "shoving
The

as

The

possess.

radicals, fractions, factoring, quadratics,

thirdly, that

meet

part

great

problems

And,

in mathematics

college

wide

life

grades.

giving pupils
the

to

human

should

so.

order

American

technical

and
to

in

characterized

become

or

should

years

of

knowledge

year

nation
determi-

significant experiences

such

liberalized

be
a

these

school

democracy

cannot

authorities

Competent

to

of

fundamental

more

been

other

material

mathematics

has

and

citizens

conventional

must

of

ing
makconcrete

more

expresses

ninth

and

general

toward

education

education

introduction

the

enlightened

of

in

course

movement

secondary

eighth,

seventh,

enriched

all

in

trend

be

by

extensive

an

study

introductory

an

and

who

effort

subject,
power

go

rather
on

who

of

the

ought
the

real

xiv

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

Quantitative thinkingand expressionplay so largea part in

trainingin these matters will


always be important. The growing complexity of social and
industrial life is responsiblefor corresponding
changes in the
in many
of quantitative
use
relationships.Old applications'
but new
instances are disappearing,
ones
growing out of presentday relations are being introduced to take their places. These
text in mathematics.
changes requirea new kind of introductory

experiencethat

human

proper

Action

is forced

by

the

demand

of the

time

effort

given

and

that there shall be


to

each

subjectand

justification
each

item

in

subject.New subjectswhich appear necessary in the propermatics


are
training for citizenship
crowding the curriculum. Mathetoo must
by a thorough
justifyits place in the sun
This
is what
is
that will meet
modern
needs.
reorganization
mathematics.
meant
by revitalizing
The
practicaladministrator will be impressed by the fact

the

"

that

this

program

pupil may
because

be

the

raises

"

difficulties.

administrative

no

expected to develop greater power

elimination

of

material

which

in

algebra,

time

wastes

The

and

ing
possiblethe emphasizing of the topicsconcernThe
which
there is general agreement.
supplementary
from
the other subjectsconstitutes a
material which is drawn
for further study in these fields ; for example, the
preparation
text gives the pupil the vocabulary,the symbolism, and many

effort has made

of the
This

ideas

type

of

plane geometry.

of

course
introductory

educator

because

of

number

should

appeal to

of other

the

features.

gressive
pro-

The

alized
teachingis followed throughout. Rationhas been
The
drills are provided in abundance.
course
in mimeographed form
used
by experienced teachers. Scores
of prospectiveteachers
have
found
the treatment
simple and
"

problem method"

of

Inexperienced teachers
and
have
taught the
have
Pupilsfollowingthis course

easy to present.
difficult situations

have

gone

material
made

out

with

into
faction.
satis-

better progress

INTRODUCTION

pupils followingthe

than

manifest

teachers

and

will

authors

desire,to diagnose their


results

material.

such
be

repliedthat enough

to

convince

The

in which

world

and

seen

in the

if

them,

to

what

they
their

compare
the

using

the

students

same
pleting
com-

they get to college,it may


have
already entered college
they experience no handicap.

that

unbiased

pupils

when

of them

and

understand

to

one

enable

to

as

important point, however,

more

enables

the

raised

will do

course

and

both,

prepared by

in other institutions

question is

If the

seldom

tests

situations

own

obtained

those

with

The

teachers

for

time

save

and

course,

of interest

mathematics.

in

ordinary class

traditional

degree

xv

to

is that
with

deal

such

the

course

quantitative

he lives.
in

reorganized introductory mathematics,


in secondary education
although but a part of a large movement
which
looks
toward
concrete
more
teaching and more
serviceable materials of study,has a further highly significant
This

course

aspect. It is
school

teachers

and

as

of real

potent

have

result

are

and

encouraging

become

of their

students

preparing their
the

as
teaching situations,

evidence

textbooks

own

of

outcome

that

own

highteaching,

in the midst

conintelligent

'structive experimentation.

Probably

very
such

publicationto
authors
the
the

books

thorough

have

been

tests

of

subjectedprevious to

teaching

situations.

The

for many
During
shaping this course
years.
last three years the manuscript as originally
accepted by
publishershas been taught in mimeograph form to more

than

have

few

been

schools,among

High

pupils distributed in a selection of typical


these being the following: MinneapolisCentral
Junior
High
(largecity high school),Bremer
Junior High School,Universityof Minnesota

thousand

School

School, Seward

High School,
(small town),
Numerous

Owatonna
and

the

consultations

High
Lincoln
with

School, Mabel
School
the

of

teachers

High

Teachers'
in

these

School

College.
schools

xvi

GENERAL

resulted

in

valuable

many

the

making

toward

of

Each
than

have,

supervised

ten

had

may
which

have

unusual

be

opportunities

regarded
shows

seemed

in

most

by

in

and

courses,

fellow

organization

secondary

public

teachers

many

teacher-training

taught

large

contributed

directly

teachable.

easily
has

in

years

which

suggestions

text

authors

the

more

MATHEMATICS

each
for

free

teachers

and

and

mathematics

private

training
during

schools.

They

have

taught

they

of

most

this

time

experimentation.
of

The

mathematics

subject

as

the

matter

OTIS

D.

W.

COFFMAN

CALDWELL

things

useful.
LOTUS

for

has

text

report
that

GENERAL
letter

let the

to

MATHEMATICS

represent

the

number

of

of

ounces

weight in the bag of candy and use the sign of equality


(=) to denote the perfectbalance of the scales,the preceding
mathematical
fact may
be conveniently
translated
into the followingexpression
w
:
10, where w + 4
+ 4
denotes the weight in the left pan and 10 the weight in
The abbreviated ("shorthand")
the rightpan.
statement,
w
+ 4=10,
equalityand is called an equation.
expresses
The
number
to the left side of the equalitysign is called
of the equation,the number
the leftmember
to the right
is the rightmember.
=

Just

the

as

from

taken

are

ounces

scales will balance

number

each

if the

same

so

may

pan,

ive

number

of

subtract

the

both aides

of an equationand get another


In the precedingproblem the written work
f'/Hxtion.
may
same

from

be. arrangedthus:
f number
Let

to

J.

^
Then

in

of

of

ounces

weight

.,

the

bag

of

candy.

10

4=4

Subtracting4

from

of the

member

each

"I

equation,J

Thus, the- bag of candy weighs


The

the

precedingproblem
number

same

the
equation,
is obtained.

be

oz.

illustrates the

from both members

subtracted

remainders

that if
principle

equal;
Law]
[Subtraction
are

of

an

that is,another

equation

numbers

following

EXERCISES

Find

the value

equations,doing

of the

all you

unknown

in the

orally

can

1.

6.

4.

or

+ 11

2.

10.

5.

3.

l3.

6.

z+9

13
=

18.

7.

10

27.

23.

8.

14

21.

9.

-f 33

44.

26.

THE

importance of

2. The

attack
which
its

equation. The

equation is

matical
solvingproblems in the matheof
method
sciences. The equation givesus a new
on
a
problem,enablingus to solve many problems
if not impossible,
would
be very difficult,
without

use.

3. Method

making

of

studying

study of

some

laws
will

be
more

article

laws

the

to

shall continue

we

which

in connection

apply the
complicatedand

easy

of the

nature

equation. In

equationwe shall continue by


simpleproblems in order that we

very

mastered

are

the

the

clearlyunderstand

the

the

for

important tool

very

EQUATION

consideringa problem

in

are

with

involved.

sidering
con-

may

If these

the

simple cases, it
equationas a tool for solving
difficult problems. In the next
to interpretthe equation by
weighing.

gether
weights,toequal but unknown
with a 1-pound weight,justbalance a 16-pound and
gether
a 1-pound weight to(Fig,2). How
known
heavy is each unweight?
Let
equal the
p
number
of pounds in
one

Two

Law.

4. Division

of the unknown

weights.Supposethat
1 Ib. be removed

each pan,

DOUnds

from

leaving*2p
in

the

left

FIG.
T(?

2. THE
ILLUSTRATE

THE
THE

pan

balancingthe

SCALES

BALANCED

SUBTRACTION

DIVISION

LAW

MAT

USED

UK

LAW

AND
i

maining
re-

right pan. Then, if 2 p pounds


balances 16 Ib.,p pounds (one half of the weight in the
8 Ib. (one half of the weight"in
balance
left pan) must
16 Ib. in

the

GENERAL

the

the

rightpan). By

in the

be written

may

MATHEMATICS
of the

use

equation the discussion

followingbrief
f This

"

"

member,

Dividing each

is

translation
of the

sentence

of the tirst

problem.

"1

Subtracting1 from
each

form:

member

"

of the

equation by 2,

p=8.
that if both members
problem illustrates the principle
number
of an equationare divided by the name
ing
(excluddivision by zero, to be explainedlater),
the quotients
are
equal;that is,another equationis obtained. [Division
Law~\
This

EXERCISES

Find

of

value

the

the

unknown

numbers, doing all

you

orally:

can

12.

16.

13.

14 k +

17.

14.

15.

15x4-0.5

16.

11

17.

1.3y

18.

11 y

19.

1.1

20.

2.3x

49.

21.

6.3

116.

22.

5.3x4-0.34

2.

3x

3.

4.

3*4-7

5.

6.

9s

4- 21

7.

2y

8.

5 y 4- 3

9.

4x4-3.2=15.2.

10.

6^4-4

11.

9e +

passes

the
over

62.

93.

l=S.
=

15.

4j

79.

9.

26.

16.

33.

121.

50.

4- 2.4

15.

2.99.

Fig.3 the apparatus is so arranged


2-pound weight attached to the stringwhich
This
the pulleypullsupward on the bar at B.

5. Addition
that

28.

4- 7

^2- 13|.

9.

1.

Law.

In

EQUATION

THE

makes

arrangement
which

different from

problem

If there

considered.

have

we

the

were

no

the

two

ment,
pulleyattach-

in the left pan would


weight pullingdownward
force of 2 Ib. at B,
be 5 a; pounds. Since there is a lifting
the downward
pullingforce in the left pan is 2 Ib. less
2 pounds ; this balances the 18 Ib.
than 5 x pounds,or 5 x
the equationwhich describes the
in the rightpan. Hence
situation in Fig.3
-Pulley

the

"

is 5z-2

stringbe
as

to

the
li-

18.
cut

so

the upward

remove

pullof 2 Ib.,
then
a
2-pound
be
weight must
added to the right
to
keep the
pan
scales

balanced,for

removing the
pull of
a

us

gave

ward
upFIG.

3.

IN

CASE

THIS

2 Ib.

THE

SCALES

ADDITION

THE

ILLUSTRATE

LAW

ward
down-

the left pan of 5 a? pounds. This is 2 Ib. more


had with the pulleyattached,hence the necessity

pullin
than

we

adding 2 Ib. to the rightpan.


By the use of the equation the precedingdiscussion
take the followingbrief form:
of

.
.
_

Adding

2 to both

Dividing both
This

members,

members

"

"

/ This

expresses

may

the

\. originalconditions.

20

by 5,

that if the same


principle
number
is added
to both members
the sums
are
of an equation,
equal; that is,another equationis obtained. [Addition
Law\

problem

illustrates the

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

Find

value

the
all you

doing

-5

10.

2.

a;

-15

3. 3

a;

-12

4. 3.r-8
12 y

6.

4 1

7.

19,--4i

8.

lly-9

9.

56-

13.

13.

9c-

3.2

13.

14.

7 *

15.

14 A-

16.

2 y

17.

0.5

18.

-1=61

79.

19.

3cc-9l

17.r".

0.9.

20.

9.7--7.5

73.5.

4y-f

7j.

21.

1.5

a;

11.

7*-

26.

22.

1.6

x-

46.

14f

Solving

16.

0.1

10.

6.

-35

16

check

equation ;

an

findingthe value of the unknown


is called solvingthe equation.
To
Let

y +

Then

To

8 be the

"3

the unknown
5 +

reduce
When

8.

same

number

5, and

number

the

to

"

number

in

illustrate

3.2.

4.5.

-3

The

21.

3.1
-

root.

5.7.

14.8.

41.

1.5.

1.7

1.5.

process

of

equation

an

equation.

the

check,the

test-,or

problem,

12m

17.

5.

in each

12.

number

orally:

can

1.

unknown

of the

equation

correctness

is said

to

of the

be solved.

result

replace

taining
originalequationby 5, obof the equation
both members

in the

Since

number,
is

the result y

put in place of

5 is correct.

literal number

it

is said to be substituted .for the literal number.

When
number

both

for certain

equationis
y +

sides of

values

said to be

5.

an

equationreduce
of

the

unknown

Thus,
satisfied.

to

the

same

number, the

the
satisfies

tion
equa-

EQUATION

THE

that

number

satisfies

equation is

an

of

root

the

equation.
Thus, 5 is

HISTORICAL

NOTE.

of Mohammed
The

found.

The

See

equation

an

Ball's "A

equationz

word

Abu

ibn Musa
of

root

of the

root

Jafar

(likethe

Short

"

"root

8.

Al-Khwarizmi
of

root

History of

in the

first appears

algebra

(about

830).

A.D.

plant) is hidden

Mathematics,"

until

p. 163.

EXERCISES
"

Solve the

the results

1.

5y+3=18.

5.

26

2.

7z-4=17.

6.

7x-3x

3.

7.

5*

8.

7m

a;

4. 3a

7.

-1.3

2.7.

4.5=7.5.

Terms;

monomial;

order

called the terms


terms

of

of the number

number.

+14

3f

Thus,

2 a-\- 3 b. A

parts of
3 b

number

one-term

an

(" ) signsare
and

7.1.

3j.

The

minus

3.1

=15.

-9

"

and

2.7-1.3=11.4.

of terms.

expressionseparatedby plus (+)

check

followingequationsand

are

the

is called

monomial.
EXERCISES

1.8-7+2

4.

8x"7x

2x

2.8

2-7=?

5.

8x

2x-7x

3.2

8-7=?

6.

2z

8z

lx

"

problems illustrate the principle


(to be discussed
changed
more
fullylater)that the value of an expressionis unif the order
is changed,provided
of its terms
each term
carries with it the sign at its left. If no
sign
of an
is expressedat the left of the first term
expression,
the plus signis understood.
These

8. Similar

literal

common

Their

and

sum

is

dissimilar

factor,as 2
one-term

r,

terms.

Terms

3 x, and

5 x,

are

which

have

similar terms.

expression
; namely, 10

a;.

When

GENERAL

do

terms

have

not

MATHEMATICS

literal factor,as

common

and

they are called dissimilar terms. Algebraicexpressions


are
simplifiedby combining similar terms.
Combining
in either the rightor the left member
similar terms
of an
equationin simplerform.
equation givesus the same
3 y,

XOTE.

HISTORICAL
830

A.D.

in

Arabian

an

Al-Khwariznii.

by

be translated
number

The
work

added

to

equation; "al-mukabala"
similar

terms

it

say

The

called

and

the restoration

be

writers

about
"algebra" first appears
Al-jebrwa'1-mukabala," written
which
"algebra" is derived, may
"

"Al-jebr,"from

by

may

word

into

or

of the Arabs

interest

had

these

Enormous

whose

million

of medicine

These

fortunes

and

about

was

whose

"

income

Elements."

See

p.

Mathematical

nomadic

1.

the

followingequations and

2./--7

fortunes

of

rumor

dollars and
about

was

Subtract

2.

3x

3.

5ix

4.

16y-8y

5.

20-4.r

6.

5.T

+
"

both

from

3x

-j-3

"

38
05

"

and

-10
.r

2x

3y-2

+
=

members

S.

+
2-x

of

Ball's

"Historical

demanded
merchant

Christian

fiftythousand.

Short

for
the

check

a-.

+18.

5y

Greek

History

the results

proceed as

culture

Introduction

3.

=x

some

tribes

EXERCISES

Solve

the

In the seventh

leisure time
necessary
books
translated
was
many

162, and Miller's


Literature," p. 83.

Mathematics,"

sides

the

the

learning.Among

seven

annual

them

gave

geometry, Euclid's

same

of

combination

high.

banded

cites

doctor

the

ran

conquering,nourishingnation.
mathematical
manipulation. Cantor
income

both

the

term.

annual

fact that

of comparison,and

with

connection

century religiousenthusiasm
into

the

from

the process

in

one

mathematical

to

subtracted

means

used

was

refers

usual.

of
to

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

10

when
an
principleis convenient
multiplication
equation contains fractions. It enables us to obtain a
fraction but containingthe
second equationcontaining
no
This

number.

unknown

same

To

illustrate this:
\

Let

Multiplying both

members

the

i-x

21.

simplestform,

to

ORAL

Find

7.

by 3,
3

Reducing

value

of

.-"

7.

EXERCISES

unknown

the

number

in

each

of

the

following equations :

"
/"

tn

"

IT

precedinglist of problems shows that it is desirable


number
of the equationby some
to multiplyboth members
without fractions.The same
that will give us a new
equation
principleholds when the equation contains two or more
The

fractions whose

by

the

Find

denominators

followingproblem :
x

if

7-|
"4

2.

Solution.

90

Simplifying,

r
=

"

"

2.

5
90

Multiplying by 20,

whence

different,as is illustrated

are

"

40.

40 ;

40.

fact that

The

of

number

and

times)into

11

EQUATION

THE

5 will

divide

the numerators

integrally
(a
givesus a new

whole
tion
equa-

Obviously there are an unlimited


of numbers
number
(forexample, 40, 60, 80, etc.)which
could have used, but it was
we
advantageousto use the
in which 4 and 5 are contained integrally
smallest number
;
multiple of 4 and 5, which is
namely, the least common
20. The
is to obtain an equaobjectof this multiplication
tion
without

fractions.

in which

easilyfound
may

be

of the unknown

the value
than

number

This
precedingone.
by the followingrule:

more

discussion

in the

summarized

is

contains fractions,
If the given equation
multiplyevery term
in both members
multiple{L.C.M.} of
by the least common
which does
in order to obtain a new
the denominators
equation
not contain fractions.
EXERCISES

Find

the

check

and

2
"S"

^
"

54

4.

it

+i

value

of

the

^-9
"

2x
"?"

a
H.

"

6.

Iy

7.

^
6

"

,x
-f-

'

11
5-

problem,

96

in each

number

unknown

18

,
"

"

12

GENERAL

10.

MATHEMATICS

of the

Definition

equation; properties of
used

problems were
foregoing

The

iifa

that two

statement

show

to

numbers

that two

same

be

balance

the

numbers

unknown

Some
of the

which

is like

equation

both

sides.

number
both

equalitysign.
the discussion

letter.

An

find the

to

one

both

to

sides,or

so

Thus,

balance

disturbed

is not

value
on

enables

It may
of values
tween
be-

into

tion
equa-

number.

enters

representedby

an

equation
of

value

that

number.

unknown
An

is

that

sides of the

which

number

problem

is written

the two

on

equation.

equal. It indicates

are

stand for the


expressions
regarded as an expressionof

the

in

in

that the

balance

long as like changes are


equationswe may add the

aides, or

subtract

the

number

same

of

made
same

from

multiplyor divide both sides by the


number
same
(except division by zero); the equalityis
maintained
during all these changes.
is destroyedif more
On the other hand, the equality
is
added

to

or

side is

one

is the other
11.

we

may

subtracted

from

one

divided

multipliedor

side than

by

of

Translation

not

either with
with
be

an

"

equation may

"

form

plus

Find

equals

of

an

translated

be

equation3x

follows

number

expresses

shorthand

the
as

be

situation of

concrete

number
2

times

2x

problems in

abstract in the

regarded as meaningless.Just
which

in the

list of

equation. The

an

in any

verbal

problem,

such

as

relation

sense

connected
a

past experience.However,

our

if

side.

precedingexercises may appear


that the equationsdo not appear to
or

or

than

largernumber

the

way

the other

an

list need

tence
English sen-

may

be written

equation,so, conversely,
into
+

2Q

ample,
problem ; for exbe interpreted
may

such

that

the

number

3 times

plus

the
20.

ber
num-

The

equation.c"

number

What
21

2"x

of the

regardedas raisingthe question


by 3 equals 5 ? Or, again,

5 may be
diminished

13

EQUATION

THE

140

'

be

may

considered

is the altitude of

What

followingproblem:

whose
base is 21 times
rectangle
and whose
perimeteris 140 ft.?

long as

as

the translation

as

the altitude

EXERCISES

verbal

form

the

of

questionor

problem:

1. 05-6

2a- -1

3.

9 k -10

4.

ly

5.

7s-

6.

3x

7r-2

8.

5.2

x-

87.

9.

3*

=12.

10.

7.

3.

2.

12.

followingin

of the

each

State

112.

10.

4*

=16.

81.

11.

2x

2x

12.

:;.

8.

4.1 x+

4x

1.4.

18.

rl.
2T2

of algebra. The

"shorthand"

Drill in the

3x

6r

following

number
expressions
give practicein translating
relations from verbal into symbolical
language:

exercises
and
1.

follow

Consecutive

numbers

integral(whole)numbers

are

which

each other in

counting; thus, 17 and 18, 45 and 46, are


Begin at s -f 5 and count
examples of consecutive numbers.
forward.
Give four consecutive
Begin at x + 3 and count backward.
integersbeginningwith 18 ; ending with 18 ; beginning
Give
with x; ending with x.
consecutive
two
even
integers
ing
beginning with 2 x. Give two consecutive even
integersendwith
2.

The

2c.

present age, in years,

of

is denoted

person

Indicate in

symbols the following: (a)the person'sage

years

ago ;

(b)his

twice

as

decreased

old

as

by

now

60 ;

age
;

fourteen

(d) 60

(f)his

age

years

decreased
increased

hence

by
by

his
one

by

x.

fourteen

(c)his age when


age ; (e)his age
half his age.

14

GENERAL

3. A

he ?

4. A

marbles

is the

What

has

has

boy

buys

How

more.

has

many

b ?

loses

b marbles

boy having

marbles.

How

many

he?

and

(a) The home


the visiting
team

the

home

the

win

team

visitors'

win

team

6.

What

7.

Two

the

made

made

(b) If
points,by

the defeat

be the value of

must

pointsin a
points. By how

team

(c) Substitute

that will show

is the 5th

how

many
for

by

7.

many

(d) If

team,

the game

part of

pointsdid
scored h points
team
points did the home
h in the last question

home

of the home

differ

numbers

the

numbers

when

basket-ball game

is

tie ?

f of

y ?

The

smaller

5, what

of t ?
is

Express

s.

larger number.
8.

Divide

100

9.

Divide

The

10.

is I.

one

12.

received

14.

Express
A

has

15.

does

cents

16.

he

of border

does

by

give

insurance.

What

the

larger

the

quotienta?

destroyedby

fire.

his total loss ?

was

lacks 5 yr. of

ties and
then

have

has

ties. If A

being three

times

such

around

sells B

ties,how

have ?
dollars

and

spends

cents.

How

many

left ?

long and w feet


room
require?

wide.

length of a rectangleexceeds
feet wide,
(a) State the length of

the distance

is d and

dollars,was

3 will

The

17.

part is 5.

one

one.

is I feet

room

".

B's age.

has

man

part is

one

numbers

two

worth

old and

years

will each

many

It is

house,

that

parts so

divided

i dollars

is

old.

parts so that

the smaller

number

man's

into two

Express

What

13.

into two

difference between

11.

He

as

and

of 'a and

sum

5.

to

MATHEMATICS

the

rectangle.

How

its width

each side,

feet

many

by

feet.

(b) Find

THE

18.

What

is the

19.

What

is the cost

for

bought

What

part

what

If

how

he

far

go

per

by

priceis

be

can

it takes

of 31 mi. per

in 5 hr. ?

in 3

them

trip.
days,

in 1 da. ?

the rate

hr. ?

automobile

an

in li hours

hr.,how

hour,
?

miles

many

does

by

the

pipe in

minutes.

How

much

of

fraction

exceeds

the

denominator

(b) Write

numerator,

the

fraction,

fraction.

the

of

class

of

sum

and

17;

and

of

What

17

17 ; of
and

elected

presidentwas

If the unsuccessful
were

make

pair of gloves costs d dollars.


raised 70? if lowered
70?

difference
27.

if b sheets

of paper

to

at

car

miles

of

numerator

Write

26.

is filled

the

(c) Head

each

cents

(a) Write

3.

is filled in 1 min.

The

25.

drives

tank

tank

da.

in 3

drive

man

hour

24.

drives

he

boys

'two

man

can

If

23.

the

22.

of 1 sheet

they do in 1 da. ? If
the trip do they travel

can

of

part

21.

pencilsat

100?

It takes

20.

of 7

cost

15

EQUATION

candidate

17

is the cost

and

x.

Write

if the

the

x.

by

received

majority of

votes,how

7 votes.

many

votes

cast ?

problems may be solved


by either arithmetic or the use of the equation. When
of the
the solution of a problem is obtained by the use
solution.
'it is commonly called an algebraic
equation,
The
followingproblems illustrate the important steps
of contrast
in the algebraic
solution of a problem. By way
arithmetic solution is given for the first problem.
an
13.

Algebraic

1. Divide

shall be four

pole 20
times

Many

solution.

as

ft.

long

long

as

into two

the other.

parts so

that

one

part

16

.MATHEMATICS

GEXKKAL

SOLUTION

ARITHMETICAL

shorter

The

The

longer part is four


whole pole is then
pole is 20 ft. long.

The

shorter

The

longer part

The

the

Hence

is

part

of 20

part is
is 4

length.
times
this length.
five times as long as

certain

The

4 ft. and

parts are

Then
and

4 n,

or

Then

16 ft. long

Hence

the parts

SOLUTION

number

of feet in the shorter

number

of feet in the

length of

.""n

'20.

4.

10.

4 ft. and

are

respectively.

"

part.

16 ft.

ALGEBRAIC

Let

shorter

4 ft.

ft.,or

4 ft.,or

the

the

1(J it.

part.

longer part,

pole.

long respectively.

2.

is three times

rectangulargarden

It takes

80

yd.

of

fence

inclose

to

it.

as

long as

Find

the

it is wide.
width

and

length.
ALGEBRAIC
x

number

of feet in the width.

.3

number

of feet in the

distance

80.

10.

30.

Let
Then
and

:" x

./" +

Then

3
Hence

14.

the

The

width

is 10

SOLUTION

yd. and

important steps in

around

the

length,

garden.

the

length is

the

algebraic solution of verbal

30

yd.

proceedingto the solution of


difficult problems it is importantthat we organizethe
more
trates
stepsthat are involved. The precedinglist of problemsillusthe followingmethod
for solvinga verbal problem:
(a) In every problem certain facts are given as known
(or

and

the

story)problems. Before

one

or

more

problem

so

as
as

unknown
to

and

to be

determined.

in mind.
get these facts clearly

Read

18

GENERAL
The

followingpuzzle was proposed to a boy :


number, multiply it by 4, add 12, subtract 6, and

6.

of

MATHEMATICS

by 2." The boy


?
originalnumber
The

7.

of

sum

is 52.

number

his

gave

half,one

one

What

final result

is the

third,and

number

Find

two

consecutive

9.

Find

three consecutive

10.

Find

two

11.

Find

three consecutive

12.

It is requiredto divide

divide

fourth

one

his

was

of

PROBLEMS

whose

numbers

odd

is 223.

sum

whose

numbers

consecutive

What

Think

CONSECUTIVE-NUMBER
8.

13.

as

"

whose

numbers

is 180.

sum

is 204.

sum

even
a

numbers

whose

70 in.

board

long into five parts


1", 2", 3", and 4"

longer parts shall be


longer respectivelythan the shortest part.

such

that

four

the

of the different
A

13.

The

boy

in

distance

inside

manual-trainingschool

2 in. from

The

distance
what

room

sq. ft. Find

464

Find

other

the

lengths

to

spaces

to the

the

bottom

in three

top.

Find

field is three

the field is 200

rd.

bookcase.

shelves,each

the

in.,

1 in.

successively

spaces.

RELATIONS

times

its

width, and

If the field is

the

rectangular,

long,14 ft. wide, and


height of the room.

is 15 ft.

the

is 4 ft. 7

will diminish

GEOMETRIC

INVOLVING

put

to

making

the walls contain

square

equals 64

ft.

side.

"square,"
"rectangle,"
geometric terms as "triangle,"
metic.
arithfamiliar from
in this list of problems (14-24),
are
occur
However, they will later be defined more
closelyto meet

NOTE.
etc.,as

book

board

is

around)a
perimeterof (distance

The

16.

four

the dimensions

15.

wishes

length of

around

are

top

the bottom

PROBLEMS
14.

the

He

thick,so that the

by

Find

parts.

from

measure.

is 156.

sum

Such

needs.

17.

the

sides of

than

the

the third side


first,

the side of

Find

18.

the

5 ft.

side is 3 ft.

second

longerthan

the

first,

29 ft.

perimeteris

the

and

triangleif

Find

longer

19

EQUATION

THE

equilateral
(allsides equal)triangle

an

perimeteris 21f ft.

if the

perimeterof

The

19.

Find

in.

is 145

ft. Find

is 192

is the side of

What

22.

its

if
figure)

perimeteris

larger part exceeds


inches

many

equilateral
dodecagon (12-sided

an

288

in. ?
into two

line 60 in. long is divided

23.

decagon (10-sided
equilateral
figure)

an

in.

perimeteris 173

if its

equilateral
hexagon (6-sided
figure)

an

side.

the side of

Find

21.

side.

perimeterof

The

20.

equilateral
pentagon (5-sided
figure)

an

are

five times

in each

perimeterof

The

the smaller

parts. Twice

part by

15 in.

the
How

part ?

A BCD
quadrilateral
(4-sided
figure)
is 34 in. The
side CD
is twice as long,as the side AB;
the
is three times as long as CD;
the side BC
side AD
equals the
Find the length of each side.
of the sides AD
and CD.
sum

24.

MISCELLANEOUS

be

may

$48,000 among

Divide

25.

what
26.

and

The

twice
28.

wide,

A
as

A
and

that

have

and

much

own

of

A, B, and
B,

and

may

that

so

A's

have

one

in.

The

share
half of

together.

perimeter of

the altitude.

double
27.

times

three

PROBLEMS

Find
a

rectangle is

the dimensions

house

capitalas

B.

worth
How

132

of the

$16,100,and
much

has each

base

rectangle.
A

has invested
invested ?

regulationfootball field is 56|^


yd. longer than
of its length and width is 163^ yd.
.the sum

its dimensions.

is

it is
Find

20

GENERAL
A

29.

four times

has

man

each

chickens as his neighbor.


many
times as many.
How
had
many
as

3^

has

selling14, he

After

MATHEMATICS

before the sale ?

school

high

the

electinga presidentof

In

30.

received

143

than

first.

the

1019

cast

for three

votes

than

more

How

athletic board

the

the

did each

votes

many

candidates.

third, and

certain

The

second

49

first
more

get ?

boy has $5.20 and his brother has $32.50. The first
200 each day and the second spends 100 each day. In
amount
?
days will they have the same
many
A

31.
saves

how

has

seven

first sold

9 A.

One

32.

man

the

After
than

second

the

then

times
the

to

had.

as

second,

How

acres

many
he

did

many

had
each

as

another.

36

A.

have

more

before

the sale ?
find

To

33.

the

of

weight

the

he

right;

finds

golf ball

balance

of

balls into the left scale pan


into

that

too

puts 20 golf

man

and

2-pound weight

the

but

much,

balance

is

restored
the

if he

weight

of

The

34.
in the

puts 2. oz.

United

States
more

the number

35.

36.

the

left scale

and
representatives
Congress is 531. The

than

What

pan.

was

of

number

is 51
Find

golf ball

into

four

times

together

senators
number

the number

of representatives
of senators.

of each.

have the
boy, an apprentice,and a master workman
understandingthat the apprenticeshall receive twice as much
four times as much
the boy, and the master
workman
as
as
does each receive if the total amount
much
the boy. How
is $105 ?
received for a piece of work
father leaves

children, so

that

the

and

second,

share

of

pa

oh ?

the

twice

$13.000 to
eldest
as

be divided

child

much

receives
as

the

his three

among

$2000

third.

more

What

than
is the

37.

5 ft.

fence

lengthwise. The
fence

to leave

as

the

to

up

number

above

it,what

240

paid $8

number

One

The

tenth

annual

advertisement

an

income

This

Thus

Axioms.

in

line

of

of the

open

spaces

lines,as

after

open
one

the boards

that.

follows

line for each

family is
third

one
clothing,
leaves $660

savings account.

laws

20

of these

between

of 8

placed

so

is half

of the

of each

first insertion,100

is used for

fifth for rent.

15.

upwards,

are

the

of the

Firid

the

insertions.

of

39.

If each

them.

running
build

to

they

be the distances

five insertions,and

next

the

for

boards

necessary

is 5 and

the bottom

must

line for the

boards

will be the width

that is,what
38.

of

of 6-inch

out

between

spaces

spaces, counting from


next

is made

high

required height

open

21

EQUATION

THE

How

far

much

we

for

divided

for

other

used

follows

and
groceries,
expenses

is the income

have

as

and

one

for

the four

following

solvingequations:

I.

be added
number
to equal numbers, the
If the same
sums
are
equal. [Addition
Law]
number
be subtracted from equalnumbers,
II. If the same
the remainders
are
equal. [Subtraction
Law]
III. If equal numbers
be multiplied
number,
by the same
the productsare equal. [Multiplication
Law]
be divided
number
IV. If equal numbers
by the same
division by zero), the quotients
are
(excluding
equal.[Division
Law]

Statements
be true,
so

are

like the four


called axioms.

simple that they

is sufficient to make

example,
and

more

if two
are

seem

clear

laws

above, when

assumed

to

Usually axioms are statements


A simple illustration
evident.
For
of the axiom.
the validity

boys have the


given to each,

same

then

number
our

of marbles

experiencetells

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

22
that

us

boy

again one

precedinglaws
respectively.

IV

V.

In

numbers

are

just as
the

the

as

many

addition

axiom.

called Axioms

will be

the

Hereafter

III, and

have

of
validity

illustrates the

This

other.

would

I, II,

quent
chapterwe have also made freof another axiom.
In solvinga verbal problem
use
obtained the necessary equation by finding
two
we
sions
expresand then we
which denoted the same
number
equated
these two
expressions.This step impliesthe following
16.

Axiom

axiom

this

If

two

the
numbers'),

numbers

truth

the

Illustrate

number
(or to equal
equalto the same
are
equal.[Equality
Axiom]

of

Axiom

by

familiar

some

experience.
The

and

review

the

equations,and

check.

Be

followingexercises

test

axioms.

EXERCISES

Solve
at

the following

step in the solution the axiom

every

12 #-15

1.

12 1

15

both

to

Dividing both
2.

y
-

24

sides

members,

=30

15

15

12 t

45

ff, or 3". (Axiom IV)

by 12,

(Axiom I)

-"

Multiplying both sides of


multiple of the denominators,
12 y

12 y

6 y +

3 y

the
that

equation by the

least

is, by 12,

12

-2^+ -^:=y
Then

used.

15

Solution.
common

state

to

30.

Solution.

Adding

able

4.

(Axiom III)

THE

By reducing
we

the

obtain

fractions

the

similar

Combining

of

9 y

terms,

sides of the

Dividing both

the

does

12a-+13

4.

18r-12r

5.

21^+15=120.

6.

28*

7.

20y+

"="

251.

2y-18y

22.

13.

3.5 y + 7.6

14.

5.8

15.

16.

3.41

17.

8 y

18.

2s

""

3.5

"

""

4.5 y +

+7s

fractions.

3s-

(Axiom IV)

8.

17s-

9.

17x

10.

16m

+ 2m

11.

202y-152//

12.

3.4

+ 12.6

0.59

3s

"

16s

3x

5.5
x

6?/

280.

70.

68.

1.77

5.2 y
6

58.

22.3.

87.

24.

27.

^ |_|

J*

2.

28.

15

21.

fa;

6.

Solution.

22.

fa;

20.

22%.

+ 4.8

6.

lx

88.

13m

"

1.2

=105.

9x

19.

terms

8.6y=15.

?/-

3.9

"

contain

not

f.

33.

lowest

to

4.

"

73.

3.

equation

equation by 9,
y

-9

first

equation, which

second

23

EQUATION

36.

3sc-3.

Adding

to

both

members,

23-

18

25.

J)ividingboth

jj.

2=1"-

+
3

24.

25.

"

3.

^+ ^

8.

6.

that

in

the

problem the unknown


in the right member.
29.
30.

26.-^

members

by 3,

6=x.
Note

"

3*.

31.

17=2^-3.

preceding
appears

24

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

32.^

33.^

4.

5.

Multiplying

Solution.

16

both
_

"

.
_

members

by

#,

1Q

ix.

x.

Hence

Multiplyboth

the

problem

the

in

by

x.

unknown

"

that

members

3
_

"5o.

Note

1.

"

preceding
13

in

occurs

,g

the denominator.

"

SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followof an equation,
words and phrases: equation,
members
check, root of an equaequationis satisfied,substituting,
tion,
solution of a verbal problem,
verbal problem,algebraic
17.

term,

This

literal number,

monomial,

terms, order of terms,


18.
are

In

Axioms.

used

and

similar

terms,

dissimilar

axiom.

solvingequationsthe followingaxioms

I. If the

numbers, the
II.

If the

19.

If

number

same
sums

are

equal numbers be added


equaL [Addition
Axiom]

number

or

to

equal

equalnumbers be subtracted from


equalnumbers, the remainders are equal. [Subtraction
Axiom]
III. If equaltno/ihcrs be divided by equalnumbers
ing
(excluddivision by zero),
the quotients
are
equal. [Division
Axiom]
be multiplied
IV. If equalnumbers
number
or
by the same
equalnumbers, the productsare equal. [Multiplication
Axiom]
V. If two numbers are equalto the same
number or to equal
numbers, the numbers are equal.[Equality
Axiom]
an

same

equation contains

involvingthe
every

or

same

term

unknown
of the

fractions,a second
may

be obtained

given equationby

equation

by

plying
multi-

the L.C.M.

CHAPTER

LINEAR

II

MEASUREMENT.

THE

APPLIED

EQUATION

TO

LENGTH1

21.

the

Length,

drawing

obtaining

what

drawn.
line.

In

to

the

an

exact

Thus,
of

edge

of

chalk

wide

lines, but

is

line

definite

point
1

is

of
some

point

pupil

should
to

the

metric

squared

length
definite

The

by

word

scale.

He

himself

should
to

real

boundary
marks.

in

AB

as

determine

to

Fig. 4.
and

beginning point
is used

thickness.

nor

short

to

line

cross

mean

The
that

is,

intersectinglines.

two

fractional

ruled

boundary

wish

we

the

not

chalk

"point"

by

provide
and

paper

of the

edges

is shown

now

inches

the

see

us

neglected

are
are

length, breadth,

is determined

graduated

units
and

The

help

whose

has

segment

of

nor

SEGMENT

court

briefly,a segment,

or,

position, not

position

LINE

line

crayon

to

outside

ending point.

merely

4.

tennis

line

wide

the

are

of

on

segment

line

width

width

made

are

part of

The

of

characteristic

marks

lines, which

straight line

table

and

thickness

at

are

length only

the

of the

part

possible,thus

as

straight line, we

in

and

of paper

length only, not

FIG.

has

edge

If

lines.

sheet

important

line has

sense

as

length

fact, length is the

on

the

us

In

thickness.
the

with

ruler

near

is familiar

concerned

once

as

of

characteristic

lay the

object we

an

sharpened pencil

pass

important

the
26

with

parts
also
metric

of

a
an

ruler
inch

obtain
scale.

one

and

pair

edge
the
of

of which
other

compasses

to

LINEAR

MEASUREMENT

27

EXERCISE

Give

line

of

examples

segments that

be

can

in

seen

the

classroom.
22.

of

Measurement

is

inch

an
zero

on

determined.

is to be

line segment AB
ruler

length. In Fig.5 the length of the


One

of your
fractions of

edge

graduated(divided)into inches and


in Fig.5. Place the division marked
is shown
as
your ruler at A, with the edge of the ruler along

B
f

FIG.

5.

How

LINE

the segment AB, and

SEGMENT

MAT

MEASURED

BE

of inches in the line

read the number

is, find what

reading on

oppositethe point B.
In the precedingproblem we
length of the line segment AB

compared

that

segment AB;

and

segment, the

well-known
be

21

lengthof the
the length of

line

segment

segment.

to

The

line is called
to

measure

times

as

segment

we

line

segment

segment

to it to find out

how

or

is to

many

the

we

the

found
inch.

unknown

we

the

line

Hence

the

determine

measuring the
compare

unit

of measurement.
apply a standard
times

the

line

given
Hence

unit segment

the unit segment is

contained in it.
EXERCISES

1. Draw

line

segment

and

length of

2. Measure

the

3. Measure

the width

express

your

of your

its length in inches.

desk in inches.
desk

is

well-established

When

are

segment with which


unit

the

inch, and

long as
segment is 2^ in.

line

with

the ruler

in inches.

28

(rEXEKAL

23.

units

Different
for

inents

length. The

of

of tape lines.
of

The

and
yardstick,

fractional parts of the unit

graduatedscale engraved or stamped


the standard unit used.
In Fig.6, below, is shown
on
a
part of a ruler. The upper
edge is divided into inches
and fractional parts of an inch. What
is the lengthof the
smallest line segment of the upper
edge ?
The
lower edge of the ruler is divided
into units of
the metric (or French) scale. This system is based on the
are

'

Ii
O

'

by

familiar

most

the foot rule, the

measuring are

several kinds

read

MATHEMATICS

I' I '

means

' t'

i' i '

INCH

i ' i' i '

i' M

i' i ' M

1
CENTIMETERS

'

,
.

if m

..

1 1 11 1 ' M M

11

1' 11 1

..|

I.

....

'

I-"

iCm.

FIG.

6.

PART

decimal

note

now

is divided
In

the

Ten

millimeter.

In the

is

AB
figure,

is

DIFFERENT

SHOWING

in all countries.

(m.). It
(mm.).

meter

RULER,

system and

work

is

OF

standard

into 1000

make

centimeter

one

that this is about

two

in scientific

unit is called the

equal parts called

figureabove,

millimeters

LENGTH

OF

generallyused

very

The

UNITS

in

fifths of

division

the smallest
a

centimeter

length,and
an

inch.

meters
milli-

(cm.).
will

you

Ten

meters
centi-

and ten
(dm.) (about 4 in.),
make a meter (39.37in.,or about 1.1 yd.).We
summarize
these facts in the followingreference table
make

decimeter

f 1 millimeter

0.03937

2.54 centimeters

10 millimeters

1 centimeter

10 centimeters

10 decimeters

may
:

inches

\linch

meters
deci-

(0.3937in.,or nearly J in.)


decimeter
(3.937in.,or nearly 4 in.)
meter
(39.37in.,or nearly 3-^ft.)

24.

of the

Advantages

29

MEASUREMENT

LINEAR

metric

of the fractional part

of the system is that the value


is more
of the meter
apparent than
of

part

0.386

wide, the decimal

we

third of
is 12.386
3 dm.

we
us

wide,

m.

cm.

know

we

wide.

mm.

who

one

at

This

little

.a

m.

more

practicewith

the

system.
the

segments of

line

fact that ten

metric

awkward.

Thus, there

5^ yd. in

rod, 1760yd.

in

familiar,are

seem

foot,3 ft. in

mile,

equal to

are

yard,

etc.

It is

NOTE.

HISTORICAL

1 2 in. in

are

lie in

this fact the multipliers

larger.In contrast to
system, though they may

.of our

system

unit

any

of the next

one

road

is far

last statement

had

has

one

is 12

that the road

once

Obviously the advantages of


the

At

definite to
metric

tells

mal
correspondingdecisay a street is 12.386 yd.
nothing about the smaller
a

yardstickthat enter into this number.


would
probablysay that it is something over
the other hand, if we
a yard. On
say that a
of

divisions
best

if

yard. Thus,

of the advantages

One

system.

probablethat most of the standard units


of length were
derived from the lengths of parts of the human
body
other equallyfamiliar objectsused in measuring. Thus, we
still
or
hands
high. The yard is supposed to
say that a horse is so many
have representedthe length of the arm
of King Henry I. Nearly all
have

nations

their word

the

commission
of

is the

linear

French
to

Revolution

devise

of which

name

the

National

system that would

from

derived

was

Assembly appointed
the inconvenience

eliminate

The

measures.

present metric

system

of this commission.

commission

attempted

millionth

part of the distance

measured

on

raised

the

unit

existingweights and

work

This

for foot.

During
a

used

some

of this

the earth's

the
doubt

meridian
as

to the

distance,we

quadrant, but

to

make

from

the

the

equator

of Paris.

Since

exactness

of the

now
as

define
the

the

standard
to

unit

the

north

later measurements
commission's

meter

not

as

ten-

one

pole
have

tion
determinaa

fraction

of

distance,at the freezingtemperature,

GENERAL

30
between

is

which

parallelJim-.* ruled on a bar of platinum-iridium


International
Butqau of Weight.*and Measures, at

transverse

two

the

kept at

Paris.

Sevres, near

Application of

25.

MATHEMATICS

the

metric

give practicein

to

the

This

scale.

article is intended

of the metric

use

system.

EXERCISES

1. With

the

measure

ruler

whose

segments

edge is graduated into centimeters


and

AB

FIG.

the

Measure

2.

length and

Check

ruler.

in

CD

Fig.7.

width

of your

results with

the

those

desk
of

with

Exs.

meter
centi-

and

3,

Art. 22.

Estimate

3.

the

measure

the

Turn

4.

Millikan
metric

to

and

26.

"

to

an

standard

Practical

fact

process

and

sources

meter

standard

Gale, pp.

of the

some

2 and

in

stick. If

and

then

stick

is not

meters
meter

translate into meters.


text

3) and

in

physics (for example,

report to the

class

the

on

system.
the

about

room

the

of

yardstickand

Refer

5.

with

room

use
available,

length

seems

of

error

can

you

"

In

of precise measurement.
difficulty

that

line with

encyclopediaand find out what


yard kept at Washington.

spite

measuring line segments is a familiar


it is very difficult to measure
very simple,
high degree of accuracy. The following
may

enter

into

the

result

if

we

use

not be exactlystraight
: (1) the yardstick
yardstick
;
may
(2) it may be a little too long or too short ; (3) it may
slipa little so that the second positiondoes not begin at

LINEAR

31

MEASUREMENT

place where the first ended ; (4) the edge of


the. yardstickmay not always be along the line segment;
(5) the graduatedscale used for readingfeet,inches,and

the

exact

fractional

parts of inches

eliminate

these

For

line tends

stretch,but

to

steel tape is affected

do

we

by using other measuring devices.

errors

example,a tape

wet, while

Nor

be correct.

not

may

by

contracts

heat and

if

cold.

preceding discussion it is apparent that a


is always an
measurement
approximation.The error can
be decreased but never
wholly eliminated.
From

the

EXERCISES

have measured

Suppose you

1.

desk)with greatcare
Is this the exact
If you

2.

If

3.

the
would

27.

you

The

of
use

that may

Why

segments. Since
common

have

it

likelythat

result

measure

compasses.

be used

to

still greater

classroom, what

your

(Fig. 8)

with

measurement

same

asked

equalto 2 ft. 7f in.


Justifyyour answer.

finer-graduatedscale,is

exactlythe

were

you

length

of

use

find
you would
before ?
as

repeat the

to

it to be

found

the desk ?

length of

were

making

care,

have

and

distance (saythe edge of your

is
in

passes
pairof com-

instrument

an

measuring

the

use

of

line

passes
com-

of the
greatlydecreases some
in measuring that
errors
been pointed out, and is consequently

FIG.

8.

PAIR

OF

COMPASSES

drawing which
requirea high degreeof accuracy, it will be helpfulif the
student learns to use
the compasses
freely.
very

useful

in

many

forms

of

32

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

28.

Measuring

line segment

with

the

To

compasses.

in Fig.9 with the compasses,


the line segment AB
Turn
A and B.
on
placethe sharppointsof the compasses
measure

FIG.

the

Then
clamps the legsof the compasses.
pointson the marks of the ruler and count the
which

screw

placethe
number

of inches

or

centimeters

them.

between

EXERCISES

With

the compasses

2. With

the compasses

1.

the number

4. Estimate

the

Measure

page.
compare

29.

device

with

to

inches

inch

and

(used by

to the

this page

Squared

paper.

Squared paper

by 2.54.

What

of centimeters

lengthof

is often

which

Fig 9, in

centimeters.

do you observe ?

in the

with

inches.

length of

the compasses

this
and

estimate.

your

Squared

Fig.9, in

in

AB

measure

result of Ex. 1

Multiplythe

3.

in

AB

measure

useful

in

is ruled either

fractions
the

of

is another

paper

important

measuring line segments.


B

an

engineer)or

units of the metric

scale.

sample part of a sheet is


in Fig.10. The method
shown
of measuring with squared paper
is practically
the same
as
measuring with the compasses
A

and

ruler.

Thus,

to

FIG.

10.

MAY

BE

place the

Clamp

Fig.10
sharp points of the

the compasses.

MEASURED

LINE
BY

SEGMENT
THE

USE

measure
OF

the line segment AB

HOAV

SQUARED

PAPER

in

Place

the

compasses

on

sharp pointson

and
one

B.

of

GENERAL

0.4, but

be

to

2.74

this is 0.04

This

units.

it is

of

unit;, hence

the 4 is

course

long as
approximation,

only an

as

reasonablyclose.
EXERCISES

Fig. 12

1. In

CD,

DE,

that

of

equals

CD

times

is 2.74

that CD

means

Of

the line MN.


but

MATHEMATICS

and

decimal

two

the

Compare

EC.

other

the

to

measure

placesthe segments

results of

your

work

with

of

members

the class.
Is the

2.

the

result obtained

method

Art.

of
than

accurate

the

30

one

more

result

by using 1 cm.
claiming accuracy
decimal place?

and

by

as

tained
obunit

to

only

Kt-

FIG.

31.

Equal

segments.

the end

When

with
as

line

pointsof one segment,


(exactlyfit upon) the ends

6,the segments

and

equal. This fact may


b.
the equationa

are

be

as

in

cide
Fig.13, coin-

of another

segment,

said to be

expressedby

I
b-

32.

12

inequality. If
segments, as a and J,

Unequal segments;

FIG. 13. EQUAL

LINE

SEGMENTS

pointsof two
be made to coincide,
the segments are said to
cannot
possibly
be unequal. This is written a =" b (read a is not equalto 6").

the end

"

The
an

statement

In
inequality.

3=

bis called

Fig.14 segment

is less than segment b

(written a

"

i), and

ment
seg-

is greater than

(writtenc

"

ment
seg-

6).

FIG.

14. UNEQUAL

LINE

SEGMENTS

LINEAR

In

precedingequation and

the

article will

This

Ratio.

show

INTRODUCTORY

refer

1.

Measure

the segment

2.

Measure

the

accurately to
places.
What

segment

quotientof
The

The
is, -2^4-.

of

unit

"I

15

FlG

there is
It should

be

now

of

mean

unit, the

"

ratio of 24
is 1 in.

measure

clear

that

every

lengthof
that

meter

or

kinds

""

for

is

ple,
exam-

cm.

is the

measurement

approximate. Thus,

the classroom

it is ten

5 in.,that

in. to

times

and

say

long

as

as

it"is

the

that is,the ratio is.


-L""..

-:

"'

"

is called

Obviously there

gal.and

ratio either exact


the

measure

long,We

kind

same

commonly expressedas a fraction.


fraction the two
be
must
quantities
of the same
unit; for example, the

ratio between

no

determination

of the

quantitiesof different

ratio between

standard

places.

\"

ratio of 2 ft. to 5 in. is the

m.

decimal

two

ratio is

forming the
expressed in terms

10

mental
funda-

numbers

two

Before

we

a.

their ratio.

when

ratio is

Fig. 15)

to

quotientof

the

by

that

accuratelyto

decimal

two

part of b is

4. Find

no

be

can

EXERCISES

(Exs. 1-4

The

length

in measurement.

notion

divided

which

to

by measuring the segments.

determined

3.

stand for the

segments. They represent numbers

of the

need

we
inequalities

that the letters a, b; and

remember

33.

35

MEASUREMENT

"

-.

.-

36

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISES

1. The

Chicago in

death rate in

population.Express this
alloyconsists of
part of the alloyis

An

2.

What

What

3 to 6.

4. The

ratio of

given by

copper

tin in the ratio of 2 to 3.


What

part is

of

of

ratio of

?
and

of water
times

many

and

hydrogen

this ratio

Express

Sum

How

"

"

in the

water

is water

tin ?

per
cop-

heavier

is

consists

1 to 7.84.

34.

and

weights of equal volumes

water

Water

5.

copper

the fraction

16 to 1000

was

year

fraction.

part of the solution

than

copper

as

recent

solution consists of alcohol and

3. A

is

ratio

as

in the

oxygen

ratio of

fraction.

decimal

It

segments ; geometric addition.

two

is

line segments by the use


of compasses.
to add two
possible
Thus, in Fig.16 if the segment a is laid off on the number
scale of squared paper from point A to pointB and if in
turn

b is laid off

FIG.

sum
sum

16.

is 5.4

in

case

and

indicate the

lay off

line from

same

ADDITION

segment

work

In

once.

is the

AC

lengthof the segments or


the segments as above on
sura

of

and

of the compasses

as

is

the

Fig.16
of

sum

are

we

C, then

to

SEGMENTS

LINE

OF

be read off at

construction

that

means

can

The

cm.

either the

by

the

GEOMETRIC

of these lines

Very often
about

on

not

their
a

the

and

b.

concerned
sum.

In

working line

"+-b.

geometricaddition.

Addition

formed
per-

LINEAR

37

MEASUREMENT

EXERCISES

1. In

Indicate

line.

find the

Fig. 17

the

of

sum

b,

a,

and

on

working

sum.
"
.

Fig.17 add

In

2.
ments

line of

Express

b +

of

in centimeters.

working line draw

of

In

by
squared paper
In

5.

either

or

35.

that

VI.

The

VII.

18

FIG.

19

+ b.

what

tion
rela-

between

and

Why?

b?

Exs. 4 and

Axioms.

axioms

two

FIG.

ber
num-

by c.
measuring on

Fig.19

exists

17

denoted

is

Show

FIG.

whole

the

Fig.19

segment

fencing
Fig.18.

for the, lot in

needed
4.

of

yards

the value of

line to indicate the

one

squared

On

3.

the scale

c on

sheet

paper.
a

b,and

a,

the seg-

5, above,

illustrate the

following

whole is

The whole

equal to the

sum

is greater than

of all
one

any

its parts.

of

its parts.

EXERCISES

1. Draw

Draw

the

2. Let

the
sum

a,

segments
a

b, and

b +
c

2.3 cm.;

represent a -\-3

3.2 cm.;

1.3cm.

c.

denote

b -j-4

c.

line segments.

three

segment to represent 2a + 3b +
to

; to

represent 4

Draw
a

line

-f b -f 2

38

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

Fig.20, if a, b,and
line,such that a
straight
In

3.

c, show

that

by measuring

three consecutive

c are

I +

segments

with out

b +

c.

20

measuringthat

What

c.

FIG.

4. Show

on

axiom

this fact illustrate ?

does

Quote

the axiom.
36.
same

when

sum

that

of terms

Order

do

we

lay off a segment a


lay off b first and

we

when

we

of the truth

geometricillustration
This

law

when

the order

of the

arithmetic, as

and

get the

We

add

then
add

then

of the commutative

of

does

sum

is

law.

change

not

changed.In the first chapter


principle
by a familiar experience

addends

illustrated this

we

from

the value

that

asserts

fact that

The

in addition.

is

5-1-4

2 +

4-}-5.

2 +

EXERCISES

validityof the
everyday experience.

1. Illustrate
from

your

in the most

2. Add
law

To

find out

how

we

commutative

124

; 2187

of two

+ 469

greater

is than

found

Then

the

the segments b and

equation form
this method

toward

difference
c

164.

of

the compasses.
1

working line (Fig.21)from


to C, then lay the segment
C

fact

difference

with

commutative
142

The

by

the segment

lay off the segment

from

; 36 +

line segments.
also be

much

+ 213

b backward

law

advantageousway, using the

segments may

the segment

on

Difference

line

two

412

.376 +

37.

the

A.

c-b
A.

FIG.

GEOMETRIC

21.

SUBTRAC-

between
is

this may

expressedby
be written AD

the segment AD.


=

by comparing the lengthsof

"

two

b.

In

Illustrate

pencils.

MEASUREMENT

LINEAR

39

EXERCISES

the line segments

1. Transfer

and

2. Subtract

line

3.5

segment

MB

MN

long from

that

show

If

6.

of the first

3 cm.,

If a,

b,and

construct

How

8.

Ex.

be

38.

^IG
+

chapter is
and

2 cm.,

2 a + 3 b
segment representing
7.

22

b +

How

c.

illustrated

long
if

to

1.

literalnumber

construct

representing5a

-f-2 #

; 4

of

the

each

would
b

"

4,

The

and

Thus,

+ 2 "

; 5

literal number

can

Written
is

thus, 5
be

c.

"

method

6.+ 3

c.

in

factor in the term

1
many

When

#.

understand

we

The

x.

used

the

no

cient
coeffi-

coefficient of

times
as

2#

x
~

an

x+x+x+z+x

a: means

in this form

coefficient may
lengthof the

2b +

"

3 ?

means

is to be

expressedby

convenient

line

constructed

literal factor

in #,

indicates how

segments

arithmetical

as

"

addend;

"z

of the
coefficient

the

be

"

1 cm.,

"

5,

representthe length of three respective


segments,

coefficient is written,

and

Exs. 3

by

Coefficient.

is called

the

would

Quote the axiom.

4 ?

and

b ?

axiom

What

5.

segment

simpler if we
write the fact in algebraic
form, using the small letters. Thus,
you

line

h^-+

is

long.

cm.

4. Ex.

one

equals the

AB

MB.

squared paper

to

b in centimeters.

and

cm.

Fig.22 the line segment


Show by measuring that

MX.

Fig.21

between

In

3.

AB

difference

the

express

of

we

the

equation5x
that the

see

use

x+

of

x+x-\-x+x.
a

coefficient

of

a
abbreviating.Geometrically
follows: Let x be the
be interpreted
as
cates
segment in Fig.23. Then the 5 in 5x indi-

that the line segment

is to be

laid off five times

40

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

on
a
working line. 5.r expresses the sum
consecutively
ally
Usuobtained by this geometricaddition. Find this sum.
the term "coefficient" means
justthe arithmetical factor
in a term, though in a more
the coefficient
generalsense
in a term, is the productof all the
of any factor,or number
other factors in that term.
Thus, in 3 aby the coefficient
of y is 3 ab, of by is 3 a, of aby is 3.

EXERCISE

Give

the

7x

39.

coefficient in each
8#

of

the

following terms

3 b ;

a-.

of
consisting

number
Polynomials. An algebraic

two

2 2,
(each called a monomial),as bx + % y
is a polynomial.The
word
"polynomial" is derived from
termed.
A polynomialof two
a phrasewhich
means
many
terms, as 5 x + 3 #, is a binomial. A polynomialof three
or

terms

more

terms,

"

is

2a-f3J4-4c,

as

trinomial.

EXERCISE

of terms

number

(a) 2

"

(c) 6

r.

(d) a
of similar

Algebraic addition

frequentlyadded
review the process by means
now
"in order to see
clearlythe law
complicatedadditions :
Add

units

of

the

of the
to

be

2 y.

2"

In

3.

simple problems
We

terms.

shall

followingexample
used

in

the

more

4:r-!-3a:+ 2:r.

Solution.
x

terms.

similar

have

we

basis

(b) 6x.
40.

the

following expressions on

Classify the

can

be considered

as

the

sum

long.

Therefore

4x

x.

of four

segments each

42

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

Tickets

1.

and

There

14.

D,

total

receipts.

2.

Express as

Can

3.

add

you

2 1 +

Add

5.

(b) 3y

7 + 14

"

which

indicated

y +

"

Do

5a;; "x

halfway

with

be written

can

confuse

not

dicates
in-

up

the short cut above?

by

followingsums

3x

(a)3

15y+ily

school's

The

2 -f 5

and

in

5 -|-3 ;

+ 3; 13 +

4.
as

"

of the

of monomials

the form
"

the

5-7-f4-7.

dot

4. Indicate

3-7

term

one

12; B, 15; C, 36;

tickets sold at the gate. Find

112

were

sells

; A

cents

numbers
two
placed between
multiplicationand is read "times."
decimal
point.
A

NOTE.

the

sold at

were

running

+ 17

track

is

3s +

(c) 9* +

2y;

20

3s

+ ~x

+
.s

-j-2s ;

/ feet. While

a
training,
boy runs around it five times on Monday, six on Tuesday, ten
011
on
Wednesday, seven
Thursday, six on Friday,and nine on
Saturdaymorning. How many feet does he run duringthe week ?

6.

41.

Subtraction

of similar

is similar

illustrated
Subtract

from

5x

x.

Subtractingequal numbers
5

The

addition

in

and

in subtraction

may

be

x.

Solution.

Hence

law

the

law

follows:

as

to

The

monomials.

5x

"

"

from
x

2x

x.

equal numbers,

x.

x,

precedingexample illustrates
similar monomials

or

x.

the law

is a monomial

that tJiedifference

havinga coefficient
equalto the difference
of the givenmonomials
of the coefficients
and havingthe same
literalfactor.
of two

LINEAR

43

MEASUREMENT

EXERCISES

3 b from

1. Subtract

the differences of the

Write

2.

146.

lOce

monomials:

3ic; 13x

"

The

13x

42.

3x;

11.5c

2.3c

"

line

sides

the
The

distance

numbers
2.68

5k;

"

as
r

i*.
addition

"ix-}-6x

fa

and

"

"

traction.
sub-

2x;

a.

points,as A, B, and
segments, the figure

the three sides a, 6, and

are

Ja

If three

Triangle; perimeter.

(Fig.24), are connected by


formed* is a triangle.The
three points are
called vertices
(corners)of the triangle,
c

f*

c;

(7

and

3z; VI

"

followingexercises requireboth
Write each result as a singleterm

2x

"

12z

5x;

"

fe-Je;

-0.27/-; 1.03a-0.08a;
3.

followingpairsof

of the -triangle.
of

sum

around), is

the

three

sides, as

perimeterof

the

the

(the
triangle.
a

-f-b +

EXERCISES

1. A

yard

each
triangle,
fence

will

2.

What

be

has

the

form

side

being

needed

to

is the

sum

3. What

of "times
is the

sum

? Express the
triangle

equal-sided(equilateral)
rods
of
long. How
many

inclose it ?
sides

of the

2x

sides

number

an

rods

triangle(Fig.25) whose
3
2 x feet,2 x feet,and
are
as
long? Express the sum
of

of

feet
3x

tain
cer-

FIG.

25

3b, 4b,

and

x.

of the three
result

as

one

sides

is the

of

term.

perimeterof a trianglewhose sides


8 x} and 9 x ? Let p be the perimeter; then write your
of an equation.
to the precedingquestionin the form
4. What

6b

are

2x,

answer

44

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

as ABODE
figure,
(seeFig.26),formed
by connectingpoints,as A, J5, C, D, and E, by line
segments, is a polygon.
The
Greek
phrase from
which the word "polygon"

43.

Polygons.

is derived

means

Polygons having 3,

nered.

4, 5, 6, 8, 10,
called

are

cor-

many

"

"

sides

.,

triangle,
lateral,
quadri-

pentagon, hexagon,
octagon,decagon,
-

n-gon

.,

FlG

26.

POLYGON

of
The
sum
respectively.
all the
the sides of a polygon is its perimeter.When
sides of a polygon are
equal it is said to be equilateral.

EXERCISES.

1. What

each

In

is the

case

perimeterof

express

the

result in the

the first quadrilateral


p =

thus, for

polygonsin Fig.27?
form of an equation
;

each of the

12

x.

IX

FIG.

2.

Show

by equationsthe perimeterp

Fig-28.
by equationsthe
perimeter of an equilateral
side is
whose
quadrilateral
3. Show

11;

9;

9 + 3;

x-fy.

s;
a

27

b;

x;

+ 5;

2e;

z\

+ d;

of the

polygons in

figureswhose
following equations:

different

the

4. Name

the

expressedby
p

3 s,

5 s,

j)

7 s,

4 s,

6 s,

8 s,

Find

how

out

each

that

Assume

5.

9 s,

10 s,

all the

figures in

Ex.

of your

classmates

can

many

Assume

at least six of

that

is the

7. What

ifs

if

3cm.?

5s,

perimeter is

15 s,

20 s,

ns.

equilateral.

are

give the

of

name

Show

10.

the value of

"

12.

by

4a

120

in.

If

: 3x
expressions

2.25 x-y;

2.27

and

x-

?/ ;

3a

5 and

15s

tions
equa-

2 in. ?

3x

3 s, p

each

if in

of

value
=

are

4 s,

the

case

with

made

pressed
perimeters are expolygons whose
66 + 6a;
by^? 4" + 12; by^?

6 ;

25; by

2 ; if

equationsp

hexagon
equilateral
(Use all the string.)

in the

an

sketches
8

and

10s,

long ?

the

Find

11.

by

4 if s

Ex.

6s,

in.

string144

and

perimeterof each figureof


5ft.?
4yd.? ifs

is the side of

What

9.

by^"

Determine

8.
=

12 s,

polygons in Ex.
which
the given

the

Sketch the figuresof


equilateral.
be the perimeters.
may

not

be

perimetersmight

polygon.

6.

45

MEASUREMENT

LINEAR

-\-2b.

the

find

y;

"

perimetersin

3 ; if

3,

"

3x

the
"

Ex.10

1 and

value

2 ?/; 2x

of
"

if

5.
the

3|; 4

following
a;

"

2-^?/;

1.12 y.

SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followwords and phrases: line segment, point,measurement
of length,
unit segment, standard unit,ratio,metric system,
mutative
coincide,intersect,equal segments, unequal segments,comlaw, coefficient,
polynomial,binomial, trinomial,
44.

This

46

GEKEKAL

of

MATHEMATICS

polygon,vertices of a polygon,perimeter,
sides of a triangle,
polygon,quadrilateral,
pentagon,
hexagon, octagon, decagon,n-gon, equilateral.
vertex
triangle,

45.

whole is

The

followingaxioms
equalto

the

The

illustrated:

were

of all its parts.


of its parts.

sum

The whole is greater than any

VII.
46.

The

Axioms.

VI.

have been used in

instruments
following

line segments : the ruler,the compasses, and

ing
measur-

squared
paper.

followingsymbols were used :. =" meaning does


not equal; "
meaning is less than; " meaning is greater
than ; and a dot,as in 3 5, meaning times,or multiplied
by.
47.

The

"

48.

49.

The

pointis

determined

metric

by

lines.
intersecting

two

system has certain advantagesover

our

English system.
50.

The

51.

The

of precisemeasuring has
practicaldifficulty
enumerated.
been pointed out.
Five possible
errors
were
Measurement
impliesthe determination of a ratio.
of two

sum

law

was

segments

discovered

found

was

to

as

serve

with

the

passes.
com-

short cut

in

algebraicaddition.
52.

compasses
53.
were

54.

difference of two

The

and

the law for

Addition

The

illustrated

found

was

subtraction
algebraic
Subtraction

and

of

laws

with

the

stated.

was

Chapter

geometrically.

perimeterof

The

segments

figuremay

be

expressedby

an

equation.
55.

The

chapterhas taught how

when
the
algebraicnumber
given for a particularcage;
value

of 3

2 y when

x-

==

value

of the

unknowns

example,how
and #==2.

for
1

to find the value

to

of

an

are

find the

III

CHAPTER

56.

drawings

of

straight line,

Fig. 29,

in

rotates

direction

0, in the

as

If

Angle.

indicated

the

by

in

OX

as

plane

the

it reaches

until

ANGLES

OF

PROPERTIES

about

either
fixed

arrowheads

of

the

point,

clockwise)
(counterit is said

position OT,

to

FIG.

29.

through

turn

of turning

ILLUSTRATING

the

made

angle
by

angle
57.

vertex

Thus,

XOT.
line

plane (flat surface}. Note


the

DEFINITION

THE

rotating
that

as

point

OF

an

about

the

ANGLE

AN

angle
a

is the

amount

fixed point

rotation

in

continues,

increases.

Vertex.

of the

The

fixed

angle. (The plural


47

(Fig. 29)

of "vertex"

is
is

called

the

"vertices.")

48

GENERAL

58.

MATHEMATICS

Initial side ; terminal

The

side.

line OX

is called the initial side of the

side of the

the terminal

Symbols

"

A
angles,"

for

Size of

60.

angle." The

"

for

59.

angle. The
angle.
"

Thus,

see

we

is called

is written

the definition of

for
possible
(Fig.29) so that the angle may
rotating
of rotation (turning).
amount
56

in Art.

line OT

symbol for "angle"is Z;

angleXOT"

angles. From

(Fig.29)

that it is

/^XOT.

anglegiven

an

the line OX
contain

to

stop

given

any

EXERCISE

angle made
by
fourth of a complete turn ;
rotated one
of a complete turn
turn ; three fourths
and one-fourth complete turns.
one
freehand

Draw

61.

Right angle
about

rotates
T

an

fourth

one

is called

-a

straight angle

fixed
of

point

in

line

half of

one

; one

which

OX

complete
complete turn ;

perigon.

plane

has

so

as

If
to

line

make

complete turn, the angle formed


rightangle (rt.Z) (see Fig.30, (a)).
a

-X
O

(a) Right Angle

(c)Perigon

(b)StraightAngle
FIG.

30.

THREE

SPECIAL

ANGLES

completeturn, the angle


formed is called a straight
angle(st.Z) (seeFig.30, (b)) ; if
is called
the line makes
a complete turn, the angle formed
" perigon(see Fig.30, (c)).
If the line makes

one

half of

EXERCISES

1.

Draw

angles;

an

angle equal to 1 straight angle;


straightangles; 1|-straightangles; 2^ straightangles.
2.

angle equal to 1 rightangle; 2 right


rightangles; 4 rightangles.
freehand

Draw

freehand

an

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES
4

1.

Draw

2.

Point

of

obtuse

angle ;

acute

an

an

obtuse

angle ;

reflex

angle.

out, in the classroom, examples of right angles ;

angles.
C\

C
D

(b)

(a)
FIG.

34.

In the

3.

angles;
63.

of

ILLUSTRATING

THE

(c)
VARIOUS

KINDS

OF

drawings of Fig.34 determine the


rightangles; of obtuse angles; of

Notation

for

reading angles. There

are

ANGLES

of acute

number
reflex

three

angles.
common

by which one may denote angles: (1) Designate


the angle formed
by two lines OX
the
and OT
the
or
as
angleXOT"
(Fig.35). Here the
angle TOX"
first and last letters denote points
the lines forming the angle,and
on
the middle letter denotes the point
of intersection (thevertex). In reading
FIG. 35
we
regardOX as
angleXOT"
the initialside and OT as the terminal side. (2) Denote the
angleby a small letter placed as # in Fig. 36. In writing
is the
equations this method
B
Denote
convenient.
most
(3)
the angleby the letter which
tersection
is written
at the point of inFIG. 36
methods

"

"

"

of the two
"

sides of

angle,as
angleA" (Fig.36). This last method
only when there is no doubt as to what angle is
the

is used
meant.

PKOPERTIES

OF

51

ANGLES

EXERCISE

In

the

illustrate

of

drawings
the

three

Fig.37, below,

methods

of

select three

notation

angles and

described

above.

(b)

FIG.

64.

of

If

Circle.

line OX

angle (see Fig.38)


completeturn (a perigon), any point,as P,
on

an

line

the

trace

which

we

Thus,

OX

will

curved

line

call

circle

closed curve,

all

37

be
and

taken
the

as

line

the
be

initial side
rotated

circle.
is

points

of which lie in the


are
same
plane and
equallydistant from a
fixedpoint.

FIG.

38.

THE

CIRCLE

one

52

The

fixed

point 0 is the
of the circle. The
is
length of the curve
(circle)
the circumference
(distancearound) of the circle.

65.

Center

center

called
66.

of

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

circumference.

; diameter.

Radius

line drawn

from

the circle is
any point on
A
radius of the circle in Fig.38.

circle to

OP

is

two

pointson

the circle and

the circle is called

radius.

line

center

Thus,

connecting

passingthrough the

of

center

diameter.

"

the definition of

From

the

"

radius

given above

it is clear

radius has
given circle or in equal circles one
ing
the same
lengthas any other. Thus we obtain the followcircle
importantgeometricrelation,Radii of the same
or
of equal circles are equal.("Radii" is the plural of
radius.")

that

in

"

67.

of

Arc;

to

If two

circle.

intercept;

circle to two

radii

different

angle. An

central

are

drawn

pointson

from

the circle. The

on

"

is called
68.

central

Quadrant;

the center

the circle,they cut

symbol for." arc


read
the arc AB"
The angleformed
the arc.
The
circle is said to intercept
arc

is

arc

"

is ""^

Thus,

at the center

angle at

part

of the
off

an

is

AB

of the

the center

angle.
semicircle.

An

arc

of

circle is called

quadrant. An

of

circle is called

semicircle.

equal to one
arc
equal to

fourth
one

half

EXERCISES

2.

How

does

How

many

diameter

quadrants in

what

connection

have

word

"

"

quadrant

compare

we

mentioned

in

length with

semicircle ? in
the idea

radius

circle ?

In

expressedby

the

OF

PROPERTIES

longitude. The

Degrees of latitude and

69.

of the circle in

made

53

ANGLES

geography is

no

doubt

use

that is

familiar to

wich,
prime meridian, that passes through GreenEngland (see Fig. 39), is the zero meridian. We
as
being
speak of placeslying to the west of Greenwich
in west
longitude and of those lying to the east of
Greenwich
as being in east longitude(see Fig.39). Since
hours to make one complete
it takes the earth twenty-four
rotation,the sun apparentlypasses over one twenty-fourth
all of

us.

The

N.P.

N.P.

S.P.
LATITUDE

of the entire distance around

pointslyinga
turn

In

distance of

one

apart differ in time by


order

LONGITUDE

the earth every hour.


Thus,
twenty -fourth of a complete
an

hour.

computations further the entire


circle is divided into three hundred
and sixtyequal parts,
each of which
is called a degree (1") of longitude.In
order to express fractional parts of the unit each degree
is divided into sixtyminutes
(60')and each minute into
sixtyseconds (60"). With this agreement the longitude
of a place is determined.
The position
of a placenorth or south of the equator is indicated
by the number of degreesof north or south latitude.
to

carry

the

AND

54

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

is the

1. What

greatest longitudea place can

have

? the

greatest latitude ?
How

2.

in

degree of

( $7 What
surface

seconds

many

the
4.

north
5.
to the
6.

How

degree

of

longitude?

the

"

of

length

minute

arc

of

accuratelythe officers
ship out in mid-ocean.

how

latitude ?

is
of

there in

are

would

you

of

degree

second

a
a

ship

25" 14' west

read

on

arc

arc

know

the

earth's

Try

to find out

the

location

longitude?

of

33" 5' 17"

latitude ?

Compare
method
Find

the method
used

out

70.

Amount

If

we

remember

in

in

in what

of

locatingby latitude and longitude


locatinga house in a largecity.
longitude you

of rotation
that

plane about

an

determines

live ? in what
the

angle is formed

fixed

point,it

Fio.

will

size of

latitude ?
an

angle.

by rotatinga
be

clear

that

line

the

40

of turning,
angle depends only on the amount
the sides may
the length of the sides. Since
not
upon
be extended
an
indefinitely,
angle may -have short or long
sides. In Fig.40 the angleA is greater than angleB, but
the sides of angle B are longerthan the sides of angle A.
size of the

71.

Measurement

instances
as

that

when

we

selected

of angles;

of

the

protractor. In

many

measuring anglesis as important


of measuring distances.
An
angle is measured
find how
times it contains another
angle
many
the process

as

unit

of

measure.

PROPERTIES
The

OF

protractor (Fig.41) is
and

measuring

55

ANGLES

constructingangles. The

consists of

semicircle

devised

instrument

an

monly
protractor com-

into

divided

for

hundred

one

eightyequal parts. Each of these equal parts is called


a degreeof arc
(1"). In the geographywork referred to in
the degree
Art. 69, the unit for longitudeand latitude was
and

of

In

arc.

of

the

shall

angleswe

consider

unit

to

and

arc

ment
measure-

sponding
corre-

of

unit

called

degree

of angle.
If

straightlines

drawn

from

these

pointsof

are

each

of

division

the semicircle to the

on

FIG.

0,

center

one

41.

THE

PROTRACTOR

hundred

eightyequal angles are formed, each of which is a


degree of angle (I0)-.Thus, the unit of angular measure
is the degree. A degree is divided into sixtyequal parts,
each of which is called a minute (!').
into sixty equal parts, eack
is divided
minute
Each
of which
the minute
is called a second (1"). Of course
shown
and the second graduationsare
the pronot
on
tractor.
Why not ?
and

EXERCISES

in

2.

How

at

rightangle?

in

straightangle?

perigon?
A

angle ?
3.

degrees in

many

degree is
of

What

part

of

right angle ?

of

straight

perigon?

angle is formed

o'clock ?

7 o'clock ?

what

at

by the

9 o'clock ?

at 11 o'clock ?

at

hands

12

of

o'clock ?

clock at 3 o'clock ?
at

o'clock ?

at

56

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL
Give

4.

right angle;

of

is the correct

What

5.

the

read

to

way

of

the hands

day when
straightangle.

time

clock

form

followingangles:

5" 0' 10"?

15" 17' 2"?

rightangles? in
third of a rightangle ? in two
four straightangles ? in one
fifth of a rightangle? in
thirds of a straightangle? in one
x
straightangles? in y rightangles? in 2 x rightangles?
degrees

6.

How

7.

Ordinary scales
with

made

many

what
8.

is the

angle

What

is the

there

face like

pounds.
between

72.
may

sometimes

successive

two

angle

between

divisions of

clock face. The

If the entire face

the face of the scale in Ex.

on

in three

weighing small objectsare

for

circular

the scale indicate

are

represents12 lb.,

pound

successive

two

marks

marks

ounce

7 ?

Measuring angles ; drawing angles. The


be used to measure
a
given angle. Thus,

protractor
to

measure

given angle x placethe protractorso that the center of


the vertex
the protractor (point0 in Fig.42) falls upon
the straight
and make
edge of the protractor coincide
with (fall
upon) the initial side of the given anglex. Now,
observe where the terminal side of the givenangleintersects
of
(crosses)the rim of the protractor. Read the number
degreesin the angle from the scale on the protractor.
a

EXERCISES

1. Draw

three

reflex. Before

one

each

angle. Find

of the

angles,one
measuring,estimate

the number

of

protractor. Compare the

2. Draw

freehand

of 180" ; of 204".
means

different

of the

an

Test

the number

degrees in each
results

angle of 30";
the accuracy

protractor.

acute, one

with
of

obtuse,and
of

degreesin
angleby means

the estimates.

45"; of 60";

of the first four

of

90";

anglesby

58

GENERAL

Secure

MATHEMATICS

largea protractoras possibleand fasten it on


an
ordinarydrawing board. Attach the board to a camera
tripod(ifthis is not to be had, a rough tripodcan be
made). Make a slender pointerwhich may be attached at
the center of the circle with a pin so that it may swing freely
about the pin as a pivot.Place two inexpensive
carpenter's
levels on the board, and the instrument is ready for use.
an
Thus, to measure
angle ABC
(suppose it to be an
BA, and a
angle formed by the intersection of an avenue,
street, -BC), first put the board in a horizontal position
(make it stand level).Then placethe center of the circle
as

over

the

the

angleto

of

vertex

and

be

ured
meas-

in

sight

the direction of each


side

of

the

angle,
the
noting carefully
readingon the protractor.
The

number

of

degrees through
which
the
pointer
is turned in passing
of
from the position
BA

to

is

the

of BC

that

of

measure

angle ABC.
74. Transit.
it

is

secure

important to
gree
a
higher deof

described

accuracy
in Art.

(Fig.43).
Three

When

This

FIG.

than

73,

we

is

43.

THE

with
possible

use

instrument

essential parts of the

an

instrument
is necessary

transit

are

TRANSIT

instrument

the

called
in

(1)

transit

surveying.
horizontal

59

measuring angles in the horizontal


plane (see D in Fig.43) ; (2) a graduated circle,C, for
measuringanglesin the vertical (up-and-down)plane; and
AB, for sightingin the direction of the
(3) a telescope,
of the transit
sides of the angle. For a fuller description
in trigonometryor surveying.
a textbook
see

graduatedcircle

for

NOTE.

HISTORICAL

The

division of the circle into three hundred

sixty degrees and each degree


is due to
into sixty seconds
minute

and

Cantor

and

others

somewhat

as

the

follows

At

first the

Babylonians

sixtydays. This led them


and sixtydegrees,
each degree
to divide the circle into three hundred
representingthe dailypart of the supposed yearlyrevolution of the
familiar with the fact that
around the earth. Probablythey were
sun
and
the radius could be applied to the circle exactly six times
that
cut off contained
arc
as
a result each
sixtydegrees,and in this way
have been suggested. The
the division into sixtyequal parts may
division of the degree into sixtyequalparts called minutes
may have
been the natural result of a necessity
for greater precision.Thus
the
sexagesimalsystem may have originated. The Babyloniansign * is
believed to be associated with the division of the circle into six equal
to the Babylonians seems
parts,"and that this division was known
certain
from the inspection
of the six spokes in the wheel of a royal
carriagerepresentedin a drawing found in the remains of Nineveh."
Henry Briggs attempted to reform the system by dividing the
instead of into sixty,
minutes
and although
degree into one hundred
the inventors
of the metric
system are said to have proposed the
division
of the right angle into one
hundred
equal parts and to
subdivide
decimally,instead of the division into ninety parts, we
have
ency
actuallyclung to the old system. However, there is a tendwriters to divide each minute
decimally; for example,
among
52" 10.2' instead of 52" 10' 12".
See Cajori, Historyof Elementary
the year

reckoned

as

three

hundred

and
each
sixty minutes
Babylonians. Cajori cites

into

and

"

"

"

Mathematics," 1917
75.

between
vertex

Edition, pp. 10, 43, and 163.

Comparison of angles. In order


two

we
angles,

placeone

and the initialside of

the initial side of the other.

one

over

to make

the other

comparison
so

that the

coincide with the vertex

If the terminal

and

sides coincide,

60

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

anglesare equal; if the terminal sides do not coincide,


the anglesare unequal
assuming,of course, in both cases,
that each of the two anglescompared is less than 360".
In
the exercises and articles that follow we consider no angle
the

"

360".

greater than

EXERCISES

in order

the

2, in

Make

tracing of each

thin

on

and

Construct

sheet of paper

paper

and

an

over

angleequal to
the angleABC

Test

Try

freehand

Draw

another.

large as
the

freehand

to draw

drawings by

your

4.

to

fit each

given angleABC.
and

make

Lay a thin
tracingof it. Cut

tracingand paste it to another part of


angle thus shown is equal to the angle ABC.
3.

try

44

the

out

them

arrange

other.

FIG.

2.

Fig. 44,

size.

to

as

HIXT.
on

y, and

Compare anglesx,

1.

Test

the method

of Ex.

angle twice

your

The

equal angles.

two

one

the paper.

drawings

1.
as

with

protractor.
76.

Angles
which

exterior

Adjacent angles ;
x

and

have

y in

Fig.45

are

vertex

common

two

and

sides.

angles
a

FIG.

45

mon
com-

anglesx and y are said


adjacentangles.Thus, adjacentanglesare anglesthat
side between

the
The

same

vertex

sides OT

and

them.

and
OR

The

have
are

common

side between

called the exterior sides.

to be

have
them.

PKOPERTIES

OF

ANGLES

61

EXERCISES

1. Indicate

the

which

angles in Fig.46
and

vertex

common

the

are

common

adjacent.Point out
side in each
pair of

adjacentangles.
Draw

2.

angle of

45"

adjacent
to an angle of 45"; an angle of 30"
adjacent to an angle of 150"; an
angle of 35" adjacent to an angle
an

of 80".
Do

3.

notice

you

in
significant
of Ex.

to

angle of

an

angle

an

of

60".

sides ?

be

this

in order

that

adjacent?

What

77.

and

Does

Geometric

parts

to

seems

relation

the

need

total amount

add

to
FIG.

angles shall

addition

to

adjacent

their exterior

4, above, suggest

angles.Thus,

30"

What

be the relation between

exist

of the

any

2 ?
Draw

4.

anything particularly

and

of

turning is represented?

subtraction

method

46

of

angles. Exs. 2

for

adding any two given


given angle y to a given angle x,
B

FIG.

47.

GEOMETRIC

ADDITION

OF

ANGLES

sulting
Fig.47, angle y is placedadjacentto angle z, and the reangleis called the sum of x and y. The anglesmay
be transferred to the new
of tracing
either by means
position
of the protractor.
conveniently,by means
paper or, more

62

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISE

anglesby placingthem

Add

two

We

may

also find

Fig.48 the two


smaller angle,y, on

the

difference

given anglesare
the larger,
a:, so

In

each

adjacentto
between
and

other.

angles.

two

y.

Place

tin-

that the vertices and

FIG.

pairof

one

other

two

and

y.

48.

GEOMETRIC

SUBTRACTION

sides coincide.

sides of
in

Thus,

and

The

part remainingbetween

y will be

Fig.48

ANGLES

OF

the difference between

obtain Zz

we

the

"

/.y=/.AOC.

EXERCISES

Draw

1.
x

"

z.

three

Draw

an

equal to y -\-x
2. Draw
to it. What

unequal anglesx,
angle equal to x +

an

"

y, and
y +

2,
;

so

that y~"x

equal to

"

z.

angle

is their

of 60" and
sum

draw

Fold

the

another

of 20"

Construction

problem.

At

adjacent

20-degreeangle over

and call the difference


60-degree angle (subtraction)
is the equationwhich
gives the value of x ?

78.

and

given point on

x.

the
What

given

of ruler and
an
by means
compasses
we
angle equal to a given angle. In this construction
tween
make
of the followingsimple geometric relation beuse
central
angles and their interceptedarcs : In the
circle or in equalcircles equalcentral anglesintercept
same
line

to

construct

PROPERTIES

OF

63

ANGLES

the circle. For

example, if the central angle


nineteen
contains
then the intercepted
arc
angle degrees,
nineteen
contains
arc
degrees.
student
The
tion
possiblysee that this geometric relamay
is implied in our
definitions of Art. 71.
However,
standing
the two
followingparagraphs will assist him in underits application.
.in
Make
a
tracingof the circle and the angle ABC
Fig. 49, (a), and place B upon E in Fig. 49, (b). The
anglesmust coincide because they are given equal.Then
equalarcs

on

the circle whose


is B

center

(circle
B)

coincide with
whose

must

the

cle
ciris E

center

because the
(circle
-E1),
radii of equal circles

equal. Then

are

A will
FIG.

fall

on

Z",and

that is, the


are

arc

therefore

49

F;

on

CA

will fall

on

the

arc

FD,

and

the

arcs

equal.

It is easy to
true : In the same

that the

is also
followingstatement
circle or in equalcircles equal arcs
the
on
circle are
by equal central angles.For circleM
intercepted
be placed on
circle E so that arc CA
coincides with
can
are
arc
FD, since these arcs
given equal,and ''so .that B
falls on E.
A will fall on Z", and C on F.
Then the angles
must. coincide and are therefore equal.
The two precedinggeometricrelations make
clear why
the protractor may
be used to measure
angles as we did
in Art. 71.

that every
of
we

one

know

The

see

method

central

degree on

used

angle of
the rim

the number

of

there is based
one

of the

upon

the idea

an
degree intercepts

arc

protractor; that is,when

degreesin

an

angle at

the center

64

GENEKAL

of

circle

know

we

idea

measured

number

of

vice

expressed thus:
arc
intercepted
by its
degrees are used as

the

degrees in

the

arc

versa.

be

can

by

the

its sides,and

intercepted
by
The

MATHEMATICS

central

angle is
sides (when angular
the respective
units

degreesand arc
of measure).
How
degreesof an arc are intercepted
by a central
many
angle of 30" ? of 40" ? of 60.5" ? of n" ?
We
are
now
ready to proceed with our problem: At
of
a
given point on a given line to construct
by means
ruler and compasses
an
angle equal to a given angle.

FIG.

CONSTRUCTING

60.

Let

Construction.
be the

given point on

With
a

center

the

as

and

with

sharp point

With

The

as

Z.BPC

and

and

center

is the

ER

as

{ER^
at

compasses
the

radius

same

TO

the

radius

radius

same

of the

EQUAL

in

the

the

ANGLE

Fig. 50 be
given line AB.

DEF

center

AN

draw

cut

GIVEN

ANGLE

given angle

draw

and

circle. With

another
cut

an

an

arc

and

circle.

let P

through

arc

as

Place
M.

at N.

requiredangle. Why?

EXERCISES

1.

Check

the correctness

by measuring

directions
2.
to

How

many

of your

ways

given angle?

have

we

with
for

construction
a

for the

ceding
pre-

protractor.

constructingan angleequal

06

GENERAL
81.

Let

With

AB.

with

the

bisection

82.

given

line

greater

above

and

center

and

is the

and

C and

at

\ /~

D.

point

of

53.

FIG.

for AB.

The

Perpendicular bisector.

called the

171

scribe
de-

below

and

as

before

as

first arcs

Then

CD.

as

radius

the
intersecting

given

With

arcs

above

arcs

Draw

same

be the

radius

describe

AB

below

with

and

center

AB

(Fig.53).

segment

than

bisect

to

AB.

Construction.

problem. How

Construction

segment
line

MATHEMATICS

bisector
perpendicular

line

How

TO

BISECT

SEGMENT

LINE

in.

CD

Fig.53

is

of AB.

EXERCISES
1. How

into

line be divided

may

four

equal parts?

into

eightequal parts ?
Draw

2.

triangleall

of

angled triangle).Construct
each

of

Cut

3.

each

the

three

out

of

sides

whose

angles are acute (acuteof


the perpendicular bisectors
the triangle.

triangle and

paper

fold

it

so

as

to

bisect

side.

4. Draw

in
trianglfe

which

draw

the

and
angled triangle)

angle is obtuse (obtuseperpendicularbisectors of the


one

three sides.
Draw

5.

the

construct
Draw

6.

point of
83.

the

trianglein which

one

angle is

perpendicularbisectors
ABC.
triangle

bisection with

Median.

mid-pointof

the

of the sides.

each

side and

connect

each

oppositevertex.

joiningthe
oppositeside

line
the

Bisect

rightangle and

vertex

of

is called

to
triangle

median.

PKOPEKTIES

OF

ANGLES

EXERCISE

Draw

84.

triangle;

Construction

With

(Fig.54).
with

cutting AB
and

greater than
either above

\
or

line PD

is

and

the

with

given point

arc

an

radius

describe

MR

line.

tance
dis-

With

R.

that

the

side
out-

arcs

low)
be(preferably
Connect
the point

below

the line AB.


of intersection

and

given line and

center

given point

perpendicularto

the

describe
and

at

centers

as

as

to AB

from

be

AB

greater than

radius

drop

to

Let

Construction.

From

problem.

line

given

its medians.

construct

with

P.

Then

\/E

the

perpendicularto AB,

as

required. Test the accuracy of your


work
by measuring an angle at D.

FIG.

How

54.

TO

DROP

A.

PERPENDICULAR

EXERCISES

is it

Why

the line AB
2.

draw

Draw

Altitude.
a

describe the

in

arcs

Fig. 54

below

triangleABC
perpendicularsfrom

85.
from

preferableto

vertex

An

all of whose

each

to the

vertex

altitude of

to
perpendicular

angles

and

acute

oppositesides.

triangleis

the

are

line drawn

oppositeside.

EXERCISES

1. Draw

the three
2.

draw
3.

Draw

trianglein

which

one

angle

is obtuse

and

draw

altitudes.
a

trianglein

which

one

angle is

right angle

and

the three altitudes.


When

d.o the altitudes fall inside

triangle?

outside?

GENERAL

68
86. To

the

be

bisect

given angle. Suppose angle

and

and

with

at

BC

convenient
and

With

greater than

meeting at

the

radius

draw

Then

is

BD

cutting

arc

radius
arcs

and

the

as

1'

draw

Join

to

vertex
an

ABC

spectively.
re-

and
a

^ XY

D.

with

and

centers

as

With

given angle (Fig.55).

center
HA

MATHEMATICS

D.

bisector of
FIG.

How

55.

/.ABC.

AN

TO

BISECT

ANGLK

EXERCISES

1. Bisect

the

will bisect the

crease

2.

Bisect

3.

Divide

4.

Draw

Draw

5.

angle is
87.

the

trianglein

all acute

and

bisect

which

is obtuse

and

bisect

same

AB

and

angle

one

for

which

trianglein

one

rightangle.
lines.

of

amount

Thus,

they

direction

same

angles are

the

do

angles ;

Parallel

same

EF.

the

are

said

and

from

angularrotation

have

Fig. 5(3

in

CD

the

have

had

initial line

parallel.The symbol
is II. Thus,
''parallel"

be

to

for
AB

equal parts.

angles.

of the

each

into four

trianglewhose

that

so

paper

angle.

given angle

by foldingthe

30" ; of 45" ; of 60" ; of 5)0".

angle of

an

of the

each

check

angle and

an

is read

IICD

to

88.

"AB

is parallel

CD"
A

Corresponding angles ;
FIG.

transversal.
// in

Fig.56

Angles
are

called

C
56.

PARALLEL

LINES

and

angles. The
corresponding

line EF

69
is called

It is clear

transversal.

that

the

lines

are

allel
par-

the

when

correspondingangles are equal


only
the correspondingangles are
equal only when
are
parallel.

that
lines

and

the

EXERCISES

1. Draw

in

statement
Point

2.

89.
to

illustrate

figures to
Art.

the

of

last

lines
parallel

Construction

How

problem.

find in the classroom.

can

you

to

draw

line

parallel

given line.

Choose

Construction.

outside

given line A B
Draw
a line through P
so
with
convenient
a
angle x
the

importance

88, above.

the

out

the

the

point of

point P
in Fig.57.
to

as

Call

AR.

D.

intersection

form

At

P,

using DP as initial line,construct an


angle y equal to angle x (as shown)
of Art. 78.
Then
PR
by the method
j[
and
AB
because
are
they
parallel
have

had

the

same

tion

from

the

initial

of rota-

amount

FIG.

57.

How

TO

PARALLEL

line PD.

DKAW

LISKS

EXERCISES

1.

Construct

point outside
2.

ends.

He

In

in Z. y ?

given

line

through a given

the line.

makes

be

Fig.57
Give

mark

straight-edgeboard

each

across

end

with

to

his

have

parallel
Why
square.

?
parallel
if

anglex

reason

60",what

for your

is the number

of

degrees

answer.

lines are cut by a transversal


to form
so
as
parallel
correspondingangles(x + 125")and (3 x + 50").Find x and

4.
two

parallelto

carpenter wants

will the ends


3.

line

Two

the size of each

angle. Make

drawing

to illustrate your

work.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

In

5.

IICD,

what

other

angles besides

In

6.

90.

Fig.58, /.x
Z

and

bisectors

Z.y.

Bisect

that

these

show

y and

each other.

to
parallel

are

If

Parallelogram.

lines cross
parallel
another
pair, the
figurethus formed

onepair

(intersect)

of

four-sided
is called

FIG.

58

; that is, a paralparallelogram


lelogram
is a quadrilateral
whose opposite sides

91.

How

to

the method

to

easy

construct

in Art.

used

another,

to

it will

P,

on

MT

for

AR

construct

draw

89 for

Rectangle.

remember

we

line

constructingone

parallel

FIG.

59.

How

TO

CONSTRUCT

PARALLELOGRAM

line

to AB.
Through any pointM
parallel
The figureAMSP
parallelto AR.
its opposite sides are
parallel.

92.

If

parallelogram.

parallel.

are

be

parallelogram.Thus,
draw
a
working line
AB
(Fig. 59). Draw
AR
ient
making a convenangle with AB.
Through any point,as
P

and

equal correspondingangles ?

are

if AB

Fig. 58

If

one

of

the

A B

on

is

draw

line

parallelogram,

terior
in-

angles of a parallelogramis a
right angle, the figure is a rectangle
(Fig. 60). Thus, a rectangle is a
parallelogramin which one interior angle

FIG.

is

60

rightangle.

PROPERTIES

OF

ANGLES

71

EXERCISE

that all the

Show

Extend

HINT.

93.

angles of

the sides of the

If

Square.

all

the

equal, the
(Fig.61).
are

square

rectangleare

right angles.

rectangle.

sides

of

figure is

tangle
rec-

called

FIG.

61

EXERCISES

examples of rectangles
; of

1. Give

Construct

2.

and

cm.

squares.

rectanglehaving two adjacentsides equal to


and
respectively
(use compasses
edge
straight'

cm.

only).

3. Construct

ing
to

the two

the

K-

line

rectanglehavadjacentsides equal
a

segments

and

,
.

FlG-

b in

62

62..
-

4. Construct

side is 7

in

square

whose
FlG"

long.

Construct

5.

line

cm.

square

side of which

is

63

units

long (use

Fig.63).
SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followwords
and phrases: angle,vertex, vertices,initial side
of an angle,terminal side of an angle,rightangle,straight
angle,perigon,acute angle,obtuse angle,reflex angle,
94.

This

circle,center, circumference, radius, diameter, radii,arc,


gitude,
central angle,quadrant,semicircle,latitude,lonintercept,
minute,
degree of latitude,degree of longitude,
second, size of an angle,protractor,degree of,
arc, degree
of angle,adjacentangles,exterior sides of an
angle,field

7^

(JKNERAL

MATHEMATICS

bisector,perpendicular
transit,perpendicular
to
protractor,
of a triangle,
median
bisector
a line,altitude of a
triangle,
of an angle,
lines,corresponding
transversal,
parallel
angles,
and square.
rectangle,
parallelogram,

followingsymbols have been introduced: Z for


for arc ;
angle; rt. /. for rightangle; A for angles;
for dei/n-f
to ;
to ; IIfor is parallel
_L for is perpendicular
or
degrees; for minute or minutes ; for second or seconds.
95.

The

"

"

'

96.

The

97.

This

"

tation
followingnotations have been discussed : (1) nofor denoting and
reading angles;(2) notation for
denoting a circle by its center.

chapterhas presentedthe importantmethods

of

1.

Classifying
angles.
2. Measuring angles.
3. Comparing angles.
4. Drawing anglescontainingany amount
of degrees.
any number
5. Adding and subtracting
angles.
6. Measuring anglesout of doors.
'

98.

In this

chapterthe pupilhas

fundamental

constructions

1. To

draw

2. To

draw

an

3. To

draw

been

of

turning or

taught the

ing
follow-

circle.

angle equal to a given angle.


line perpendicular
to a given line

at

given point.
4. To
a

draw

the

perpendicularbisectors

of the

sides of

triangle.
5. To

draw

the medians

6. To

draw

line

given point outside


7. To

draw

of

triangle.
to a given line
perpendicular
a

the line.

the altitudes of

triangle.

from

CHAPTER

THE

107.

Measuring

Fig. 64,

in

within

of

the

of

area

with

the

the

in

as

the

of the

area

triangle
triangle.

accepted)

determine
that

108.

of

of

involves

length

measure

The

and

unit

of

of

area

width.

of

unit

Thus,

the

polygon
of

area

is

the

each

square

length. Such

we

area.

unit

may

result

the

express

the

in

between

unit

standard

and

area

ratio

standard

area.

is

contained

are

the

and

64.

and

area

units

many

sides

whose

of

determine

Unit

in

(defined

unit

given polygon

As

given polygon

how

is, we

ABC

compare

FIG.

and

of

amount

is

process

standardized

some

AREA

determine

polygon,

We

comparison.

TO

we

measuring the

are

we

If

areas.

measuring length, the


one

APPLIED

EQUATION

inclosed

area

IV

in
1cm.

square

feet, square

inches, square

square

centimeters,

etc.

109.

Practical

of

method

meters,

FIG.

estimating

practicalway
is to

polygon
by

of

we

units

lines

approximate.
should

it to

tracing

square

bounding
but

transfer

of

means

not

such
go

of

area

squared

squares,

it

reasonable
74

OF

ix

RIC
MET-

THE

SYSTEM

count

we

the

figure.

becomes

approximations
beyond

the

within

inclosed

UNIT

paper
then

and

paper

the

cut

In

the

estimate

to

65.

area.
AREA

cm.

should
limits

ber
num-

If

the

necessary

to

be careful,
of accuracy.

THE

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

75

AREA

EXERCISES

1.

The

figuresin Fig. 66

six

the
or

Express

squares.
as

2.

small

One

FIG.

If

66.

3.

the

Do

either

areas

equals 4

square

AREAS

ESTIMATING

estimate ?
think

you

that

sq.

by counting
centimeters

as

square

OF

SQUARED

much

Give

any

an

of

PAPER

finer,would

argument
your

you

for your

results

are

to Ex.

110.

CASE

Area

I. The

that

accurate?

C-

3.
of

rectangle.

sides of the
has

been

tangle
rec-

ferred
transFIG.

67.

How

squaredpaper of
OF
are
integral
multiples
Using 1 sq. cm. as a unit, there
A

of 1

cm.

to the

Fig.67

get

answer.

paragraph in
preciseterms, supportingyour
4. Write

answer

of

means

mm.

MEANS

BY

ruled

were

paper

accurate

more

the

of them

of each

areas

by

millimeters.

square

HINT.

the

Estimate

tracingpaper.

transferred

were

TO

FIND

THE

AREA

RECTANGLE

are

two

rows

of

76

GENERAL

units, and

four

MATHEMATICS

units

in

equals8, or 2 x
equals the base times

4.

area

law

111.
we

are

of

of

Area

given a

The

in this

law

In

the altitude.
A

that the

see

The

is :

case

area

equation form

this

Let

that

a.

rectangle. CASE

II.

sides

whose

square

assume

for

Counting,we

row.

suppose

integralmultiples

not

are

us

base (length)
rectanglewhose
and
altitude (width) is 1.3 cm.
whose
If we
cm.
that the preceding law holds, then we
ought to

cm.

is 2.3

2.3

get

written

be

may

1.3

example,

2.99 sq.

Instead

cm.

of

puttingthe rectangleon the kind


of squared paper
used in Case
I,
draw
let us
it again, by means
of tracingpaper, on
squared paper
that
the

ruled

is

millimeter, as

there
13

23

are

millimeter
as

(in

this

of units

result
as

I,
the

with

23

if

in

sq. cm.,

that obtained
of

unit,
Since
and

cm.

then

which

is

the altitude 1.46 cm.,

to
same

0.1

of
as

we

of
may

squared paper
a

in

millimeter.
Cases

and

there

But

mm.

the law

square

rows

there

be

are

the

number

same

This

can

rectangle
of length

by 100,

of Case
III.

square

13

are

the
precisely

rectangle. CASE

If, for example, the base

upon

sq.

the unit

hence, dividing299

temporarilyadopting a smaller

drawn

the sides of the

299

or

row,

cm.

the

temporarilyadopt

we

by assuming
a

FIG.

integralmultiplesof
millimeter).Hence

in 1 sq.

Area

2.3

unit of area,

is 2.99

112.

Fig.68.

in

case

mm.

sq.

in

cm.,

in Case

are,

100

as

smaller

mm.

1.3

in

mm.

to

I.
process

of

continued.

rectangleis 2.13 cm. and


imagine the rectangleto be

still finer ruled, that is,ruled

From

II.

here

the

reasoningis

the

77

AREA

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

EXERCISES

1.

Finish

2.

The

The

3.

What

the

The

of

in

113.

and

its altitude

by counting

find

if the

that

show

fractions
a

to

is-2|cm.

the

area?

sides

of

centimeters.

square

parts of

squares.

its altitude

and

5-|cm.

is

which

be

may

unit, the

expressed
is the

problem

a
as

same

II.

Case

in

found

exercises

rectangle involve
as

3^ cm.

temporarily adopt

you

area

decimal

foregoing paragraph.

rectangleis 5| cm.

preceding

exact

be

may

would

the

the

rectangle is

area

base

unit

Express

of

base

that

Show

reasoning of

the

Second

for finding

method

area

of

rectangle. It is

possibleto show that the transfer of a rectangleto the


of tracingpaper
was
squared paper by means
unnecessary.
Suppose we are given a rectangle AS CD (see Fig.69)
base

whose
whose

altitude

wish

to find the

unit

at

is 3

segment

pointsE, F,
method

the
Also

Draw

that is,at the

and

(review

of

Art.

Then

12

with

80).

perpendicularsto
each

(by definition),and
of units

the

to

of each

end

construct

and

We

cm.

area.

the

and

cm.

perpendicularline

line AB

is

four

(that is, base

in
times

small

square

line AD
is

at the

unit

figureis divided into


row.
By counting,the
altitude').

the
a

the

of

measure

three
area

points

rows

equals

78

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISES

1. The

is 1.7

without

is

The

of Ex.

4.3cm.

of

area

long,and its altitude


this rectangle
ing,
by count-

squared paper.
x

What

".

advantage has

this law

1 ?

An

equationwhich expresses some


tical
pracrule from arithmetic,the shop,the trades,the sciences,
business world, etc. is called a, formula. Thus, A"axb
of a rectangle.
formula for findingthe area
practical
is "formulas"
"formulae."
or
pluralof "formula"
Formula.

115.
a

of

use

the law A

Apply

114.

the

to find the

the

the method

over

rectangleis

how

Show

cm.

but
2.

of

base

for the

Formula

of

specialcase

which

b.

method

The

for

as

of

area

The

square.

is

square

in
; that is,it is a rectangle
rectangle
formula
be developedby the same
can
rectangle.The only difference in the

reasoningis

of
that in every case
there are as many
rows
(Why ?)
square units as there are
square units in a row.
of a square is A
b x b.
Hence
the formula
for the area
b x b,
This formula may be written A
J2,where i2 means
=

and

the formula

is read "A

equalsb square."

EXERCISES

By

1.

square

method

the

counting squares

2|-cm.

side is

whose

the formula

Apply

2.

of

find the

area

of

long.
=

Z/2to the square

in Ex.

1. .Compare

results.
3.
x

Find

the

inches ; y
4. How

square

yards ;

many

lot whose

of

area
m

square

meters

feet of wire
area

is 4900

side is

whose

; 0.07

; 2.41

mm.

fencing are
sq. ft.?

oft.;

feet;

m.

needed

b2 sq. ft.?

to inclose
4 r2 sq.

yd.'.'

Express by

5.

3" in.

and

long

5 in. wide

long and

is 8 in.

equation the

an

wide

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

; 8 in.

8 in.

area

of

rectanglethat

4 in. wide ; 8 in.

long and

6^ in.

and

long

79

AREA

wide.

Express by an equationthe area A of a rectangle12 in.


long and of the followingwidths: 6 in.;8^ in.;9^ in.; 10| in.;
6.

inches

; y

high

How

8.

60 ft.

of

10.

of
11.

of

of the

area

in it if each

tiles contained

4 ft. wide

grate is

mantel

and

tile is 3 in.

of

areas

in. ; 9 in. ; h inches

of

areas

write

case

an

(b) altitude 5 ft.


30 sq. ft.; (d)base

and

and

6 in. and

inches ;

area

116.

square

(g)altitude

b inches and

long

inches

rectanglesof

12^ ;

; 10 ;

32 sq. in. ;

3 in. and

in.

rectangles1

equationfor the
rectangle,having given (a) altitude

In each

area

walk

inches.

Express by equationsthe
the followinglengths: 8

the

shows

to make

needed

are

Express by equationsthe
the followingwidths : 12

inches ;

and

the

tiles 8 in. square

many

long and

9.

Find

The

48 in. wide.

and

side.

and

high

28 in. wide.

and

of square

the number
on

is 54 in.

mantel

7. A
32 in.

inches.

area

Formula

inches ;
inches and

square

for the

7^ sq.

area

area

(f)base
A

area

; I; b ;

other

z.

dimension

8 in. and

area

ft.;

27

(c) base 9 ft.


sq. in.; (e) base

5 in. and
square

width

area

inches ;

square

(h)base

inches.

area

of

parallelogram. Fig.70

parallelogramthat has been transferred to that


wish to find its
of tracingpaper.
We
positionby means
The line AB
is produced (extended),and perpendicarea.
ulars
are
dropped from D and C to the line AB (seeArt. 84
of constructions),
for method
thus forming the triangles
AED
inside and BFC
adjoiningthe given parallelogram.
a

80

GEXKi;

MATHEMATICS

A L

EXERCISES

(Exs. 1-7 refer


1. Estimate

triangleA

by

the

count

Fig. 70)

to

of

square

units

in the

number

units in the

ED.

2.

Estimate

the number

3.

Compare

the

4.

If the

results of Exs. 1 and


of

area

is the
the

and

relation

equals the
the

between

of the

area

BFC.
triangle

2.

.BFC
triangle

the

what

A ED,
triangle
rectangleCDEF

of square

of the

area

of

area

AB
parallelogram

the

CD?

"70.

FlG.

HOW

TO

FIND

MEANS

5.

Write
6.

7.

What

seems

to

you

is the

What

What

be

to

the

support

BY

PAPER

area

of the

the

relation

between

base

your

of the

rectangleCDEF?

be

the

base

What

?
rectangle

relation between

to

seems

the

of the

evidence

answer

the altitude of the

and
8.

for the

PARALLELOGRAM

the formula.

and
parallelogram
have

OF

SQUARED

OF

is the formula

What

AREA

THE

the

altitude of the

rectangle?

formula

Give

lelogram
paral-

the evidence.

expressing the

area

of

?
parallelogram
9.

Without

(use ruler
Divide

the

using squared paper

and

compasses

and

parallelograminto

follow
two

parallelogram
of Art. 91).
the method
a
triangleand a
parts

construct

"

82

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

Estimate

the number

of square

units

in

triangleABC.

7. Estimate

the number

of square

units

in

triangleCBD.

6.

Compare the results of Exs. 6 and 7.


the trianglebear to t^eparallelogram
?

8.
does

What

9.

triangleand
What

10.

What

11.

for

then

the base

of the

is the

relation

between

the base of the

parallelogram? Why
between

relation

angle
tri-

altitude of the

the

altitude of the parallelogram?" Explain'why.

the

and

be the relation

to

seems

What

is the formula

the

of

area

any

?
parallelogram
What

12.

formula

the
of

to

appears
for

the

be

area

triangle?

FIG.

Construct

13.

lelogramABCD.
the diagonal AC
sharp knife cut
diagonalso as to
coincide with
What

14.

The
the

area

its base

form

73.

paral-

OF

(a

line

FIND

THE

AREA

TRIANGLE

out

the

form

the

two

With
joiningopposite vertices).

parallelogramand cut along the


triangles.Try to make one triangle

other.

does

the evidence

precedingexercises furnish
of a triangleis equal to

of the

TO

Construct

conclusion

and

How

altitude.

This

law

of Ex.

evidence
one

may

to

13

support ?

show

that

half the product of


be

written

in

the

followingformula:
ab

119.

quadrilateral
having only
sides parallel
is called a trapezoid
two
(Fig.74). The
sides are said to be its bases. In Fig.74 the upper
parallel
Area

of

trapezoid. A

lower

trapezoidis 6, the

the

of

base

altitude is h.

find the

To

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

base

draw

area

the

83

AREA
and

is a,

the

diagonalBD.

The

area

of the

ABD
triangle

-.h.

Why

The

area

of the

triangleBCD

--h.

Why

2,7
the

Therefore

'-

of the

area

trapezoid
=

that

and

"

are

similar

Why ?

"

2t

77

Note

Why ?

terms.

In

the

first term
b is the

always

is the coefficient of

in the second

and

"

as
coefficient;
hence, adding coefficients,

do

in

term

we

may

AREA

OF

adding

similar terms, the

area

is (a + b)
trapezoid

of

-"

We

can

the

sum

of

indicate

only

the

74'

FlG-

two

How

bases until

meet

we

FIND

J"
A

THE

TRAPEZOID

an

that a + b is to
means
problem. The parenthesis
law is: The area
be thought of as one
number.
The
of
is equalto one
a trapezoid
half the product of its altitude by
the sum
of its bases. This law may be written in the form
formula:
of the following
actual

EXERCISES

1. Find
and
2.

whose
The

the

bases

the value

an

of

trapezoidwhose

8 in. and

are

altitude of

is 4 in. Write
Find

of the

area

4.6 in.

altitude is 12.6 in.

respectively.

parallelogramis

2, and

its base

algebraic expressionrepresentingits
x

when

the

area

is 28 sq. in.

area.

84

GENERAL

2 in. Write

Find

altitude

The

3.

the value

of

./"

triangleis

10

algebraicnumber

an

of

MATHEMATICS

when

the

in.,and

the

hast- is

representingthe

area.

is 55 sq. in.

area

4.
and

man

owns

shown

dimensions

to sell his

neighbor

$5600, how

for the

what

(a) A=x\
(b) A
=

=5

(d) -i

(e) .4
(f) .4
(g) A

and

ft. If the

much

should

70

property
he receive

of

the

polygons may
the

express

FIG.

75

'.'

areas

(h) A=l
3".*-.

_3

(a:+
"(".+
a("5+
*(y +

3).
2).

4),
2).

the value of ,1 in Ex. 5 when

Find

1, and

10

kinds

following equations

citylot with the form


in Fig.75. ^He wishes
stripAEFD
having a

strip'.'

5. Of

6.

equal to

frontage DF
is worth

3, y

2, a

4,

5.

contain rightangles ?
quadrilaterals

7.

What

8.

In what

9.

Having given

respectdoes

the square

side,construct

differ from
a

square,

the

?
rectangle

usingonly ruler

compasses.
HINT.

Review

line segment

the

Hg"w

does

11.

Is

rhombus

rhombus
12.

side

constructing a perpendicularto

differ from

square
a

rhombus

?
parallelogram

Is

parallelograma

Construct

rhombus

equal to 5 cm. and


adjacentsides as 41".
HINT.

for

(Art.80).

10.

method

given

Use the construction

ruler

with
the

for

and

included

compasses,

given a

angle between

parallellines (Art.89).

two

rectangle,the

the

the

square,

85

AREA

PRODUCTS

OF

for the

formulas

product. The

monomial

TO

INTERPRETATION

GEOMETRIC
120.

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

of

area

the trapezoid,
etc.
triangle,

product of numbers
geometrically
;
may be represented
ab
for example, the product of any
numbers
be represented
two
may
FIG. ~6- ILLUSTRATING
dimensions
by a rectanglewhose
are
equal to the given numbers.
Thus
the rectanglein Fig.76 represents the product ab.
that the

show

EXERCISES

Sketch

2.

Sketch

an

3.

Show

of

by means
rectangle3 a by
a

a-

On

of
5

squared

7.

the
Show

121.

that

ba.

area

Law

by

product 6

x.

of

the
2

area

2x?

a-

figurethe

area

a.

the

prod-

x.

draw

an

area

To

the

same

Compare

the

areas.

paper

senting the product ab.


draw

that

figureto represent

and

the

represent kry.

product

Show

of 5
6.

to

Fig. 77

is the

5. Draw
uct

area

from

4 x2. What
4.

rectangleto represent

drawing

of order.

on

The

repre-

1NG

paper

two

ILT.USTRAT-

SQL-ARE

THE
A

squared
last

77.

lio.

scale

OF

MONOMIAL

that

exercises

4-5

5-4.

illustrate

in

algebra,as in arithmetic, the fen'torn of a product


be changed in order without
changingthe value of the
may
so
5x3x2,
product.Thus, justas 2x3x5
xyz
zyx.
This is called the Commutative
Law
of Multiplication.
=

"

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISE

Simplifythe following: (a)2


(c) 4 x 2/ 3 x my.

3 y

"

(b)(2 x y) (3 x y};

"

122.
formula

and

polynomial

The

monomial.

for the

of drawing
trapezoidsuggests the possibility
binomial by
represent the product of a sum
The process is illustrated by the following

to

areas
a

of

Product

monomial.

exercises.
EXERCISES

1.
of

Express by

dimensions

means

and

of

an

equationthe

to

f.

hnd T

,,
the

DCEF

DCBA

3)=5

3. Show

by Fig.80

4. Draw

an

area

to

representbm

5. Draw

an

area

to

represent 2

4?/ +

Fig. 79

that

from

15

78.

ILLUSTRATING

PRODUCT

OF
A

FIG.

the
F

5x

THE

POLYNOMIAL

MONOMIAL

that

15.

a(x + ?/)
T/

ax

6"byan

rectanglewhose

area

z)

In +

ax

(x +

Why
Why?

ABE1*,

2. Show

Kepresent 2cc

of

area

DCEF.

area

T"(x +

7. Sketch

"

entire

rectangle

AND

Since

6.

The

(see Fig.78).
(x -\-3). D

rectangle equals 5
If a perpendicular
be erected
Why?
at B (seeArt. 80 for method), the
tangles.
"rectangleis divided into two recof DCBA
The area
equals
of ABEF
5x.
The
area
Why?
It is now
equals 15. Why?
easy
whole

of

area

"//.

ax

a?/

az.

be.

2 ay +

az.

area.

equals 2

ax

2 ay +

az.

EUCLID

88

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

"

HISTORICAL

phrase which
serious

to

means

for

need

of the

overflow

The

NOTE.

word

"geometry"

reliable method

Nile.

of

practicalbasis.

The

oldest

collection

written

by

Egyptian priest named

earlier

than

other

an

Ahmes

the

pyramids.

do

we

The

and

of the

data

his

is

at

to

be itself

rest

papyrus

considerably

copy

which
of

instances

the

work.

results

to

appears

date

after each

land

hieratic

part of his papyrus

know

not

of

Ahmes

numerical

.some

accuracy

problems

had

of

some
,

older.

years

that

by giving

Since

check

thousand

commences

geometry
barns.

the

measuring

this is believed

H.C., and

1000

collection

of geometry

Greek

earlyEgyptians

earlyhistoryof geometry

The

this

on

The

the earth.

measure

from

comes

shape

of the
he

However,

given agree

with

deals

the

of

contents

barns,

cannot

we

problems

gave

closelywith

on

sions
the dimen-

existingpyramids.
took

Geometry

definite

form

as

science

when

Euclid

(about

Geometry." The proofs of his


excellent
that the book
text
so
were
replaced all other texts of
has
held
and
the time
influential position to this day. The
an
of Euclid
is practically
the
American
form
most
as
same
etry
geomand
still
in
Euclid
are
texts,
England boys
studying
say they
(meaning geometry).
know
little of Euclid's
We
earlylife. He may have studied in
the schools founded
by the great philosophersPlato and Aristotle at
300

B.C.)wrote

Athens,
at
set

in

his

Greece.

"Elements

He

became

head

of

the

proceeded to collect
geometric principles.He is

Alexandria, Egypt,
form

of

the known

and

mathematics

school

and

into

organize

said to have

insisted

read
sake. Thus, we
of
knowledge of geometry for its own
is no
his tellingthe youthful Prince Ptolemy, There
royal road to
geometry." At another time, so the story goes, when a lad who had
do I gain by learning all this
just begun geometry asked, "What
stuff ?
Euclid
his slave give the boy some
made
since,"
coppers,
he
said he,
he must
make
of
what
learns."
out
a
profit
Euclid organized his text so as to form a chain of reasoning,beginning
with obvious assumptions and proceeding step by step to results
of considerable
The student
should read about his work in
difficulty.
tary
Ball's "A Short Historyof Mathematics."
Cajori's"Historyof Elemenon

the

"

"

"

"

Mathematics
Literature

"

and
"

are

Miller's
further

"

Historical

sources

Introduction

of information

to

about

matical
MatheEuclid.

90

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

1: Sketch

rectanglewhose

will be

area

the

product

of

(a + ft)
(e+ d).
2. Find

geometricproduct of (c+ t)(m


the

Perform

multiplication
(2 -f x)(m
geometricfigure.
3.

the

4. Find

the

Find

the

product (3x +
representedby this product.
5.

-f

;/ +

n).

w) by

z),using

of

means

Sketch

(a + b).
?/)

+
product (a + b~)(x

the

area

geometric

figure.
126.

Algebraic product

of two

polynomials. The

figures

precedingexercises indicate a short cut in


of two
the multiplication
polynomials.Thus, a polynomial
each term
is multiplied
by a polynomialby multiplying
of
one
polynomialby every term of the other and adding the
partialproducts.
drawn

in the

EXERCISES

of Art. 126,
Using the principle
indicated products as polynomials
:
1.

(a) (m

2.

How

side of

One
much

largeas

(g) 3(2 a2

n) (a + 5).

(f) 5(4 +7 + 3).


(k) (5b +
(1) (2m +

wider

before?

/"

the

following

5).

(j) (3x
2

d) (2x

"p](3

-f-

3 y +

+
a

rectangleis 4yd.
must

express

it be

made

so

7 J +

and
as

z).
5*).

the other
to be

l"

is

6yd.

times

as

EQUATION

THE

Solution.

Let

Check.

(x

2 and

2 x2 +

Avoid

NOTE.
each
4

equal to

4 xy +

lettingx

2.

xy"

8 +

127.

a) (m +

0.3 y +

Geometric

(x + y*)(x+ yy,
may
of

each

four

x2,2 x8,etc.

0.6

s)(10 x
of

sides

The

is
is

square

20 y +

check the results

z).

The

an

uct
prodsquare

(see

parts

of

xy

are

equal. Since these two partsare represented


terms, they
by similar algebraic
be added ; thus, xy -\-xy-2 xy.
may
"

j
side

same

the

area

"

of
o

a
.

product is
law

whose

square
r"

isaj-t-yisar+Jsa^
the

product of
interesting
specialcase

composed

two

30

binomial.

(z + y)2,is

or

parts, of which

Hence

are

").

square

whose

Fig.82).

2 x, 2

case

indicated and

preceding laws. The


be represented
by a

the

68.

36

Why?

24

1, for in this

3.

"

the result

check

2 x2 + 4 xy +

y-)

Multiplythe followingas

(a)
(b)
(c) (m +
(d) (m +
(e) (0.4x

of

2 y +

91

AREA

indicated and

Multiplythe followingas

3.

TO

APPLIED

+ ^r.

rru

1 he

obtained

for the

xy
x

FIG.

82.

THE

SQUARE

ILLUSTRATING
OF

Bi-

by ing
applyproduct of two polynomials; thus,
x

+y
+y
+

xy
xy +

2 xy

92

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

algebraicterms we may say that the square of the


of tivo numbers equalsthe square of the first,
plus twice
productof the two numbers, plus the square of the second.

In
sum

the

Use

Fig. 82

show

to

what

this law

means.

EXERCISES

of

By means
polynomials:
1.

figuresexpress

(b) (m + n)2.
(c) (c+ d)*.
2. Sketch

trinomials

following squares

(e) (x + 2)2.
(f) (m + 3f.
that

squares

(h) (2x
(i) (2x

+
+

suggested by the

are

as

y)2.
3 y)2.

following

(a) a2 +
(b) x2 +
(c) A-2+
(d) x2 +
3.

the

2 ah +

lr.

a2.

ax

(e) mz +
(f).r2+
(g) 49 +
(h) c2 +

2 A-"--(-r.
4*

Indicate

4.

what

lias been

number

MI

10

a-

14
c

16.

25.

z2.

],

multipliedby

itself to

produce

(a) or2+
(b) r2 +
4.

What

5.

The

axioms

by

the

2 vy
4

are

+
+

(c)z2 +
(d) "a +

/.
4.

the factors

in the trinomials

a-

10 // +
of Ex.

9.
25.
.3 '.'

equationsreview the fundamental


as
taught in Chapter I. Solve each equation and check
of Chapter I.
methods
list
'following

of

(a)30 + 4) =22
(b) 9 0 + 35) =5
(c) 3(x + 15)+

(d)?fe"2-8.

,-.

(2 a + 45).
2(2* + 9)+ 4(.r+ 3).
=

W|i-|
=

2.
.

fc,

1.

5-2.

(h)f-f=a
(i)^^

8.

93
128.

The

Evaluation.

considered
figures
the

upon

in this

of the

chapterhas been
the figure.This

of

dimensions

of each

area

geometrical

found

depend
dependence has

been

to

of formulas, as A
ab in the case
expressedby means
of the rectangle.Whenever
definite numbers
tuted
substiare
in the expressionab in order to find the area, A,
for a particular
rectangle,the expressionab is said to be
evaluated.
This
impliesgettingpracticalcontrol
process
=

of the formulas.
EXERCISES

1.
a

22.41

2.
a

value

of

ft. and

23.42

the

value

of

ft. and

2.144

Find
12.42

the

Find
12.41

3.
a

Find

129.

ft, b

This

is

it claims

The

get

we

to

accuracy

of your

classroom.

actually know

we

thousandth

of

square

all involved
we

in

the

formula
=

20.12

above

the

the

"

In

of

Shall

tells the truth.

we

some

meaningless?

are

and

time

energy

tively
respec-

sq. ft. indicate

floor accurate
discard

we

How
These

to
of

one

ten-

the

mal
deci-

much

question
many
?
process of multiplication

places

clear

understandingof

along in the
wasting time and

carry

of the

questions are
decimal

How

have

foot.

square

product 524.8422

of the

area

foot?

are

when

("i-)-fi)

represent the length and width

Does

important that
question. For if we

when

="

ft.

this result

fundamental

we

result.

in the
regard as significant

decimals

formula

the ten-thousandth

It is
the

the

when

ab

findingthe area in
(22.41)(23.42)= 524.8422 sq. ft.
four decimal places.As it stands

places? If so, how many


of
was
a waste
multiplication
shall

question arises whether


numbers

.1

ft.

of the
A

formula

in

ft.,and

with

number

Suppose the
that

6.43

the

ft.

of .1 in the

accuracy

1 above

Ex.

value

the

The

in

process
energy,

ingless
mean-

and,

94
what

is

the

result

serious,

more

hand,

other

it does

doing

not

are

we

dishonestlyclaiming for

are

which

accuracy

an

we

not

have.

scientific work

On
when

the
we

rejectfiguresthat convey information.


carelessly
those which bear on our
The followingfacts are among
problem:
(a) In Art. 26 we pointedout that any number obtained
The application
of
is an
approximation.'
by measurement
the

formulas

area

Hence

an

is sufficient to

alone
result

524.8422

of the

area

(b)
tape
not

If

make

sq. ft.

as

we

measure

and
that

If the scale is

the
record

line ments.
segapproximation.This fact

an
us

an

of the classroom

measure

mean

is

area

exceedinglycritical of the
absolutelyaccurate measure

floor.

lengthof

the result

room

as

with

reliable

ft.,this does

23.42

accurate.
regardthe result as absolutely
graduatedto hundredths of a foot,it means
we

ft. is the result nearest

that 23.42

of

the measurement

involves

to

the true

value.

The

high and 23.415 ft. is


be anywhere between
too low, but that the result may
these. Thus, the lengthof the room
lies anywhere between
23.415 ft. and
23.425 ft. Similarly,
be
the width
may
anywhere between 22.405 ft. and 22.415 ft. The student
should practicemeasuring objectswith a yardstickor a
stick tillthe point of this paragraph is clear to him.
meter
Test question
How
does 2.4 ft. differ from 2.40 ft.?
:
Multiplyingthe smallest possiblelength (23.415ft.)
of the classroom
by the smallest width (22.405ft.)we
get a possiblearea of 524.613075
sq. ft. By multiplying
the greatest length (23.425ft.)by the greatestwidth
(22.415ft.)we get 525.071375 sq. ft. Subtractingthe
smallest possible
from the largestpossible
area
area
gives
tells

eye

us

us

range

that

of

over

23.425

0.45

ft. is too

of

square

foot.

In

short, the

THE

APPLIED

EQUATION

TO

95

AREA

half of a square
one
by practically
of the third figure
from the
foot. We
not actually
sure
are
shall be reasonably
left. It mayfce a 4 or a 5. We
near
record the result simply as 524.? sq. ft.,
the truth if w%
and
the largest
chosen roughlyhalfway between
a number
smallest possible
areas.
that the product of two approxiIt can
thus be shown
mate
is not to be regarded accurate
numbers
four-place
than four places.
to more
result

might be

*130.

wrong

multiplication. It is apparent in the

Abbreviated

precedingdiscussion that it is a waste of time to work


It is easier
out all the partial
productsin multiplication.
out
to work
established)
only
(when the habit is once
the partial
productswhich go to make up the significant
part of the

answer.

Thus, 47.56

34.23

may

take

the

followingforms
USUAL

FORM

ABBREVIATED

METHOD

we
By multiplication

47.56
34.23

get

47.56

1427

34.23

190
10
1
1628.

than
accidentally
only a little more
be shown
0.02 sq. ft. It can
by the method used in the
classroom
problem (Art.129) that 1628 is easilyin the
not actually
are
sure
range of probableareas ; that is,we
about the fourth figurefrom the left.

The

difference

Hereafter

omitted

without

is

all articles and

destroyingthe

exercises
sequence

marked

with

of the work.

an

asterisk

may

be

GENERAL

96

The

MATHEMATICS

method

abbreviated

of

consists

writing only the


to left
significant
(see numbers
parts of the usual method
of the line).Add
1 unit when
the number^o
the rightis
will pppear awkward
the figure5 or larger.The method
until sufficiently
practiced.
A similar discussion concerningaccuracy
could be given
for division.
that the

see

regarded as

sum

While
been

by

than

accurate

no

to

be

cannot

of the

less accurate

of the last statement.

of this very

discussion

it is easy

numbers

the

the truth

Illustrate

the

subtraction

or

difference of two

or

more

numbers.

two

addition

In

important topichas

complete, perhaps enough has been

means

said to fulfill our

which

purpose,

exceedinglycritical of
decimal places.

results

make

is to

the student

of
involvingthe significance

EXERCISES

*1.
with
as

Assuming

that the dimensions

ft. and

47.56

in Art.

ft. respectively,
show

34.23

largestpossiblearea
a

write

By
the

*3.

means

of

product of

Multiplyby

result with

*4.

hall is

the

abbreviated

measured

are

recorded

are

the method
smallest

actuallyover

used

and

four

the

fifths of

foot.

square

*2.

of the

by
the

that the difference between

129

hall

that the dimensions

reliable steel tape and

of

Which

46.54

and

the usual

multiplicationmethod

32.78 ; of 23.465

method

and

compare

and

34.273.

cut
the short-

this result.
result is the

more

accurate

SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases: area, measuring area, unit of area,
of Multiplication,
Law
Commutative
rhombus, trapezoid.
formula, formulas.
partialproducts,parenthesis,
131.

This

CHAPTER

137.

that

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

The

Solids.

solids.

occupies

drawings

solid

is

in

of

portion

VOLUME

Fig.

commonly

83

of

Frustum

Pyramid

surrounding

study only

interested

the

figures we

altogether in
Fig. 83 ?

two

For

in

FAMILIAR

SOLIDS

its

surface.

by

space
of

solid

the

color, weight,

have
a

83.

form

the

not

figures in

from

lelepiped
Paral-

of

Pyramid
FIG.

the

object

an

Rectangular

Sphere

Triangular

as

metric
geo-

separated

is

It

Cube

lelepiped

represent

thought

space.

Paral-

Oblique

TO

plane, but

involves

dimensions

example,

the

are

its

A
in

geometry
size.

solid
that

third

is

we

We

are

differs

from

it does

not

dimension.

suggested by

square
98

and

etc.

studying

been

In

the

suggested by

lie

What
solids
the

in

cube.

138.

has

cube ? How

in

corners

many

all

are
parallelepiped

it?

How

140.

How

? How

is

How

of

oblique

an

faces

many

edges?

many

parallelepiped. The

Rectangular

formed

corner

faces

are

edges

many

How
parallelograms.

vertices?

many

all of which

edge.

an

99

VOLUME

faces

six

Oblique parallelepiped. The

139.

has

has

faces intersect

Two

squares.

cube

The

Cube.

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

faces

of

tangular
rec-

are
parallelepiped
rectangles.

141.

solid

we

of

cube

each
is

volume

inclosed within
volume

we

edges equalsa
expressednumericallyby

cube

the unit

of volume.

goes

Formula

into the solid.

for the

volume

of

the surface
solid. To

the

solid with

unit

of

length. The
of times

the number

The

unit cube

is called

piped.
rectangularparallele-

is
Fig. 84 a rectangularparallelepiped
which is 5 cm. long,3 cm. wide,
and 4 cm. high. The unit cube
is represented
by K. Since the
/
/
base of the solid (the face
7
it stands) is 5 cm.
which
on
long and 3 cm. wide, a layerof
3 x 5 unit cubes could be placed

In

upon

it. Since the solid is 4

high,it contains
cubes
unit

layersof

that is,4x3x5,

cubes.

Thus

the

or

shown
B

cm.

unit

60,

volume

FIG.

84.

VOLUME

How
OF

TO
A

THE

FIND

RECTANGULAR

PARALLELEPIPED

rectangular
parallelepiped
is obtained by multiplying
the lengthby the width
height.This law may be expressedby the formula

of

we

of the

compare

of whose

the unit

142.

solid

When

; unit of volume.

measuring the

are

the volume

measure
a

of space

the amount

determine
of

of volume

Measurement

by
V=

the
Iwh.

100

EXERCISES

Find

1.

the

dimensions
*2.

of the

adopt

by

be true

"

of

means

if I

See

Volume

Ex.

that

the

3.4 cm., and

"

suggested in

formula
1.7

2j,

Iwh

cm.

Art. 111.

generaldiscussion

3j,h

that the formula

3f
.

3, Art. 112.
of

generalway

mathematics

Show

the method

HINT.

143.

cube.

2.3 cm., h

Follow

Show

would

unit

smaller

HINT.

63

its

the

holds when

in

if
rectangularparallelepiped
42 in.,and w
56 in.
in.,h
a

tangular
preceding discussion the edges of the rechad not been given as integral
multiples
parallelepiped
unit cube, it would
have been necessary temporarilyto

If

*3.

are

in

of

volume

course

an

the

oblique parallelepiped.Fig.85 shows


method

to show

used

in

advanced

more

that the formula

V=

Iwh holds

in

}h
R

FIG.

85.

MODEL

ILLUSTRATING

OBLIQUE

for aji

HOW

TO

FIND

THE

VOLUME

OF

AN

PARALLELEPIPED

III is a
obliqueparallelepiped.
Parallelepiped
and we know
the formula holds
rectangular
parallelepiped,
II is a rightparallelepiped
for it. Parallelepiped
(it has
even

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

rectangularfaces,and

101

VOLUME

and
parallelograms)
III.
by advanced methods is shown equal to parallelepiped
I is obliqueand is shown
equal to parallelepiped
Parallelepiped
I equalsparallelepiped
II. Since parallelepiped
II,
II in turn equalsparallelepiped
and parallelepiped
III, the
I. The student should not
formula
holds for parallelepiped
if he cannot
be concerned
fullyunderstand this discussion.
for an oblique
He should be ready to apply the formula
when the need for it arises in shop or factory
parallelepiped
of arithmetic.
justas he does many principles

four

two

are

EXERCISES

models of the
student
to make
easy for some
II
precedingfiguresin the shop. Thus, to show parallelepiped
*1.

It will be

III construct
II and
equal to parallelepiped
parallelepiped
from D to the base. Then
saw
along the
drop a perpendicular
Place the slab obtained on the right side,
and DF.
edges MD
III.
like parallelepiped
and parallelepiped
II will look exactly
This will be helpfulto your classmates,
and you will find the
exercise easy and interesting.

*2.

much

difficult and

more

I look
parallelepiped
HINT.

Construct

edges RK and
the figurewill
Ex.

1 to make

KI

like

RK"
and

exercise
interesting
III.
parallelepiped

to

AC

placethe

and

and
more

18 ft. wide

4. A

along

the left side.

on

to

is there in the. second

is to be lined with

zinc

requiredif

ft. long and


second

^ in.

4 sq. ft.

20 ft. wide

36.5 ft. How

reservoir than

thick.
are

as

in

con-

reservoir 125 ft. long

depth of

6 ft. long,4 ft.

the

Now

to

contains water

rectangulartank

zinc will be

Saw

II. Continue
parallelepiped
I look like parallelepiped
III.
parallelepiped
be transformed

rectangularreservoir 120
water
to a depth of 10.5 ft. A
water

to AC.

slab obtained

3. A
tarns

KI"

is to make

in the first?

wide, and

How

allowed

many
for

much

5 ft.

cubic

deep

feet of

overlapping?

102

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

in. of pure gold beaten into gold leaf will cover


30,000 sq. ft. of surface,what is the thickness of the gold leaf ?
5.

If 1

6.

An

cu.

tank

open

dimensions

are

follows

as

ft. If 1

height,2

is made

length,3

ft. of iron

cu.

of iron

in. thick.

ft. ;

The

outer

1 ft. 9 in. ;

width,

weighs 460 lb.,find

the

weight

of the tank.
In

7.

of

acre

an

144.
a

rainfall of 1 in. how

Formula

cube

if 1

ground

is

ft. of water

cu.

for the

in the

computed
cube

volume

of

same

of water

tons

many

62.5 lb. ?

weighs
a

way

The

cube.

that of

as

fall upon

volume

of

piped.
parallele-

that the
specialcase in the sense
width, and heightare all equal.Hence, if s equalsan
length,
edge of a cube, the volume may be expressedby the formula
The

is

The

s.

form

abbreviated

the

into
the mbe

of

formula

s3

V=
briefly

more

V=

be

may

(read"V equalss cube");

of

s.

following law

The

formula

The

volume

may

of

s3

written

being an
be

cube

lated
trans-

equals

edge.

an

EXERCISES

1.

Find

the volume

2.

Find

the volume

in.; 1
145.

m.

0.01

of

cube

of

cube

whose
whose

^ in. ; ^ in. ; ^ in.


edge is 1^ in.; 2.2 cm.;

edge

is

m.

Equal factors

exponents ; base ; power.

The

ucts
prod-

and
sions
three equal dimenequal dimensions
of a square and
have been representedby the area
of a cube respectively.
Hence
the notation
the volume
and "s cube."
tors
The product of four equal faca square
be represented
cannot
though you may
geometrically,
alreadyhave heard people talk vaguely about the fourth
dimension.
However, the product of four equal algebraic
of

"

two

"

factors,say

s,

is

as

definite

as

2x2x2x2

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

103

VOLUME

Thus,

in arithmetic.

write

algebraand
bxbxbxbxb
The

b5 is

term

is

small

to

the process indefinitely


in
s* (read "s fourth") or

"

(read b fifth "),etc.


convenient
obviouslymuch more

b*

show

b6 is called

hi

written

number

number

another

sxsxsxs

The

bxbxbxbxb.

extend

we

the

to

how

little above

is to

that number

times

many

exponent. It

an

rightand

than

the 3 is
factor. In 53 (meaning 5x5x5)
5 is the base,and the product
the exponent,the number
of 5 x 5 x 5 is the power.
Thus, 125, or 53,is the third
be used

as

of 5.

power

exponent
y

each

are

is the

When

to be 1.

is understood
to

be used

same

in x, the

written, as

Thus, in 2 xy, both

only once

if the term

as

is

exponent

no

factor.

ast a

and

The

ing
mean-

Mjritten2xlyl.

were

EXERCISES

1.

State

clearlythe

difference between

exponent. Illustrate with arithmetical

of

3.

(c) 2 a.
(d) a?.

Write

the

(e)4 a.
(f) a4.

2J 5J 2J ;
4.

"

Find

(g)5 a.
(h)a5.

followingproductsin

yyyyy,

and

(a) 3 a.
(b) a8.

the value

(i)2
(j)3

a2.

(k) 4
(1) 2

a2.

briefest form
a

5-5-5-5;

g-^j"i

m'"

"

of

3 ^3

"

"

"

"

a2.
a4.

333

"

an

of each

1111

4 V4f

the value

coefficient and

numbers.

5, give the meaning


Letting a
the followingnumbers
:

2.

y.

2s; 68; (i)4;38; (1.3)a;


98; (0.03)8;

(1.1)8.
5.

Letting m
polynomials:
=

2 and

m2 +

); 5(m

2
+

mn

ing
3, find the value of the follow+

w2 ; m" +

n); 6(2 ws

3 ra2n,+ 3 wp2 + w8 ;

+ 3m2

-f-4mn

3).

104

GENERAL

Find

6.

the value of the

(a) 2z;
(g) (3*)2-

3 :
followingnumbers, where z
(b) *"; (c) (2*)2; (d) 2*2; (e) 3z8; (f) (3z)3;

Lettinga;
following:

7.

the

xy +

1, y

xz

yu

-f y +

MATHEMATICS

"

146.

Exponents

147.

Product

"

2, z

x* +

zu

3, and

4, find the value of

x3#-f-6 x2y24-

x^3 + 2/4

xy

Since

the

subjectof exponents
is fundamental
to a clear understandingof two
very
devices,namely the slide rule and
importantlabor-saving
which we
shall presently
logarithms,
study,it is necessary
to study the laws of exponents very carefully.
law

to

be

important.

of powers

used

having

in this

type

the

may

be

The

exponents.

same

illustrated

the

by

"

problem, Multiply a2 by a3." The expressiona2 means


a? means
a
a
a
a, or aaa.
a, or aa, and the expression
"

"

"

Hence

a2

"

a3

means

aa

"

aaa,

or, hi

short,a6.

EXERCISE

In each

case

give orallythe product in

(a) 32-33.
(b) 6-68.
(c) 52 5*.
(d) 10 108.
(e) x x2.
(f) 122.12S.
(g) x2 xs.
(h) x x4.
"

"

"

"

"

The
more

is
mm

exercise

(i)
(j)

(q)

ax-x.

(r)6-6.*"fl"

"

(s )
(;t )

"

"

"

"

2.

"

m.

4 tfc

"

5 iV.

x2yz2 2 xifzs.
(u) (2xyf.
(v) (2xV)3.
(w) (3x2?/)2.
(x) 3 5 2 5 2 38.
xy"-

"

'

"

"

"

shows

x2

xs- x6.

(k) b e b.
(1) b-b.
(m) e e 2
(n) c-c3.
(o ) x x5.
(p) m a-2.
above

briefest form

that

the

"

"

"

product of

"

two

or

ivJwse base
base is a number
factorshaving the same
that of the factorsand whose exponent is the
the same
as
of the,exponent*of the factors; thus, b2 " /" 2"10.
"

106

EXERCISES

1. Find

edges of

of the

If the

2.

of the

sum

the actual

are

Find

3.

the

for

Fig. 86.

edges of the solid


of the

dimensions

in

express

sum

is 172, what

Fig.86

solid ?

the

2X+3

algebraic expression

an

total

surface

Also

for

the

of

solid

the

in

volume.

is the total surface

What

4.

will

which
algebraicnumber
the solid in Fig.86.

an

ume
vol-

and

FIG.

of the solid in

if x

equals10

the
Express algebraically

5.

in

Fig.86

of the

sum

in

If

the

Fig. 87
edge ?

one

is

the

of

sum

edges
is

what

112,

of

the

the

the total
Express algebraically
of the cube in Fig. 87.
volume

and

is the total surface

8. What

The

9.

the

the cube

NOTE.

of the

tetrahedron

Find
in

The

whose

is

faces

length of an
Fig. 88 if the
the

Fig.89

in

shows

(Fig.88)
sum

is

if x

denoted

2 ?

by

of all

and

figure all of whose


are
equal equilateral

edge

lower

of

sum

frustum
bases

of the

of

the

hedron
tetra-

edges

is

40.5

mid.
pyra-

equilateral
pentagons ; the sides are trapezoids
in the figure.
with the edges denoted
as
Find
of all the edges. If e
the sum
of the edges ?
equals 2. what is the sum
upper

Fig. 87

tetrahedron.

tetrahedron

edges are equal and


triangles.

11.

of

surface

of the cube

1. Express algebraicallythe

edges

10.

of

edge

culx-

length

7.

edges of

Fig.87.
6.

are

FIG.

89

cm.

DESCARTES

108

GENERAL
The

NOTE.

HISTORICAL

MATHEMATICS
of

idea

using exponents

raised was
to which
a
quantity was
power
the French
philosopher(1596-1650). It is

due

mark

to

Rene1

to

the

Descartes,

interestingto read

of the

the part of mathematicians


to obtain
on
struggle for centuries
of a number.
of writing a power
Thus, we read
some
simple method
mathematician

of the Hindu

words

of the Hindu
third

"

square

of the unknown

power

practicalsettingwith
In

warriors.
are

powers
French

Bhaskara

"

the

used

and

"

example, arcs,
Vieta

denoting the
problems, which
as

in

references

following centuries
; for

"

solid

numbers

many

the
)*using

(1114-

to

fair damsels

great
circles,
etc.,until

second

and

he gave
and

varietyof

initials

gallant

symbols for

we

to

come

(1540-1603),who

wrote
matics
matheon
lawyer, Frangois
did much
the notation
of
to standardize
as
a pastime. Vieta
of exponents he employed
A quadalgebra. Thus, in the matter
ratusx" A cubus," to represent z2 and x8, instead of introducing a
From
this point it is only a step to
letter for each power.
new
"

"

Descartes's

method.

The

Bhaskara, Viet;a,and
biographiesof the three mathematicians
Descartes
are
exceedinglyinteresting.Thus, you may enjoy reading
of Bhaskara's
of the
syncopated algebra in verse, in which
many
problems are addressed to lovelyand dear Lilavati
(hisdaughter)
by way of consolation when he forbade her marriage.
read of Vieta's being summoned
of Henry IV
You may
to the court
of x.
of France
involved
the 45th power
to solve a problem which
The problem had been sent as a challenge to all mathematicians
in the empire. Vieta appeared in a few moments
and
gave the king
solutions.
Next
two
correct
King Henry asked Vieta to decipher
the Spanish military code, containing over
six hundred
unknown
was
characters,which
periodicallychanged. King Henry gave the
in findingthe solution to the system,
cipher to Vieta, who succeeded
which
held
the French
greatly to their profit during the war.
"

Or

you

found

the

leisure
1621
"

may

gave

Discourse

realized

He

of

Descartes, a member

of the

who
nobility,

life exceedingly irksome, for he craved


years of his army
for mathematical
He
in
studies.
resigned his commission

and

toward

read

"

the
the

is often

on

his time

to travel and

Methods."

relation

called "the

In 1637

now

used.

existing between

father

of modern

he wrote

considerable

In this text he made

system of exponents
close

study.

The

text

shows

geometry and

algebra."

book,

advance
that

he

algebra.

109

VOLUME

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

figurelike
the figureon
cardboard, using a larger scale.
Fig.90. Draw
Cut out the figurealong the heavy lines ; then fold along
of gummed
the dotted lines. Join the edges by means
paper.
tetrahedron

12. A

90.

FIG.

How

The
the

Draw
let

FIG.

STRUCT
CON-

91.

How

TETRAHEDRON

13.

TO

from

constructed

be

may

cube

figureon cardboard,using a
Cut out the figure
cm.

CONSTRUCT

CUBE

figurelike Fig.91.
largerscale ; for example,

from

be constructed

may

TO

along the heavy lines,then fold


along the dotted lines. Join the
of gummed paper.
edgesby means
This will form

the

14. Measure
cube

model

Find

surface.
15.

edge

cube.

of the

for Ex. 13 and

constructed

compute the

of

area

of

the

the volume

whole
also.
FIG.

rectangular parallelepiped

How

92.

RECTANGULAR

may
a

be constructed

CONSTRUCT

from

figurelike Fig.92. Compute

area

TO

PARALLELEPIPED

the volume

of the solid and

the

of the surface.
SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases: a solid,surface of a solid,volume
of a solid,unit of volume, cube, parallelepiped,
rectangular
parallelepiped,
obliqueparallelepiped
rightparallelepiped,
triangular
pyramid,exponent, base, power, tetrahedron.
150.

This

110

GENERAL

the

solid.
is

cube

unit

The

to

is

of

each

The

solid

how

see

process

cube

152.

of

volume

The

151.

MATHEMATICS

times

many

essentially

whose

is

formulas

it

by

one

have

applying

contained

is

unit

long.

been

used

the

in

The

comparison.

edges

following

determined

is

cube

unit

Iwh,

v=s3.

equals

number

whose

and

of

product

The

153.

factors

whose

exponent

having

base

the

is

is

the

of

sum

same

the

as

the

base

common

factors
of

exponents

the

factors.

The

154.

another
base

the

divisor

from

base

common

is

exponent

the

having

power
is

obtained

quotient

obtained
the

by

exponent

by
base

same

of

the

the

is

given

subtracting
of

dividing

number

powers

the

dividend.

exponent

by

power
whose

and

whose
of

the

CHAPTER
THE

APPLIED

EQUATION

ANGLE

155.

Fundamental

discussed

relations.

angle

the different kinds

relations

angles. Draw
and

this

equationis appliedto
of exterior
two

Chapter

III

we

between

angles and

see

how

them.
sides

of

supplementary adjacent
adjacentanglesof 64" and 116", of 75"

105", of 157" and 23".


is the relation

What

In

angles and the methods of


chapter we shall study some

of the fundamental

Relation

FUNDAMENTAL

of

In

156.

TO

RELATIONS

constructingthem.
the

VI

What

is the

sum

of each

of the exterior sides of each

pair?
pair?

FIG.

157.

Important geometric relation. The

form

precedingarticle

followinggeometricrelation : If the sum


adjacent angles is a straight
angle,their exterior

illustrates the
two

93

straightline.
ill

of
sides

112

GENEKAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

1.

Show

that the

the definition

with

2. In

read

Fig. 93

the

of

number

XOD,

3.

What

is the

sum

4.

Express /.XOD

as

the

5.

Express Z.AOB

as

the difference of two

6.

Express /.XOE

as

the

of

on

of /.XOA

of all the

Sum

PS, and

Fig.94

and

of the four

shown

find

the

What
be the correct
the

about

line AB

angles.

angles.
a

point

and

on

choose

one

side

point

sum

then
tractor.
proto

seems
sum

sum

press
Ex-

of the

equation.Give
159.

of three

sum

angles.

in

the

with

measure

of two

sum

anglesformed.
first and

Estimate

Z.AOB?

lines Pit,
as

PT

and

angles

straight line. Draw


it. Draw

agrees

XOE.

XOY,

158.

157

degrees in angles XOA,

XOC,

XOB,

an

geometricrelation stated in Art.


of a straight
angle (Art.61).

Important

angles x,
word

y, z, and

statement

geometric relation.

for

of
by means
the equation.
w

Art. 158

illustrates

geometricrelation that the sum of all the


line is a straight
anglesabout a pointon one side of a straight
angle (180").
the truth of the

EXERCISES

1. Find

the value of

and

the size of each

angle in Fig.95.

followingexampleseach expressionrepresents one


of the angles into which
all the angularspace about a point
Write
side of a straightline has been divided.
on
an
one
of all the angles,solve for x,
equation expressingthe sum
2.

In the

114

GENERAL

MATHKMATICS

The

expressionsin the following examples represent the:


angles into which the angular space about a point in a plane
has been divided. Find the size of each angle.
4.

at.
(a) 3 x, x, 2 x + 35, 125
10, 118.
(b) 2x, 72 + 3x, 4*
35| x, 8 x + 49.
(c) 10 x + 20-J-,
(d) 5 a-, 3x + 27f,*7z20, 9a-.+ 112j.
(e) x + 1, 7 (a;+ 1),3 (35 + x),2 x + 169.
(f) 3x, 117 + 15 a-, 9 a; -27.
(g) 14 x + 48, 28 x + 106f 133^ 6 x.
-

The

of all

exercises in this article show

first two
the

anglesabout

Left side of

161.

Fig.98

pointin

angle; right side of

an

and

direction BD,

then

leftside of the angle

(becauseit

lies

side of the

on

and
left),
the right

our

is called

side BA

to

a*

^-''"
A

Right

In letteringan.

fi

is

figuresit

often

FIG.

lines that have

the

letter

likenesses

by

easily.It
angle and

is clear that

the

same

same

98

able
desir-

anglesor

denote

in the

say

s\f"^~~'

angle.

Notation.
,

gles and

of

vertex

162.

angle. If in

is called the

the

an

side BC

the

sum

is 360".
j)lafie

imagine ourselves standing at the


lookingoff over the angular space,

we

/.ABC

that the

to

so

use

I for the

as

certain characteristic

identifythem

to

I for

the

more

left side of

left side of another

one

angle

might be misleading.In order to


let ^ stand for the left side of one
be clear,therefore,we
angle,Z2 stand for the left side of a second angle,and
13stand for the left side of a third angle,etc. Then the

in the

same

discussion

three sides would

three," etc.

be read

"

I sub-one,"

"

sub-two,"

"

I sub-

163.

Important geometric relation.

Fig.99, are drawn


to left and
rightto
do they
right.How

xv in

size ?

by

estimate

with
Give

Two

that their sides

in
compare
Check
your

to

seem

so

115

RELATIONS

ANGLE

FUNDAMENTAL

angles,a;1 and
left
are
parallel

li

ing
measur-

protractor.
argument

an

showing that

x-^

x"

FIG.

article shows

This

leftto leftand right


if two angleshave their sides parallel
the anglesare
equal.
right,

that
to

EXERCISE

freehand

Draw

two

obtuse

angles

so

that

their

sides

will

left to left and rightto right.(The angles should


parallel
approximatelyequal. Are they ?)

look
be

points for vertices and in each case imagine


yourselfstanding at the point. Draw the left sides to your left and
the drawing correct
and prove
the right sides to your right. Assume
Take

HINT.

the

-two

anglesequal.
164.

y, in

Important

Fig.100, have been drawn


left to rightand rightto
between

to exist

with

each
Give
that

geometric relation.

This

180".

article

angles,x

that their sides

left. What

ure
? Meas-

showing

"

shows

11

that

if

angleshave their sides parallel


and
to
left right
rightto
their sum
is a straight
left,
angle.

are

relation

protractor.

argument

an
z

them

so

Two

two

FIG.

100

and
allel
par-

seems

116

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISE

Practice drawing freehand

the conditions

accordingto
parallel
Is the

approximately 180"

sum

165.

whose

pair of angles whose

Supplementary

sides

of Art. 164.

in the theorem

angles ; supplement.

Two

angles

is

equal to a straightangle (180")


to be supplementaryangles.Each
angle is called the supplementof
sum

are

said

are

the other.
166.

Supplementary

angles. Place

adjacent

101

supplementary

two

angles adjacentto each other as in Fig.101. Angles


placed are called supplementaryadjacentangles.

so

EXERCISES

1. In

Fig.101

what

2. In

Fig.102

are

is the

angle whose

several

angles,some

supplement
pairs of

is Zee?

which

are

supplementary.Make tracings of these angles on paper and


by placingthem adjacentdecide which pairsare supplementary.

FIG.

3.

State

whether
:

and

the

40" and

140"

102

of

following pairs
; 30"

and

150"

angles

; 35"

and

are

plementar
sup-

135" ; 55"

135".
4.

How

angle of

many

degrees

are

there

in

the

supplement

of

an

30" ? of 90" ? of 150" ? of x" ?


2 s"

5.

What

is the

supplement

of

y" ?

of z" ? of 3 w" ? of

"

117

130"

equationwhich expresses
supplementary and solve for the

Write

6.
are

7.

(a) y" and

80".

x" +

and

9.

if

One

10.

other.

11.. What

size of each

largerthan

is the

Find

the

2x"

25"

supplementary angles

the other ?

the number

of

33" smaller than

the

degrees in each.
of

number

degrees in

each

of two

mentary
supple-

difference is 95" ?

angleswhose
12.

of two

values

angle.

supplementaryanglesis

of two

Find

the

the size of each

and

is the

What
is 76"

one

Find

of the following

supplementary angles have


4".

each

(d) 30" and y" + 40".


(e) 3 y" + 5" and 12 y" 4".
(f) f x" and l"x" + 75 J".

(.b)90" and z".


(c) x" and y".
Two

y" and

value of y.

equationsthat will show that


angles are supplementary:

Write

pairsof

8.

the fact that

the

of

value

and

the

angles in

the

following

supplementarypairs:
(a) x" and 6 x".
(b) 2 x" and 3 x" +
(c) 4" x" and 6 x".
(d) 2 aj" + 5" and 7
13.

Write

the

2".

x"

8".

followingexpressionsin algebraiclanguage:

(a) Twice an angle y.


(b) Four times an angle,plus 17".
(c) 23" added to double an angle.
(d) Seven times an angle,minus 14".
(e) 45" less than an angle.
(f) 52" subtracted from four times an angle.
(g) Twice the sum. of an angle and 10".
(h) One half the difference of 22" and x".
14.
sum

If

an

is 100".

angle
Find

supplement, the
supplementary angles.

is added
the

to

one

half its

118

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL
If

15.

angle is

an

is increased

supplement

is 90".

obtained
16.

Construct

17.

Find

Find

the

by 5" and if one fourth of its


of the angles thus
by 25", the sum
the supplementary angles.

increased

supplement

the size of each

of

given angle.

followingadjacentpairsof

of the

supplementary angles:

(a) 0"llft:+"i

130-

-60,

(d)

*.

"

(b)

(c)

|+

167.

32, 88

150,

(f) 65

problem. To

construct

2-f, ^.
92 +

the

supplements

equalangles.
Let

Construction.

a;

and

the

given angles.
ment
suppleof Zz, adjacent to
it (Fig.103). In the same

(e) 2 (* + 10),

10.

Construction

of two

be

^""

\x.

Z z, the

Construct

Zw-,the

construct

manner

supplement

of

Compare

Fm-

/x

103'

HOWTO
OF

MENTS

/y

CONSTRUCT

T\VO

SCPPLK-

THE

GlVEX

AHOLES

Z.y.
the

supplementsof

and

Z y and

show

that

/-Z=/-W.
article shows

This

that

the

Supplementsof equalangles

equal.

are

EXERCISES

1. Prove
In

HINT.
then
2.

Zz

the

Are

preceding fact by

Fig.103 prove

that if Zx

an

+ Zz

algebraicmethod.
=180"

and

Z.y +

=180",

Zro

Zw.

supplements of

the

same

angle equal? Why

FUNDAMENTAL
that

Show

3.

ANGLE
bisectors of two

the

to
angles are perpendicular

that Z

show

Z. AOD

of Z.

*5.

solve

example, in Fig.104

90".

60"

following examples
review.

for

the

and

In

value

each
of

the

case
known,
un-

check.

(")Y
(b)

; for

Z. y.

The

furnish

Z. y

each other

supplementaryadjacent

120", find the size

and

Fig.104, if Z. BOD

4. In
and

119

RELATIONS

(e)

\y
t ^
(g)

16 +

OD

-*

"

"

19
12.

3.

Complementary angles. If the

168.

anglesis a rightangle,the
two
angles are called complementary
plement
angles.Each angleis called the comof the other. Thus, in Fig.105
Z.x is the complement of Z y.
of two

sum

FIG.

105

EXERCISES

1. What
2.

Are

3.

Draw

place them
4.

of two

is the

23" and

complement
57"

of 30" ? of 60" ?

complementary ?

32" and

complementary angles of 40"


adjacent.Check the construction.
two

existingbetween
adjacent complementary angles?

What

is the

relation

58" ?
and

50"

and

the exterior sides

120

GENERAL
5.

In

pairsof
6.

is the

of

complements

of

complement

the

which

following angles:

^?

12""?48|"? x"? 3y"?

7. 40"
y

of tracingpaper
by means
complementary.

to be

the

are

50"?

20"?

decide

Fig. 106
angles seem

What

MATHEMATICS

y".

How

degrees does

many

represent?
8. Write

that x" and

the
50"

are

equation which

complementaryand

FIG.

9.

In

equation x"

the

possiblepairof

values

of

and

equations that
followingpairsof angles are
10.

Write

11.

Write

the

90"

y ?

solve

for the value

of

x.

will

is there

than

more

one

Explain.
express

the

fact

that

the

complementary:

(c) x" +
(d) 2 x"

(a) x" and 40".


(b) 35" and y".

algebraiclanguage

106

y"

in

says

25" and
-

x"

30".

3 x" +

3" and

8".

in algebraic
language:
followingexpressions

of angle x and angle y.


(a) The sum
(b) Four times an angle,increased by 15".
by two times an angle.
(c) 85" diminished

(d) Five

(e) Three
(f) Four

times the

sum

of

an

angle and

times the difference between


times

an

angle,minus

6".

13".
an

angle and

12".

122

GENERAL

170.

MATHEMATICS

angles. Dra\v

Vertical

tersecting
in-

two

straightlines AB and CD as
in Fig. 108.
The
angles x and z are
called vertical,
or
opposite,
angles. Note
that vertical angles have
a
common
and

vertex

their sides lie in

that

but

line
straight

same

vertical

Thus,
have

which

the

in

tions.
oppositedirecangles are angles
and

vertex

common

their

Jying in the same


straightline
but in oppositedirections. Are w and
y in Fig. 109 vertical angles?
sides

-A

FIG.

108.

VERTICAL

ANGLES

EXERCISES
refer to

(Exs. 1-6
1. Make

Check

2.

with

4. Show

sum

that

Ex.

in Ex. 1

and

them

compare

to size.

as

by measuring the

two

/. y ? of Z.

/- y ?

angles

The

that y +

six exercises

the vertical

171.

anglesare

Value

of

relation between
that in most

and

and

-j-y.

help

in

obtainingthe

relation

between

is this relation ?

What

Show

6.

/-

and

of /-

is the

does

How

and

estimate

your

What

5.

/-

protractor.

3.

tracingof

Fig. 108)

cases

above

-+-w

and

show

from

this that y

that

if two

lines

w.

intersect,

equal.

mathematical

vertical

thinking. The

anglesis

the truth

would

of

course

be

so

preceding
easilyseen

granted even

out
with-

measuring the anglesinvolved.

sion
However, the discus-

is another

simple illustration of

in Exs.

3-6

above

123
the

of mathematical

power

of
is to

covery
thinkingwhich makes the distruths rest finally
that
on
nonmeasurement,
intellectual basis. This type of thinking
an
to an
increasingextent in subsequent work.

new
on

say,

used

will be

EXERCISES

the

what

Upon

1.

geometric

2. Find

each

proof (Exs. 3-6, Art. 170)


concerning vertical angles rest ?

relation

and

the

does

the

size of

angle in Fig. 109.

First

angles

Since

method.
are

"

vertical

equal,

3r

from

Subtracting4

Subtracting2

Substituting6

from

3
2
9

vertical

Check.

22

Second

method.

8*

Solving,
The

158

By
+

".

"

10

+ 104

+ 158

9*

6.

6 +

22,

6 + 10

22,

6 + 104

158

(forZ. BOC),

equal,

360".

of

+ 104
r

remainder

definition

4 +

angles are

22

2x

member,

each

for x,

2ar + 10.

member,

each

3x

since

~^_^__

Then

and

of

of the work

supplementary angles,

=180.
=

is the

6.

same

as

that of the first method.

124

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

vertical

(a) 3
(b) ,

angles made
15 and

105

by

5x

a;

(f) -Jx

(h)

21".

$x

(e)|*-8andj
12.

Alternate-interior

(i)

"*

5,

In

angles.

fx

and

and

+
8

172.

160.

"

of the following

each

15.

181 and

and

intersecting
straightlines

two

5.

"

and IS*

10 and

(c) cc."

(d)

values of the unknowns

the

3. Find

and

Fig.110

55.

11

18.

-""

^
the

].

angles

and y, formed
by the lines AB, CD, and the transversal
called alternate-interior angles(on alternate sides
EF, are

of EF

and

interior with

FIG.

and

AB

respect to

CD~).

110

FIG.

Ill

so

that

EXERCISES

(Exs.
1

2.

What

Measure

The
seems

and

lines AB

1-4

compare

and CD

to be the

refer to

Z
and

Fig. Ill)
Z //.

and

FE

are

drawn

relation between

3.

Show

that if Z

4.

Show

that 4-^ is

parallellines,Art. 87).

Z y, then

parallelto

Z
CD

the lines AB
y

Z.x=Z.y.
and

CD?

z.

(seethe

definition for

FUNDAMENTAL

Exercises

formed by

1-4

show

lines and

two

if the

that
a

125

RELATIONS

ANGLE

alternate-interior

transversal

equal,the

are

angles

lines

are

parallel.
The

In

Proof.

Fig.Ill, Z

equal).Then
each

take

proof may
Z?/

Z.z

other). Therefore

the

brief
following

Z
(given).Z x
(thingsequal to the same
IICD
AB
(by definition

Z y

form:

anglesare
(vertical

thing are

equal to
87).

of IIlines,Art.

EXERCISE

In

Fig. 112

construct

by making

AB

why

line

parallelto the line


angle equal to /.x. Show

through

alternate-interior

an

the lines

parallel.

are

FIG.

173.

112

Interior angles

on

the

Fig.113 anglesx and y


side of the transversal.

In
same

are

same

side of the transversal.

called interior

the

angleson

EXERCISES

1. Measure
2.

In

What

Fig.114
AB

and

Prove

that

angles

the

on

transversal

the

lines

are

are

y in
are

relation

the

if the

same

Fig. 113

drawn

CD?

between

lines

and

the lines
be

to

seems

between
3.

anglesx

so

and

find their

that /Lx +

Z.y

sum.

180".

'\-

interior

side
two

of

a,

-D

allel
par-

supplementary,

parallel.

FIG.

114

126

GENERAL
In

4.

Fig.115

select all the

alternate-interior
terior

angles

MATHEMATICS

angles,and
the

on

in-

side

same

pairs of correspondingangles,
F

of

/?/

"./"'

the transversal.
174. Important theorems
to

parallel lines. The

exercises

ing
which

include

Arts. 172

and

ing
relat-

follow-

y^

work

theorems

supplement the

of

'E
FIG.

173.

115

"

EXERCISES

1.

Art.

Show

by

87 that

reference

to the

if two

definition of

parallellines
correspondinganglesare equal.
2.

Show

that if two

the alternate-interior
3.

the

parallellines are
angles are equal.

that if two

Show
interior

angles

cut

are

parallellines
the

on

are

by

parallellines

transversal,the

cut

by

transversal,

cut

by

transversal,

side of the

same

in

transversal

are

supplementary.
Two

so
parallellines are cut by a transversal
form
in Fig.116.
the
Find x and
angles as shown
all the eight angles in the figure.

4.

as

to

size of

"K'^

Ab

\
FIG.

5.

Find

6.

Draw

and
two

X
FIG.

116

all the

eightangles in Fig. 117.

lines
parallel

equal pairsof angles ;

117

all the

and

transversal.

Select all the

supplementary pairs.

175.
a

of angle pairs formed

Outline

When

transversal.

in

as

lines

two

by

by

cut

are

lines cut

two

by

transversal,

Fig.118,
e~]

"a and
b and

the angles of the

anglepairs

and

anglesof the f d
angleparrs
jc
*:',,

the angles of the \ a

and

are

called interior

are

called exterior

and

are

/j
J

and
and

b and

^
angle pairs

side

transversal

of.the

opposite sides of the

on

the
;

trans-

""

versal

called

are

alternate-

e\

"]on

h\

and

Y
\

interior

angles ;

oppositesides

of the

trans-

.
,

versal

called

are

exterior

alternate-

angles.

FIG.

student

angleson

angles;
angles;

called interior
same

J
the angles ot the

corresponding angles

g\

angle pairs

called

anglesc, d, e, f
anglesa, 5,#, h
the

are

IT?-

and

The

1.27.

RELATIONS

ANGLE

FUNDAMENTAL

119

should remember

(a) that correspondinganglesare

equal,
(b) that alternate-interior anglesare equal,
(c) that alternate-exterior anglesare equal,

(d)

that interior

angleson

the transversal

are

the

same

side of

supplementary,

onlywhen the linescut by the transversal

are

(Fig.119).
parallel

128

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followand phrases:left side of an
words
angle,rightside
of an
angle^
parallel
rightto rightand left to left,parallel
rightto left and left to right,supplementaryangles,
angles,
supplement,supplementary-adjacent
complementary
alternate-interior angles,
complement,vertical angles,
angles,
interior angleson the same
side of the transversal.
176.

This

177.

The

followingfundamental

constructions

have been

:
presented

1. How

to

2. How

to construct

construct

the
the

supplement of
supplements of

given angle.
two
equal given
a

angles.
3. How

the

to construct

4. How

to

construct

complement of -a given angle.


the complements of two
equal

angles.
5. A

new

6. How
178.

method
to form

of

lines.
drawing parallel
vertical angles.

chapter has discussed


geometricrelations:

This

1. If the

of two

the

mental
followingfunda-

adjacentanglesis a straightangle,
line.
their exterior sides form a straight
2. The sum
of all the anglesabout a point on one
side
of a straight
line is a straight
angle(180").
3. The
of all the anglesin a plane about a point
sum
is two straight
angles(360").
4. If two angleshave their sides parallel
left to left and
the anglesare equal.
rightto right,
5. If two
left to right
angles have their sides parallel
and rightto left,the anglesare supplementary.
6. Supplements of the same
angle or of equal angles
are
equal.
sum

CHAPTER
THE

179.

APPLIED

EQUATION

Notation

for

VII
TO

THE

TRIANGLE

triangles. It is customary

to denote

pointsof intersection of the sides of a triangle


by capitalletters and the three sides which He opposite
these respective
sides with the corresponding
small letters.
Thus, in Fig.120 we denote
the points of intersection
of the sides (the vertices)
by A, B, and C, and the
sides oppositeby a, 6,and c.
the three

The

sides

be

also

may

read BC, AC, arid AB.

"

The

is a small
symbol for triangle"
is read
ABC."
triangle
triangle
(A). The expressionA ABC
The three anglesshown in Fig.120 are called interior angles.
"

180.
now

Measuring

consider

anglesof

some

the interior

angles of

of the methods

triangle.
EXERCISES

130

of

triangle. We

measuringthe

shall

interior

131
Fill in the

1.

the

to

table

the

on

trianglesABC,

preceding page
and

DEF,

FIG.

Draw

2.

triangleon

off the

tear

three

to be the

seems

of the
a

? Test
triangle
straightedge.

181.

and

2, above,

anglesof

be

to

methods.

Such

proved

is called

182.

More

prooffor

the

180"

interior

may

with

be
a

122

FIG.

123

interior

advanced

geometric
geometricrelation

theorem.
of

The

preceding theorem.

be illustrated

more

of

statement

methods

sum

proved by

advanced

angles of

FIG.

is
triangle

truth of the theorem, that the


the

place the

angles

"The

of the interior

can

and

straight
angle

statement

straightangle"

it out

geometric

of the

(180"). The
a

Then

results of Exs. 1

sum

is
anglesof a triangle

Fig. 123.

answer

illustrate the
the

relation that

Cut

What

shown.

your

The

Theorem.

(Fig.122).
in

of the three

sum

(Fig.121).

GHI

paper

angles adjacent as

reference

121

shown

as

corners

with

sum

of

is
triangle
as

Ji

follows:
FIG.

124

Place
as in Fig.124.
triangle
indicated in the figure,
as
a pencilat A
notingthe direction
in which
it points.Rotate
the pencilthrough angle A as
Draw

132
sliown

the

by

GENERAL

.M ATM

arrowhead.

Then

K.MATK

'S

slide it

along AB to the
positionindicated in the figure.Rotate the pencil next
through angle B as indicated and slide it along BC to
Then
sliown.
the pencilthrough angle
the position
rotate
the
last positionshown.
This
C
to
rotation
through
angles .1. /;, and C leaves the point of the pencil in what
positionin respect to its original
position? What
part of
a
complete turn has it made ? Through how many right
angleshas it turned ? Through
how
straightangles?
many
Through how many degrees?
The

of the interior

angle is
as

180"

follows
(oven

':

that

theorem

"

the

sum

anglesof a tribe proved


may

triangleAB"'(Y\%. 12o),to

that

prove

Z.I

+ Z/"

ZC'

180".

Proof
REASONS

STATE.MK.NT"

Draw

Because

correspondingangles
formed
by two parallellines cut
by a transversal are equal.

Then

alternate-interior

Because
And

if

by

formed

Z B.

by

cut

transversal

the

Because
But

./.; 4-

Z // +

anglesabout

180"

one

.-.

This
is

side of

a
a

sum

parallellines
are
equal.
of

]"oiut in

all

i Z B

is

more

the

triangle.

number

formal

proof

of the

measurement.

of

for Z

degrees

if.

straightline
and

Z C

in the

an
sum

is 180".
for

for Z

theorem, inasmuch

Write

the

plane on

By substitutingZ.A

z.i

independent of

express

two

gles
an-

Zr.

r.

as

it

equationwhich will
of the angles of

EQUATION

TO

APPLIED

THE

133

TRIANGLE

equation is

This
find

angleof

one

Thus, if

we

and

we

70",

know

know
know

XOTK.

of the earliest Greek

to

us

all three

who

is thus

angles of

enabled

triangleby

directly.

measuringonly two
HISTORICAL

the surveyor,

to

size of

the

it enables

as

one,

when
the other two are known.
triangle
that two
anglesof a triangleare 50"
that 60" is the third angle. This is of

value
great practical
to

useful

very

Thales

school of

(040 B.C.

about

mathematics,

o50

B.C.),the

founder

supposed to have known


that
of the angles of a triangleis two
the sum
right triangles.
has suggested that this knowledge concerning the sum
Someone
of the angles of a trianglemay
have been experimentallydemonstrated
by the shape of the tiles used in paving floors in Th-ales'
has been regarded as the most
remarkable
day. What
geometrical
advancement
which
of Thales
the proof of a theorem
was
depended
the knowledge that the sum
of the angles of a triangleis two
upon
rightangles.It is related that when Thales had succeeded in proving
the theorem, he sacrificed an
to the immortal
ox
gods. The large
number
been

of stories

of remarkable

man

in business.

and

market
direct

and
a

about

told

Thus,

that

river

that

so

might

shrewdness
time

one

he

time

ford

and

read that at

we

be

on

mules

caused

one
some

constructed.

it rolled

over

at

trick,Thales

the

water, made

the

interior

the

next

it with

load

heavier

ford

to

rags
and

and

in science

the olive

engineer to
The
following
as

it

which

came

break

; to

it of

which, by absorbing
effectuallycured it of its

sponges,

soon

habit.1

Problems

involving

angles of

the

theorem

triangle is

the

"

The

Ball, "A

Short

Account

of the

sum

of the

straight angle."

problems that follow the pupilwill need


theorem
proved in the precedingarticle.
1

both

when

once

loaded

183.

have

must

salt which
loaded
was
transporting some
of the animals, slippingin a stream, got its load wet
and so
of the salt to be dissolved.
thus lightFinding its burden
ened,
that

this

troublesome

he

he cornered

employed

was

story is told illustrative of his shrewdness


It is said

that

indicates

influence

another

at

Thales

is

to

History of Mathematics,"

In

apply the

p. 14.

134

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

followingproblems

In the

(a) Draw freehand the triangle.


(b) Denote the anglesproperlyas given.
(c) Using the theorem of Art. 182, write down
representingthe

(d) Solve
(e) Check

equationand
your solution" by

the number
2.

is three

third

each

and

first angle of

The

times

is
triangle

of the

the conditions

triangleare x, 2x,
degrees in each angle.

of

equation

problem.

find the value of each

the

anglesof

1. The

of the

conditions

the

the first. Find

twice
the

problem.
Find

3x.

the

angle.

and

second,and the
of

number

degrees

in

angle.
3. If the three

angles of

equal,what

triangleare

is the

size of each ?
4. If two

angles of

is the value
5.

One

angle

largerthan
6.

7.

third

first

The

large is

each

the

10.
two

third

the

The

triangleif

third
of

is

times

as

the

55"

second,

e.achangle.
the

third

one

triangleis

is four

anglesof

second, and

Find

first. Find

times

angle is

first is

of the

fifths

two

large

the

as

half

one

first.
as

large as

first. How

angle ?
a

angles of
15",and the

firstangle of

the third

is two

triangleif the

the third

the

anglesis
11.

and

Find

angle

four

the

of

angles
the

triangleis

half

one

second, and

The

than

is

the

another.

9.

triangleis 25". The second


How
largeis each angle?

the third.

Find

of the
8.

of

equal to 30",what

angle ?

first angle of

The

the

and

of the third

each

triangleare

times

is 14"

more

first angle is 16"


than

the second.

triangleif the difference


third angle is 43"..
a

triangleis

30"

the first. Find

more

the

more

between

than the

angles.

second,

APPLIED

EQUATION
the

Find

12.

the third

the second, and

angles of

The

13.

is the

What

Let

HINT.

angles of

TO

triangleif

the first

is 15" less than

triangleare

135

TRIANGLE

THE

angle is

two

times

to each

other

twice

the first.
as

1, 2,

size of each ?
x

2
the first,

the second, and

the third.

anglesof a triangleif the first is 2^ times


fourth
of
increased by 10", and the third is one

Find

14.

second

3.

the

the
the

second.
In

15.

triangleone

angle is

rightangle; the

other

two

%K"

anglesare representedby x
How

16.

obtuse

many

acute

right angles
angles ? How
many

anglesat

may
acute

each

trianglehave
anglesat most

angle.

How

How

least ?

Two

angles x and y of one triangleare equal respectively


to two
angles m and n of another triangle.Show that
third angle of the first triangleequals the third angle of
second triangle.

17.

the

Find
respectively.

many

many

the

and

184.

Theorem.

185.

Right triangle. If

By solvingEx. 17 we obtain the theorem


to two
If two angles of one triangleare equalrespectively
the third angleof the first
is equal
angles*
of another triangle,
to the third angleof the second.
angle of

one

is called
angle,the triangle
for
righttriangle is rt. A.

is a right
triangle
righttriangle.The symbol

"

"

EXERCISES

1.

is

equal to
2.

one

Show

Find

that the
a

sum

anglesof

righttriangle

rightangle.

the values

angle is

of the acute

two

times the other.

times

of the acute

the other

angles of

; if

one

is 5"

righttriangleif
more

than

three

130

GENEKAL

MATHEMATICS
/'

The

3.

anglesof

acute

the number

and

Draw

4.

angles of
the

Use

the

of

righttriangleon cardboard
trianglewill contain 30"

right angle. Then


side of the rightangle construct
in one
an
its side till a triangleis formed.
Why does

what
or

First

Cut

out

draw

the

that the two

so

and

60"

acute

respectively.

at

convenient

any

angle of
the third

point
60" and produce
angle equal.30"?

in Ex. 4 and
tell
trianglemade
constructed
by its use without a protractor

cardboard
be

anglesmay

tracing paper.
6.

are

Find

"

protractor.

HINT.

*5.

/'

and
^

righttriangleare
degrees in each angle.
a

Draw

each

to draw

on

cardboard

equal to 45",cut
angles of 45" and

it

right trianglewhose
out, and

90"

show

how

angles

acute

it may

be used

respectively.
wooden

triangles. A

triangleis

triangle
in drawing
(usually a right one) made for convenience
the blackboard
or
on
on
triangles
(see Fig.126).
paper
The
acute
angles are usually 60" and 30
186.

or

Wooden

45"

and

45".

These

nish
furrighttriangles
of
method
a
practical
drawing a perpendicularto
line at a given point on
a
that line. If no
triangles

wooden

of
a

this

kind

cardboard

can

with

be

had,
FIG.

two

pendicular
per-

board
edges or a cardrighttrianglewill serve
187.

Set

square.

set

square

126.

WOODEN

FIG.

the

just as

purpose

is made

trianglefastened to a straightedgeso
along the straightedge
(see Fig. 127).

127.

SET

SQUARE

TRIANGLE

up
that

of

well.

wooden

it will

slide

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

138
To

6.

in the direction

walks

man

^BCA

C, where

angleof

acute

AD,

(Fig.129),a

swamp

60",to

that /.BAD=

so
=

across

300

point

yd.,

AB

of

the number

7. Find

AB

If AC

90".

lengthof

is the

what

the distance

measure

degrees

in each

if one angleis
righttriangle

times the other ;

(a) four

fourths of the other ;


and a half times the other ;

(b) three

(c)two
(d) 5" more
(e)5" less

than three times


than

wooden

using

Ex.

four times the other.

drawing angles of 30", 45", 60", and


cardboard
or
triangles.

Practice

*8.

the other ;

the

illustrates

truth

of the

theorem

In

90"

right
opposite
a

anglesare 30" and 60" the side


halfthe hypotenuse.This theorem
proved formallylater. It is very important because

whose acute
triangle
the 30" angleis one

be

in
practical
applications

its many

construction

by

work

will

of
and

elsewhere.
189.
has

Isosceles triangle; base

equal sides is called


anglesoppositethe equal sides
the isosceles triangle.
two

angles. A

trianglewhich
isosceles triangle.The
called the base anglesof

an

are

EXERCISES

1.

Two

by
2.

Draw

equal
2

acute

5 and

angles of
3

15.

"

right triangleare

Find

the

size of each

ABC
righttriangle

a
(Fig.130). Draw
C"AB; call the foot

P.

Show

line from
of the perpendicular
that

the

perpendicular(CP) divides the


A ABC

into two

righttriangles.

FIG.

130

sented
repre-

angle.

APPLIED

EQUATION
In

3.

Ex.

\4\ In

no

of whose

two

these

two

angles?

two

angles. Indicate

of two

complement

three

isosceles

triangle. A

190. Scalene

of what

complement

/.

that

freehand

Draw

is the

139

TRIANGLE

THE

relation between

is the

2, /.y

Ex.

Show

5.

angle

is the

What

angles?
them.

the

TO

sides

triangles.

triangleis

scalene

triangle

acute

angles

equal.

are

EXERCISES

freehand

1. Draw
Do

2.

60"

30" and

are

Draw

3.

191.

scalene

? Support
triangle

the
angle
tri-

extended, one

are

each

vertex,

as

in

''
FlG-

Fig.131, the angles thus

13L

I^STRATING
ANGLES

formed

(x, y,

and

called exterior

are

answer.

your

angles

of

sides

right trianglewhose

triangle.

Exterior

three

triangle.

obtuse-

triangle. If

at

that

is

an

scalene

angled

of

think

you

scalene

OF

EXTERIOR

THE
A

TRIANGLE

z)

angles of

the

ABC.
triangle

EXERCISES

1. How

of

exterior

many

be drawn

at each

vertex

sum

interior

angles has

triangle?

How

many

angles?

Draw

Measure

their

angles can

?
triangle

2. How

3.

exterior

many

triangleand

the three exterior


?

extend

sides

the

angles with

as

in

Fig. 131.

protractor.What

is

GENERAL

14""

Cut

another

and extend
triangle
exterior angles (takingone

I"ra\\

4.

the

out

and

scissors

pairof

other

What

does

their

Find

the

sum

//. and

pencil as

vert

ices

seem

to

the

of

sum

angles x,
rotating

placethem

their

with

each

5.

MATHEMATICS

next

at each

as

in.Fig.131.

vertex)with

to

together.
be'/
three

terior
ex-

Fig. 132

in

.-.-

the sides

indicated

In-

by the

arrowheads.
FIG.

Show

6.

that tin-

mini

nf

132

flic e;rti'ri"n-

niKjli-x
"f a triangle(takingone

each

at

vertex)/\

-"""0" (two

straightangles).
How

HINT.

in the

degrees are

many

sum

w/?

// +

r?

(S,-,.Fig. l:;i.)
Show

that tlie
+
(.'"

Then

sum

m)

this fact may

(x +

?/ +

(//+ n) + (z + ?")
=

be

But

(x +

Therefore

7. The

the

(m
three

size of each

interior

8.

Find

r)

of

each

FIG.

540".

Why

:5i;o

triangleare

exterior

\Vliy?

equal.

Find

angle.

133

the value of the interior and

triangleof Fig.133.

540".

z-)= 180".

y +

angles

interior and

r)

180"

follows

expressedas

r) + (HI +

exterior

angles in

the

APPLIED

EQUATION

in

is

Fig.134

equal to

and

angles A

that

(inrjle
of
flif

f'"
('ijiinl

that

Note

HINT.

Extend

the

by
Ex.

What
the

two

FICJ. 134

angles.
methods

by drawing

suggestedby

are
a

line

this

figure.

to
through C parallel

AB.

off the

and

corners

place

other
of
180.

the

sum

interior

gles
an-

be ?

to

seem

\x

-\

Tear
quadrilateral.
angles

Art.

does

nonadjacentinterior

line A C.

method

2,

triangleAB(.'

each

to

the

terior
ex-

the

different

interior

next

of

Ex. 10

Draw

12.

of

which

an

interior

two

Prove

11.

of the two

sum

triangle is

sifin

nonadjficent

the

the

angle

141

TRIANGLE

THE

C.

II,1 (7, prove

BD

exterior

Using Fig.135, in

10.

of

the

that

Show

9.

TO

the diagonal
in Fig.136.
Draw
as
quadrilateral
is
What
into two triangles.
.4 C. This divides the quadrilateral
of the interior angles
the sum
in each triangle
? What, then,
13.

is

the

Draw

of

sum

angles of
14.

the

interior

?
quadrilateral

Draw

as
quadrilateral

in

Fig.136. Produce each side


(one at each vertex). What

do

the

you

think

exterior

is the

sum

of

angles

of

the

Check

?
quadrilateral

15.

Find

the

is 25" smaller

estimate

your

angles

than

FIG.

of

by measuring the angles.

in
quadrilateral

the consecutive

136

angle.

which

each

angle

that

16. Prove

is,prove

that

anglesof a paropposite
allelogramare equal.
that Zx

Za

If

18.

Fig.137

In

HINT.

one

largeas

/"?"___"

_Dl

of
"'

twice

size of each
between

difference

is
parallelogram
parallelogram.

Find

30".

that the

Show

20.

180", in Fig.137.

show

angle

is the

The

+ y

137

FIG.

consecutive

angle,what
19.

parallelogram

Zz.

is
parallelogram

as

angles of

the

that

'17. Prove

consecutive

the

supplementary;

are

MATHEMATICS

GENEEAL

142

two

the

of

sum

angle

in the

parallelogram?

consecutive

size of all four

the interior

angles of a
angles in the

angles of

trapezoid

straightangles (180").

is two

that two

Prove

21.

consecutive
are

angles of

pairs of
a

zoid
trape-

supplementary. (Use

Fig.138.)
Fl0'

In

22.
more

of

than

Fig.138, Z
Z. A, and

degrees in
192.

The

each

/.B

138

is 40"
is 96" less than

Z. C.

Find

the number

angle.

construction

of

triangles. We

shall

now

proceed
putting
required

which
study three constructions
require the
togetherof anglesand line segments into some
combination..
With
little practicethe student will see
a
that the processes
are
even
simpler than the thinking
involved in certain games
for children which
require the
various combinations
of geometric forms.
These constructions
are
very important in all kinds of
construction
work ; for example, in shop work, mechanical

to

TO

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

and surveying. The


drawing,engineering,

therefore
193.

as

problem. To

Construction

should

construct

when
triangle

given.

are

Let the

given sides be a, b,and c, as shown in Fig.139.


it AB.
With
a working line X Y, and
lay off side c, lettering
center and witk a radius equal to b construct
shown.
an
arc
as

Construction.

student

them.

master

the three sides

Draw

143

TRIANGLE

FIG.

139.

How

TO

CONSTRUCT

as

with

and

center

intersectingthe first.
triangleis constructed

Call
as

THREE

WHEN

SIDES

GIVEN

ARE

With

TRIANGLE

radius

the

point
required.

equal

to

construct

of intersection

C.

an

Then

arc

the

EXERCISES

1. Construct

with
triangles

(a) a
(b) a
(c) a

are

5 cm.,

5 cm.,

cm.

1 cm.,

8 cm.,

cm.

7 cm.,

9 cm.,

cm.

always possibleto
given ?

3. Construct

using the
Fig. 140.

followingsides

2. Is it

sides

the

construct

sides

trianglewhen

1
c

Compare

4.
,

shape
you

the

to size and

as
,

FIG.

triangledrawn

for Ex. 3 with

will
triangles

three

triangle,
given in

fold

those
over

140

by
drawn

each

by

other

other.)

pupils.(See if

the

MATHEMATICS

(JKNKKAL

by nailingthree sticks together.


triangle
ing
breakto change the shape of the trianglewithout
possible
nails '/
stick or removing the corner
Make

5.

Is it
a

fact that

of the

is made

use
great deal of practical

6.

wn.id.-n

wooden
is a rigidfigure
; for example, a rectangular
triangle
of a wooden
by means
gate is usuallydivided into two triangles
stable (lessapt to sag).
diagonalso as to make the gate more
that is made
use
Try to give other examples of the practical
of the triangular
figure.
^of the stability
a

7. Construct
and

of the two

one

Use

HINT.
Uais

8.

.anglesof

Make

base

and

use

// twice:

one

the isosceles

angles of

tracingsof

Compare

10.

base

that

is, in

to

the

be

relation

triangledrawn
the base

between

'.'
triangle

the base

angle

representthe

to

appear

the

as

appears

to fold

attempt

Fig.140

isosceles

an

the

equal sides.

the base

What

7.

trianglehaving given

/".

Measure

for Ex.

9.

in

take

case

isosceles

an

the

over

other.

witli

Do

for Ex

the two

7 and

angles

of rotation ?

amount

same

results

your

angles drawn

those

obtained

by

your

classmates.
NOTE.

theorem

Results

obtained

Tin- buxe

of an
anglt-x

11.

Construct

12.

Study

the

the theorem
To

pointat
must

we

support the

following

ef/"inl.

the

walk

8-9.

State

which
measure

50", until
/.ACB

distance

from

50".

to obtain

AB

toward

reach

we

side.

equilateral
triangleby pairsin

discovered.
measure

that Z/J

7-10

equilateral
trianglehaving given

the

(Fig.141) we
so

Exs.

isoscelestriangle
fire

angles of an
suggested by Exs.

manner

13.

an

from

What

A B ?

C,

line

Why

FIG.

141

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

146

EXERCISES

1. Is the construction
2. Draw

with
triangles

the

3 cm.,

lin.,

ljin.,

(a) a
(b) c

(c) J
3.

given in

Construct

FIG.

4.
with

Compare
those

drawn

two

FIG.

Construction

anglesand

146.

How

TO

Construction.

4 cm.,

Z C

47".

2i

Z.I

112".

87".

lf
the

see

if

INCLUDED

Let

given included

ZA

side

and

for Ex.

ZB

(Fig.146).

(Placeone

when
triangle
them are given.

construct

between

Two

WHEN
THEM

be

they fit.)

TRIANGLE

BETWEEN

class.

in your

students

problem. To

CONSTRUCT

parts given in Fig.145.

145

the side included

SlDE

the

other

the other and

triangleover
195.

by

?
always possible

drawn
shape the triangle

to size and

as

194

followingparts given :'

trianglewith

Art.

the

ARE

ANGLES

AND

THE

GIVEN

given angles and

line

be

APPLIED

EQUATION

THE

147

TRIANGLE

working line A'Fand


lay off AB equal to linec on^it.
At A constrict
an
angle equal to the given angled; at B construct
an
angle equal to the given angle B and produce the sides of those
shown.
Then
the t\ABC
at C, as
is the
angles till they meet
requiredtriangle.
Lay

down

TO

EXERCISES

1. Draw

with
triangles

(a) Z
(b) Z
2. Draw
3.

the

following parts given :

30",

Z B

80",

110",

Z"

20",

trianglewith

Is the construction

the

Compare

with those
over

as

of Ex.

drawn

to size and

by

each other and

other
see

2 in.

cm.

?
always possible

147

drawn
shape the triangle
members

if

parts as given in Fig.147.

FIG.

4.

of your

class.

for Ex. 2

(Foldthem

they fit.)

SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followcardboard
words and phrases: righttriangle,
triangle,
isosceles triangle,
scalene
wooden
set
triangle,
square,
exterior angles of
interior angles of a triangle,
triangle,
base angles.
a
triangle,
The
following notations have been given: notation
for the angles and
sides of triangles,
notation for right
triangle
(rt.A).
196.

This

148

1.
"

3.

4.

of the interior anglesof a triangle.


Finding the sum
of the exterior anglesof a triangle.
Finding the sum
of wooden
board
cardor
by means
Drawing righttriangles
triangles.
of the wooden
angle
trilines by means
Drawing parallel
the set square.

or

198.

chapterhas taught the pupil the following

This

constructions

three sides

1. Given

2. Griven two
the

to construct

3. Given

two

the

to construct

to
of a triangle,

sides and

triangle.
anglesand
triangle.

sum

of the

interior

have

the

angle of
side

the included

The

1. The

construct

the included

followingtheorems
chapter:

199.
this

of

chapter has presentedmethods

This

197.

been

angles of

triangle.
triangle,

of a triangle,

presented in
triangleis

straightangle (180").
2. The

sum

of the exterior

anglesof

triangleis

two

straight
angles(360").
3. If two
anglesof one triangleare equal respectively
the third angle of the
to two
angles of another triangle,
is equal to the third angle of the second.
first triangle
4. The
acute
angles of a right triangleare complementary.
5. In
60"

whose
acute
right triangle
angles are
the side oppositethe 30-degreeangle is one
a

30"
half

and

the

hypotenuse.
6. An

exterior

angle of a triangleis equal to the sum


of the two
nonadjacentinterior angles.
7. The sum
of the interior anglesof a quadrilateral
is
four rightangles(360").

8.

is

The

four
9.

10.

right
The

The

of

sum

the

of

angles

exterior

quadrilateral

(360").

angles

opposite

of

angles

consecutive

parallelogram
of

angles

equal.

are

parallelogram

are

supplementary.
11.

Two

pairs

of

consecutive

angles

of

trapezoid

are

supplementary
.

12.

The

13.

An

equal).

base

angles

equilateral

of

an

triangle

isosceles
is

triangle

equiangular

are

(all

equal.
angles

VIII

CHAPTER

ADDITION

NUMBERS.

NEGATIVE

AND

POSITIVE

AND

SUBTRACTION

200.

Clock

toy clock.

Each

objectof

Mary

game.

took

the game
of the clock

Edith

and

her turn

at

to guess

was

playingwith

were

spinningthe
the number

on

hand.
which

The
the

stopped. A correct guess counted five


than
three,
points.If a player missed a guess by more
she lost three points. If she came
within three she either
of points missed, according to
lo'st the number
won
or
whether she had guessed under or over
the correct number.
After five guesses they had the following
:
scores
hand

MARY

Solution.

Won

players(the words

Lost

Lost

Won

Won

The

as

follows

score
are

kept by the
inserted)appeared
as

EDITH

Lost

Lost

Won

Won

Lost

Who

game?

won

the

Edith

won

150

the game,

2 to 1.

POSITIVE
201.

Positive

adding of

The

AND
and

NEGATIVE

negative

mathematics.

It is

began

and

zero

she wrote
On

zero.

counted

two

and

more,

by writing3
Mary's score.

she

within
Her

she lost three.


counted
In

backward

writingthe

the number

that

the

over

it

above

was

score

subtracted

scores

was

to

was

or

zero

next

same

1.

was

3 from

turn

lost
the

On

1.

she

pointto
to

the next
In

two

one.
"

hole

from
away
idea is shown

count

necessary

below

in

one

the

circle. The

and

zero

the

above

two

was

"

she

continued

and
points,

score

had

circle. On

in both directions.
two

won

hand, Edith

second

She

and

study of
the players

that

scores

her that her

remember

1 within

she wrote

their

zero

to

meant

to

numbers.

further

our

notice

important to

the other

order

In

useful in

very

Thus, Mary began with


2

Algebraic

familiar games
like the one
extension
of our
idea of counting

an

that will be found

at

numbers.

in many

scores

illustrates

cited above

151

NUMBERS

doing so
less than

lost
zero

in
turn

she
zero.

indicate whether

zero.

shall

presentlyhave numerous
problems which
which
involve pairsof numbers
opposite
qualities,
possess
It is generallyagreed to call numlike those above.
bers
and those less than zero
positive
greater than zero
called algebraic
numbers.
are
negative.Such numbers
The
oppositequalitiesinvolved are designatedby the
words
negative."In the precedinggame,
positive and
below
whereas
numbers
numbers
above zero
are
positive,
zero
are
negative.
We

"

"

"

is
designatewhether a number
positiveor negativewe use the plus or the minus sign.
4.
4 and
4 means
a negative
a positive
Thus, 4- 4 means
The positive
signis not always written. When no signprecedes
is understood
the number
to be a positive
a number
202.

Use

of

signs. To

"

number.

Thus, 3

means

3.

152

followingstock quotationsfrom the ChicagoDaily


of the plus and
Tribune (March 24, 1917) illustrate a use
minus
signs:
The

CHICAGO

The

shows

last column

STOCK

the

EXCHANGE

net

loss

gain or

during the

Radiator
stock closed two
day; for example, American
points lower than on the preceding day, Swift " Co.
familiar
gained 2|, Peoples Gas lost 5, etc. The man
with stock markets
to see
glances at the first column
of

the

extent

the

specific
gain or
need

would
In

the

sales and

of the extension

we

of

definitions,familiar

203.
We

will

unit

be

Geometric

have

the

column

to

last column

see
one

learned

discussed.
representation of positivenumbers.
in

measuringa

is contained
(say^[_^)

times, the measured

also say that the two


o

check

last

precedingday.
see
something of the importance
may
number
our
system by the preceding
examples of positiveand negative

the latter is five units


a

To

the

the quotations for the

order that

numbers

loss.

at

line

Origin.

segment that when

five times 'in another

segment,

if it is contained
long. (In general,
segment is a units long.) We may

segments represent the numbers

This suggests
respectively.

the

1 and

followingrepresentation

MATHEMATICS

GENEKAL

154

EXERCISES

-3, -7,
If

2.

consecutive

5, won

won

scores

could

2, lost

1.

of

fifteen minutes
Where

23.

2, +
205.

and

Addition

negative numbers

and

add

count

To

add

To

add

To

add

The

4 to

further

be

"

4 to
4 to

5 +

(" 4)

on

the

"

"

are

+(+4)

right.
+ 5 begin
5 begin

4 to

results

the

4 to
"

9;

added

at
at

+
"

"

-f 1

is

"9

is

following
1, lost 2,

of the last

in
"

show

play ?
negative

that

positiveand
tion
by counting,the direcwhich
count
we
being
which
) of the numbers

of

scale

Fig. 149, begin

5 and

count

4 to the

5 and

count

4 to

5 and

count

4 to the

the

at

left.
left.
right.

+5+(-4)

forth.

certain football

positive and

of

use

number

begin at
follows

as

their

and

0, lost

at

of the field in

(forward or backward)
determined
by the sign (+ or
we
are
adding. Thus,
To

back

to

position in yards during the first


follows:
.+ 45, "15, +11, "10,

as

may

clock

add

of the

sum

Began

precedingexercises

The

numbers.

the

the

graduated

measure

the ball at the end

was

in

it, they could

on

found

be

play

players

tape

scale how

its

ball shifted

the

game,

the

by slidingthe ring

the middle

Startingfrom

3.

ring

the number

on

of

string or

to time

time

Indicate

"

has

scale, with

from

scores

each

that

imagine

we

number

the

3,

12, -8, +6.

(Art.200)

game

scale

number

the

following points on

the

Locate

1.

read

l;

"positive5

-5

(-4)

-9;

plus negative 4

equals

plus negative 4

equals

positive1."
5

+("4)
negative9."
"

read

"negative

AND

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

155

NUMBERS

EXERCISES

Give

1.

the

interpretthe

in each

sum

result

the

on

-(a) 3 +(+2).

On

the

scale.

number

3).

horizontal

straightline,as

X'OX

part

(m) -2+(-5).

^(n)

4 +

in

as

"

the

to

6,

3,

following

OF

negative and
line YOY'

the

4.

OY'

segments

correspondingto

xr

on

4,

"

3, 0.

from

starts
bicyclist

certain

pointand rides 18 mi. due northward


ward
(4-18 mi.),then 12 mi. due southfar is he from
(" 12 mi.). How
5.
a

How

far and

traveler

by

these

"

16

Denoting

6.

and

after

pairsof

-f-27 mi.?

in what

direction

going eastward
numbers

(+)
16

mi., then +

followinglatitudes

by
:

-pIG

from
or

of the

"

100

startingpoint?

the

startingpoint is
(" ) as shown

3 mi.?

28", +

11".

longitude east

is
of the

4- 52 mi.?

plus sign
meaning of the

that

mi.,then

the

equator by

sign,give the
12", 18", + 22",

it be definite to say

"

mi.,then

the minus

4-

JCQ

the

westward

mi.,then

16 mi.?

latitude north

latitude south

7. Would

"7

2,

"

and
positive

as

construct

2, + 3, + 4,

5, 0.

3. Consider
as

numbers

6.

sider
Fig.150, conpart OX' as negative.

and the
positive,
segments corresponding

OX

line

Construct

following. Be prepared to

(g) 6+(-l).
(h) 6 +(- 3).

(b) 4 +(-

2.

of the

positiveand west is negative? What


4- 42"? + 142"?
followinglongitudes':

is the
-

75"?

of Greenwich

meaning
-

3" ?

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

156

8.

then

vessel starting in latitude

42", then

17", then

G3",

"

after

latitude

its

is

What

1G".

"

20" sails +

all the

sailings?
is the

What)

9.

7", + 18",

206.

The

value.

minus

(1)

sign may

It may

it denotes

true

for

the

the

now

the

process
is

quality.

of

these

(" 3")
of

Thus,
207.
in

the

units

number

of life
include

understood
clear-ly

of subtraction, or
that

Show

show

to

as

so

negative number.

wish
in

of

absolute

Forces.

In

that

things:
it may

(2)
In

similar

often
the

the

latter
is

statement

focus

to

the

of

mechanics
as

is

us,

of the

intended.
the

since

it is

sentence

Sometimes

meaning clear, thus

3"

to

positive 4".

attention

merely

on

the

regardlessof sign.

In

that

absolute

value

confuse

context

negative

member

directions

acting upward

negative.

28",

Absolute

signs.

entirelydifferent

meanings is
to help make
add

we

opposite

force

used

speak

we

case

two

means

Sometimes
number

15", +

plus sign.

parenthesisis
4" +

scale

two

mean

meaning does not


usually possibleto decide from
which

53"

"

conditions

actual

be

double

This

12",

negative

number

It must

mean

case

in

our

the number

that

mean

of

of number.

this kind
a

need

real

extension

the

for

is

there

that

of

illustrations

many

minus

of plus and

meaning

Double

latitude

of

latitude

61" ?

22", +

in

ship starting

following changes

the

after

of

latitude

value,

either
we

or

-f 4

speak

positive and
positive,one

numerical
or

of

"

value.

is 4.

forces

acting

negative. Thus,

acting

downward

is

AND

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

157

NUMBERS

EXERCISES

Three

1.

with

lb.,another

of 27

load

pullinga

boys are

on

force of 56

with

the

third

lb.,and

With

force of 90 lb.

sled,one
what

force

with

force is the load

being pulled?
Two

small

boys are pulling a small


along; one
pulls with a force of
wagon
23 lb.,
and the other pullswith a force of
36 lb. A
and
boy comes
pulls
up behind
2.

with

force of 47 lb. in the

from
3. An

in
FIG.

does
4.

pull of

it 19.6 mi.

balloon
512

upward
if we
6.
4 mi.
a

which

rate

is the

upward

net

70-

pull?

with

boy

force of 8

can

hour.

row

How
the

How

fast

river ?

How

fast could

can

What

oz.

weightto

flowingat

flowing5

100-

upward

an

453-pound weight

hour ?

208.

that

what

toy balloon (Fig.


151)tends

per

river

At

exerts

to it. What

tie a 5-ounce
A

flying

wind

hour.

an

lb. has

downward
5.

Z12-

is

aeroplanefly?

attached
or

hour

151

the
A

rni.an

still air

against
retards

it ?

boat
fast
rate

he

to

pull

8-ounce

an

at the rate

he

can

of

go

2^ mi.

ride down

he go up

of
up
per

the

stream

mi. per hour ?

The

thermometer.

32-

happens

FIG.

The

(Fig.152) illustrates
and negative
numbers
positive

152.

mometerSIOMETER
therTHE

of

is the result ?

aeroplanethat

fly48.3

can

What

the others.

tion
opposite direc-

THE

ILLUSTRATES

IDEA

the idea
AND

in two

TIIKK-

NUMBEBS

OF

TIVE
POSI-

NEGATIVE

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

158

the first

In

ways.

place,the

scale is

number

actuallyproduced

through the zero, and degrees of temperature are


read as positive(above zero) or negative(below zero).
illustrates positive
In the second place,the thermometer
discussed in the preceding article.
and negativemotion
column
rises,its change may be
Thus, when the mercury
in this case
not a
considered as positive,
+ 5 indicating
readingon the thermometer, as before, but a change (rise)
indicates a
in the reading; similarly, 3" in this sense
drop of 3" in the temperature from the previousreading.
"

EXERCISES

is

1. What

recorded
2.

The

top

the next
3.

what
4.

If the

what

first

first reading of

first reading of

first

if

fall : +

readingof

readingof
first readingof
first reading of
first reading of
first reading of

The

reading at

the

seen

ever

The

thermometer

then

stands

it rises

hour

next

0", rises 8", and

read

5",

then

falls

5",

read ?
each

case

10" followed

by a rise of 2".
10" followed by a fall of 12".
20" followed by a fall of 18".
x" followed by a rise of y".
x" followed by a fall of y".
a" followed by a rise of a".
a" followed by a fall of a".
a" followed by a fall of
a".
"

"

P.M.

was

7".

followingnumbers

2", + 1",0",

4- 2" ?

at

reading in

the thermometer

stands

mercury

the final

hour.

an

does

Give

1"

3";

the thermometer

"

beginning of

of

column

of the mercury

does

5.

have

temperature you

at 0" at the

and

lowest

the

3",

What

the

express

3",

2",

the final reading

was

2",

hourly
-

1",

rise

1",

or

3",

AND

POSITIVE
Add

6.

the

following changes

first readingbeing 0"


7.

The

differences

hourly from

read

NEGATIVE

find the

to

3", + 2",

4",

in

readings of

M.

until

A.

P.

the.temperature

If

the

temperature

209.

at

temperature

at 5

and

as

with

of the

reading,the
2",-f 3".
that

follows

-12".

-17",

'that

-f-20",make

was

hour

3",

were

compare

A.M.

each

at

Positive

P.M.

final

thermometer

M.

7", 10", 12", 9", 8", 5", 0", -22",


the

159

NUMBERS

table

3", 4",

did

How
at

A.M.?

showing

day.

negative angles. By rotatingline AB

plane around A until it takes the positionAC


is formed
angle BAG
(Fig.153).
AB
in the opposite
tion
direcBy rotating
tinguish
angleBAC" is formed. To disin

the

between

was

these

directions

angle may be denoted by the


plus sign,and the other by the
FlG
153
minus
sign. We agree to consider
an
angle positivewhen it is formed by rotatinga line
and negativewhen
it is formed
counterclockwise
wise
by clockrotation. This is simplyanother illustration of motion
in opposite
directions.
one

EXERCISES

1.

In this exercise the


the

Construct
with

sign indicates

followingangles with

the direction of rotation.

ruler and

ing
protractor,start-

the initialline in the horizontal

: -f 30", -(45",
position
90", +43", +212", -30", -45", -90", -53", -182", -36".

2. Find

the

final

positionof a line which, startingat OX


tions
(horizontal),
swings successivelythrough the following rota:
+ 72",
213", + 336", 318",
38", + 112",
20",
-

228".
3. Do

the

you

see

line in Ex.

2 ?

short

cut

in

findingthe

final

positionof

.MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

idea

of

positive
be further illustrated by the
and negativenumbers
may
gain or loss in a transaction ; by income and expenditure;
by a debit and a credit account ; by money depositedand
checked out; and by the assets and liabilities of
money
is one
Thus, a bankrupt company
business corporation.
a
which has not been able to prevent the negativeside of the
ledgerfrom running up beyond the limit of the confidence
210.

relations.

Business

Finally,the

of its supporters.
EXERCISES

1. The

of

assets

$ 26,460, and

is its financial condition

$39,290.What

are

are

company

its liabilities

newsboy having $25 in the bank deposits$10.25 on


Monday, checks out $16.43 on Tuesday, checks out $7.12 on
$5 on Thursday,deposits$7.25on Friday,
Wednesday, deposits
and checks out $11.29 on
Saturday. What is his balance for
2.

the week
3.

If

$12,460,and
financial standing?
estate

4. A

he

boy buys

gain or
211.

may

lose and

Addition

exercises will

$1100 and his real


$2765,what is his

personalproperty is worth

man's

if his debts

amount

to

bicyclefor $10.25 and


how

much

of three

or

help us

to

see

sells it for

$6.

Does

more

how

monomials.

The

following

the addition of monomials

be extended.
EXERCISES

1. Add

(a) 2
(b) 3
2.

the
+

followingmonomials

3 +

(- 4)+ (5).
(c) (- 4) + 2 + 3 + (- 5).
2'+ (- 4) + (- 5). (d) (- 5) + (- 4) + 3 + 2.

In what

form

stated ?

(Art.36.)

addends

are

has the commutative


Does

negative?

it

seem

to

law of addition
hold

when

some

been

of the

Algebraic addition.

212.

add

1. To

2. To add

two

may

absolute 'values and

having like signsfind


their
prefixto this sum

numbers
algebraic

having unlike signsfind

numbers
algebraic

two

of their
sign.

common

preceding

positiveand negativenumbers
laws :
accordingto the follo\f1ng

be added

sum

results of the

The

that

exercises show

the

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

ltli"

of their absolute values and prefixto


difference
of the number havingthe greater absolute value.
the

it the

sign

EXERCISES

1.

Show

that the

of two

sum

values

of their absolute

sum

Illustrate with
2.

Show

the

but

from

same

actual

3. Find

of two

sum

absolute

with

the

common

like

signs is the
sign prefixed.

experience.

concrete

that the

value is

numbers

having

unlike

Illustrate with

zero.

signs
fact

some

experience.
the

(a) -5

with

numbers

followingsums,

performing all

(g) -f

(d)-7

+j

-"

"1

you

can

orally:

-(j)-17f*
+261*

H
(b) +5

Find
4-

the
6

--

+
"

(h) -fai

(e) -Sa

followingsums
5.

-f

6.

+51

10

+10

+23

-7

-18

(k) + 62"z2
-28f ae8

-7

7.

-242

+726
58

+24

POSITIVE

8.

163

NUMBERS

12.5

9.5

2.5

Sx

--

4z

+
+

10.

NEGATIVE

7.5

9.

AND

17

a;

7x

+
-lOx
-I2x

+24

11.

"

6a

7a

"

3a

213.
a

Drill

drill in

determining

and

applying

or

is the

this
are

the

is the

same

same

as

case

added

numbers.

following
for

law

We

need

the

step

involves

the

similar

preceding
in which

the

the

to

is

monomials

as

exercises

factor

common

of the
of the coefficients

sum

factor
are

similar

more

the

the

(Art. 40).

monomials
two

The

exercises.

set

the

addition

similar

addition

recall
number

of

constitute

addends
addends.

of

that

The

of

of the

positive and

of

sum

coefficient

whose

(Art. 40) except


coefficients

similar

the

whose
and

mials
mono-

literal

exercises
that

in

addends

negative

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

164

EXERCISES

In each

followingterms

The

20y,

The

factor

common

is

requiredsum

the

3.

b,

4.

ab,

4 ox,

az,

The

Solution.
The
Since

and

thus

14

"

"

factor is

written

11.

m/,

12.

tyab,+ 4|aJ, 5^ ab,

:.

(- 14) + (-")

"7x,

of

can

12.

only indicate

that

is

(a

"

"

2)z.

ex.

y2,

we

monomial

as

"

Addition

13 mnx*.

12.

b +

mx,

214.

"

still undetermined,

10.

wf,

the

wwia2,

z.

Whence

5 x,

18.

or.

coefficients is

sum

5 ^b.

-bz, +12

"

fe are

"

(- 35)

"spq*, Bpf.

common

of the

sum

20

13 b.

15

"

a2*,

8 az,

"

14 z,

wmx2,

lpq\
5/,r/,

9.

12

(- 6) +

ab, + 13 06.

11

o%,

b, + 11 b,

ab,

mnx*,

7. 3 ax,
8.

b,

17

a2*,

6.

12

ing
add-

18 y.

"

5x,"7x,"9x,+12x,"3x.

"

by

is y.

2.

5.

monomial

as

35y.

of the coefficients is 3 +

sum

Whence

sum

(2)express

factor the

what

respect to

3y, -6y,

Solution.

similar ;

are

like terms
1.

with

(1) pointout

case

12

y8,+ c/.
-

6| aft.

polynomials.

We

have

had

numerous

examples of the addition of polynomialsin dealingwith

imeters.
per-

involved to polynomials
applyingthe principles
and negativeterms
need to recall that
we
having positive
in addition the terms
be arranged or grouped in any
may
In

order.

Thus,

2 +

3 +

5 + (-

3) +

3 +
4

2 + 4
-

3 +

(Commutative Law)
(5 + 4) (Associative
Law)

POSITIVE

In

AND

NEGATIVE

is convenient

adding polynomials it
in

terms

the

numbers

denominate

much

column,

same

165

NUMBERS

to

do

we

as

similar

group
in

adding

in arithmetic.

EXERCISES

1. Add

the

simplest form
12 yd. + 3 in.
Solution.

following polynomialsand
:

1 ft. +

yd. +

Writing

the

similar

in.,5 yd. +

in

terms

yd. 1 ft.
5 yd. 1 ft.
12yd.
20yd. 2fE
3

Note
inches

written

as

follows
3

separate columns

in.,and

have

we

3 in.
11 in.

factors

them,

or

yards,feet,

not

are

inches.

The

problem

36

12

r" x

36

12

12

1 ft. +

2 in.

all of

to

common

to its

sum

6 in.

mathematical

common

but the unit

be

may

the

that

the

reduce

36
_

20

2.

Add

tj

36

Add

Solution.
we

27 xs

// +

9 y +

2 i

5 y +

3 y +

81

similar

("

I,and

in

14 a-8+

13 xy

25 xy

separate columns

have
-

8 i.

14 a-8+

if',

terms

27 Xs

3 y +

Tar 4- 16 i

1C

"13xy+

Writing

12 + 11

/,o

17 y +

3.

16

25 xy +

?/2

6 xz/ +

y2

y2

and

?/,

and

adding,

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

166

followingexercises

In the

2b

3b

"

2b

2x

5.

5x

3x+

3c

9x-

4"

3y +

8.

6y"7z

"

4z

"

5y

5c

6r-2s

5r

"3t

3s

-2x-5y-2z
2a

6.

3a

"

10.

12A;-10Z

12.

14

"

3 y +

6w

7z"

6w

llaj +

"

-27c

1 z, 5

+
5 y

19ft

3y

"

"z

3z

"

30 c, and

"

and

2^-4m,
"

3 z, and

5x

+4c.

6e +

4:y +

2z.

24z-

NOTE.
called

9m,

5z+

3t

x+

13c,

+
+

2x

5c

"

6b

"

11.

13.

Here

certain

terms

These
parenthesis.

treated

be

Sb

"

2x

"

\9\

5b+7c

-ly"
8+

2r+6s-5t

8s

Sw

15y-l6z22y + l6z-12w

-Sx

-2c

-9/;

:
polynomials

7. ~6x

"c

the

add

as

one

given when
14.
15.

215.

number

are

indicate

inclosed
that

in

the

quantity. Other
(seepp. 175, 177).

or

needed

one

grouping symbols ( )

terms

within

are

to

grouping symbols

be
will

(6*3

Degree of

indicated

number.

The

degree of

number

is

Thus, x2 is of
by the exponent of the number.
the second degree; a-3,
of the third degree; y\ of the fourth
3 xyh* is of the first degree
degree; etc. The monomial
with respect to x, of the second degree with respect to y,
and of the third degree with respect to r.

POSITIVE

AND

Degree of

216.

is determined

the

Another

factors.

Thus, 3? is of the
and

of
4:ry222,

the

167

NUMBERS

degree of

monomial

of the exponents of the literal

sum

of

way

literal factors in

The

monomial.

by

NEGATIVE

saying this

is : The

number

of

degree of the term.


second degree; xy2,of the third degree;
fifth degree.
term

is called the

EXERCISES

the degree of the

Determine
1.

2ajy.

3.

3 ft4.

5.

2.

2abs.

4.

5x7/V.

6.

followingmonomials

^z

9.

8. rsl.

10.

2"mxy.

7.

rV.

3.2
"

"

m*x*ifz\

217.

of

polynomial. The degreeof

polynomial
is determined
by the degreeof the term having the highest
degree. Thus, x^y*+ x+%y + 5 is of the fourth degree,
and 5o^
a^ + 7isa
third-degree
expression.
Degree

"

EXERCISES

Indicate
1. x* +

the

2x3

degree of
-

2xij +

x4 +

3.

y?"1xy-"ryi.

2x* +

followingpolynomials:
y +

7.

4.

5. a;4+

'

2.

the

if.

6.

x5 +

2xif+

if.

4.

x3 +

x* +

1.

polynomialis said to be arranged


accordingto the descendingpowers of x when the term of
the highestdegree in x is placed first,
the term
of next
lower degree next, etc., and the term
not
containingx
last. Thus, 2 + x-\-x8-\-^3^ when
arrangedaccordingto
the descending
+ #+2.
powers of x takes the form z3+3z2
When
arrangedin the order 2 + a; + 3"2 + "3,the polynomial
is said to be arrangedaccordingto the ascending
powers of x.
218.

Arrangement.

Find the
and

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

168

7, 5a3-4a

and

adding,we

-a2

-3a2+2a3-4a,

of

sura

-2"3-7-2a2.

Arranging accordingto descending powers


2 a8

3 a2

a2

+7

5 a8
2 a8

One

carefullyin

is to add

check

to

way

5a8-6a2-8a
Check.

2 a2

have

order,

reverse

as

in arithmetic.
A

method

second

Let

Then

2.

checking is

for

the

following:

have

we

2 a3

3 a2

"

"

a2
5 a8
-

by

shown

2 a3

2 a2

5a3-6a2-8a

"

3
35

31

3=

example checks, for we obtained 3 by substituting


2 for a in the sum
and also by adding the numbers
obtained
2 for a separately
in the addends.
by substituting
The

EXERCISES

In

the

followinglist arrange the polynomialsin columns


either accordingto the ascending or the descending order of
literal factor. Add
and
check as in the preceding
some
one
problem.
1. x2 +

if

x2 -xy

xy,

2.

26xi/, -5y*

3.

5.3 x2

4.

"x8-Sx2-5x-12,

5.

8 a3

6.

3 ?-2+

2 r8 +

f s2

7.

12x*,

13.6 xy

2 a2 +

"

3
3

5,

" r2,
-

f,

r*

s*

"

rs

2 a2 +
r

rs +
s

16?f.

5 xy +

3x-5x*

3 "8 +

3x*-2y'2.

ISxy

0.02

3x* +

6,

14 xy

IQxy

2.3

y*,"

3.2 x2.

8.

7.

1, r2
-5r*.

2.

day

which

newsboy

How

much

must

Apply

better off is

20 ?

1 and

12.

Interpreteach,of

13.

Through

reach

(Fig.155) to

born

was

in

he had

figurethat
old

How

what

of

famous

Roman
In

i
"

On

the
the
at

much

11

as

18 ?

verbal

the

45 ?

5 and

problem.

line

turn

OI^

287

"

what

FIG.

155

born

did

year

he

in

in

484

"

59

"

and

die ?

historian,sometimes

born

illustrated

-6
I
"

"

-3

-4

-5
I

I
"

called

died in

and

I
"

-2
I
"

the

by

find what

we

0 +1

-1
I
"

FIG. 156.

to

Ex.

20?

12 and

was
historian,

Greek

History,was

Subtraction

-7

-8
"

and

in the sand.

drawn

4 from
subtracting

"

How

the

424.

At

scale.

In

"

did he die ?

age

220.

200 left?

in cash.

degrees must
positionOR2?

the year

Herodotus, the

Father

have

tician,
great mathema-

lived to be 76 yr. old.


16.

650.

he ?

was

Livy,a

15.

total of

soldier
by a Roman
studying a geometrical

while

212

"

12

25 ?

parts of

rule

problem.

many

about

slain

was

the

the

Archimedes,

14.

and

how

between

5 and

the

the rule stated for Ex. 8.

Apply

is the difference

20 ?

0 and

John

and

debt,Henry has #40

in

than

Henry

What

11.

$25

is

10. John

State

newsboys

8 to this

solvingEx.

during

earn

kind.

of this

his debts

to pay

he

must

evening?

three other

earn

rule for

your

the

problems

owes

he

in

850

to solve

use

much

How

410.

have

to

as

so

you

9.

has

newsboy

8.

the

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

170

I
"

THE

I
"

number

4-2 +3
I
"

NUMBER

number

I
"

be added

must

4-4 -H5 4-6 +7


I
"

I
"

i
"

i
"

4-8
i
"

i
"

"

SCALE

(the subtrahend)to get the 6 (the minuend).


number
scale (Fig.156) how many
ning
spaces (begin4) must we count until we arrive at 6 ?

EXAMPLES

ILLUSTRATIVE

Subtract

1.

2 from

"

Beginning

Solution.

3.

at

to arrive at
right(positive)
Note that we
might have

Subtract

2.

Beginning

Solution.
to the

left

5 to

"

This

exercise

Subtract

3.

at

could

we

have

the

as

between

8 from

subtract

can

Thus, adding $100

in

result

same

2 below

and

zero

Interpretas

if +

verbal

scale

8 from

to the

"

8 is added

number

problem.

need

we

namely,

zero

to

to count

equals +
"

is the

6.

2.

reverse

by adding its opposite.

unnecessary

expenses

of

firm

subtracting$100 gain, or, on


$1000 of lost
hand, eliminating(subtracting)
industrial enterpriseis adding $1000 to the
an

preciselythe

motion

the

that since subtraction

examples show

other

to count

problem

temperature

5 above

2.

"

result is obtained

same

of addition,we

2 to 3.

need

we

obtained

"

that

equals5.

Hence, subtracting+ 5 from

2.

"

"

These

the

by adding

scale

8 on the number
Beginning at
Hence, subtracting
right(positive).

6 to the

is

the number

on

stated

Solution.

Notice

the result

2.

"

arrive

be

may

"

2 from

the

to

spaces

2.

"

is the difference

What

count

to

"

obtained

that

Note

7.

"

need

we

Hence, subtracting

3.

at

to
(negative)

equals
by adding
"

"

5 from

171

NUMBEKS

NEGATIVE

AND

POSITIVE

as

same

gain.

net

It is convenient

for

there will be

by

its use

an

automatic

problem,and

us
no

to

make

rules

new

changeof sign when


a

continuation

of this relation,for

use

we

to

learn, but

come

of the process

subtraction

of addition.

preceding discussion
shows that subtraction
of algebraic
numbers
may be changed
To subtract
into algebraic
addition by the followinglaw:
number
one
from another change the sign of the subtrahend
221.

and

add

Algebraic

the result

subtraction.

to

the minuend.

The

to

merely

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

172

Thus, the subtraction

example
7a

3a

10

may

be

changed

to the

addition

example
+

la

3a

10

EXERCISES

Subtract

the

lower

following.Illustrate

number
Exs.

1-11

from

the upper
number
with verbal problems.

in the

AND

POSITIVE

TRANSLATION
33.

into

PROBLEMS

VERBAL

INTO

173

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

verbal

subtraction exercises
following
given:
problem,using the suggestion

(a)As

assets and liabilities


:

Translate each of the

loss :

(b)As gainor

+ 8246

+ 5

(c)As

debit

(d)As

an

(e) As

an

or

credit :
-27
48

"

(f)

angleproblem:

14"
+ 22

age

:
problem(time)

the number

As line segmentson

"

(g) As

bank account

(h)As

latitude problem:

(i)As

(j) As

scale :

246

"

40

-(-Zo
i

longitudeproblem:

go

~l~75
i

probleminvolvingforces

222. Subtraction of

consists of

more

than

polynomials.When

the subtrahend

the subtraction may be


each term of the subtrahend
subtracting
one

term

by
performed
from the corresponding
term
For

"2

example,when

we

of the minuend.

wish to subtract 5

3 quarters,and
dollars,

7 quarters,and 31 dimes, we
12 dollars,
7 dollars ; 3 quartersfrom
dollars from 12 dollars,
leaving

18 dimes

from

leaving4 quarters; and 18 dimes

from

subtract 5
7

quarters,

23 dimes.
31 dimes, leaving

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

174

reduced

therefore be

addition,

to

examples,which

monomials

of

subtraction

the

from

different

two

algebraicpolynomialsis,then,

subtraction of

The

2 a*

17 ab

7 a2

11 P

3 ft2

3 ab +

5 a2 +

student

should

in the

written

form

is

3 b*

17 "//

change the signsof


until there

14 ft2

the subtrahend

doubt

no

11 tf

Sab-

2 a2

whatever

mentally. The

to change them
ability

as

will

example

follows:

as

appear

14 ab

5 a2

14 ft2

The

to his

following

ADDITION

14 ab

may

exactlyequivalent:

are

SUBTRACTION
7 "2

the

in

as

and

not

"2 + 2 ab +

//""

a2

2 ab +

fe2

4o6

The

NOTE.

They

are

neglectedin

Numerous

verbal

hope of givinga
The

signs are the actual


the adding process.

lower

student

problems

reasonable

should

have

been

law

the

subtrahend.

with

given

basis for the law

apply the

now

signs of

the

of subtraction.

in
automatically

the

followingexercises.
EXERCISES

Subtract

the lower

1. 4a?-3ab

from

the upper

6b2

3.

polynomial :
x3 +

4:a?-5ab-4:b2
2.

3x2y + Sxy2 + y3
7 xzy + 3 xy* + y*

if
x2-5zy+
-3x2-4a;//-3y2

5.

From

10 xy

6.

From

16 x"

7.

From

2a?-2a?b

"

xz

5 mx*

2mn2

4.
-

7 mri*

-j-6yz subtract
+

4 m*

+ al"2-2b3

"

subtract
subtract

4 m*n

4 xy

7x*
a3

5msn+

"

"

6
+

xz

4 mx*

18

3 yz.
12 m3.

3 a?b + aft2
-

6s.

Subtract

indicated,doing

as

of the work

much

as

possible

as

mentally.
8.

(4r8

9.

(_

6 r8* +

"

m*pq

10.

(15 xs

11.

(" a8

12

14

(2.3aW

13.

(3 x2

a"y

a"2 +

aW

-(-1.1
8.7a6*2)
5

3)

(31 afy+

2.1 a6*8

2 a2 +

(-

3.2 xy

15.

(5.2ofy

16.

(2.42a262

17.

(3 a63-

afe8) (-2

18.

(5x2+2a-//+ 3y2)+ (2*2-5a;y-/)-(9x2

19.

Compare
State

20.

5 ab +

polynomial

the

in

223.

6)

in

(3.12a8^"

a"8 + 3 a3-

signs.of

the terms

before and
to the

as

after the

2 ai

+
-

y2).

4 a8-

in the

subtrahend

removed.

parenthesisare

effect of the minus

6).

9).

a5c8) (-

of the

3a364).

sign preceding

parenthesis.

is the

What

21.

if)

rule

+ 2

41xy

y8).

5) -f (2 x2

mV)-

15

rs2).

3 a8).
5^ "26
6 J *8/-)(4J s2*+ 3| ""** + 7 J A).

8f s8*

11 z8 +

a8*) (- f

4.6 a468 +

foregoingexercises

4 s8 -f-3

-(-6m*p-8m?pq

(5frst

afy + Ty8) (-

3J aft8
7 J r8*

6 r2* +

rs8) (2 r8 +

msp -10mV)

12

10 s8

rule

when

the

plus sign precedes

nomial
poly-

parenthesis?

Symbols

aggregation. It has

of

been

found

very

parenthesisfor grouping numbers.


Such
a
a
symbol indicates definitelywhere
polynomial
begins and ends. Other symbols used with exactly the
same
meaning and purpose are [ ] (brackets); { } (braces);
convenient

to

"

"

and

to

be

the

use

(vinculum). Thus,

subtracted

from

to
we

the

indicate
may

use

that
any

+
one

is
of

followingways : (# + #) (# + ft),[x + y\
[a + ft].
b. The
is like
vinculum
a +
{x-}-y} {a + ft},or x+y
the familiar
line separating numerator
and
denominator
"

"

"

.2
,.

oi

"

fraction,

as

in

or

ft
-""

a"

ft

MATHEMATICS

(JEMERAL

170'

pair within
symbols are inclosed one
(16 (9 2)}.
another; thus, 19
ment
agreeIn an
example like the precedingthe common
first the innermost
parenthesis.First,
is to remove
the

Sometimes

from

the result, 7, is to be

result,9, is in

This

16.

subtracted from

9, then

from

subtracted

2 is to be

turn

to

be subtracted

the final result is 10.

19 ; whence

EXERCISES

meaning

1. (live the

(a) 15 -{4

of the

(6 -8)}.

[_ 7 x
(C) 5 x
(d) 3 (a;+ y) 5{x
_

following:

{"2x2x-3y}.

the rules governing the effect of


in mind
Keep definitely
the
or a plus sign before a grouping symbol. Perform
a minus
followingindicated operationsand simplifythe results :
2.

(a) 12-{5-(-2x-5)}.
3 x
4}.
{- 12 x
(b) 17
a8}.
(c) 4 a2 (a2 3 a8 + 3 a2
(d) 2e-[6e-36-4e-(2e-46)].
-

(f)

15 a?

{-

3 x2

(3x2

5)}

(20a2

5).

SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases
: positive
number, negativenumber,
numbers, absolute value of a number (ornumerical
algebraic
value),degree-of a number, degree of a monomial, degree
of a polynomial,descendingpower,
ascendingpower.
224.

This

IX

CHAPTER

FACTORING

DIVISION.

AND

MULTIPLICATION

NUMBERS.

NEGATIVE

AND

POSITIVE

of numbers
multiplication
having plus or minus signs are easilyapplied to a
of interesting
considerable number
problems. These laws
illustrated in the followingexamples:
are

Multiplication.The

231.

EXAMPLES

ILLUSTRATIVE

1. Find

the

Solution.

segment
zero

the

on

product

Find

"4

segment

on

scale ; that

its

it off two

r^

157

is,in

times

the

the

and

to
O

number
direction

own

3. Find

product

of
I

as

follows:

4 units

that is,oppositeits

-4

-4
i

Take

terpret
in-

FIG.

159

lay it off two times to the leftof


direction (Fig.159). Thus, (" 2) (+ 4)

long
own

158

we
Geometrically

this

FIG.

-8.

(- 2).

Solution.

"4

-4

units

(Fig.158).
Thus,(+ 2)(-4)

of

product

long
lay
the leftof zero

segment

+ 8

Geometricallythis

and

(+ 4)

FIG.

Take

8.

(+2).

Solution,
means

+ 4

(Fig.157).

the

and

(-4)

scale ; that

direction

Thus, (+2) (+4)


2.

(+ 4) and (+ 2).

a
Geometrically we
interpret this as follows : Take
units
long and lay it off two times to the right of

number

is,in its ewn

of

of

laws

and

zero
=

"

;
8.

POSITIVE
4. Find

AND

179

NUMBEKS

product of (- 4) and (- 2).

the

If the

Solution.

NEGATIVE

first factor

were

interpretthis geometricallyby laying


line segment
8 units
long (see
in
Fig. 160) just as we did in
ORV
Ex. 2. But since it is a negative2,
we
lay it off not in the direction of
ORl but in the oppositedirection;
namely, OR (see Fig. 161). Thus,

then

positive2,
off

"

twice,

we

should

obtaininga

"

Note

as

Ex.1, the signs


"

of

in

that

this last case,


in

the

FIG.

161

cand
multipli-

alike,and the productis positive


are
multiplier
;
3 the signsof the multiplicand
and
while in Exs. 2 and
are
unlike,and the product is negative.
multiplier
and the

EXERCISES

the productsof (+ 2)(+ 5);(- 2)(+5);


geometrically

1. Find

(+2) (-5); (-2) (-5).


2.

State

numbers

232.

as

The

the law

of

signs

suggested by
of

law

the

for the

product of

two

algebraic

precedingwork.

signs for multiplication.

The

law

of

is as follows:
signsfor multiplication
The productof two factorshavinglike signsis positive.
The productof two factorshavingunlike signsis negative.
EXERCISES

Find

of the

the value

signs. Illustrate

the

followingproducts,using the
first ten geometrically.

1.

(+3) (+5).

3.

(-3) (+5).

5.

2.

(- 3)(- 5).

4.

(+ 3)(- 5).

6.

law

of

(-2) (+3).
(- 2)(- 3).

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

180
7.

(-2) (+7).

11.

(2)(-").

15.

(-3) (-5 a).

8.

(+2) (+7).

12.

(-!)(-!).

16.

(-f)(

9.

(9)(-3).

13.

(-2*) (-3).

17.

(-f)(

(-4) (-a).

14.

10.

of

233 !. Law

2a/"-3.

-2o-

18.

multiplication illustrated

the

by

balance.

signsmay be illustrated with a balanced bar


(Fig.162). A lightbar is balanced at M. The pointsrv r2,
of

The

law

etc.

represent pegs

small

or

equaldistances.
shall speak of rv rv etc.
We
first rightpeg," second
as
rightpeg,"etc. and of lv 12,
first left peg," secetc. as
ond
left peg,"etc. with the bar
PLICATION
MULTIin a position
facingthe class as FIG. 162. THE LAW
in Fig.162. The
weights,w,
BEAM
BALANCED
all equal; hence we
shall
are
two
weights," three weights,"
merely speak of them as
of ounces
etc. instead of mentioningthe number
or
grams
the pulley
In Experiments 1-3 the stringover
contained.
nails driven at

"

"

"

"

or

ILLUSTRATED

on

THE

"

"

is fastened

BY

the firstleft peg.

EXPERIMENTS
1.

Hang
must

many

two

weights

be attached

/r

on

to the

three

do
weights on /r What
as
compared with the first case
weights on 13.
1

The

device

entire article may

be

This

hook

tends
H

you notice
? Answer

omitted

at

to

keep

to

about
the

the

turn

the

bar.

How

the

bar level ?

the

turning tendency

same

teacher's

question

Hang

for four

discretion.

The

The
teachers.
has, however, proved useful in the hands of many
be
several
of
book
the
at
bought
apparatus
large
companies or,
may
better still,
in the shop by a member
made
of the class,using a part of
a yardstick for the lever and
small nails for pegs.

181

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

AND

POSITIVE

Hang one weight on lr How many must be placedon the hook


it and hang
to keep the bar level? Hang one
weight on /2; remove
do you notice about the
one
weight on /3; on /4; and so on. What
two things does the turning
turning tendency in each case ? What
to depend on ?
tendency seem
2.

3.

the

With

be put on
weights must
on
/8? three weights on 12? one
three weights on /4?

the

many

of experiments.

pulley fastened
on

the pegs

The

/j ho.w
to balance
two
weights
?
two
weights on Z4?
lt

hook

weight

Repeat Experiments 1~3 for


pulleystringfastened to rr What
4.

Results

the

stringpassing over

seems

on

to

the

to be

rightside,with the
the only difference?

experimentsshow

that

turningtendency(Jorce)varies as the number of


weightshung on a peg on the bar. Thus, the more
weights
hung on any peg, the stronger the force.
2. The turning tendency also varies as
the distance of
the peg from the turningpoint.
3. The
turning tendency is equal to the product of the
by the distance of the peg on which the
iveights
multiplied
weighthangs from the turningpoint.
4. When
a
weightis hung on a rightpeg, the bar turns in
direction as the hands of a clock ; when a weight is
the same
1.

hung

The

on

the hands
234.
is

leftpeg,

of a

Signs

the bar

rotates

in

direction

to
opposite

clock.
of turning

tendency ; weight

; lever

arm.

It

clockwise
conventionally
agreed that when the bar turns counterthe turningtendencyis positive
(as you face it),
;
while if the bar rotates
clockwise,the turningtendency is
negative.
Weights attached to the pegs are downward-pulling
weights and are designatedby the minus sign. Weights
attached at H pullupward on the bar and are designated
by the plus sign.

distance

The
the

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

182

from

the

Lever

of the force.

measured

arms

where

peg

called the lever arm,

will be

weight,or force, acts

"arm

the

turning point to

from

the

or

turning

right will be marked + ; those toward


For example,if the distance from M to peg i\
the left,
is represented
by + 1, then the distance from M to r3 will
2 ; and so on.
be + 3 ; the distance from M to /2will be
the

point toward
"

"

Multiplicationof positiveand negative numbers.

235.

of the apparatus

means

and

negativenumbers

(Fig.162)

is

ILLUSTRATIVE

1. Find

the

Solution.

AVe

product of

be found.

to

now

the

By
positive

EXAMPLES

product of (+ 2)(- 4).


interpretthis exercise
negative, weights on

may

downward-pulling,or
right (positive).The bar turns clockwise.
hence the product of (2)(" 4) is
8.

four

meaning, Hang

as

the

second

The

force

to

peg
is

the

negative;

"

2. Find

the

Solution.

fourth
The

peg

Hang
to the

force is
3.

Show

HINT.

that
Fasten

does

Show

downward-pulling,or negative,weights on the


(negative).The bar turns counterclockwise.

two

left

positive
;

rightand hang
4.

product of (- 2)(- 4).

hence

(+ 3)(+ 4)

the

three

(+2)

Compare the results of


multiplication
(Art.232).

hoped that

of

(" 2) (" 4) is

s.

12.

the

pulleyto

the

fourth

peg

to the

the hook.

that

-6;

illustrate the law

5.

It is

product

stringover
weights on

'that(-3)

the beam

the

of

Exs.

the law of

6. How
(+ 2)(- 3)
order in multiplication
?

1-4

with

signsis made

the

law of

signsin

reasonablv clear

of these illustrations. The


by means
student
the law automatically.
proceed to ajjply

should

now

POSITIVE

AND

NEGATIVE

183

NUMBERS

EXERCISES

State the
of the work

productsof the following,


doing mentallyas
as
possible:

much

1.

(+4) (-6).

11.

(-3.1)(-5).

21.

2.

(-4) (+6).

12-

(-f)(f).

22.

(-6X-S).

3.

(+4) (+6).

23.

(-8)(-

4.

(-4) (-6).

24.

(-c)(-

5.

(+2) (+5).

25.

(-

6.

(+3) (-4).

16.

26.

(-

7.

(-5) (-2).

17.

8.

(-3) (-7).

18". (+6j)(-6-i). 28.

9.

(-5) (+6).

19.

(-12) (-13).

20.

10.

236.
0 +

_6-

(+6j-)(+6j). 27. (51)(-^2)


(_6i)(+6-i-).29. (-1)3.

-23.

30.

Multiplicationby

0 +

(-9)(+x2

The

zero.

product of

means

0.

EXERCISES

1.

Show

that
geometrically

2.

Show

by

3.

State

In

value

of the

in

product is
is the

What

4.

problem

general both

zero.

(Fig.
162)that

the beam
verbal

Fig.163

change

if you

smaller

and

to

were

smaller

when

of

the

would

the

make

in which

0 and

zero

area

? How

0=0.

ax

that 0

0=0;

one

of the

equal zero.
of the

one

a=0.

factors is
Hence

factors

is

the
zero.

tangle
recarea

the

base

connection

? What

has

this with

the

How

would

5.

in
made

principle

Fig. 163

smaller

and

the

if I"

change
?

0 ?
FIG.

of the

area

smaller

were

What

163

tangle
rec-

not

does

changed

but

this illustrate ?

were

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

184

The

product of

several

by multiplyingthe
second, the result by the third, and so
the factors may
order in multiplication

first factor

by

is obtained

factors

rearranged

is often the

in

case

fractions.

involves

problem which

first be

the

the law of

By

on.

This

the exercise easier.

if this makes
a

factors.

of several

Product

237.

EXERCISES

following products:

of the

the value

1. Find

(a) (+2) (-3) (-5) (-4).


00 (- -BX-f) (-!!)(")"

(-1)2; (- 1)3;(-1)4; (-2)2(-2)3


(-2)*; (-2)5; (- 3)2(-3)8(- 3)*; (_4)2(-4)8.
the

2. Find

Find

4.

and

5.

the

"

of

value

"

3x*y

Find

the value

of z8 +

3 x2 +

2s ;
Compare (- 2)3and
"8 ; (- a)4and
24 ; (- a)8and
-

7.

three
which

What

What

State

the

238.

The
to be

By

"

5 when

Secy2+ y*

when

2.

"

"

1 when

3s and

10.

(- 3)8; (- 2)4and

a*.

is the

powers

"

are

positive?

of

"

2 ?

of

"

rule.

sign of
+

of

Multiplicationof

the

Find

monomials.

productis determined

as

in Art.

the

product of

232

and

factors may

be

is found

the law of order

follows

in
0

the
multiplication
,

QN
2(- 3)
(- o) zxxxyyy,

which

sign of the product of five factors of which


are
negative and two are positive? of six factors of
three are
negative and three are positive?

8.

as

x8

12

"

2.

"

6.
-

5 xs + x*

of 3 a-4

the value

Find

of

value

is

equal

to

arranged

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

186
is

What

20.

determining the. sign of

of

short method

the

of factors ?

productcontaininga large number

agreed that when an arithmetical expressioncontains


with
multiplicationor division
plus or minus
signs in connection
and division shall be performed first. This
signs,the multiplication
to the same
amounts
thing as finding the value of each term and then
indicated.
lit
as
in- s
(tili/in"/
racling
It is

NOTE.

it

Multiplicationof

239.

shall

the

how

see

now

polynomial by

of

process

We

monomial.

algebraicmultiplication

is extended.
EXERCISES

INTRODUCTORY

the process of

1. Keview

findingthe product of a(x

+ y +

z)

in Art. 122.
2.

Illustrate

product
3.

by

in

obtained

How

is the

of each

area

precedingexercises serve
polynomialmay be multiplied
by a
by the
every term of the polynomial
resulting
products.
DRILL

the

arithmetical

of

the

for the

Solution.

a2

figurecontain

to

recall the law

monomial

that

by multiplying
and adding the

monomial

EXERCISES

indicated

products as
values

meaning

part ?

The

Find

the

Ex. 1.

parts does the whole

many

4. What

geometric drawing

and

check

literal numbers

2 ab + 3 b*

by substituting

3_a= _6
_

3 a3

Check.

Let

2 and

6 a26 -f 9 a"2

3.

in the product as
substituting
then multiplyingthe numbers.

Then

the

114
same

result is obtained

by substitutingin the
Note

that

the

check

factors

is not

by
and

reliable

if

let

we

literal number
x5

"

(as a: in
equals x3

also

-3x

5x(2x*

2.

product containing a power of that


4 x) equal 1, for if x
1, then
a product a;5
4 x, x2
4 x, x9
4 x, etc. Explain.

literal number

1ST

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

AND
in

"

"

"

"

-7).

3.

4.
5.

5.1

"

"4(i

6.

(?"V

7.

3 mV

4 mV

3.5 ?"V.

wV)

8.
9.

10.
11.

240.

of two

Product

In Art.

polynomials.

126

found

we

productof two polynomialsto be the sum of all the partial


productsobtained by multiplying
every term of one polynomial
the case
by each term of the other. After reviewingbriefly
for positiveterms
shall proceed to interpret
the above
we
law geometrically
when
even
negativeterms are involved.
the

EXAMPLES

ILLUSTRATIVE

1.

the

Find

product of (c+ d)(a + It).

The

Solution.

of the whole

area

The

rectanglein Fig.164

is

expressed

line

dotted

suggests a
by (a + ")(c + d).
for expressingthe area
the
of
method
as
sum
two
rectangles; namely, a (c + c?)+ b (c + d).
If

we

use

expressed
namely, ac
equals the

the
as

+
area

line

the
ad
of

of

sum

be +

bd.

of the

one

(a + 6)(c + d)

the

MN,

a(c

area

may

be

four

rectangles;
Each
expression
hence
rectangles;
+

d) + b(c + d)

wo

FIG.

ac

ad +

164

be +

bd.

1.88

Illustrate,by

2.

of
multiplication
3

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

Find

involves

Fig. 165,
polynomials.

two

the

law

for

%x

the

+ d).
productof (a"t")(c

the

In this

Solution.

of

means

case

of the factors

one

negativeterm.
The
product (a b)(c + d) is represented
sions
dimenthe
a
rectanglehaving
by
(a b) and (c + rf)(Fig.166). The
+ ad.
rectangleABEF=ac
Subtracting
from
this the rectanglesbe and
bd, we
obtain the rectangleA BCD.
Therefore
ac
+ ad
(a
b) (c + d)
a

3x

"

FIG.

165

"

be

"

bd, each

"

the
*

side of the
of

area

Findthe

equation

rectangleA

senting
repre-

BCD.

FIG.

166

productof (a b)(a fy
"

"

Let

Solution.
a

that

EFGC

the

side

is

of

area

GHIB

(Fig.167),represent

whose

square

Show

ABCD

(a

6) feet.
equals

"

ABCD

FKDE

KHIA.

Then

(a

*5.
area

?/)
(a

b)

Sketch
is 24 b2

"

b)2

(a

a2 +

62

a2

2 ab + IP.

ab

"

Why

ab

"

rectanglewhose

area

is

(m

ri)(r

"

s) ; whose

6 be.
DRILL

EXERCISES

Apply the law of multiplication


to two
polynomials in
followingexercises. Check only the first five.
Solution.

xz +
x

2 xy + yy
_

x3 +

x* +

Check

x
by letting

2 and

x'2y+

xy2

xy* + y*

x*y +

xy* + y*

3.

the

AND

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE
7.

(2a

ax3 +

as)(a + a).

8.

(iaft

3)(a -2).

9.

(a +

(a

b +

(rs+ tm) (rs

3.

(a8+

4.

(a2+

5.

(cc2-3cc+ 5)(2x

6.

(k2+

a;

3 Ar +

1)(A

Comment

12.

tm).

2.

3).

the

on

10.

2).

189

NUMBERS

(-

11.
.

4).

" ftc)
(faft + f ftc).

(2 a
ft)

c)2.

3 1"

interestingform

df.

of

c)2.

the

results

in

9-11.

Exs.

0.4 b

0.5

c)(10 a

30 b +

40

c).

13.

(0.3a

14.

(2 if

15.

o2

16.

(9x2

17.

(x +

18.

Comment

19.

(r2+

20.

(Sr2+

21.

(3x

22.

(3x2

2.y)3-(3x-2y)8.
iff -"x*(xT/2)2 (3xz

23.

(2a-3^)2-(2a + 36)2+ (2"


0.4 4)3 (0.5a + 0.6 i)2
(0.3a
0.4 ft)
(0.3a + 0.4 ft).
(0.3a

24.

12 zy

+
+

Why

28.

Multiply 352 by

.*

3527

may

in Ex.

28.

6).

7 ?

56,872 as

polynomialarranged according to

the

powers
the

"

10s +

"

10a +

243.
form

in the

Write

3).

10 +

be written

Find

17.

."?).

3)2- (5 + 3) (5

27.

30.

in Ex.

(5 + 3)2- (5

descending

y;.

26.

Write

.r2).

29.

of the results
+

rs

6)(3 r2 +

if

y)0* +

s2)(r2+

HINT.

x2)(2

the form

on

rs

(a
z/2)

*z/ +

"

"

103 + 5
102 + 4

"

"

10 +

L"

10

of 10.

productof

5 and

3427

by

the method

suggested

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

190

We

binomials.

of two

Product

241.

shall

algebraicproduct of two binomials


The followingexercises
automatically.

the

will

how

see

be

obtained

help the

dent
stu-

the method.

understand

and

discover

to

may

now

EXERCISES

Find
1.

by
(2x

3)(4z + 5).

+
2*

Solution.

the followingproducts:
multiplication

actual

(4x

5.

(3* -2) (3* -2).

6.

(x + 2)(* + 9).

7.

(2a;+l)(aJ4-6).

8.

(b + 3)(6 + 5).

9.

(a -7) (a -3).

4x+5
8*2

4.

12*

+l"*

lr'

15

8 x2 +

2.

(3"

(3 *

8)(a + 2).

11.

(3x

4)(2a;-3).

12'

14.

(*-3)(*-10).
(a-8 9)(*"+ 9).
+ 10).
(or2 5)(aj2

15"

(3 a; -5) (4a; -2).

16.

(2y

17.

("i"

1 o

-16

20.

(3a;+ 4y)(3a;-'4y).

-16

21.

(4a

2a-8
13.
24

40

6a2_14a_40

3.

(o ?/ + 4) (o

Solution,

?/

4).

"

-My

22.

53

Solution.

23.

61

26.

Can

the

products of

3)(5y

"

"

8).

26)(7a-5i).

57.
53

57

(50

503 +

3) (50

7)

(7 + 3)50

21.

'

69.
you

5).

10'

5)(2a-8).

+
3

Solution.

22

6)(4a;

24.
see

two

52

way of
binomials ?

any

56.

formulatinga

25.

rule for

37

33.

finding

POSITIVE

If

we

to

agree

numbers

known

use

discover

the

short cut

where

the

b,

a,

e,

4- d

ex

and

to
are

in the
in

productsabove, then we
multiplyingax 4- b by ex 4- d.
EXAMPLE

ILLUSTRATIVE

Find

4- b and

binomials ax

like those

191

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

binomials

two

represent any

may

AND

product of (ax 4- V) and ("-x-\-"Z).

Solution.

ax

Y
+

CX

d
bcx
+

adx

bd

acx2 +

(be +

ad

)x

bd

the

whose
or
cross-multiplications
cross-products
It is seen
that the firstterm of the
term.
is equal to the middle
sum
that the last term
product is the product of the firstterms of the binomials,
is the product of the last terms
of the binomials,and that the middle term
is the sum
of the tivo cross-products.
The

show

arrows

EXERCISES

Using

the

binomials
1.

(2a

The

Solution.

of the

is

a2, the

terms

4-

the

products

of the

lowing
fol-

the

(3a

7. fx

2fi)(3a

7)(4x

ft).

9).

binomials

two

the

6.

5).

product of

product

is 15, and

above, give

3)(3a

first terms

stated

rule

of
sum

the

last

of the

9.

Therefore
is 19 a.
cross-products
the product is 6 a" + 19 a + 15.

(x + *")(x
+ 8).
,"

/7

9v.

11.

(4,

12-

+ 7ft).
(*4-9")(aj

4)(3x4- 4).

13.

(2aj

2).

14.

(5 a

4) (4 a

2.

(4,,+ 3)(2.

1).

3.

(2s -7) (3*

2).

4.

(3x

4-

5.

(7x

2)(7 x

3)(3,-4).

y) (3x
-

y).

2).

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

192
15.

(7a

16.

(5a

17.

(3a:

21.

Do

26)(7o-2i).
4i)(5" + 46).
2)(12a: -20).

ft)
(3a

(3 a

19.

(6 xy

2)(3xy

20.

(7 ab

5c)(60*

6).

5).

8c).

about
significant
anythingespecially

notice

you

18.

the

product of two binomials that are exactly alike? Explain


b and a
b
by using the product of x + y and a- + y, a
(compare with Ex. 1, Art. 127).
about the
notice anything especially
22. Do you
significant
"

product of

the two

signs between
of

ra

23.

and

Try

the

are

except

same

Explain by using

terms

the

for

the

product

n.

"

to formulate

productsreferred
242.

that

binomials

two

"

rule for

to in Exs.

21

obtainingautomaticallythe

and

Special products. We

22.

have

seen

241

in Art.

how

of two
binomials
be performed
multiplication
may
Such
products are called special
automatically.
products.
the

The

student

furnish

should

examples

productof x'+y
is called

observe
of

and

the square
b and
productof a

such
x

-+-y

products.
is equal to

the

of

21 and

thaf, Exs.

of

sum

x2 +

example, the
2 xy + y*,and

and

y\

while

the

2 db + 62,and
equal to a2
is called the square of the difference
of a and b. Further,
the product of m + n and m
is equal to mz
n
n*, and
is called the productof the sum
and difference
of m and n.
"

"

b is

For

22, Art. 241,

"

"

"

EXERCISES

1. Find

the following specialproducts and


automatically

each:
classify

(a) (x + 3)(x + 3).


(b) (y_2)(y-2).
(e) (2x + 4)2.
(g) (2x
(f) (4x
2)2.
(h) (5x
-

(c) (2x + 4)(2a; + 4).


(d) (3* -6) (3* -6).
+ 4 y)2.
(i)(2a +
-

y}\

(j) (3 a

4
2

ft)".
")2.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

194

precedingexercises should establish


for finding the product of the
cut

The
short

1.

Square

of the

each

square

the

from the first.

EXERCISES

DRILL

following products mentally :

the

Find

and

sum

numbers.

the second

2. Subtract

following

numbers:

of two

difference

the

1) (a;+ 1) (*2+ 1).

1.

(x + 2)(aj+ 2).

11.

(x

2-

(U + 3) (y

3).

12.

(w

3.

("-4)(s-4).

13.-

(10 a;

4.

(2w-5)(2tt;

14.

(y*if 0.5)(a;2/+ 0.5).

5.

("

15.

(11 +/^2)(11 +/"7/i2)

6.

(3s

16.

(a5+ ^5)(a5

7.

(3r-4")(3r

17.

(20 + 2)(20

8.

(Ja + j6)(Ja.-ii).

18.

(30 + 1) (30

9-

(i"y-*)(t*y

19-

(18)(22"

20.

(31)(29).

(x

10.

243.

learned

6).

+
2

i)(s +
2o)(3"

J).
2a).

4").

*)-

1) (a + 1).

The

Division.

for

law

recall from

We

c)(w

c)(w*

9)(10 a;

c2).

9).

"5).

2).
1).

algebraicdivision

of the relation

because

division

between

is

and

arithmetic

that

division

numbers

when

their

easily

tiplicatio
mul-

is the

process

of

and

the

that

x
quotient

These

of two

findingone

other

number
divisor

are
=

-f6

and

also

we

remember

dividend.

facts suggest the

that +12-=-

given

product

law

because

of division.

Thus

we

(+ 2)(+ 6)= +12.

know

POSITIVE

AND

NEGATIVE

195

NUMBERS

EXERCISES

1. Since

Since

(- 2)(+ 6)

3.

Since

(- 2)(- 6)

4. Since

(+ ")(+ ")

the

If the

sign of

6.

If the

sign of

+
-f

the

12

12, what

is

12, what

is +
is

"", what

signs of dividend
the quotient?
dividend

signs of

is

12, what

2.

5.

the

(2)(- 6)

and

"

12

-s-

12

H-

2 ?

2 ?

(+ aV) -+"

divisor

and

2 ?

-s-

divisor

are

are

a?

alike,what

is

unlike,what

is

quotient?

244.

Law

245.

Dividing a monomial

The

work

of the

preceding
article may be summed
If
up in the followinglaw:
is posithe dividend and divisor have like signs,the quotient
tive
and
divisor have unlike signs,the
; if the dividend
quotientis negative.
have

an

of

signs

in division.

by

monomial.

opportunityto apply the

law

We

learned

shall

now

in the preceding

article.
EXERCISES

Find

the

of the work

much

quotientin the following,doing mentally as


as
possible:

1.

(+l5)-(-3)=?

10.

(-10ar)'-5-(-2oj)=?

2.

(-15) -L(_3)=?

11-

(-")=?
(-"/")"*"

3.

(- 15)-t- (+ 3)

12-

"*" (+ V)
(- ""*)

4.

(+15)-i-(+3)=?

13-

(t*)-"-(-")

5.

(- 18)-5- (- 3)

14.

(-

6.

(-12) -=-(-12)=?

15.

(- 1.21 x2)^ (-

7.

(+5)-f-(+5)=?

16.

8.

(+*)^(+*)=?

17.

(_")-*.(-")
(f)-Kf)=?
(-|)^(-f)=?

9.

-2a-f.a=?

18'

'f

0.5

=?-

x) + (-$x)=
1.1
=

*)

.?.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

196
19.
20-

$).,.(_"{).?

31.

(-*V(*)=?

^
(- 1) *
(-1)
(f)-Kf)='.'
(?)+ (- t)=(_2) + (+-J)=?

32.

(- *2)+ (^"

33.

(-9^)-(3")=?

34'
35.

(-3"*)-l-(-ft)=?
(6fe)-K-2je)=

36.

(+""")+ (-")="."

38.

"_

21.
22.
23.

"

25.

(+12./-)-(-x)

28.

(4-") -*- (- "")

39.

"

27.

(-*)4-(-J*)=?

40.

(-//Ar8)
-5-(-oA)='.'

28.

-i- (- x)
(- .r*)

41.

(7

29.

(^

42.

(oir") -5- (- 3j r)

30.

43.

24 a;//-t- X

(- x)

are

t-

ww/)-*-("")
=

"

"r) -I- (- 22)

of the

algebraicsolution
best interpretedas

The

type

x4)-s- (- x)

XOTK.
this

.?

difficult

more

fractions,

since

problems of

fraction

is

an

"_"4,-"

quotient. Thus,

indicated

24 -/"//
-=-3

be

may

written

"

"

The

"

'^ x
24

problem
both

is

now

of

one

reducing

and denominator

numerator

lower

to

be divided

may

Thus,

terms.

by

x.

in

The

j-ii

result

8w
"

is

"

"

In
aad

and
(or

or

8 y units.

algebra,as

in

altered

if dividend

factor. Dividing dividend


by the same
factor reduces the quotient
divisor by the highest common
fraction)to the simplestform (or to lowest terms).
divisor

are

Solution.
The

both

arithmetic, the quotient is not


divided

The

sign of

the

numerical

factors

can

by x2; y3 and

"/sare

divisible

quotientis negative. Why?


be divided l"yS : r5 and x1 are
divisible
by y3; m- and w3 are divisible by "?2.

***?#

Hence
"

8 x-im?

^
=

=
"

"f!.-

POSITIVE

197

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

AND

343

-S-jfb
49.

47.

45.

49

xz

"

12

46.^

Dividing
will

process

50.

48.

9"

"

246.

a;

polynomial by

The

monomial.

division

extended.

be

now

EXERCISES

6 x2 +

1. Divide

by

xz

a-.

in

is 6 x" +
in

quotient
we

dividing monomials, this quotient may


problem. Find the length of the base of

As

area

4 xij +

4 xy

the

form

of

altitude

whose

and

xz

is 2

be
a
x.

stated

as

rectanglewhose
Indicating this

fraction,

have
4 xy

6 xz +

xz

42

3X

FIG.
and

Dividing numerator
by

2 x, the result is 3x + 2 y + 4~- Show

Show

2.

that

be

(Fig.169) may
of the

total

(3 +

form

Which
Find

of

area

three

adjacent flower

either

4).
better ?

Why

obtaining as
followingquotients,

the

mentally :
a5

9 a2 -6

27"i
.

(a)

00

+
3a

-4*V
6

(g)

r/

beds

5 +

is the

terprete
problem may now be inadjacentrectangles(Fig.168).

that the

by three

expressed in

following forms

or

3.

the

168

denominator

by a rectangleformed

can

tangle
rec-

6"2

(e):
(f)

many

as

you

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

198
247.

find two

to

manner,

y and

said to be

unity is

is

monomial

A
thus

15

prime number ;
expressedin terms

advantage to

an

as,

and

5, x,

of its

+ b.

prime factors,

frequentlyeither

very

much

so

"

of the method

of expressing

arithmetic, certain forms

in

algebra,as
expressionoccur
divisions

4- ay.

ax

In

as

'In like

ax*i? %.5-a-x.x.y.y.y.

example
polynomial:

factored

one

other factors except itself and

no

followingis

The

or

has

which

number

is

multiplied
may see by

the factors of 12.

are

the factors of

are

when

Thus,

number.

number

factor a

which

numbers

more

or

togetherwill produce the


that 2, 2, and
inspection
A

To

Factoring ; prime numbers.

number

multiplications

it is of

considerable

characteristics of these

the

memorize

that

so,

as

of

bers
num-

by inspectionand thus be
and divisions autoable to perform the multiplications
matically.
In this text we
shall study two generaltypes
of factoring.
that

248.
factor.
A

we

factor them

may

FactoringType

I.

Typeform

bx +

number

ax

of this

monomial

type

Taking

we

ex

out

(a

b +

shall call

factor. The

common

monomial

e).

number

containing

products obtained in the


exercises of Art. 239 are numbers
of this type. Although
this type of factoring
portant
is not difficult,
nevertheless it is imand should be kept in mind.
We
shall learn that
verbal problemslead to equationswhich can
readily
many
be solved by a method
which
depends upon factoring.
Factoringalso enables us to transform formulas into their
a

common

most

convenient

form.

AND

POSITIVE
of

method

The

199

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

consists

factoringthis type

of

the

followingsteps:
1.

Inspectthe

2. Divide

3. In

result

factor.

to

In all

NOTE.

factor. The

monomial

common

find out whether he has factored correctly


should multiplythe two factorstogether.

order

the student

see

the

by

is the other

obtained

is

all the terms.

to

common

factor which

the

discover

and

terms

the student

factoringproblems

if the number

contains

should

monomial

common

first look

to

factor.

EXERCISES

the

check

followingby inspectionand
:
by multiplication
Factor

bx

5 b

"

The

be.

"

Each

Solution.

quotient

is

has

term
x

"

Check.

Therefore

5a-5b.

3.

4cc +

4.

5xa-lQxb.

the factor b. Divide

the

expressionby

b.

c.

"

(x

the factors

2.

work

your

"

c)

"

of bx

"

5 6

bx

5 b

"

be

"

4?/.

be.

"

b and

are

8.

x*

9.

25 x2-

"

c.

"

x3.

5 x8.

10.

2 x2 +

4 xy

11.

d2b +

ab'2+

f.

'

5.

5 ax2

6.

2rx8-8?y.

12.

4a;2-8^

7.

3 x2

13

a*a?

10

axif.

x.

14.

249.

Factoring Type

3 a2 -15

II.

The

"

a8.

47/2.

aVy2

aary

+ 18.

cut

and

try

"

method

of

factoring.Typeform acxz+(bc+ad')x+bd=:(az+b')(cz+d'~

productsobtained in the exercises of Art. 241 can all


of factoring
factored easilyby inspection.
The method

The
be

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

200

products is

such

the

2 y? +

Factor

There

Solution.
+

./"

of

the

the factors

to

last

called

are

obtained

has

he

remember

that

factorable, because

For

example, a^+16

See

if you

has

and

been

factoringproblems
three things; namely:
2. Find
3. Check

to

discover

the

.5

since the

one,

the

are

slow

the factors

always

2^ +

said
it is

the

+12

are

common

student

monomial

prime factors by the "cut

by multiplyingthe

factors

numbers.

factorable.

not

important

are

factorable.

not

are

tant
impor-

that

already prime
a;

sure

Such

is

numbers

at
can

be

to

prime numbers.

some

are

correct

seem

may

skill that

are

stage of the "cut

any

process

explain why they

can

what

Try

there

they

all

1.

at

prime factors. Incidentallyit

not

From

important for the student

It is very

factors

-2x +

pair is the correct


Of course
cross-productsis 9 x.
the

be found
pair of factors may
and try" method, and while the
first,practicesoon
develops such
easilybe found.

that

2r+

10

below

shown

possiblepairs of factors, as

four

are

It is clear that
sum

10.

10

x+

is

method

The

together.
example :

by multiplying the factors


illustrated
by the following

result

verifyingthe

then

and

method
factors

pair of

correct

try" or "trial and


consists simply of guessing
from
all of the possibleones
and

the "cut

as

The

method.

error"

known

will

see

hold

to

that
in

in

mind

factor.
and

try"
together.

method.

Factoring perfect trinomial

250.
a?

"

x*

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

202

2a6 + "2

like 4z2 + 16z

")2. Numbers

"

y2,which

2 xy +

"

obtained

are

Type form

squares.

+ 16

or

mial
bino-

by multiplyinga

called perfecttrinomial squares. They


are
by itself,
discussed
of the second type of factoring
cases
are
special
trinomial squares
have already
seen
in Art. 249. We
perfect
in the problems of Ex. 2,
where all the terms are positive
if you
can
perfecttrinomial
factoring
See

Art. 127.

formulate

method

short

of

squares.

EXERCISES

method

2ab

2.

m2-2mn

3.

9z2 +

4.

16 a2

251.

called the
in

the

This

is

b2.

n2.

12av/ + 4?/2.

What

6.

64 a2 -32ab

7.

x2tf

12 xy"

8.

aty4+

30

"

on

page

is the

194

short

9 z*.

afyV

25 "4.

Type form

squares.

The

if.

"tf.

of the form

a2

b2

"

are

productsobtained
of this

numbers

are

in Art.

product of (x + 3)(a; 3)?


"

type.

249.

What

then

are

9 ?

"

:
following

4.
(a) x2
(b) c2-25.

(c) r2
(d) 25"

by

49

EXERCISES

State the factors of the

3. Show

42 xy

of the type discussed

specialcase

the factors of x2
2.

9 x2 +

fr)(a 6). Numbers


of two squares.
difference
+

ORAL

1.

5.

difference of two

the

exercises
a

25 b2.

40 ab +

Factoring

"=(a

"

by

squares

1. a2 +

ai

followingperfecttrinomial

the

Factor

of

means

a2

Fig.170

b2

on

(a + ft)
(a

the
-

4 s2.

a*

followingpage
b).

that

POSITIVE

The

AND

a2

equation

factored
readily

the

the square

roots

b)(a + ")

"

208

NUMBERS

difference

of two

that

asserts

be

may

squares

of

sum

of the

(a

follows

as

factor is

One

b2

"

is the

which

binomial

NEGATIVE

terms

of the binomial,and the other


the difference
of the square
roots
of the terms
of the
binomial.

Thus,

to factor 49

#262

"

FIG.

firstfind the square

each term

that is,7 and

factor is 7 + "d" and

"one

factors may

be

170

of

root

ab.

Then, accordingto the rule,

the other

given hi

reverse

ab.

"

Obviously,the

Why ?

order.

EXERCISES

the

Factor

when

you

absolutelycertain

not

are

1. a-2-16.
,.-1

3.

//--I.

4.

I-./-4.

,2

6.

,2

/.
a6

81rt2-16s2.

14.

289m2-

25 a;6-36s4.

15.

8.
9.

49

11.

1-

12.

225

20.

x4-y4.

21.

2o?iV-

22.

a-8

23.

625

24.

64 a;6-9.

25.

Ca +

6*.

36 a-6.

81

17.

196

-100

18.

361

r2^2

(a + xf

26.

27.

(x3
-

6V.
-

-16.

?/)2 x6.
-

81m4.
28.

"

y8.
"2i4

256

i)a-9.

a\

?r.

16.

-a-2.

wV7tM.

result is correct.

the

100"4a;2-36.

16 a* -25

10.

19.

by multiplication

13.

7.

(,i

Check

following binomials.

29.

0.25"a-0.64Ja.

30.

0.25

r/2-^lo

196.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

204

of

Knowledge

special products considered

the

above

with
multiplycertain arithmetic numbers
be
Thus
the product of 32 by 28 may
great rapidity.
written (30 + 2)(30
2) (30)2 (2)" 896.

enables

to

us

EXERCISES

1.

mentally the following products :

Give

(a)

(b)17-23.
(c) 26 34.
(d)29-31.

of the

following:

(a) 712-192.
(b) 1462-462.

(c) 1462-542.

(e) 12152

(d) 3122-2882.

(f) 21462-102.

252.

of

Different ways

precedingproblems show
(a J)(a + J) providesus

that
with

"

calculations

linked

by

easier.

the

the

carrying out

The
=

the value

Find

2.

(in)75-85.
(n) 79 81.
(o) 42 38.
(p) 95 75.

(i) 67-73.
(j)66-74.
(k) 68 72.
(1)75-65.

(e) 32-27.
(f)37-43.
(g) 38 42.
(h) 47 -'53.

18-22.

In

a2

in

far the
253.

such

of

two

on

Distinction between

ft2

making
are

")(a + ")
carryingout the
the right is by
(a

"

as

a2

b2

"

statement

(a

identityand equation.

5)(a + /")is
of making the

"

ways

is true

for

all values

pupil should not confuse the meaning


that of an equation. Thus a2
4
(x
=

"

for all values


true

"

easier.

It represents two

The

b2

"

different ways
the one
calculations,of which

same

of

method

a2

formula

fact, the expressions which

equality sign

simply represent

calculations.

same

the

152.

of x, but

y?

6 or
only when x
of equalityin some
=

"

"

32

is

called

an

equality
identity.

calculation.

same

of

An

and

The

I.

of

identitywith
2) (x + 2) is true

statement

"

6 ; that

an

is, it is

specialsituation

that is
a

ment
state-

it may

be

translation of

the

an

area

alloyproblem,etc.,but
x2

situation,whereas

it
4

"

problem,a motion problem,an


concrete
always representssome
(x
2) (x + 2) is an abstract
"

and

for calculation

formula

205

NUMBEKS

NEGATIVE

AND

POSITIVE

of

for all values

is true

x.

EXERCISES

1. Tell which

identities

(a) 4

of the

which

are

x*

16

(c) 9z2
(d) 4

20.

12*

(3z

x2-9

2V.

Solve,by factoring,the followingequations:

2.

(a) ax

bx

+
f/

da
+

10

"""'"

"

r(d""__s
2

,o

^
,

3"-3"r4x-4
The

followingexercises furnish
precedingwork of this chapter.

Calculatingareas.

of
applications

4 b*x

"

20

_.

1
/6N
1 ;
2x-2

254.

a2x

(c) 5

be.

ac

ca

(b)c

equationsand

followingare

the

EXERCISES

1.

that

Show

the

shaded

follows:

as

of

the

=(S

and

large square

area

"

s)(S +
side

of

in

Fig. 171
s), where

may
5

is

be
a

pressed
ex-

side

the

small square.
2. A
room

carpet 20

ft. square

25 ft. square.

The

is

placed in

uncovered

border

stripis to be painted. Find the area of


the strip.Find
the cost of painting this
area

at 80

formula
of

to

cents

per

be used

yard. Write a
in calculating
the cost
stripsat c cents per
square

painting similar
yard,the carpet to be

feet square

and

the

room

feet square.

plateis cut

metal

3.

2, what is the area


be done
the calculating

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

206

of the

what

In

is the

two

and

ways

may

pieceis | in.

if the

of metal

volume

If 'a =10

Fig. 172.

plate?

What

in

shown

as

weight if a cubic
inch of the metal weighs 20 grams ?
for a plate
Write
a generalformula
t inches
cut in the form of the figure,
thick and
weighing g grams
per
is the

thick ? What

FIG.

...

4. A

design pattern

in

Fig. 173.
this
problem illustrating

verbal

make

172

cut

is

in

shown

form

the

easilycalculated.

is

which

form

in

the result

Write

inch.

square

Calculate

the

Make

area.

formula.

applicationof our
lated
knowledge of factoringin problems reto circles,
as will be seen
by solving
the following:
We

5.

can

(a) The
is

an

of

area

is Trr2. What

circle whose

is the

radius

of

area

circle

FIG.

radius

whose

(b) How

can

the monomial

track

the

the

ring in Fig.174

if R

3.75

and

the

ring

shaded

in

(b)by

ing
remov-

factor.

(e) Calculate
if R

of

area

area.

result of

is the

in which

the

find

you

Indicate
Fig. 174?
(c) Simplifythe

(d) What

173

is R?

of

area

100

and

area

of

running

a
r

the

5.5 in. and

90 ?

shaded
r

5 ;

0.25.
174

FIG.

Allowing 500 Ib. to a cubic foot,find


weight of a steel pipe 20 ft. long if R

6.

the

HINT.

Find

rule

or

formula

for the volume

12 in. and
of

"

11 in.

cylinder.

POSITIVE
the

Find

7.

in

shown

form

Allow

HINT.

255.

Ib. per cubic

500

of

207

NUMBERS

iron

weight of an
Fig. 175 if a

Division

illustrated

NEGATIVE

AND

6 ft. long cast

rod

in.,b

\ iny and

"

in

the

\ in.

foot.

polynomials

by arithmetical

bers.
num3C

The

of

process

dividing

polynomialby another may


illustrated by a longbe clearly
FlG
in
division problem
arithmetic ;
322. Ordinarily
for example,we
shall consider 67,942
we
desirable short
divide in automatic fashion,adoptingmany
work
cuts
efficient,
our
more
which, though they make
obscure the meaning.
nevertheless
one

-r-

In

multiplicationit

system the
or

"

If

9 in

102 units.
we

67,942 does
dividend

the division

may

and

7000,

means

7000

900

60000

4000

400

3000

500

40

3000

200

20

300

20

300

20

40 +

student should

300

+ 20 +

200

10

in
carefully

we

two

shall

now

the division of
discuss.

decimal

our

for 900

units

103,etc.
of

polynomials,
:

10

precedingexamples

order to be better able to understand

of these with

which

study the

"

form

3-102

The

of

following forms

of the

60000

or

the

in

divisor

either

in

appear

because

for 9 units, but

stand

not

Similarly,the

arrange

that

pointed out

was

larity
the simi-

algebraicpolynomials

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

208

of

Division

256.

algebraicpolynomials. The

division of

arranged according to either the


algebraicpolynomials
letter is similar
ascendingor the descendingpower of some
division of arithmetical numbers
; thus :
to the preceding
8

.y4+

y3 +

4 y~

y3 +

y2 +

"rl

exercises

we

proceedas

we

ab*

aft2+ bs

ab* + b*

in division.

see

a?-ab

a2/;

a*b

Process

as +

257.

3 y

that in

From

dividingone

study of the preceding


polynomialby another

follows:

Arrange both dividend and divisor accordingto ascendletter.


common
in;!'"' descending
of some
powers
2. Divide the first
term
term
of the dividend by the first
of
the divisor and write the result for the first
term of the quotient.
3. Multiply
the entire divisor by the first
term
of the quotient
and subtract the result from the dividend.
4. If there is a remainder, consider it as a new
dividend
and proceedas before.
1.

The

student

furnishes

soon

as

observe

excellent

review

inasmuch

they are
problem. They should
possible.

processes,

division

an

should

as

that the process in division


of the other fundamental
necessary

therefore

in almost

be

every

mastered

as

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

210

EXERCISES

Divide, and check by either method


1.

(x2-

llx

2.

(//

"f

3.

+
(fts

7 "" +

4.

(9-9x

30)-=-(x- 5).

4y + 4)-"y

18

-r-

2).

+
2

(a1+

40)

3y

8).

8x2-4x8)-i-(3-2.r).

5.

54x2//+ 36xy2

6.

(27x8

7.

(27x8

8.

xy* +

36

afy +

54

y8) '(3x
-

y).

x8--x-7/.

9.

10.
8

32 m2 +

32 ms

m4) (3 +

15

11.

(1" +

12.

(x8+ 2xy

13.

(14x +

14.

(r8+

15.

(25 a

16.

(8x

17.

(9x2//2

18.

(25x4

19.

(4x4

20.

(a5-1) -=-("-!); (aa-l)-s-(a-l).

21.

(a5-7/5)-(a-7/);(a*-,ft + (a-y).

22.

(25m4-49/i4)^-(5m2+ 7w2).

23.

(25m4

24.

(0.027aW

25.

(8 a8

2x4 +

65

15 r2

20 a2 +

12

a-y

49

36
9

w2).

aft + c).
-h (0.2
c8)

Z"8) (4a2
--

-=-

?/)H- (2x2

--

2 a2 +

3 xy +

y4) (5x2

w4) (5m2

^
?/4)
(x2

2 ab +

m2).

").

y +

+ 2x3
Ilx2)-r-(4x2

(-

--

8x8

x2/ +

60

12)

4).

7).

24)--(2x2+'3x

63)-s- (r

x8?/+ x4

5x8

6 a8

6x4 +

4 +

llx2

-=-

if)+ (x +

yz +

xz

62).

y2).

y2).

3).
-

2).

AND

POSITIVE

260.
etc.

have

by

243).

The

zero.

meaning,

no

give1,2,

cannot

Art.

Division

NEGATIVE

The

3, x,

"

quotients

-"

-"

"

x
"

"

-,

"",

(seethe definition of division

in

number

undetermined, as

is

quotient

"

multipliedby

for

etc.

211

NUMBERS

multipliedby 0 equals0.
that in all quotientshereafter
equal to zero.

Therefore

shall

we

the divisor

ber
num-

every

is not

assume

zero

nor

EXERCISES

1.

The

following solution
given to show that 1

is
2.

numbers

Two

are

given equal,as

Then

and

Give

sides

similar

by

"

Dividing both

Find

(a; y)

Then

2.

y,

argument

of

one

y
1

several
the

that

are

times
some-

fallacy.

y.

"

0,

Why

0.

Why

Why

2.

(x

which

seems

y).

show

to

that

equals5.
SUMMARY

ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases: turningtendency,force,lever arm,
division,factoring,
factors,prime number,
multiplication,
factor.
number
containinga monomial
261.

This

illustrated
was
signsin multiplication
with line segments and (2) by means
(1) geometrically
262.

The

law

of the balanced
263.
1. A

upward

The

of

beam.

followingagreements

weight pullingdownward

were

used

is

negative;one

bar

clockwise is

pulling

is

positive.
2. A force tending to rotate
counterclockwise,
positive.

;
negative

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

212

rightof the pointwhere the bar is


balanced is positive
negative.
; to the left,
The turningtendency (or force) actingupon a balanced
bar is equalto the productof the weight times the lever arm.
3. A

lever

the

to

arm

The product of
signs in multiplication:
two numbers
; the productof two
having like signsis positive
numbers
having unlike signsis negative.
264.

Law

265.

The
the

2. The
3. The

order of factors

The

of

value

changed without

changing

product is

zero

if

one

of the

factors

zero.

of division

Law

266.

The

; the
signsis positive
signsis negative.

like
unlike

Arithmetical

numbers

may

polynomialsaccordingto
The
the

be

may

product.

The
is

trated
chapter has taught and geometricallyillusfollowingprocesses of multiplication:

of several monomials.
multiplication
of a monomial
by a polynomial.
multiplication
of polynomialsby polynomials.
multiplication

1. The

the

of

ing
of two numbers havquotient
of two numbers having
quotient

be

powers

arranged in

the form

of

of 10.

of

In all

dividingone polynomial by another is essentially


the process of dividingarithmetical
numbers.
as
problems of the text the divisor is not zero.

267.

The

process

same

division

chapter has taught

the

followingforms

1. The

division of

2. The

division of

3. The

reduction

4. The

division of

of
a

monomial

by a
polynomialby
a

monomial.
a

monomial.

fraction to lowest

polynomialby

terms.

polynomial.

of

POSITIVE

268.

methods

269.

Type

has

Division
for

checking

The

I.

The

II.

acx2

(be

"

cut

bx

geometrically.
taught.

were

of

types
out

ax

Type

division

following
Taking

illustrated

been

factoring

and

ad~) x+bd

ex

taught:

were

monomial

common

-f

213

NUMBERS

NEGATIVE

AND

"

try

(a

factor,

c).

method,
(ax

6) (ex

d).

Two

CHAPTER

OF

GRAPH

270.

OF

REPRESENTATION

GRAPHICAL

Facts

presented in

THE

EQUATION

LINEAR

the

STATISTICS;

of

form

table.

The

follow,

ing table of facts shows in part the recreational interests


of the boys and girlsof certain Cleveland
(Ohio) high
schools. Thus, of 4528 boys,4075 play baseball ; of 3727
2608
play baseball ; 7402 children out of a total of
girls,
8255 attend the movies
regularly;and so on.
TABLE

OF

INTERESTS

RECREATIONAL

EXERCISE

Study

the

of the

271.

understand

you

Pictograms; graphs. Tables made

figuresare
but

precedingtable until
columns
of figures.

common

in newspapers,

table like the

precedingis
214

up

the

of columns

magazines,and
not

ing
mean-

of

books,

the best device

for

OF

REPRESENTATION

expressingthe meaning
mind

cannot

of

an

215

STATISTICS

array

of facts. The

ordinary

the relations if the list is at all extended

see

happens that the real meaning of a series of


table. Newspapers,magazines,
facts is lost in a complicated
and books, realizing
this fact,are beginning
trade journals,
which
show their
to add
to tables of statistics pictures
more
meaning and their relationships
clearlythan can be
of figures.
done by columns
of the facts of the precedingtable is
The significance
far more
vividlyexpressedby the picturesof Fig. 176.
that of the high-school
Thus
the picturesshow
girlsone
two
out of every
(50 per cent) plays tennis ; two out of
(16| per cent) are Camp Fire Girls ; of the
every dozen
high-school
boys six out of every twenty (30 per cent)
wrestle ; 85 per cent
of all the elementary-school
and
high-school
boys attend the movies regularly;and so on.
of
The
picturesconstitute a more
powerful method
relations,because they teach through
teachingnumerical
the eye.
For this reason
they are called graphicpictures,
or
pictograms,
simplygraphs.
hence

it often

EXERCISES

of the

By means
questions:
1. What
the

per

Cleveland

pictogramsin Fig.176

cent

of the

girls?

With

Cleveland
which

the

answer

tennis ? of

boys play

group

following

is tennis

the

more

popular?
2.

that every sound-bodied


a better
your class make

Assuming

wrestle,does
per cents
3. Are

Fire

Girls

than
a

the

Cleveland

largerper
than

is the

boy
or

should

learn

showing

worse

to

in

boys ?

cent

of the

girlsof

case

in the

Cleveland

your

class

high

Camp

schools ?

High-School Girls
Do

not

play Tennis

Do

not

play Tennis

High-School Boys

High-School Girls
We

Never

Do

High-School Boys
Do.

Never

We

High-School Girls
We

o^o
Belong

to

Do

I Never

play Baseball

We

Do

Never

High-School Girls

^^^^^^U^AA,
Do

Camp Fire

not

belong

to

Camp

Fire

High-School Boys

Do

Wrestle

Elementary-

Attend

and

not

Wrestle

High-School Boys

Do

Movies

not

attend

Movies

Daily Nonattendance

High-SchoolBoys

\j

Help!
High-SchoolGirls

laU_^W^_

.,

S. 0. S, Board

FIG.

176.

SHOWING

(Adapted

from

HOW

PICTOGRAMS

Johnson's

"Education
216

ARE

CSED

through

TO

of Education

FACTS

EXPRESS

Recreation

")

MATHEMATICS

(iKXERAL

218

EXERCISES

Fig. 177

1. In

Do

for Portland

long run

definite

HINT.

to

answer

been

cash for

to pay

will it cost

What

have

this

?
protection

in the
profitable
all publicimprovements ?

problem

be

may

3 and

build

cityto

fire

pare
com-

more

of the class will solve Ex.

several members

*3.

it would

interest

paid as

amount

paid for policeand

think

you

the

does

the amount

with
2.

how

obtained

if

report to the class.

$100,000 high-school

buildingif $20,000of its cost is paid in cash and the remainder


paidby issuing4 per cent bonds of which $4000 worth are to be
retired (paid)
annually? (Allinterest due to be paidannually.)
NOTE.

The

showing
*4.

that

The

be interpretedas an
not
problem must
argument
is
bonding (borrowing) never
justifiable.

discussion

favored

group
of

large amount

bonds, while

the

policy,that is, raisingthe


merits of the two plans.
Show

5.

into

sectors

TABLE

the

other
money

followingfacts by

paying

the expenses

of

the issuance

borrowing by

advocated

by

means

pay-as-you-go
taxation. Debate
the

of

circle divided

SHOWING
THE

of

for the first year of our


in
participation
two groups.
was
sharply divided between

War

European

One

method

States

of the United
the

of the

DISPOSITION

BELL

TELEPHONE

OF
SYSTEM

THE
FOR

GROSS
THE

ITEMS

Salaries,
wages,

REVENUE
YEAR
PER

and

incidentals

OF
1917
CENT

50

Taxes

7
.

Surplus
Materials,rent, and travelingexpenses
Interest
Dividends

4
....

20
7

12

Though widely used, the circle divided into sectors


not
a
method
of showing the ratio
quite satisfactory

is

of

OF

REPKESENTATION
In

numbers.
method

are
fact,the objections

of construction

against false
of

use

The

conclusions.

circle.

one

It

serious

so

that

given to protect the

was

the parts which

when

219

STATISTICS

method

constitute

is not

unit

student

inaccurate

shown

are

the

by

the

frequently

parison
happens,however, that the comis made
ing
by circles differ-

in size.
the eye

In such

case,

since

the

parison
com-

tends to make
on

P.I

basis,the ratio

area

an

of the two

1111
should
be

numbers

FlGAN

CIRCLES

178-

BASIS

AREA

ex-

pressedby
of the two

and statistical authorities


circles,

ON
THE

DEPOSITORS

BANK

op

BB

the ratio of the

DRAWN
SHOWING

areas
so

recommend.

Fig.1 78 the circles are drawn on an area basis,but the


right-handcircle appears less prominentthan the figures
thus causing the reader
justify,
In

to

underestimate

Fig. 179
on

hand

thus

the

diameter

the

circles
basis.

ratio.

In

drawn

are

The

right-

circle appears more


inent
promthan the figuresjustify,

causingthe

reader to

estimate
over-

FIG.

179.
A

the ratio.

This

CIRCLES

DIAMETER

DRAWN

ON

BASIS

feature

is

dishonest use
frequentlyutilized by those who make
of circle diagrams. The
conclusion is that a comparison
in size should
between
circles differing
be avoided
gether.
altowill be taught. Space is
Better graphicmethods
given here to circle pictogramsbecause of their extensive
in many

use

fields.
EXERCISE

Test
in

the accuracy

magazine

with

your

of circle

articles and

classmates.

find
you may
Discuss their value

pictogramswhich

advertisements.

273.

the basis of

1911

The

greater

area,

than

more

The

times

should

men

14,591,000 One
on

This

180.

FIG.

should

too

avoided

ONE

PICTOGRAM,

to

ordinaryreader.

the

deceive

mmmmM

32.837000

1911

OF

AVOIDED

BE

be
it tends

because

TYPE

POPULAR
TO

type

32,837,000 One Mile

Mile

the

area.1

of

basis

far

the 1899

compared

be

1899

looks

2^

largeas

man.

on

his

of

compared

are

men

to

traffic of

passenger

two

1911

height.

man,

account

as

in the

The

railroads.

the

is intended

given here

the increase

show

the

pictureof

pictograms. The

Area

travelingmen

two

on

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

220

MILE

14.59I.OOO
ONE
MILE

1899

FIG.

181.

MORE

ACCURATE

METHOD

OF

PORTRAYING

FACTS

EXERCISES

1.

basis
2.
a

would

Why
of

area?

Do

you

drawing
274.

it be

know

made

Volume

on

or

any

difficult to

method

the basis
block

and

which
of

area

Brinton,in

his excellent

could
?

drawing
be used

on

the

to check

(See Art. 109.)

pictograms. Cubes, parallelepipeds,

spheres are frequentlyused


volumes ; for example,pictures
of
1

make

comparing relative
bales of hay or cotton
in

'
Presenting Facts,'
from
the same
facts as that in Fig. 180.
presents a chart (Fig.181)drawn
Note that the facts are portrayed much
more
clearlyand accurately.

text,' ' Graphic Methods

for

REPRESENTATION

used

are

articles.

often

volume, but
what

on

there is

or

made
of

Limitations

student

will

need

the

directlyas
of the

to

tell

figures.Thus,
size

relative

heightsof

within

checkingis

the

by
squaredpaper
of square

means

pictograms. The

that in

in the

but

men

units

within

the

determined

be

by

Hence

the number

by

in the

the

of square

rough method
of the traveling
the pictures
men
of tracingpaper and compare

millimeters

lines
out-

comparison of passenger

not

outlines.

to transfer

case.

volume

square

should

the

structed
correctlyconquantities
representedshould vary

of

number

relative

and

remember

to

service

number

basis of

on

for the reader

way

in such

area

graph the

area

units

made

constructed, whether by
drawing was
volume.
Certainlyit would be difficult to

the statement

275.

no

be

producing these

basis the

height,area,
check

comparison should

The

221

STATISTICS

the output of the states

show

to

OF

of

area

of each

with

to

the
the

in accurate
correspondingfacts of the table. Similarly,
volume
block graphs the quantitiesshould vary as the
or
number

of cubic

Many who use


fail to
carelessly

units.

this form

of

statistical

interpretation
observe these principles,
and the difficulty
of a check makes
of graph a convenient
this form
would
device for those who
dishonestly
misrepresentthe
facts. The generalpublicis not always able to interpret
if theyhave been properly
drawn.
the graphscorrectly
even
Because

of these

that this type of


and

current

it is somewhat

limitations

graph is
magazines.

so

unfortunate

used
extensively

in bulletins

EXERCISE

Try to obtain and present to


the misuse
of an
area
illustrating

the
or

class
volume

an

advertisement

pictogram.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

222

bar

the
interpreting

in

Practice

276.

diagram.

Fig.182

of the Joint Committee


on
suggestions
Standards for GraphicPresentation. The diagram,Fig.182,
(a),based on linear measurement, is called a bar diagram.
shall studythis topicfurther in the next article. Review
We

shows

of the

one

Tons

Year
1900

270.588

1914

555,031

(b)

(a)
182.

FIG

DIAGRAMS

BAR

FACTS

SHOW

VOLUME

BETTER

AREA

THAN

AND

PICTOGRAMS

the other two

diagrams(the squares and


in Fig.182, (b)). Where
it is possible
blocks shown
the
student should represent quantities
by linear magnitudes,
as
by areas or volumes is more
likelyto
representation
be misinterpreted.
the

to
objections

EXERCISES

Study Fig. 183 and determine to what


horizontal bars are helpfulin expressingthe
numbers
given.
1.

2.

bars

Would
in

extent

the two

ratio of the two

UXfl 1 Cotton, $820,320,000

the

Fig. 183

be sufficient without

the
tions

illustrathe

at

of the

1HI"

Wheat, $561,051,000

left
^IG'

numbers

^'

FAIR

DIAGRAM.

(AFTER

BRINTON)

With

the aid of compasses check the accuracy of Fig.184.


Note that the figuresare written to the left of the bars. In
many
woe
bar
$4.409,136 ^1
diagramsthe figures
3.

are

written to the

right

^^^^^^^^^^

"^

1912

28 soo 139

"

think

FIG. 184.1 DIAGRAM


PORTS

OF

^e

bars.

Can

you

^^^^m
SHOWJNG

AUTOMOBILES.
1

See

.N

(AFTER

Ex-

BRINTON)

paragraph 7 under

of

serious

ob.lec-

tion to that method


Art.

277

OF

REPRESENTATION
is there

Why

4.
1911

in

Fig.184

left between

space

? Do

STATISTICS

see

you

the bars

other

any

223
for 1906

improve

to

way

and

the

diagram ? (See Art. 277.)


Draw

5.

adding

1917.

year

(The

figure similar

Fig. 184,

to

the
sum

is about

this year

for

for

bar

blackboard

the

on

900,000,000.)
6.

Explain Fig.185.

FIG.

185.

the

KATE

FROM

that

7. Show

DIAGRAM
TYPHOID

IN

THOUSAND

bars

Fig.186 reveal
clearlythan the followingtable

States

in

respect to

United

wealth.

These

the

rank

DRED
HUN-

PER

of the

United

estimates.

the 1914

are

$150,000,000,000

States
Britain

Great

and

Ireland

85,000,000,000

Germany

80,000,000,000

France

50,000,000,000

Russia

40,000,000,000

Austria-Hungary
Italy
that it would

Show
to

draw

FIG.

9.

1912

POPULATION

of

more

8.

DEATH

SHOWING

The

186.

the

20,000,000,000
have

the

been

accurate

as

precedingdiagrams

COMPARATIVE

WEALTH

table for the wealth

prepared at

25,000,000,000

beginningof

the

75

100

OF

NATIONS

European

more

venient
con-

squared paper.

on

of nations

and

125

150

IN

1914

contains
War

estimates

(1914-1918).

-2'24

estimates

These

attempt
and

construct

from

diagram which

will

to make

him

will enable

date and

The

facts.

from

latest estimates

bar

far

now

are

get the

to

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

an

similar

the

"

student

World

should

Almanac

present the situation

"

to

interesting
comparison.
those

given on pages
find in Popular Mechanics
which you may
222-223
Magazine,
Motor, Popular Science Monthly, and Industrial Management.
to the simplerdiagrams.
For the time being limit yourself
diagrams

bar

Discuss

10.

to

An

understanding
bar diagrams and how
of how
to interpret
to construct
those he may
find in newspapers
and magazines should
be a part of the education of every generalreader,justas
it is of every engineer,
and biologist.1
statistician,
physician,
As civilization advances
there is beingbrought to the attention
of the readingpublica constantly
amount
increasing
of comparative figures
of a scientific,
tical
technical,and statisA pictureor
nature.
a diagram which
presents such
data in a way
time and also to gain clearness is
to save
of conbar diagram is a widelyused method
a graph. The
veying
statistical information graphically.
The solution of
the introductory
exercises alongwith the discussion of such
for the
supplementarygraphsas may have seemed profitable
class to discuss will helpthe pupilto understand
the following
outline of the method
of constructing
a bar diagram :
277.

How

1. The
a

to construct

bars should

convenient

and
1

the

unit

be constructed

first

number
largest

Neither

pupils nor

of this work.

inspectthe

and

teachers
The

diagram.

bar

scale.

size

of

then choose
should

details

to

are

To

the

obtain
smallest

line segment to

misled

plicity
by the apparent simof the greatest importance. It will
be

be

Standards
for
helpful to obtain the reports of the Joint Committee
on
of seventeen, which
Graphic Presentation. This is a competent committee
has expended considerable
effort on
these elementary phases. The
liminary
pre-

report may

Engineers,29

W.

be had

39th

from

St.,New

the

York

American
;

price, 10

Society of Mechanical
cents.

MATHEMATICS

GE;NEKAL

AMERICA'S

BEST

TWENTY

(From the report of the Bureau

of

CUSTOMERS

Foreign and

Domestic

Commerce)

ascertain the facts to date (see"World


nac
Almapossible,
"),graph results as in Ex. 1,and compare the two diagrams.
for unusual
customers
Account
changes. Are new
appearing
"
old ones
the
dropped out ?
twenty best ? Have
among
If

*2.

"

3.

bar

Present

the statistics of the

diagram showingthe

scale 1

cm.

400 mi. ; the

of a
followingtable by means
comparativelengthof rivers. (Use the

lengthsgiven in the table

are

in

miles.)

REPRESENTATION

227

STATISTICS

OF

Represent the statistics of the following table by bar


diagrams. The estimates of the leading crops in the United
here compared with the revised
States for the year 1917 are
figuresfor the crops of the preceding nine years. The pupil
is a separate problem.
should note that each column
4.

REPORT

OF

UNITED

THE

FOR

AGRICULTURE

278.

shall

Bar

diagrams

now

several

how

see

used

bar

Fig.187,

on

page

presents two

? Note

the

used

to

show

factors.

in that it

from

be

We

factors.

several

diagrams may

INTRODUCTORY

1.

1917

show

to

OF

DEPARTMENT

STATES

that

EXERCISES

228,

differs from

factors. What

those

in

Art. 277

is the scale of the

gram
dia-

the bars

representingnew

top to the bottom


heavy losses by fire in

of the black bar.

buildingsextend
Try to account for

1904

Why

short

the

for

millions

buildingsin

new

of

2.

Give

1908

dollars.)Criticize

of
principles

and
?

this

1906.

is the bar

so

(The values are given in


diagram according to the

Art. 277.

the

eighteenthyear.

facts of

Fig.

187

for the

twelfth

year;

the

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

228

JNew Building

1902

1901

FIG.

187.

BUILDINGS

Fire Losses

1903

DIAGRAM
LOST

1904
OF

BY

1905

YEARLY

FIRE

IN

1906

VALUES
THE

Fig.188

shows

OF

UNITED

(Courtesyof
3.

1907

W.

C.

1908

1909

1910

1911

ALL
OF
BUILDINGS, AND
INCLUSIVE
1901-1911,
STATES,
NEW

Brinton)

the business relations involved

when

city

buy some
present need or luxury. The parts
the following:(a) the
of a singlebar (say the tenth)show
interest paid to date (the black portion)
amount
; (b) the
of the $75,000 still outstanding (the plain portion)
; (c)the
part of the debt that has been paid (thecrosshatched portion).
that a publicbond issue is not only a debt but that
Show
it conies
dangerouslynear to a perpetualtax,"

bonds

"

itself to

REPRESENTATION

OF

229

STATISTICS
19

20

100.000

90.000

80,000

70,000

60.000

50.000

40,000

30.000

20,000

10.000

"-

FIG.

188.

DIAGRAM

BAR

INVOLVED

IN

(Adapted

The

USED

from

$75,000SCHOOL

A
"

Ayres's

BUILDING

SpringfieldSurvey ")

show

precedingexercises

TRANSACTIONS

MONEY

SHOW

TO

FOR

PAVING

how

bar

diagram may
of some
be used
to
several factors
problem
compare
which are more
less related. If the pupil is especially
or
interested in this side of the subject,he may
do the
followingexercises. The topicis not particularly
tant,
imporhowever, because

presentlystftdyis

another

much

method

which

we

shall

efficient.

more

EXERCISES

*1.

find

Go
out

to the

how

being paid

(b)how
(c) how

authorities and
township,county, or city-hall
of your
or
more
one
public improvements is

for ; that

is, find

many

dollars' worth

much

interest must

out

are

be

issued
(a) if bonds were
retired (paidfor)each year

paid

each

year.

Construct

;
a

MATHEMATICS

GEXEKAL

230

diagram similar

bar

reprintedfrom

one

ultimatelycost

certain

county

by issuing $40,000 worth


to
Twenty $100 bonds were

bonds.

of

Ten

built it

bar

called

from

with

in his

Census

the

be

retired

ized
macadamnontaxable

cent

per

it

of

each

year.

By

cost
ultimately

this

it ?

referred

Did

Give

this

of

the
Various

in Ex.

which

He

will

should

show

ties
quanti-

United
colors

doubtless

also

to

answer.

geographic regionsare
student

was

lend

township
for your

reasons

Statistical maps
different

to

examine

times
some-

find
the

States," published by
and

shades

are

used

meaning.
When
the same
the cost of color printingis prohibitive
be attained by Crosshatch
The
student
ends may
work.
rainfall maps
should
examine
containing cartograms and
which
often printed in newspapers.
are
of cartogram is the dotted
A specialform
If \ve
map.
wish to show
the densityof population of a city,we
may
take a map
of-the city and place a dot within a square
for every
The
scale
fiftypeople living in the square.
should
be so chosen
that the dots
will be fairlyclose
togetherin the sections whose
population is of greatest
this type,
density.Space is not given here to illustrating
but the pupil will have
with the exercises
no
difficulty
to

help

much

out.

geography.

Bureau.

of

turnpike

cartograms. The

Statistical Atlas

the

the

after

borrow

mi.

turnpike.

Cartograms.

examples

how

show

practicallyworn

was

that vary

"

its

years

or
posterity

279.

diagram

to build

township
*3.

Ayres report,
community to pay

built 20

in Indiana

road

means

your

the

project.

for the

*2.

it will

what

showing

to the

that

express

follow.

OF

REPKESENTATION

231

STATISTICS

EXERCISES

1. Obtain

at

least

cartograms

from

government

bulletins.

of

five different forms

pictograms and
magazines, trade journals,or

newspapers,

what
Explain very briefly

intends

each

to show.
2.

the merits

Discuss

or

of the

defects

graphs of

Interpreting(orreading)graphic curves.

280.

Ex.

The

1.

ductory
intro-

exercises

given below will furnish the student


of graphiccurves.
practicein the interpretation

some

1915-

-1916-

with

-1917-

\7_

FIG.

189.

THE

AVERAGE

SHOWING

RAILWAY-STOCK

PRICE
THE

FLUCTUATIONS,

TWENTY-FIVE

OF

YORK

NEW

(Adapted

from

STOCK
the New

INTRODUCTORY

1.

Explain

the lowest
cause

the

the

in

curve

the
price,

cause

of the downward

sharp break

upward

OF

THE

BY

MONTHS,

LEADING

STOCKS

IN
ON

EXCHANGE
York

Times)

EXERCISES

Fig. 189, noting the highestprice,


of the upward trend in 1915, the

movement

in the

in 1917, and

closingdays

of

the
1917.

cause

of

232

Explain

2.

the

the

in

curve

the

1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918


90

graph
Give

early years.
results

for such

reason

may

MATHEMATICS

Check

Fig. 190.
for

GENERAL

as

you

find.

Fig.191

3.

chart of

of

a case

(a) Explain
of the

is

temperature

typhoidfever,
rise

the

(b)What

curve,

is the

of the dots ? Do

meaning

fall

and

("40

these

pointsmark the tops of bars ?


(c) What assumption does the

physicianmake

he

when

nects
con-

these

(d)Note

paintsby a curve ?
that this diagram does

not have

it omitted?
be

scale ;

zero

The

FIG.

was

190.

NUMBER

OF

DIFFERENT

chart would

improvedif it had

sized

why

4.3

(Adapted

from

Motor)

an

line in color in your

/7

text for the

? Construct

line.
normal-temperature

V"

/jajt"t

II IS It/7

107*

106'
YU590

bl

"S"

105

104*
103"

102*
101"
100'

?"
"Itf
Si/eitr-va

FIG.

191.

OF

TYPES

emphaline representing
normal temperature (98.4").
Why
a

CARS

"TEMPERATrRE

CHART

OF

CASE

OF

TYPHOID

FEVER

234

GENERAL

small

two

million.

1790
on

(2)

spaces.

populationin

millions.

Therefore

line,and

the 1800

MATHEMATICS

The
Two

bar about

second

bar

vertical

scale

small

spaces

1.6

mm.

littleover

represents the

represent

ten

long is placedon the


2 mm.
long is placed

line.

Similarly,bars
were
placed on
the

other

lines.

(3)Theupper
pointsof the

end
tical
ver-

segments

(bars)are joined
In
by a curve.
so

far

bars

as

are

the
does

the
cerned
con-

ure
fignot
FIG.

differ

from

193.

THE

GRAPHIC

CURVE

an

crease
ordinarybar diagram. We may assume, however, that inin population
between any two periodswas
gradual;
for example,we
tion
may estimate that in 1795 the populanumber
was
some
reasonablynear
halfway between
larly,
3,900,000 and 5,300,000; that is,about 4,600,000. Simiestimate the populationin the year 1793.
we
may

OF

REPRESENTATION

assumption leads

This

enables

the

estimate

to

us

draw

to

us

the smooth

populationwithout
of the
bars. By means

length of the
the populationwill be in
of your prediction
be
accuracy

will the

which

curve

in

change

knowing the exact


curve
predictwhat
way

235

STATISTICS

1920.

In what

affected

by

the

European War?
EXERCISES

1.

The

followingtable shows
through a period of

bookstore

Draw

Draw

graphic paper.
ink

else

or

use

the other.
2.

On

"

age

5",0",
3",
3.

Explain the

hour

every

"

the

dotted

winter

afterward

2",

7". Draw

Using

day

8",

two

year

on

the

with
and

one

of

an

sheet of

same

different-colored
unbroken

line for

curves.

the thermometer
until

10",

P.

scale

10",

average

and

was

The

ai.

the temperature

these

monthly sales

years.

curves

line for

Convenient

-lines,
graph

two

for each

graphic curve

the total

read

at 9A.M.

and

hourly readingswere

5",0",

5",

4",

2",

graph.

callingthe
heights of boys

vertical lines
and

girls:

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

boys grow most rapidly? At what age


that
girlsgrow most rapidly? Is it reasonable to assume
height of a boy nineteen years old is 5.65 ft.?
average
At

what

the

standings of

The

4.

do

do

age

here

inclusive,are

champion

from

batters

1900-1907,

the

National

0.355

0.349

0.377

0.339

0.350

0.355

0.381

0.329

0.358

0.350

given

for

the

and

American

leagues.
The

National
0.382

0.384
The

the
5.

the

for each

sheet.
a

league to

below

convenient

scale,both

the lines show.

Tell what

temperature chart

given

are

0.376

data

same

Draw

which

0.367

0.422

Graph

League

American

0.387

on

League

of

patient,the

data

(see Fig.191).

If

such
get a copy of a temperature curve
possible,
and explainthe graph to the
commonly keptin hospitals
The
class will profitmore
by your discussion if the
presents the data for a long period.
6.

7. Be

the lookout

on

of
you

which

graphic curves

to your

class. In

will find tables of statistics which

Glance

of the United

United

for

generalinterest

advantage.

for

through
occasionally
States

"

or

the

"

convey

as

is

class.
curve

mation
infor-

paper
nearlyevery newsto
be plotted
may

the

"Statistical Abstract

Statistical Atlas

States"

of the

of Foreign and
(publishedby the Bureau
Domestic
Commerce), Popular Mechanics
Magazine, Popular
Science Monthly,Scientific
American, and so on, with the purpose
of findinginteresting
graphs. If a lack of time prevents

class

discussion,
post these graphs on

bulletin boards.

REPRESENTATION
282.
a

OF

and

Continuous

We

discrete series.

change in wealth, in

continuous

STATISTICS

237

may

in
population,

represent
the

growth

of

etc. by a smooth
curve.
Thus, if we read
boys and girls,
four reports of deposits
made in a country bank as $20,000
on
January 1, $25,000 on April 1, $18,000 on June 1,
and
that there was
$19,000 on September 1, we assume
from January 1 to April 1,
a gradual increase of deposits
withdrawal
from April1 to June 1, and a
rather rigorous
a
slow rallyfrom June
1 to September 1. This is precisely
the way
a
physiciantreats the temperature of a patient,
even
though he may take the temperature but twice per day.

However,

the

data of every table cannot


be considered as
between
the limits. This fact is clearly
trated
illus-

continuous

by

If

we

the

followingtable

were

state the facts.


occur

on

that

draw

to

the third

continuous

or

be

discrete,
or

the

fifth

would
Such

broken,

not

of

July accidents

curve,

it would

not

July accidents may


certain
of July,we
are
representthe facts for

few Fourth

on

curve

the rest of the year.

continuous

Though

of Fourth

of

collection of items

is said to

of wages paid in
discrete series,for the wages
are

series.

record

factoryis likelyto be a
of dollars
usually (except in piecework)a certain number
being seldom less than 10 "".
per week, the fractional parts*
We should find very few men
gettingodd sums, say, $18.02
a

per week.

Hence

there would

be

many

gaps

in the

series.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

238
283.

Statistics

far

as

We

science defined.

enough for,the

student

have

now

to understand

gressed
pro-

that the

"

of facts,or data,
largemass
human
which
bear upon
some
problem. One of the chief
of statistics as a science is to render the meaning of
uses
of figuresclear and
masses
comprehensibleat a glance.
of a situation involvview
ing
Statistics givesus a bird's-eye
of numerous
instances in such a way
a complex array
attention
that we
on
a
get a picturewhich centers our
relations. Such a view shows how one factor
few significant
social or economic
in a complicated
problem influences
"

term

another
between
284.

statistics refers to

in

short,it enables

variable
The

us

to understand

the relation

(changing)quantities.
of statistics.

uses

Statistical studies

do

not

idle curiosity.
satisfy
They are necessary
in the solution of the most weightysocial,
governmental,and
economic
problems. Do certain social conditions make for
increase in crime and poverty ? The
determines
sociologist
the relations bearingon the question.Are certain
statistically
criminal acts due to heredity
? The biologist
presents
statisticaldata. Is tuberculosis increasing
or
decreasing?
exist

merely

Under

what

to

conditions does it increase ?

presentedby the
policies.Further

medical

Reliable

statistics

world

guide our publichygienic


of statistical studies in the
possibilities
medical world are suggested
by the recent work of Dr. Alexis
Carrel.
The work of Dr. Carrel has been widely discussed.
of the details,
Though authorities disagree
concerningsome
all will probablyagree that the mathematical
attack on the
problem of war surgery is a distinct scientificadvance.
What
insurance
Statistical
to pay?
rates ought we
have determined laws for the expectationof
investigations
life under given conditions which
for practicalpurposes
are

as

accurate

as

the formula

for the

area

of

square.

REPRESENTATION

The

business

world

giganticstrikes

of

the demands

OF

that would

of the

and

dividends ?

know

will not

under

paralyzeall
?

unreasonable

men

earning undue
know

trembles

at times

until

239

STATISTICS

The

the threat

business.

Are

the tions
corporapublic does not
Are

scientific group

of citizens

present reliable statistics of earningsand expenditures.


There

is

in

now

existence

tisan tariff commission

which

in

Washington

nonpar-

consists of five members

appointed
collects statistics and

the

president,which
makes
time to time.
recommendations
to Congress from
It is now
tend to do
thought that this commission
may
with the. old haphazard methods
of handlingtariff
away
questions.
How
rapidlyand with what degree of accuracy should
of
a
fourth-grade
pupil be able to add a certain column
? The educator is able to present an answer
based
figures
than 100,000 fourth-grade
children for
tests of more
on
that particular
problem.
by

Because

of the

numerous

trained

enumerators

which

the world's output, the largespecthey employed to cover


ulators
of Trade knew
with absolute
the Chicago Board
on
for days in advance
of the record-breaking
jump
certainty
in the priceof wheat in August, 1916.
We
to present evidence
might continue indefinitely
reader in any field will profit
showing that the intelligent
of statistical
by a knowledge of the elementary principles

methods.
285.

the

us

to

length of
measures

grasp
220

; class limits ; class

interval.

In

problem it is necessary that the


in some
systematicfashion that will
the problem. Suppose we
measured

tabulated

be

enable

ear

table

of
investigation

data

the

Frequency

ears

between

of

corn.

5 in. and

Let

us

6 in.,the

say

the smallest

longestbetween

then group the ears


into eightgroups, and tabulate

throwing them
somewhat

The

classes.

be

There

have

corn

into

should

LENGTH

arrangement of data
of

ears

vided

SHOWING

TABLE

an

read
two

are

somewhere

by inches,
the results

follows:

as

FREQUENCY

Such

could

13 in. We

12 in. and

rt

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

240

been

The

is called

di-

EARS

OF

CORN

frequencytable.

niiiimiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiimiimni

table

follows

as

OF

70

measuring

ears

between

5 in. and

between

6 in. and

CO

in., four

Tin.,"etc. The
known

are

the

limits,and

class

as

distance

boundary lines

between

the

two

limits of any class is designated40


class interval. The
class
as
a

interval in the
is 1 in. Class

precedingcase
intervals should

always be equal.
The

so

facts of

the

20

"

table

are

shown

by the graph in Fig.194.


This graph is the same
the
as
bar diagram (Fig.186) which
have drawn, with the excepwe
tion
that in this

case

the bars

10

FIG.

194.

the scale intervals.

10

DISTRIBUTION
POLYGON

cover

OF

OF

CORN

11
OF

220

12

13

QUENCY
FREEARS

( i KNERAL

The

1000
totaling
The

49-56

54

boys in

from

49

up

means

last number

of

class is the

the firstclass includes

Construct

year

1000

in the table lacks 54

boys of
pounds.

140
this group weighed over
to but not including56'. Wherever

same

as

the first number

point,but

up to that

does not

the

of the next

class,

that

point.

include

graph (similarto Fig.194) for

each

of

the

of the table above.

groups
7.

the

AND

BOYS

fact that the third column


is because

TWELVE-

BOYS,

FOURTEEN-YEAR-OLD

NOTE.

1000

THIRTEEN-YEAR-OLD

1000

BOYS,

YEAR-OLD

SHOWING

WEIGHTS

OF

TABLE

FREQUENCY

ATHEMATICS

The

mental
followingtest on the abilityto use the four fundalaws in solvingsimple equations
was
given to 115 firsthigh-schoolstudents,the time given for the test being

fifteen minutes.
DIRECTIONS

Find

the value

equations.
if
on

Do

not

TO

of the unknown
check

PUPIL

numbers
results.

Work

in each

the

of the

following
problems in order

your
If
find
too difficult,
do not waste
time
possible. you
too much
one
it,but pass on to the next. Be sure that it is too difficult,
however,

before you

pass

on.

Do

not

omit

any

problem

which

you

can

solve.

243

THE
1.

2. 2

#=4.

3. 2 fc +
4.

13. 16 y + 2 y

7.

TEST

14. 7x
=

18 y +

3z

22.

10.

17.
3.

ij

5. 2

"."
7

6.

3.c +

17.

5.3 y +

4|

=9.

0.34

18. 0.5x-3

15

5 y

10.

2.99.

1.5.

19.

20.

7 y +

-9^

20

17.5
3 y

60

4 y +

40

8 //.

21.
66

+ 1

11.

18

6.

of

12.

|-4=10.

The

results of

frequency. The

25

24.

the

test

student

a;

given by the followingtable


should
study it carefully.

are

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

244

"

read,

the

Of
but

tried

hundred

one

attempted 12,

examples, one

attempted 14,"

sixth

fourth, and

The

etc.

second
and

columns

one

be read,

should

of

the

Of

the

consists

part

the

first

should

be

taking the test one


attempted 13, four

fifteen students

and

which

fifth columns,

first,second, fourth, and

is the

part

parts,of which

of two

table consists

Explanation.The

"

first,third,
one

hundred

rectly,
taking the test one solved only 1 problem corthree solved 6 correctly,
four
solved only 2 correctly,
one
7 correctly,"
etc.

fifteen students

and

solved

Construct

8.
on

for the number

243

page

the

Under

9.

in Ex.

the

facts

of students

directions of your

of the table

given

attempting.

instructor

take the

test

7.

Ask

10.

your

class and
in

compares

and

hundred

286.

instructor to
of

the number
your

graph showing

give you

attempts and
how

determine

frequencytable

successes

in the test taken

the

done

work

by

with
that done
accuracy
fifteen students in the test described

speed

Measure
A

and

of

central

frequencytable

ing
show-

tendencies
and

by

the

in Ex.

the

your

by

class
one

7.

arithmetic

frequencygraph help
to understand
of facts because they show us the
us
a mass
distribution of the items, so that we
where the largest
see
and the smallest
groups
groups fall. The graph shows us
the general trend of the facts. The
largegroups assume
ency.
importance.We need terms to describe the central tendaverage.

Often
need.

Such

clear.

Thus,

much

about
the

get

some

average

give

the word
a
a
a

"

"

average

is

term

is used

helpfulin making

to

meet

mass

this

of facts

group of farmers could not possiblylearn


field of corn
if we
read a list to them showing

length of

every
idea of what

lengthof

an

fair estimate

ear

of

ear

in

field. But

they would

yield to expect if told that the


is 91 in. They could
certainly
the yield if in addition we
told

REPRESENTATION

them

that

grew

620

OF

tha average a
shall
stalks. We
on

245

STATISTICS
in

row

40-acre

square

presentlylearn

field

that the word

"

average,"as commonly used, is not correct. The phrase


arithmetic average
the quotient
obtained by dividing
means
the sum
of all the items by the number of items. Thus,
mark
obtained by your class on a test
to find the average
"

"

we

need

by

the

to

add

the marks

number

students

of all the

of students
the

obtain

in the

students

class.

and

If two

divide
or

more

mark

(say 70), we can shorten


the first step of the process by multiplying
the mark
by the
of times it occurs
number
instead of adding 70 five times.
This means
that in a frequencytable a student must
member
reeach item by itsfrequencybeforeadding.
to multiply
When
the size of the item is only approximatelyknown,
the

mid-pointof

the size of each


we

should

try

same

the class interval is taken


item

to

therein.

find the

To

to

represent

illustrate,suppose
number

average

of

that

problems

shall suppose
We
test.
simple-equation
that three students report that they attempted6 problems.
This does not really
that all three exactlycompleted
mean
6 problems when
called. In all probability
time was
one
about
had made a slight
start on number
7, the second was

attempted in

in

the

the

middle

completed 7.
small

to make

of

Of

7, and

number
course

the

this certain,but

the

number
if

third

had

almost

of students
should

take

is too

larger
in air probability
there
of students (say thirteen),
number
who were
than half through with
would
be as many
more
be students less than
the seventh problem as there would
half through. Hence, to find the average
we
say that the
thirteen students attempted6i and not 6, as theyreported.
To

illustrate:
Find

on

we

the

the average

number

test
simple-equation

of
if

equationsattempted by a class
students
two
report 5 problems

MATHEMATK

GENERAL

24G

attempted,four report 6, five report 7, three report 8, and

two

report 9.
4

6"

class

the

average

26

37.:.

:5

8i

2').-,

19

16

119

110

-=-16 =7.4.

number

problems attempted by

of

the

that the series of facts in the table is not

pointis

discrete series,as

but

is 7.4.

The
a

11

2x9*

Therefore

2x5"

Solution.

continuous

at firstbe inclined to

would

one

think,

series.
EXERCISES

Calculate the average

*1.

class in the

your

number

of

test
simple-equation

equationsattempted by
(Art.285).

Using the table of Ex. 5, Art. 285, find the average


weight of the twelve-year-old
boys ; of the thirteen-year-old
boys.
boys ; of the fourteen-year-old
2.

Find

3.

the

average

of

length

the

113

leaves

in

Ex.

4,

Art. 285.

Find

4.

the

length of

average

the

220

ears

of

corn

of the

first table in Art. 285.


Find

5.

the

for the six years

last eight years


At

7.

the ten
"

5,

"

of

the

of

accidents

July

champion

batters

for the

(Ex. 4, Art. 281).

Minneapolis the 7 A.M.


days beginningFebruary
3, "7,

Fourth

of the table of Art. 282.

the averages

Compare

6.

of

number

average

"

9,

"

8, "2,0,

temperature readingfor

the

"

temperature readings for


follows :
were
as
3,
5,
"

6.

period.

Find

the average

"

A.M.

REPRESENTATION

Find

8.

-6";
5

P.

M.,

9.

-5";

5"

Find

; 6

P.

M.,

P.

3 P.M.,

M.,

church

the average

247

11 A.M.,

-2";

-6";

2" ; 7

STATISTICS

followingtemperatures:

10A.M.,
2 P.M.,

IP.M., -4";

-2";

of the

the average
A.M.,

OF

-7";

8 A.M.,

-1";

12 M.,

4 P.M.,

-7";

1".

contributions

according to

the

Some

of

followingfrequency table.
OF

TABLE

CHURCH

Disadvantages of

287.

CONTRIBUTIONS

the

arithmetic

average.

preceding exercises suggest that


objectionsto the arithmetic average.

there

the

little to

means

in

Ex.

9, Art.

say

that the average

286,

"

is 62

cents.

are

For

certain

example,

church

it

contribution

use
People ordinarily

"

the most
usual
thinking it means
occurrence
thing.As a matter of fact
; that is,the common
nobody gave 62 cents, and only one person gave as much
that. The objection
to the arithmetic average is that it
as
givestoo much emphasisto the extreme items. To illustrate
more
fully:A boy who has just finished an elementary
learns that the average weekly wage of a
surveyingcourse
is $23. This is very encduraging
railway-surveying
group
until an analysisshows him that the chief engineer
gets $55
|30 ; and all others but $15. To say
a week
; his assistant,
the

word

average

that the average weekly earningof ten


insurance
office is $30 a week may be
man

may

salaryis

be
much

man,
$5000-a-year

lower

than

$30

working in an
for one
misleading,
men

in which

per week.

case

Other

the usual

objections

248

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

the arithmetic average are the following:(a) it cannot


be located either in a frequencytable or in a frequency
to

determined
when
the
accurately
items are
extreme
missing;(c) it is likelyto fall where
item
exists (for example, a sociologist
discover
no
may
that the average-size
familyin a givencommunity has 4.39
is evidentlyimpossible).
members, though such a number
these

For

be

it cannot

graph; (b)

it is desirable

reasons

tendency of

of tht central

measure

288.

Central

tendency

interval that has the most

place where

drawn.

the

The

the

be

other

some

of the most

denned

ful
use-

the scale

as

frequentitem, or we may say


longestbar of a bar diagram

describes the most

term

have

group.
One

mode.

It may

is the mode.

measures

is the

; the

to

usual

occurrence,
"

it
is
or
"

popularuse of the term


average
hear of
we
approximatesthe meaning of the word. When
the average high-school
boy he is supposed to represent
who
receives exactlythe most
mark
a type
one
common
of his classes,is of the most
athletic ability,
common
of time in study,shows
amount
spends the most common
the most common
of school spirit,
the most
amount
wastes
thing.The

common

"

of time, is of the most

amount

common

It is obvious

Though

that

such

no

high-school
boy

boy

may possess some


certain to differ from the common
The
which

word

"

means

coin.

The

in others.

gave

"

mode,"
in

the

is five cents.

nickel than

any

other

frequency'table for the simplefor attempts (Ex. 7, Art. 285) is twenty


the test more
students were
at this point
called than
other point.
at any

mode

was

type

(Ex. 9, Art. 286)

people in this church

time

of these attributes he is

"

More

when

can

age, etc.
be found.

used for
is thus incorrectly
average
the common
the mode
type. Thus

church-contribution table

equation test
examples. In

common

in the

for the

not

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

250

modal

manufacturer

The

number
of

the average
charityfund is far more
not

man,

"

the

hence

strap hanger."

ready-made clothingfits the modal


of a community's
The spirit
man.
in the mode

evident

than

in the

average.

disadvantageof the mode is that there are a large


it cannot
be easily
of frequencytables to which
number
with no
applied.In such cases we have an irregular
group
particular
type standingout, and the mode is difficult to
find,as will be illustrated presently.
A

290.

Central

tendency ;

measured

are

the

median.

with reference to

some

If

number

of objects

trait,or attribute,

accordingly,
they are said to be arrayed.
which
Suppose that your instructor gives an examination
and that after the results
ability,
reallytests mathematical
stand
in line, taking the
announced
the students
are
the examination
to their marks
on
positioncorresponding
;
that is,the student with
least mathematical
at the
ability
in ability
foot of the class,the one
next
next
to the foot,
The class is then arrayed.If any group of objects
is
etc.
the median
item. If
as
arrayed,the middle one is known
class had twenty-three
your
pupilsstandingin the order
of their ability,
the twelfth pupil from the foot or the head
and

ranked

then

of the class is the student

There

are

median

justas

is another

many

whose

below

measure

as

mark

above

of the

is the median
him

central

mark.

in

The
ability.
tendency of a

If there is an even
number
of items, the median
group.
is said to exist halfway between
the two
middle
items.

Thus,

if your

between
student
The
on

from

meaning
pages

251

class had

twenty-two pupils,the

that of the eleventh


either end

would

and

252.

by

way
half-

that of the twelfth

be called,
the median

is further illustrated
and

mark

the exercises

mark.

given

KEPKESENTATION

Find

1.

weekly

the
of

wage

the

table above

The
are

able

to

asked

We

that is,we

workers

in

half

one

want

the first

In

in

shows

and

sum

wage

to find

say that

this

than

median

the
a

following table of the


retail millineryshop.1

of

the wages

weekly wage
the girlsin
half receive

one

place,the

hundred

one

so

this

that

girls.

shall be

we

shop receive
than

more

of the group.
student
should

measure

251

STATISTICS

OF

less

this sum;

notice

that

the

too high to be representative,


average $10.05 seems
for there are
too
girlsworking for smaller
many
In the second
place,the mode is unsatisfactory.

arithmetic

sums.

The

$15

wage

to

$16

girlsworking

more

arithmetic

the

so

proceed to

we

There

are

one

mode, but there are


$5, $6, or $7 ; hence neither

for about

the mode

nor

average

be

to

seems

has very

much

ing,
mean-

locate the median.

hundred

girlsin

the

shop ;

hence

we

must

halfway between that of the fiftieth and that


of the fifty-first
girlfrom the lowest wage. Adding the
number
of the first four groups
of girls(3 + 15 + 16+12)
givesus forty-six
girlsand takes us to the 8-dollar wage.
find

We

need
1

For

wage

to

actual

Survey,"
the

exercise.

count
facts
page

see

63.

four

of the next

more

"Dressmaking
The

table

was

and

seven,

who

are

land
CleveMillinery," in "The
of
the purposes
adapted to meet

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

252

$9. The

#8 and

gettingbetween

table

that the

assumes

?) ; hence the next seven


(piecework
$8 and $9. We
distributed at equal distances between
are
of the seven
girlsas being distributed graphically,
may think
in Fig. 195.
shown
as
clear the assumptionthat the first girl
The graph makes
which is between
"8 and
-seventh)earns a sum
(theforty
that the wage is at the mid-pointof this interval,
$8|; we assume
the second girl(theforty-eighth)
or $8-Jj.
Similarly,

series is continuous

earns

be

to

the wage
at the mid-pointof this

and

$8f

assume

we

|8^.

interval,or
the

ner

ninth

$8| and

between

sum

of

wage

girlis

In like

the

the
$8T5",

man-

forty-

195

fiftieth

and the fifty-first


girl$8T9?.Midway between
girl|8T7j,
the mid-pointsof the fiftieth and the fifty-first
is
wage
halfway between
$8T7"and $8-^, or $8|. Hence the
is $8 plus $|,or
median
$84, for this wage is halfway
the wage
of the fiftiethgirland that of the fiftybetween
first. The
should
student
study this graph until this
point is clear. He should note that the average is found
the mode
and the median
by calculating,
by inspection,
by
counting. Merely count'along the imagined scale until a
point is found that divides the item into two equal groups.
Since a wage
problem usuallyinvolves a discrete series
is
(why?), a more
practicalillustration of the principle
given below.
2.

Find

the median

fifteen students
Solution.

the

We

in the
must

student
fifty-eighth

student

of the

one

for the

attempts of the

test
simple-equation

find the
from

hundred

number

either
and

of

end,

fifteen.

one

hundred

in Ex.

and

7, Art.

285.

equations attempted by

for he

will be the

Counting

from

the

middle

top of

REPRESENTATION
the

table

(p. 243), we

equations.

We

There

twenty-two

are

equation when
that

modes,
the

?\

of

need

time

the

STATISTICS

count

who

more

called.

to

more

If

we

are

equation,then the median


equation, or just over 19.1 equations.

the
did

we

equal

at

twentieth

an

in
as

assume,

twenty-two students

19

get the fifty-eighth


pupil.

somewhere

were

253

hive finished

get fifty-five
pupils who

to

was

OF

is 19

twentieth
in

finding
out
spaces throughequations plus

EXERCISES

1. State

the two
2.

the

rule for

as

developed in

precedingexercises.

In

Ex.

5, Art. 285,

twelve-year-oldboys;
fourteen-year-old
boys.
3.

findingthe median,

In Ex.

in the array
4. Find

291.

find

1000

4, Art. 285, find


of 113

the median

Limitations

the

median

weight for
thirteen-year-eld
boys;

the

median

leaf and

its

1000
1000

measure

leaves.
for the 220

ears

of

of statistics. There

nonscientific peoplethat

corn

is

(Art.285).
common

saying
proved by

anythingcan be
to the
of statistics. Experience lends conviction
means
do not lie,but liars will figure."
homely saying Figures'
have deceived the
This belief is due to the fact that figures
manipulatedor by being
publiceither by beingdishonestly
A table dishonestly
handled
manipulated
unscientifically.
based on unreliable data appears at first glanceas convincing
or
the work of a trained scientist. The publicdoes
as
to a
to submit every pieceof evidence
not find it possible
critical study and resents such deceptions
as those referred
among

"

to above.

beginningthe student should determine (1) the


and trainingof those 'who gatheredthe facts;
reliability,
gathered; (3) to what extent
(2) how and when they were
As

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

254

of trained

judgment

of

Law

of

value

experts; (4)

to what

the critical
similar

extent

similar results.

studies show
292.

exposed to

been

have

statisticalstudies

the

the

the
regularity. In calculating

statistical

farm

lands

Indiana

in

it is

by

no

means

in the state.
to evaluate and tabulate every acre
necessary
size of a twenty-five-year-old
To find out the average
man
and tabulate
it is not necessary .to measure
York
in New
"

in the

of the
Statistical Abstract
city. The
United States" (published
by the Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic
Commerce) states the value in dollars of hogs,
sheep,and cattle-produced in 1918, but this does not mean
that this total is obtained by tabulating
every individual
man

every

find out

To

animal.

how

year-oldChicagoboy can
hold

to

class in each

in each
us

an

stop watch

from
law

same

at random"

somewhat

an

be

identical with

vague.
illustrates the law

chosen

King,in

"

random

at

need

average
matical
mathe-

number"

"Elements

follows

"

from

ber
num-

among

the average, to possess


the larger
groups. The phrases

almost sure,

"reasonable

as

an

This is due to a
group.
which states that if a reasonable

characteristicsas
and

not

boy. In fact,a few chosen


buildingwould probablygive

the whole

of nature

twelve-

every

school

of individual cases are


very largegroup, theyare
the

"

on

average
100 yards we
would

run

that would

average

obtained

on

fast

"If two

on

make

the law appear


of StatisticalMethod,"
persons,

blindfolded,

pick,here and there, three hundred walnuts from


million nute, the average weight of the
a bin containing
a
tical,
nuts
picked out by each person would be almost idenin size."
even
though the nuts varied considerably
Gamblers
the principle
use
justillustrated when they have
determined how many
times a given event happens out of
of possibilities.
a given number
They are thus able to ply
were

to

REPRESENTATION

OF

'255

STATISTICS

small margin
a
on
continuouslyand profitably
their favor. This principleis the basis of all insurance

their craft
in

thus

possibleto predictwith a great degree


of accuracy how
of a given age out of a given
men
many
thousand
will, under ordinaryconditions,die during
one
The
law of statistical regularity
is very
the next
year.
The
totals
extensively
employed in the Census Bureau.
are
usuallyestimates based on careful study of sufficient
cases.
representative
However, the student should be critical of the phrase
;

'"

at

it is

random."

will give the

Thus,
group.
four hundred

It
same

if

asserted

is not

results

that

any

measurement

measured

we

men

as

that

group
of the whole

height of

the

passed us

small

as

we

the

stood

at

first
the

Randolph and State Streets,Chicago,we could


of gettingan
that would
not be sure
accurately
average
of events might vitiate the
represent the city.Any number
football team
results ; for example, the Minnesota
might
be passingby, or a group of unusuallysmall men
might
be returningfrom some
social meeting limited
or
political
The
to one
sampling should be representative
nationality.
(hereand
large and at random
; that is,sufficiently
of items, the greater the
there).The largerthe number
of
of gettinga fair sample of the largergroup
chances
objectsstudied.
of

corner

*293.

The

law

of inertia

of

large

This

numbers.

law

regularity.It asserts
that when
to show
a
a
so
as
part of a largegroup differs
is that an
tendency in one direction,the probability
equal
part of the same
group has a tendencyto vary in the opposite
direction;hence the total change is slight.
follows

294.

from

the

law

Compensating

laws

are

also

of statistical

and

involved

cumulative
in

errors.

discussion

The
of

ing
preced-

errors.

If

256

GENERAL

pupilsin
lengthof your

your

the

MATHEMATICS

school

to

were

the
carefully

measure

instructor's desk, the chances

would

be that

would
give results too largeas too short.
many
observers of crop conditions
The estimates of a thousand
summarized
which
or
are
graphed in a volume such as
as

"

by the Department of
(published
Commerce) tend to approximateactual conditions. These
In the long run
illustrations of compensatingerrors.
are
they tend to make the result lower as much as higher."
need not concern
This type of error
us
provided
greatly,
"

the

Statistical Atlas

"

we

have

However,
or

need

we

cumulative

short,we

too

of

sufficient number

be

to

cannot

on

If

error.

cases.

eliminate

guard againsta

our

we

use

the

error

stant
con-

stick that is

meter

by measuring a
be
not eventually

long line. A watch too fast could


correct
a
guide. A wholesaler who lost a little on each
article sold could not possibly
accounts
by selling
square
largequantities.
of facts involvinga constant
The value of a mass
error
is seriously
vitiated. Hence
the student should be constantly

very

critical in his effort to detect this type.

EXERCISE

*Draw

segment

as
possibleon
accurately

as
a

certain

of inches

number

in

the blackboard

length.

Ask

as

many

to stand
on
fortyto fiftyschoolmates,if possible,
spot and estimate the length of the line. Find how
estimated the line too long ; how many
estimated
it too
as

from

HINT.

The

work

must

be

done

carefully.Have

each

short.
student

four times ; that is,estimate, look away, estimate, etc.


of all students
estimates
who
do not
comply seriouslywith

it too

many
short ?

estimated

Report

the

line too

long ?

the results to your

How

class.

tain
cer-

many

estimate

request. How

line

many

Reject
your
mated
esti-

The

same

Thus, if

we

tendency

is observed

measured

the

only a few, if any,


rest grouped and
tapering between

income

should

community, we
onlya few whose

persons

income

with

an

in

economic

of the

find

income

ordinaryagricultura
of

out

is less than
over

affairs.

thousand

$300 per year,


$2500, and the

limits.

these

the

When
and

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

258

rise

fall is lar
regu(that is, the

curve
on

falls larly
reguboth sides

the

from

mode),

the distribution is

mate
likelyto approxiwhat
a

tion,
distribu-

normal

and the
is called

curve

normal

distribution
A

call

we

curve.

normal

tribution
dis-

is illustrated
FIG.

197.

the
by
table and diagram
(Fig.197) given here, which
actual

of

measurement

public-schoolboys
of

PHYSICAL
NORMAL

PHENOMENA

ILLUSTRATE

DISTRIBUTION

represents the heightsfrom

four

hundred

from

and

eleven

to

thirtyEnglish
twelve

years

age.1
It will

uniform

be

rule:

at 53 in. and
1

From

seen

that

the most
54

the numbers

numerous

groups

in.,while the groups

Roberts's

"Manual

conform

of

are

to

in the

at 51 in. and

Anthropometry,"

p. 18.

very

middle,
56 in.

REPRESENTATION
less in

are

and

OF

number, those

50 in. and

at

259

STATISTICS

57 in.

are

still fewer,

until the

extremely small numbers of the very


short and very tall boys of 47 in. and 60 in. are reached.
It is shown
that the modal, or typical,
boy of the class
and age given is 53.5 in.,and since he representsthe most
so

on

numerous

he forms

group,

The

the standard.

would

probably be smoother if more


boys
measured
or
were
grouped into half -inch groups. As it is,
it approximatesvery nearlya normal
distribution.
curve

Of

it is not

course

of this type. There


in

merely a tendency in

produce it. There


distribution irregular,
as we

make

*296.

like the

of Art. 295, is
than
we

graph

in inches.

men

ular
reg-

probably

inch.

adult

Fig.198

in

studied.

have

interval

fourth

The

curve.

presentlysee.

curves

if

smoother

class

shall

which

causes

many

and

chance

one

more

most

would

much

are

heightof 25,878 American

curve,

which

of

Symmetry

the

shows

It

is

distribution is

that every

to

nature

This

asserted

were

If

we

be
the

one-

draw

FIG.

HEIGHT

198.

"

THORNDIKE,

OF

MENTAL

MEASUREMENTS,"
from
AK
perpendicular
the highestpointof the

MEN.

(AFTER
SOCIAL

AND

p.

98)

axis

around

to the

the

which

rightof

left. In

the

curve,

we

may

rectanglesare

this axis looks very

this

think

respect

we

say

much
the

of this

built. The

as

an

curve

like the part to


curve

is almost

symmetrical.
Symmetry of figuresmay be illustrated by the human
with respectto a planemidway
head, which is symmetrical
to the face ; thus the
the eyes and perpendicular
between
left eye and the left ear have corresponding
parts to the

260

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

Note

this ti.ris of symmetry.

right of

arrayedin

reverse

familiar

Other

that

the

parts

are

order.
illustrations of

symmetry

(1)

are

the

image obtained by holdingthe hand in front


written
in ink and the imprint
of a plane mirror ; (2) words
the blotting
of those words
on
paper with which they
built on the
blotted : (3) our
clothes,which are largely
are
distribution curve.
of .symmetry ; (4) the normal
principle
the
In architecture, in art, and in higher mathematics
of symmetry
is very important.
principle
the

and

hand

*297.

Skewness

of

curve.

The

term

"skewness"

oppositeof symmetry and means


distributed.
The curve
not symmetrically
are
form.
It is higher either above
bell-shaped
the

than

mode
To

sense

of symmetry

would

notes
de-

that the

items

is not

of the

or

have

below
us

the

expect.

Snppose that the incomes of all the people


certain community were
tabulated as follows :

illustrate:

livingin

The

graph (Fig.199)

table

is not

symmetrical,
but is skewed
toward
the lower side. The meaning of
skewness
is clearlyshown
by the graph. The graph no
form ;
longerpresents the normal, symmetrical,
bell-shaped
the base is drawn
than

on

the

other.

out

to

of

this

greater extent

on

the

one

side

factors
the

of

wages

high wages,
between
unions

the

in

90^

which

laws

by

turbing
dis-

are

Thus, in investigating

situation.

should

carpenters we

say

per hour, and

expect
few

very

few

to

get

low, say 40 ""

grouped,accordingto ability,
these limits. However,
by agreement between
and contractors, carpenters'
wages are fixed in most

hour, and

per

affected

is often

Distribution

261

STATISTICS

OF

REPRESENTATION

FIG.

cities at

we

should

for

the rest to be

190.

GRAPH

SKE\VNESS

SHOWING

between

pricesomewhere
but

have

interval

one

OF

60^
in

and

CURVE

85"".Hence

distribution

city,say Minneapolis,showing
particular

table,

that

all

hour.

carpenters get 75 "" per


R

298.

The

constructed

from

Teachers
science

Fahrenheit

graph of
and

used

"

this

formula.

point;

for

However,

introductory exercise here


more
purposeful formulae

for
in

relations.1

readyreckoners

as

to take

up

example,

the

find it desirable

may
at

cost

constant

the

the
the
next

authors
sake

of

"

Graphs may be
for determining

graphing of formulas
graph of the centigradea
simpler
prefer to use
the

method

chapter.

and

to

take

up

262

of goods without
quantities
by the followingexample:

costs

of different

This

is shown

sell at 30

If oranges
of dozens
c

30

per

c/,where

for

is the

draw
small

to

in

two

between

dozens

the

the

and

ber
num-

equation
the

cost

d, corresponding values

the

axes,

following table

and

OX

OF,

at

right

represent 1 doz., and

unit

unit represent 10 $. Then,

small

computation.

expressedby
of

given

given

as

be

may
number

are

c,

squared paper
angles. On OY let
a

dozen, the relation

cost

On

let

If values

found

be

the

and

dozen.

may

OX

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

on

the 30 ""line

on

10

X
50

FIG.

mark
a

200.

100

THE

200

150

GRAPH

OF

1 doz.
point representing
3 doz. Draw
pointrepresenting
a

thus marked.
is

It is

seen

that this

line.
straight
By lookingat this pricecurve

300

250

COST

FORMULA

20$ line mark


a line through the points
line,or graph (Fig.200),
On

the

any

number

example,to

of dozens, even
find the cost

of

we
a

can

get the

fractional

of 6 doz. observe

number.

the

cost

of
For

pointwhere

263
the

horizontal

curve

line

observe

axis OX',

small

six

the

units

point directlybeneath

this is

eighteensmall
the
represents $1.80. Similarly,

cost

this

from

units

the

meets

up

of

price

and

8" doz.

the

on

hence
is

seen

$2.55.

to be

EXERCISES

of the graph in Fig. 200


determine
the cost
By means
the following:9 doz.; 11 doz.; 2^ doz.; 3^ doz.; 10|doz.;

1.

of

5| doz.

3^ doz.

sell at 45$

2. If eggs
3.

On

the

doz.; 10
4.

Draw

5.

On

dozen, draw

pricegraph drawn

doz. ;
a

the

for Ex.

3^doz.;5^ doz.

pricegraph
graph

for

pricegraph.

2 find the cost of 4 doz. ;

4^ doz.

for sugar

drawn

the

costing10|$

Ex.

find

the

pound.

cost

of

11

lb.;

10 lb.
31 lb.; 6|lb.;
6.

Construct

graph

which

priceof potatoes at $2.10 per


7.

Use

2 bu. 3
8.

the

pk.; 5" bu.

Since
of

the

order

to

draw

far

graphs in
points would

Exs.

1~7

have

to

apart, in

line ? Should

order

299.

to

in

used

6 to find the cost

pk.

the

be

the
calculating

bushel.

; 5 bu. 3

nearly accurate

more

of Ex.

the

many

or

graph

may

are

be

these

of 3

bu.; 4|-bu.;

straight lines,how

located
be taken

in each

case

in

close together

get the positionof the pricegraph

Why

Graphs of linear equations ;

locus

; coordinates.

As

precedingsections the relation between two


be expressedin three ways:
(1) by an
quantities
may
ordinaryEnglish sentence, (2) by an equation,or (3) by
a graph. The
graph is said to be the graph of the equation.
A
graph may be constructed for each equation that we
shown

in the

have

of

process of drawing the


equationwill be given in this article.

studied

an

to

date.

equationbe

the

Let
is

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

264

translation

the

of

graph

The

3, which

which

sentence

some

shall suppose

we

rule; for example, the


practical
packageby parcelpost into a certain zone
plus three cents. We want
per ounce
2 x + 3.
for the equationy
definite

states

some

of

sending a
equalstwo cents
to draw
a
graph

cost

EXERCISES

1.
x

is the value

What

? when

equals0

3 ? when
2.

We

are

now

work

following table
+

The
in

equationy

2x

3 when

equals 2 ? when
3 ?
equals
x

equals

"

of values

of

and

y for the

3.

ready

squared paper.
from

when

2 ? when

"

Fill in the

equationy

equals1 ?

equals

of y in the

to

transfer

process

does

the
not

data

of

Ex.

differ very

to

much

frequencytables except that usually in


graphingequationswe need to consider both positiveand
For the sake of method
shall extend
we
negativenumbers.
the discussion
this point. Two
AA'' and
to cover
axes,
)')"' (Fig. 201), are
drawn
at right angles^and meet
at 0.
Correspondingto each set of values of x and y a
point is located,the values of x being measured
along or
to
parallelto XX', and the values of y along or parallel
YY'.
-Positive values of x are measured
to the rightof
YY'
and negativevalues to the left ; positive
values of y
measured
above XX'
and negativevalues below A'A"'.
are
our

260

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

pointof

Select any

4.

values

of

and

How

5.

graph and determine


equation.

the

satisfythe

pointscould

many

coordinates

(a) The

of

every

facts

two

be

can

followingfacts :

the line

pointon

equation.
(b) The coordinates of every pointnot
the equation.
satisfy
These

the

the line ?

on

illustrate the

precedingexercises

The

find

one

whether

satisfythe

the line do

on

proved rigidlyin

not

advanced

they enable us to say that the straight


nates
line found is the lo"nis (theplace)of all pointswhose coordithe givenequation.It is importantto observe
satisfy
under
that the idea of a locus involves two things,
specified
(a) and (b) above.
that the graph of an
Since it appears
equation of the
is a straight
first degreehaving two
unknowns
line,equations
of the first degree are called linear equations.
in either direction,
be extended
A line may
indefinitely
and there are an indefinitely
number
of points
large(infinite)
line. Since the coordinates of each pointon
a straight
upon
the line satisfy
the equationof the line,there are an infinite
of solutions of a linear equationwith two unknowns.
number
mathematics, and

This

fact is

evident,also,because

the unknowns

we

find

can

for every

of

value

value
corresponding

one

of

for the

other unknown.
ORAL

1.

which

What

of
x

10

at

are

plane?
2.

is the

at

What

location

distance

distance of
is the

ft. from

yards from

a
a

EXERCISES

(locus)of

of 5 ft. from

7% ft. fromP?

locus of all

given point?
given point?

points in a
given point P

all
a

at

points in
1

cm.

distance
space

from

at

of
a

plane
in the
x

feet,?

distance

given point?

REPRESENTATION
3. What

is the locus of all pointsin

givenstraightline
What

4.

is the

7. What

each of two

your

from
*10.

from

is the locus

distance

pointsin

of

equallydistant

space

the

in. distant from

plane6

plane which
points3

10 in.

are

ft. from

the

is the locus of all

is the

line

segment
used

Terms

used

at

apart ?

ceilingof

What
a

space

of all

pointsin a plane 5
long in the plane?

line segment 7 in.

300.
terms

given pointsin

What
a

? y inches distant ?

? y feet ?

cm.

is the locus of all pointsin

classroom

*9.

of all

is the locus of all

What

8.

locus

lines
given parallel

two

in. distant from

tant
points in a plane equallydislines in the plane ?
given parallel

two

What

from

pointsin

given straightline ?

5. What

*6.

of all

plane3

5| in. distant

plane ?

is the locus

4 in. from

from

in the

267

STATISTICS

OF

in

locus

of all

10 ft.

long ?

in graphing

mathematics

points in

space

in. distant

5 in. distant

linear equation. Certain

,in connection

with

graphical

will now
representation
be given and
illustrated
lines
by Fig. 202. The
XX'

and

drawn

YY',

at

called
right angles, are
axes
(XX1 the horizontal
axis

YY'

and

the

cal
verti-

"2

-x

axis). The point0 is


called the origin.From
P,

point on the squared


are
paper, perpendiculars
any

drawn

to

the

axes:

the

called

the

FlG-

202'
USED

distance

PM

ordinate

of P, and

is

the distance PN

I""MRATISG
IN

PLOTTING

"K
A

TERMS

POINT

is called the abscissa of P

coordinate

called

and

is

Finding a point on
to a given pair of
point.

of P

are

the

on

the

is 2 and

first and

the

the

ordinate

which

is called

coordinates

on

point (%, 2").

graphic sheet

axes

positive
; those

are

is written

abscissa

the

second.

the

0 Y

negative. The abscissa


2*-; the point P is called

that

Notice

and

OX

on

The

is indicated

used

scale

OY'

on

ordinate

The

axes.

distances

The

axes.

of P.

called the coordinates

togetherthey are

OX'

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

2b'8

sponds
corre-

plotting

EXERCISES

1.

What

2.

What

of

is the abscissa

point A

ordinate

is the

of

the

? B ? C ? D

point

A?

(Fig.202).

? E

B?

C?

D?

:'

(Fig.202.)
3.

Give

4.

On

of

the coordinates
of

sheet

Compare

of houses
6.

On

in
a

of

the process

and

sheet

of

graphic

of the

locate

paper

method

equation. With

illustrate and

the

numbering

city.

Summary

linear

2),(- 2J,3J).

plottingpointswith

the

kind
D(5,.8). What
think is formed
when
the pointsA, B, C, and
the diagonals of the figure,
Draw
and
find
the point where
the diagonals intersect.

axes

plot the following

B(5, 3), C(2, 7), and

301.

(Fig.202).

set of coordinate

2),(- 3, 4),(- 3,

of the paper,

center

points: (2,4),(5,2),(4,
5

draw

graphic paper

the

near
intersecting

pointsA, B, C, D,

for the
300

Art.

in

the process

summarize

points A (2, 2),

of

figure do
coordinates

process

mind
of

connected?

7)are

the

you

of

of graphing

we

shall

graphing

now

linear

equation.
Draw

(a)

the
Solve

graph
the

of 4

"

3 y

equationfor either

6.

unknown

in terms

of the

other:

thus,

REPRESENTATION

the

throws

This

pairs

of

into

equation
values

are

the

which

from

form

easily

more

269

STATISTICS

OF

sponding
corre-

obtained.

Let

(b)
Then

let

And
Then

That

is, build
least

at

get

Plot

the

of corresponding

of

integral

values

numbers.

follows

as

(Try

to

Why?)

points
to

pairs

etc.

3 77

corresponding
"

table

pairs

two

6 +

"(c)

3,

"

the
FIG.
f.j,

oj numbers

203.

GRAPH

oj the

OP

LINEAR

THE

EQUATION

"
_

table

(see Fig. 203).

(d)
whether

To

check, choose
its

coordinates

pair of numbers
the- line

(e)

in

the

point

satisfy
table.

the

on

the

This

line

drawn

given equation
third

point

and
or

determine

plot

also

should

each

other.

third
fall

on

drawn.
The

two

points plotted should

not

be

too

near

Why

270

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL
"

EXERCISES

of

sheet
1.

2.2x

3.

3x-

4.

3x

7.
".

2y

l2.

2y=6.

followingequations,each

squaredpaper

"

the

graphs of

the

Draw

20.

9.

l5.

10.

5x-2y

W.

11.

2x

6x-4y

3.

12.

3y

5.

5x-

6.

3x

7.
8.

4y

which

5y

during the last fiftyyears.


in
national organization.Even
needs know
must
something of
tribute

be

arate
sep-

Statistics has

NOTE.

HISTORICAL

on

levied.

Its
a

attained

growth

its wealth

-3.

5 y

8ar.

"

dignityof
in hand

organizationthe

to determine

12.

"

"

3-4"/.

hand

goes

earliest

Our

the

tribal

crude

5x-2y

ence
sci-

with
ruler

the taxes

or

statistical

compilations
3000 B.C.)presented the population and wealth
(some time
for the construction
of the pyramids.
of Egypt in order to arrange
II took
a
census
Many centuries later (about 1400 B.C.)Rameges
of all the lands of Egypt to reapportionhis subjects.
In the

Bible

of the

and

Ages

made

how

of the

marked

Greeks

The

read

we

census

which

year

may
before

the

and

Moses

Roman

birth

tribes

of Israel
the

of Christ.
the

feudal

for

enumerations

many

the

Augustus Caesar, in

emperor,

and

Romans

numbered

the

barons

purposes

the inhabitants, and


land, levying taxes, classifying

of the

Middle

of

apportioning
determining the

some
militarystrength. In all cases
except that of the Romans
the
existed
for
data.
The
Romans
lected
colspecialreason
collecting
such data at regular intervals.
During the Mercantile
Europe the feelinggrew
Age of western

that it

was

aimed

to

the function
secure

concerning

the needs

of

balance

to

government
of

In

trade.

encourage

order

to

of commercial

the

decide

measures

correctly

detailed

mation
informore
legislation,
than had hitherto been gathered. The growth
was
necessary
in a centralized monarchy further stimulated
statistical study. That
monarch
most
successful who
could in advance
was
most
accurately
his resources
with
his rivals'.
compare
In 1575 PhilipII of Spain made
extensive

concerning their districts.


on

the conditions

of the

country

In

1696

from

inquiriesfrom

Louis

each

XIV

of the

the

ates
prel-

requiredreports
generalintendants.

REPRESENTATION

began

Prussia

collections

modern

in

times

In

of statistical data.

OF

STATISTICS

the

policy of making periodic

1719

requiring semiannual

Frederick

271

William

began

population,occupations, realreports as
lected
colholdings,taxes, city finance,etc. Later these data were

estate

three

every

to

Frederick

years.

of statistics.

of the value

the

Great

also

was

vigorous

He

tics
enlarged the scope of statisin generalby includingnationality,
age, deaths and their causes,
conditions
of agriculture,
trade, manufactures, shipping, in fact,
anything that might possiblycontribute to national efficiency.
constitution
A provisionin our
of 1790
initiated the decennial
One country after another has adopted some
form of regular
census.

exponent

enumeration,
In

the

whose

United

function
collected

data

also

nations

of

and
have

nation

by

the

Survey

established

extremely elaborate.

grown

Census

permanent

Bureau

study specialproblems in the light of the


to publish the results of this study. Most
leading
tistics
specialbureaus which attempt to keep the staof scientific estimates.
An
u\" to date by means
bureau

is

collect and

public as

to

reports. An

Committee

National
to

Bureau
meet

the

of

Statistics.

needs

of

the

has

movement
to

our

bureaus

established

of elaborate

means

her first official census.

have

censuses

States

the

instruct

to

took

it is to

example of such
Many states have
state.
Recently a
municipal bureaus
and

the

times

recent

In 1900

until, in 1911, China

to establish
gained momentum
study the data of the community
the significant
results obtained
by
example of this idea is illustrated

of the Cleveland

Foundation.

SUMMARY

ChapterX has taught the meaning of the following


and phrases:pictogram,cartogram, bar diagrams,
words
ency,
graphiccurve, frequencytable,class interval,central tend302.

arithmetic

average,

mode,

median,

normal

bution,
distri-

sampling,compensating errors, constant


or
accumulatingerrors, symmetry, symmetry of a curve,
of a curve,
skewness
pricegraph, linear equation,locus,
random

axes,

dinates,
horizontal axis, vertical axis, ordinate,abscissa,coor-

coordinate

axes,

plottinga point.

MATHEMATICS

GKNKKAL

L'7_'

303.

The

between

showing
304.

how

be used
the relato show
tion
graphic curve
may
two
quantities.Specificdirections were
given
is drawn.
a
graphic curve
and

Continuous

series

discrete

illustrated and

were

explained.
305.

Statistical studies

are

to solve

necessary

problems. The
governmental, and economic
will profitby a knowledge of the
reader

social,

our

intelligent
of

elements

statistical methods.

Tabulating the facts bearing on


of a frequency table enables
one
problem.

306.
form

the

307.

arithmetic
the

"

word

The

arithmetic

tendency

of

get

generallyused

as

or

to

median.

All

of

mass

the

the
on

grasp

mean

may

of

measures

are

statistical

is found

average

and
by inspection,

the mode
by figuring,
median
by counting.

data.

The

is found

308.

The

law

of statistical

regularitywas

illustrated.

309.

The

law

of inertia of

numbers
large,

was

310.

The

graph

may

be used

311.

The

squared
312.
The

of
"

as

goods purchased
ready reckoner."

chapter

has

taught

graph

coordinates

of

linear

constant

at

to

plot points

cost

on

of every

equation is a straightline,
the equapointon the line satisfy
tion,

linear

the coordinates

satisfythe equation.
313.

how

stated.

paper.

The

and
not

mode,

average,

central

"

average

in

problem

The

of every
This

point not

illustrates

chapter has taught


equation.

the method

the line do

on

the

locus
of

idea.

graphing a

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

274

EXERCISES

1.

Find

the interest

on

$425

at

4%

2.

Find

the interest

on

$640

at

4"%

the interest

3. Find
HINT.

Reduce

substitute

and

316.

2 yr. 3

for

for

Syr.

or

"

"

$820

on

for

4%

at

Why
for

2yr.

days, divide

5 da. to

mo.

r.

5 da.

mo.

this result

by 360,

Why?

/.

types of interest problems convenientlysolved

Other

by specialforms
types

^"

"

2" yr.

4.5
Substitute

HINT.

for

The

of I=Prt.

of interest

problems is

method

illustrated

of

solvingother
by the following

problem:
How

much

must
money
interest ?

yield$180
NOTE.

be invested

at

5%

for 2 yr.

so

to

as

This

problem differs from Ex. 3, Art. 315, in that rate,


time, and interest are given and the problem is to find P (theprincipal).
be solved by substitutingthe three numbers
It may
given
for the correspondingthree letters of the formula.
?
However,
Why
it will be

for P

found

in /

on

trial to be far

more

convenient

if

first solve

we

Prt.

Dividing both

Solution.

members

of the

equation by

rt,

This
To

may
find the
and

be

translated

principaldivide

the

rate.

constitutes

complete

other

factors

three

In the

Thus

"

into

the
is

the

following rule of
interest
by the product

"

P.

only

directions

for

specialform

arithmetic
of the

of I

are

is $1800.
principal

cipal
prin-

Prt, but

finding the principalwhen

given.
proposed problem we obtain, by substituting,

the

"

rt

"

the

CONTROL

OF

THE

275

FORMULA

EXERCISES

What

1.

principalmust

be

invested

at

principalif

the rate

is

4|-% for

2 yr

to

yield$81?
What

2.

is the rate

What

the time

4yr.

if the

principalis $500,the

time 3 yr.,

the interest $90 ?

and

Here
Prt

6%,

the interest $120 ?

da.,and
3.

is the

P, t, and
for

given ;

are

is the

unknown.

Hence

solve

we

r.

Dividing both

members

by

and

then

by

by (Pf),

or

J_
Pt~
I

Substitutingthe

known

facts in

"

Pt

""\

1)0

"
=

500

4. Translate

the

into

"

rule

6%.

100

"

of

for

procedure

finding

rate.

is the

5. What

and
l|-yr.,

the

What

is

6.

formula

$85.50,the

time

principal$950?
fourth

of

type

convenient

most

interest is

if the

rate

for

interest

the

Find

problem ?

solution

of

such

from

the form

type

problems.
7.

Show

how

8.

Translate

to obtain

into

this formula

Prt.

rule of arithmetic.
,

9.

Into

income

of

at

at

what
at

one

4%

10.

How

4%

shall be the

11.

2 yr.

as

can

certain

$4000

parts

two

6%

gave

same

as

can

equal

the

1^ yr.

at

divided
income

that

of

the

other

of

part

5,% ?

4|% gave the same


4^ How large was
.

that the

so

the income

of the rest at

that

invested at
in

be

$1800 so

divide

man

sum

shall

1500

interest in
the

sum

276

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

317.

The

formula.

Solving a

process

of

derivingt

"

-LV

from

the formula for t.


is called solving

Prt

form

derivingthe

is called

"
"

Similarly,

solving the

formula

specialform obtained is not only the most


form for the particular
convenient
problem,but it may be
the whole class of problems to which
used
it
to solve
belongs. The solvingof the formulas of this chapterare
kind
and
will involve
of the practical
little more
than
of the axioms
of Chapter I.
the applications
The

for P.

318.
relation

between

of

two

any

interest formula

an

of

Graphical illustration
be

may

interest

the

The

problems.

factors

that

in

appear

representedgraphically.

EXERCISE
"

does

How

5%

at

yearly interest

the

Note

this

that

table below

graph

in

for r, and

is

method
was

1 for t,

linear

and

involving
plottedby the

The

invested
principals

SubstitutingT"5
then /=
T"(jP.

be

on

vary

used

tion
equa-

which

may
of Art. 301.
to make

the

Fig. 204.
/

10

Let

small

one

lines represent

large unit
sent

$50

on

of

unit

$1

the

of

on

the horizontal

interest,and

vertical

one
G.
.

lines repre-

principalinvested.

15

25

20

Interest

1N

0n/"
204.

n
.

CALCULATING

PRINCIPALS

GRAPH

TO

BE

USED

INTEREST
INVESTED

AT

ON

5%

CONTROL

'

OX

Use

the

OF

THE

277

FORMULA

line for

plottinginterests and OY for plottingprincipals.


the pointcorresponding to ($2.50,$50) means
Then
small
2^
the
1
and
to
Since
know
that the
we
right
large space up.
spaces
as
graph will be a straightline, the line OR may be safelydrawn
tw'o
soon
as
points are plotted.
as

EXERCISES

\. Look
interest
on

Determine

by

would

How

of

means

4.

Check

interest
5.

by

obtaining
the

7. If

of

graph

on

$2000

the

answers

6t.

and

Graph
on
$100

possible,
report
"

short

5%

at

Formulas

$300;

on

Fig. 204

to

collect

how

$18

much

interest

interest.
interest

$12.50

on

given by calculatingthe

"

T^p
at 6%.
Tf7

at

and

the

6 1 and

6%

use

the

formula

graph

the

graph

for 2 yr. ; for

2| yr. ;

use

to calculate

Prt, thus
to

mine
deter-

for 3 yr. ;

mo.

in

to calculate
cuts

lent

sums

$100

1 yr.

in

finding the

on

equation /

interest

detail the

interest.

On

methods

what

used

by

your

principlesdo

the

rest ?

involving the

amount.

In

the exercises

cult
diffiformulas a little more
study some
if the fundabe understood
mental
solve, but they can
laws
in solving equations are
carefullyapplied.

that follow
to

for

5%

what

method.

usual

the

family banker

*319.

the

about

for 4 yr. ; for 5 yr. ; for 2

various

tell offhand

on

to invest

go

graph

the

Graph

Let

you

some

interest
6.

by looking at
need

and

$20 interest; $27.50 interest; $14

in 1 yr.;
3.

$60

on

Fig. 204

to collect at

expect

would

you

money

in

graph

$400

on

the

would

you

$350
2.

at

we

shall

278

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISES

$400

1. If

is invested

what

is the

what

is the amount

amount

at

the

of 1 yr. ? of 2 yr. ? of 3 yr. ?

end

If

2.

$1200

is invested

3%,

at

at the

of 2 yr. ?

end

is the rule for

What

3.

rate,and time

Using

4.

for the amount

into

form

HINT.

the

the amount

Find

both

the

Find

the

"

equation by

in the

the

coefficient

rule of arithmetic

if
principal

the formula

obtained

the rate is

6%,

the time

3 yr., and

the

5%,

the time

3yr.,and

equation .4

Solve the

Find

$1740,and

the

time

formulas.

is

7* +

Prt

for

t.

Translate

the

if the

principalis $2500,

the amount

3%.

equationA

Prt

for

and

translate the

into words.
rate

the time

Summarize

rate

into words.

the rate

resultingformula

14.

into

of the

obtain

principalif
$1150.

Solve

$2725,and

13.

also be written

may

P.

members

the

resultingformula

12.

translate
interest,

$472.

the amount

11.

for the

Prt

6.

8. Find

10.

principal,

formula.

(1 + rt) for

Dividing

7. Translate

9.

and

for the amount

namely, (1 + rf),we

in Ex.

when

amount

Prove.
(1 + rt~).

Solve A

6.

of P,

formula

The

5.

findingthe

given ?

are

precedingrule

the

by

4%,

at

the

if the

principalis $1500, the

amount

4 yr.

advantages of solvinginterest problems

CONTROL
320.

OF

Evaluating

arithmetical

show

exercises

The

process of findingthe
literal number
called for in a

evaluatingthe formula. The

that

the process

the known
numbers
Substituting
2. Reducing the arithmetical number
form.
A

321

and

drill list

Summary

involvingthese

of the discussion of

gainingcontrol

1.
rule
2.
3.

of

formula

in the

formula.

obtained

is

processes

foregoing

of

consists

1.

NOTE.

279

FORMULA

formula.

of the

value

is called

formula

THE

to

the

in Art. 329.

given

formula.

simplest

Cultivating

means

Analyzing an arithmetical situation so as


of procedure.
Translatingthe rule into a formula.
Solving the formula for any letter in terms

'to

the

see

all the

of

others.
4.

Evaluatingthe formula.
steps will

These

illustrated in the

be

now

problems. We

shall

lists of exercises which

should

motion

322.

the

formula

The

then

proceed to
developpower in

applied to motion

followingproblemstry to

observe

solution
solve

of

short

these steps.

problems. In solving
the

steps summarized

in Art. 321.
EXERCISES

ORAL

1.

what
2.

If

is he

rate

If

man
220-yard-dash

an

3.

per hour

makes

the

distance

rate of 20 mi. per


; of

yd. in

5 sec., at

how
2|-hr.,

75 mi. in

fast is it

Express

average

the last 50

?
finishing

automobile

being driven

runs

covered

hour;

-f 3 mi. per

hour.

of

by

12^ mi.

train in 8hr.
per

hour;

of

at
x

an

miles

Express the distance covered

4.

of

rate

it takes

time

; of

rate of 10 mi. per hour

miles per hour

How

6.

rate

of

station
1

d miles

How

far

is

away

it at

traveled

and

hour

the number

of hours

The

is called

is concerned

the

passed over

distance, and

unit

the

The

is

familiar

multipliedby

the time

Show

how

to obtain

experiencesthat
; that is,that d

Translate

4.

Show

how

5. Translate

"

into

to obtain

into

of units

(or speed)

expressed in

distance

from

"

3.

is

d.

EXERCISES

ORAL

by

time, t,

by

number

represented by

of time, is called the rate

representedby r.
minutes, hours, days, etc.

2.

be

may

show

with distance,

motion, that is,the number

in each

the rate

precedingexercises

of uniform

rate

at

3.15A.M.;

d when

The

Illustrate

the

is six.

of linear units

number

The

time.

by d, find

traversed

1.

at the

at 3 A.M.;

2A.M.;

of distance

and

day.

If it leaves

of units

traversed

hour;

+ 4 mi. per

hour.

an

is it at

far away

the distance

moving body
rate

mi. at the

20 mi. per

tripof

is 30 mi.

problem involvingmotion

rate, and

; of

day ; of

to make

Distance, rate, time.

323.

that

an

to go 150

6.45A.M.?

at

Denoting

is 45 mi.

at the

etc.?

5A.M.;

at

8.

how

automobile

an

miles per

train

1 A.M.,

4.30A.M.;

at

of

rate

at

A.M.:

train in t hours

15 mi. per hour

it take

miles per hour

The

7.

; of 2

does

long

by

miles per hour.

/"

Express the

5.

of

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

280

rt.

rt.

"

rule for

equals the

from

rule for

findingthe
d

time.

rt.

findingthe

rate.

automobile

An

5.

6.

at the

returns

can

he go and

7.

the

Cincinnati

train

from

starts

rate

of 30 mi. per
How

hour.

how

of 35 mi.

hour

an

and

19^ft. per
A

(Sound
A

rest

within

the

same

250

mi.

apart. Suppose
other,one at the

the
the

at

time.

they meet

first and

the

race.

has

at the

B ?
1500

of 35 mi. per

rate

hour.

an

In

the first if the

travels

road

at

at the

rate

will win

ft. per

second

149

One

mi.
goes

in 2 hr.

the

1080

speed of

ft. per

20

an

how

many

race

is heard

far away

How

second, and

In

yd.

Which

at 10 mi.

in the

were

of 32

85 mi. in 5 hr.
a

citylimits

20 ft. per

runs

start

of about

rate

rode
cyclist

boats

what

after it is fired.

of his ride
Two

mile

going

country

At

disposal?

train overtake

second

overtake

sec.

motor

on

12.

the other

they meet

second.

travels

was

hours

far downstream

?
run

bullet

target 3

11.

will A

seconds
10.

at his

citytoward

3 hr. later than

starts

*9.

and

will

hours

many

second

How

train is traveling at the rate of 30 mi.

8.

hour.

about

are

each

hour
will

soon

an

hour

an

flow ?

Chicago and

and

a
run

Find

of 8 mi.

rate

5| hr.

if he has

return

that

the

longer to

60 mi.

run

the

at

of 5 mi.

rate

the stream

does

rate

the

than

faster

2 hr.

cycle to

downstream

rows

man

and

train.

express

of each.

rate

hour

an

automobile

the

it takes the motor

mi. than

150

10 mi.

runs

it takes

cycle,and

motor

| that

of each.

the rate

Find

is

rate

train takes

express

an

freighttrain whose
hr. longer than the
3-|-

mi.

running 280

In

4.
of

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

282

to

is the

strike

target ?

second.)

Part of the distance


mi.

hour.

an

hour

Find

and

how

the

many

country.

apart approach each other,leavingat


10 mi. per hour

What

is the rate

faster than
of each ?

the other,

CONTROL

324.

OF

Graphical illustration

283

FORMULA

THE

of

motion

Many
problems can be convenientlyillustrated graphically,
the student will discover if he solves the following

motion
as

problem.

exercises.
EXERCISES

1.

the

In

De

Indianapolisraces

Palma

drove

varying but little from 90 mi. per hour.


the distance and
showing the relation between
time of De Palma's
performance.
rate

Substituting90

in d

his

at

car

Draw

graph

30

tr,

45
d

that

Note
be

may
units

"

90

9Qt.

is

graphed (see table

on

the

horizontal

vertical

linear

axis

Fig.205). Ten

and

60

equation which

represent

30

mi.;

small
small

ten

units

on

the

represent ^ hr.

axis

"

2.

Determine

De

Palma

in

4
3.

in

min.;

2 hr.

Determine

Fig. 205

De

Palma

the

graph

in 2 hr. ; in

drove

in

GO

from

how

12

in

Fig. 205

1^ hr. ; in

how

many

miles

1 hr. 24 min. ; in 40 min. ;

min.

by the graph
long it took

to go 50 mi. ; 40 mi. ;

mi.; 75 mi.;140 mi.; IGOmi.;

10 mi.

Obviously
suits

could

the

be

by arithmetic

preceding

calculated

re-

either

by the formula.
tage
However, the graph has the advanof revealingall the results

in

vivid

or

i
Time

fashion.
FIG.

4. Draw

the distances

Find

205. THE

graph showing
traversed
by a passenger

at the rate of 40 mi. per

*5.

1J

in Hours

hour

for the

what
out, if possible,

graphs in arranging schedules.

use

PROBLEM

GRAPH

OF

MOTION-

FORMULA

train

running uniformly
first ten hours of its trip.
railroad officialsmake

of

284

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

325.

familiar

in mechanics.

occurrence

of

of the hands

in the movement

is of

motion

Circular

motion.

Circular

frequent

illustration is found

clock.

EXERCISES

1. At
a

what

clock

Let

number

after 3 o'clock when

together;

are

the number

of minute

the

hand

minute

of

(Fig.206) equal the

of minutes

hands

hands

the

are

together?

Solution.

the

4 o'clock

3 and

between

time

that is,x

until it overtakes

3 o'clock

from

hour

the

which

over

spaces

passes

equals

hand.

Then

equals the number

"

of minute
FIG.

passed

spaces

by

over

the

hour

CLOCK

ILLUSTRATE

Why?
the

number

of minute

12 to 3 is 15, and

the

since

spaces
whole

is

equal

PROBLEMS

TYPE

ClR.

OF

MOTION

CULAK

Since
from

206.

hand.

to

the

of its

sum

parts,it follows that

Whence

Therefore
2.
a

At

clock

the

what

hands

time

are

^4Tmin.

16

together at 16^

between

4 and

after 3 o'clock.

min.

5 o'clock

are

the hands

of

together?

HINT.

Draw

Notice

figuresimilar

that

the

formula

the

to

for

one

clock

for Ex.

1.

problem

is

"

m,

\."t

where

equals the number

gain in order
3.
a

At

what

clock 15 min.
HINT.

to

to

see

how

Draw
the

reach

time

of minute

the desired

between

spaces

the minute

hand

must

position.

2 and

3 o'clock

are

the hands

of

apart ?
a

figure,think

formula

in

the

Ex. 2

problem through, and


applies.

then

try

CONTROL
At

4.
a

time

clock 30 minute
What

5.

At

*6.
a

what

between

time

clock 20 min.

FORMULA

2 and

3 o'clock

formed

apart ?

How

from

the hands

by

between

results be obtained

Work

THE

285
the hands

are

of

apart ?

spaces

angle is

what

326.

OF

6 o'clock

,and

the formula

The

of Ex.

work

type of problem easilysolved

clock at 2.30?

the hands

are

answers

many

problems.

of

How

of

these

may

2 ?

is another

problem
formula.

by

EXERCISES

pipe will

1. One

fill it in 4 hr.
left

pipesare
Let

Then

How

long
running ?

the number

fill a tank

in 3 hr. and

will it take

of hours

to

the part of the tank

filled in 1

the

part of the tank

filled

the

part

second

pipe

fill the tank

it will take both

"

pipesto

can

if both

fillthe tank.

hr.,

and

of the

+'-

Multiplyingby

12 n,

or

long

One

second

boy

boy

can

to meet

would

be
be

make
if each

used

just as

obtained, as

Why?

12,

12.

If

hr.

can

in 5 da. and

drive

can

pipe.

do

it in 7 da.

How

working together?
his

started at

is shown

5 hr.

an

How

end

trip

are

by

used

Ex. 4.

in

in

8 hr. and

long would

Ex. 1.

that

numbers

any

Hence

it take

foregoingproblems

the

3 and

over

car

tripin

the

It is clear from

NOTE.

may

drain

will it take both

3.

them

lay a

can

second

hr.,

-"

Whence
2.

the first pipe in 1

filled by the

tank

Hence

by

formula

286
4.

piece of work in
long will it take them

do

can

How

days.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

Let

to do

the

do

can

it in

together?

days
together.

in

of

the amount

it

number

them

Then

and

days

of work

it will take

they can

do

da.,

the

amount

can

do

in 1

the amount

can

do

in 1 da.

da.,

and

b
1

1,1

Hence

"

Multiplyingby aim,

_.

l"n +

an

ah,

(J"+ a)n

ah,

"

ab

NOTE.
solved

of the

Any problem

by using the equation n

type of Ex. 1
as

1 let

5. One
can

3,

boy

make

"

Then

4.

can

make

on

page

formula.

285

Thus,

be

may
to

solve

Ex.

I"

"

"

"

hr.

1^

paper route in 2 hr. and his friend


in 1^ hr. How
long will it take the two

the route

together? (Solveby formula.)


*6.

Suppose that in Ex.


emptying pipe,how long
pipes are running ? What
*7.

10 min.
form
*8.

sweep

How

does

4.5 da.

Solve

can

pipe is an
page 285 the second
will it take to fill the tank if both
on

form

walk

long will

the formula

could
How

in

does
7

the formula

min., B

in

take ?

min., and

it take them
for

work

lay a sidewalk
long does it take

in
by substituting

working together?
problem take ?

in 3

da., B

them

when

the formula

in

for Ex.

da., and

in

What

in

working together?
7.

CONTROL
327.

Translating rules

of the

each

times

the

2. The

form

the

of

triangleequals

287

FORMULA

the

formula

product

of

Write

half the

altitude.

area

of

rectangle equals the product of its

of

parallelogramequals the product of

base

altitude.

and

The

3.

base

area

The

of

trapezoidequals one
multipliedby the altitude.

area

bases
parallel

The

5.

times

of

half the

third

pyramid equals one

of the

sum

the

base

altitude.

The

length of

circle is

circumference

The

approximatelyequal to twenty-

of the diameter.

sevenths
7.

volume

the

6.

its

altitude.

and
4.

two

of

area

THE

of procedure into formulas.

followingin

The

1.

base

OF

of

circle is

equal

to

TT

times

the

diameter.
8.

The

area

9.

The

productequalsthe multiplicandtimes

10.

The

11.

The

of

circle is

times

TT

the square

of the radius.

the

multiplier.

product obtained by multiplying a fraction by a


is the product of the whole
number
whole
number
and the
divided
numerator
by the denominator.

by
12.

quotientof

the inverted

The

the numerator
13.

The

divided
14.
you

by

the cost of

The

of

the square

rule for

The

know

15.

divided
square

that
m

equalsthe

dividend

plied
multi-

divisor.

root

square

fractions

two

fraction

of

by

the

square

fraction

equals the
root

square

root

of

of the denominator.

is the square

of the numerator

of the denominator.

calculatingthe

certain number

cost

of them

of

article when

one

cost

so

much

; write

articles.

rule for

expressing
years, mouths,

and

days as

years.

288

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

the

lengthsbut

of different

rule

The

17.

calculatingthe

rule for

The

16.

of three

area

width.

same

calculatingthe

for

adjacentrooms

of

area

floor of

the

room.

square

rule for

The

18.

findingthe

cost of

telegram.

cut from cardboard,


findingthe area of a figure
given its weight and the weight of a square unit of cardboard.
19

rule for

The

of available air for


findingthe amount
of the room
classroom, given the dimensions

rule for

The

20.

in

person

given the weight of


it and the weight of

time,
in

the

number
The

rule for

of two

cars

finding the

which

oppositedirections
The

24.

apart

at

same

as

same

26.

The

23

in Ex.

pointand

same

given
travel

speeds.

except that the

23

different

reading on

greater than

cars

are

miles

of the

except that

the

cars

go

in the

speeds.

Fahrenheit

reading on

thermometer

is

always 32"

centigradethermometer.

The

27.

32, and
328.

be calculated
reading of a centigradethermometer
may
by noting the reading on the Fahrenheit,subtracting
taking| of this result.

Graphic representation of the relation

readings on
last two
that

the

at different

in Ex.

as

direction with

same

from

start

apart, after

distance

starting.

The

25.

empty beaker.

predictingthe populationof a town after


of months, given the present population,
the
and the average
of births,
of deaths.
number

certain number

23.

beaker

rule for

The

average

weight of a singlelead shot,


of shot in
with a given number

rule for finding the

The

22.

and

in the class.

the number
21.

each

are

centigradeand

exercises

used

to

deal

measure

Fahrenheit

with

two

between

thermometers.

the

The

types of thermometers

temperature. Fig.207

shows

that

290

MATHEMATICS

CKNKRAL

EXERCISES

Determine

1.

for

readings

5",

30",

2.

by the graph the corresponding Fahrenheit


the following centigrade readings: 5", 10", 20",
10", 15", 25".

Determine

by
the

to

60",30",20",10",
3.

the

graph

in each

-f-32" substitute

case

you think

are

corresponding readings.

The

numbers

the two

should

error

be

4. Normal

is

small.

very

ture
tempera-

room

68" F.

the

responding
centigrade readings corfollowing Fahrenheit
readings: 80", 70",
5", 10".

formula

the

In

is

What

it

centigrade?
5.

The

normal

temperature

body is 98.4"
it centigrade?

of the human

What
6.

is

What

F.

grade
temperature centi0" F.?

correspondsto
7. Could

you

go

skatingat

FlG

15" C. ?
In

course

9.

called
When
student

T0

BE

JN

READINGS

CENTIGRADE

FAHRENHEIT

rSK1)

AND

VICE

VERSA

are

told

that

mercury

freezes

at

40" F.

"

What

centigrade?

Would

329.

GRAPH

general-science

your
you

is this

CHANGING
TO

8.

20g

your

classroom

Evaluating
for in

each

be comfortable

formula.
of

the

Find

exercises

explanation is given, it
recognizesthe formula.

no

at 25" C. ?

of the letter

the value

given

on

is assumed

page
that

291.
the

CONTROL

OF

FORMULA

THE

291

EXERCISES

1. Given

212";

100".

2.

Given

3. Given

4.

| (F

|C.+

Find

32).

32.

Given

Find

rt.

10^ ft.

12 hr. ; if

Find

if

C.

if

F.

F.

C.

0"; 32";

0";

100";

60".

-20";

if

if d

/"

87.5 mi.

second

per

Find

"

and

1 mi. and

10

"

hour

per
sec.

4 min. 16

and

sec.

{/

if d

^ mi.

5.

Given
2

*=lyr.
if P

6.

mo.

Given

if I =12.2

2.07

da.; if

6%,

Find

5.6

in.,and

6.4

iv

2.4

ft.,and

2.1 cm.,

1 in.

Tiff =63

and

8. Given

1.4

^- d.

ft.;if

1.6

2yr. 3 da.;

ft.;

ft.,
"

"

(seeFig.209)

Find

and

4-}%,and

20 yr.

ft.,and

7.

$240, r

$128, r=6%,

and

if P

8.3

Find

V=lwh.

in.,iv

sec.

Prt.

ft.,w

9.3

A=P+

$511,r

if "

and

3 cm.,

"

FIG.

209.

RECTAX-

PARALLELE-

GULAR

PIPED

cm.

Find

if d

1 f t. ; 1 in. ; 4 in. ; 10 in. ;

5-1 in.
9.

10

Given

yd.;
10.

m.

8.5

the

12

and

"

2| ft.

11.

The

126

times
in.

the
and

of its base

product

if B

V
B

212.44

lin.; 5ft.;

11

h.

of

Find

in.;

if

and

sq. in.

sq. in. and

perimeter of

altitude

246.12

lateral surface
the

if

prism(Fig.210)

F of any

in.;if

prism equals

.4

cm.

Find

its altitude h.

Find
-2T2-).

Trr2 (TT=

The volume

equal to

is

right

the

base

if P

21.6

in.

FlG

and

2io. PRISM
h

0.35

in.

cm.

if

of the

equals the product


of

circumference

usuallygiven is S
and

the

Find

12 in.

"

The

the

formula

S if C

*f^

in.

rightcylinder

of the circular base

circumference

of the altitude and the radius of

sum

the base ; that


in. and

A =10

Ch.

cm.

rightcylinder

entire surface T of

The

equalsthe
times

base.

Vii r=10.2

10 in.

14.

Find

altitude and

the
=

base.

6 in. and

lateral surface of

The

13.

is the radius of the circular

and

right cylinder(Fig.211) is equal to


and height. The
formula is V
TrrVi,

its base

product of

where

of

volume

The

12.
the

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

292

is,T
r

15. The

volume

is

equal to

one

and

irr(r+ h).

in.;if A

Find

2ft. and

if

r=l

Fj(.

2n

CYLINDER

ft.

V of any

pyramid (Fig.212)
product of its base

the

third

its altitude h ; that

is,V

Find

"

"

if "

200sq. in" and

24.6 sq. in. and

The

16.

is

2 ft.

FIG.

212.

PYRAMID

S of a

lateral area
one

half the

its slant

height";

equalto

in.; if

A =12

regularpyramid
product of the perimeterP

of its base

Pi
and

that

is,S

Find

"

"

if P

10. 6 in.

"t

and

8.2 in. ; if P

I=

17.

The

lateral

of its slant
C

and

cm.

of

area

if 1=

3.6 ft. and


18. The

S if

and
a

one

I and

Write

15

31.416

half the

uct
prod-

ence
the circumfer-

for

10in.

; if
FIG.

213.

ClRCULAR
a

RIGHT
CONE

rightcircular cone

is the radius of the base and


h

S,

ft.

S of

10 in. and

cm.

right circular

the formula

14.6 in. and

lateral area

Trrh,where

Find

height

of its base.

find

is

4.3

(Fig.213) is equal to

cone

10 in. ; if

h is the slant

10 in. and

height.
26.2 in.

CONTROL

19.

lateral

The

entire surface

area

plus the

7rr(l+ r). Find

or

and

An

equal

number

of

if t

An

21.

the

to

; 2

sec.

it has
; 3

sec.

the

it is thrown
is S

second;

if t

The

23.

the

The

of

if

force

of

of

travels in

of seconds
if t

two

pulleysof

the

In

given by
of the

be the cost

of

16t2.

the
Find

given time

tance
dis-

it is

falling.The

and

V=

13 ft. per

second.

12ft.

is

of

equal

the

the formula
inches
ft. of

for the

the

wind,
=

whose
=

centers

214.

THF,

in

pounds per
F2,where V is
would

What

radii

wall

per

a
are

be the
25 ft.

hour ?

belt

passing

each

feet,

is 1= 2 7rr+ 2 d.
is d feet,

4|.

cost of
C

0.005

length I of

size whose

same

FIG.

to

6j ft.

equationP

formula

pricelist the

of 20

of

square

against the side of


wind blowing 30 mi.

wind

l" and

pipe in

sec.

in miles per hour.

the distance between


=

per

sphere

pressure

long

around

the

sec.

10 in. ; 12 ft. ;

this

that the

is

of

Show

I when

and

time

given

sphere (Fig.214) equals


multipliedby ^ TT. Find V

*25.

26.

12.6 in.

the wind

80 ft.

16

F=100ft.

foot,is given by

and

Find

Find

and

surface

total pressure

and

; 4

in.;10 in.;5 in.; 10ft.;

velocitypf

high

Trr2,

trrl +

5 in. ; if I

fallen; that is,d

sec.

Vt.

sec.

volume

The

square

of

the number

16 1* +

4 7H-2. Find
*24.

is,T

falls in

rest

downward

and

the cube of the radius


y

equals the

cone

product of 16 and the square of the number


with
fallen,
plus the product of the velocity

it has

formula

if

10 in. and

product

objectthrown

of seconds

22.

293

of the base ; that

if I

seconds

equal to
which

FORMULA

right circular

objectfallingfrom

distance

of

area

THE

6 in.

20.

OF

sewer

0.4 d2 +

and

pipe

the

pipe per
14, where
cost

foot of length
eter
d is the diam-

in cents.

2 in. in diameter

What

will

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

294
330.

solving for any

in

Practice

formula

for

It is often desirable

letter.

letter in that
particular
Too often the student will recognizea formula
formula.
provided it stands in the form in which it is commonly
written, but will not appreciateits meaning if it is written
different way.
For example, how
students
in a
many
solve

to

some

would

recognizethe
V=abc?

formula
is in

formula

It is the

same

the

as

"

well-known

formula

except that it
realizes this,it helps

If the student

different form.

The
cises
followingexergain control of the formula.
will furnish practice
in solvingfor particular
letters.

him

to

EXERCISES

Solve each
indicated

of the

for the letter

followingformulas

ab
1. .-I

2.

3.

"?

Bh
for

"

; for

/".

aJcforc; fora;

for h.

11.

12.

.1

13.

14.

15

Sss9*fmi,.lory.

i6.

17.

.1

forb.

"

Pi.

^
5.

6-

for t.

rtforr;

7.

Yfor,/;for/".

WA*WJJ*to**Wt
V-

for A.

2.5 (7for r/.

8.

41

9.

Bh

10.

for w;

"

V=*"i*h

,.

for

for /.

"

4.

letters

or

for A.

for t.

Prt

|(F- 32) for

'2

for

"

18.

; for

_A_
=

for

r.

F.

2 ir"* for h.

2 irrh +

r.

for B.

for // ;

6a.
for E

for ;,

CONTROL

OF

THE

FORMULA

295

SUMMARY

331.

This

332.

chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the following


words and phrases: formula, solvinga formula, evaluating
a formula, applyinga formula, centigrade,
Fahrenheit.
formula

is

rule
practical

some

333.

1. An
arrive
2.
3.

clear

of

Translatingthe
The
abilityto

formula

arithmetical

some

rule of

some

convenientlyabbreviated -form
procedure.

of
understanding

analysisof

at

of

implies:

situation

so

as

to

procedure.
rule into

formula.

for any

solve

letter in terms

of the

other letters in the formula.


4. The

problem

abilityto apply
and

334.

The

335.

The

to

evaluate

the

the

formula

to

particular

formula.

illustrated in detail by
precedingsteps were
to interest problems,to problems involving
applications
motion, to work problems,to thermometer
problems,and
to geometricproblems.

of

methods
1.
1

suggestedeconomical
graphicalinterpretations
manipulatinga formula. For example :
solved

problemswere
Simple-interest
and

Prt

P +

by

the formulas

Prt.

problem involvinguniform motion in a straight


d
solved by the formula
rt.
line was
3. The
relation between
centigradeand Fahrenheit
(7 =!(/*" 32).
expressedby the formula
readingswas
2. A

power

importantthing in this chapteris the


dent
manipulatingand evaluatinga formula, the stugiven the meaning of most of the formulas in

While

336.

of
was

order to have
formulas

and

the

the very outset that both the


their manipulationrefer to actual situations.

him

realize from

development of the formula belongs to


It requires a
late stage in the development of mathematics.
higher form of thinking to see that the area of any triangle

HISTORICAL
a

very

much
be

can

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

296

The

NOTE.

expressedby

than

"

to

find

the

area

of

particular

lot whose

Hence,
used

it

base
was

is two
very

hundred

late in the

feet and
race's

whose

altitude

development

that

is

fiftyfeet.

letters

were

in expressingrules.

representedthe unknown
by some 'word
earlymathematicians
like res (meaning the thing "). Later, calculators used a singleletter
but the problems still dealt with particular
for the unknown,
cases.
problems
Diophantus,representingGreek mathematics, stated some
in general terms, but usuallysolved the problems by taking special
Vieta
used capitalletters (consonantsand vowels)to represent
cases.
numbers
is said to be
known
and unknown
respectively.Newton
the first to let a letter stand for negative as well as positivenumbers,
of formulas
which
greatlydecreases the number
necessary.
has had a difficult time
the race
standing
While
discoveringand underto use
a
formulas, it takes comparatively little intelligence
do their work
in the industrial world
formula.
Many men
efficiently
whose
of
formula
derivation
and
a
by the means
meaning they do
It is said that even
not understand.
college-trained
engineers
among
than
follow formulas
do more
or
only a few out of every hundred
other directions blindly.Thus, it appears that for the great majority
be
can
However, we
only the immediately practicalis valuable.
reasonablysure that no one can rise to be a leader in any field by
his own
abilitywithout understanding the theoretical as well as
the practical.
The
formula
is very important in the present complex industrial
A considerable
is done
by
portion of the necessary calculation
age.
formula.
this
Therefore
to meet
following the directions of some
need
the study of the formula
should be emphasized. In discussing
the kind
of mathematics
be required Professor
A. R.
that should
Crathorne
(School and Society,July 7, 1917, p. 14) says: "Great
emphasis would be placed on the formula, and all sorts of formulas
could
be brought in. The
popular science magazines, the trade
about
the
which
journalsand catalogues,are mines of information
modern
The
boy or girl understands.
pupil should think of the
formula
be translated
that can
an
as
algebraicdeclarative sentence
The

"

298

into

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL
The

English.

of the

to

up

the

abilityin

Mechanical

formula.

leads

evaluation

of
encouraged through inversion
Englishman calls 'changing the subject of
here also the beginning of the equation when
is changed to the interrogative."

should

be

Archimedes
in

the

so

much

(287-212 H.C.),a great


he

that

held

But
practicaluse.
had
to
a
difficulty

He

him.

the

so

be

introduced

tabular

the

formula,

presentation
manipulation of symbols
the

formula.'

our

declarative

mathematician

what

or

We

the
have

sentence

who

studied

Sicily,loved science
it undesirable
to apply his information
to
his mechanical
abilitythat when
great was
and

Alexandria

university at

the

lived

the

overcome

often

government

inventions

many

iu

the

into

called

everyday

on

lives

of

people.

Read
the stones
of his detection
exceedingly interesting1.
of the dishonest
of burning-glassesto
goldsmith ; of the use
destroy the ships of the attacking Roman
squadron ; of his clever
built a ship
of a lever device
for helping out Hiero, who
had
use
it off the slips
for
so
large that he could not launch
; of his screw
pumping water out of ships and for irrigatingthe Nile valley. He
devised the catapultswhich
held the Roman
attack for three years.
These
constructed
that the range was
either long or short
were
so
and
that they could
be discharged through a small
so
loophole
without
the
the
of
the
fire
to
men
exposing
enemy.
When
the Romans
Archimedes
the
was
killed,
finallycaptured
city
the
in
orders of Marcellus, the general
though contrary to
charge of
the siege.It is said that soldiers entered
Archimedes'
study while he
in sand
he had
drawn
was
on
studying a geometrical figure which
the floor. Archimedes
told a soldier to get off the diagram and
not

His

to

life is

The

spoil it.

him

and
The

not

soldier,being
the

knowing

Romans

old

insulted

man,

at

killed

having

orders

given

to

him.

splendid tomb with the figure of a sphere


had requested this to commemorate
his
engraved on it. Archimedes
of a sphere equals twodiscoveryof the two formulas : the volume
thirds that of the circumscribing right cylinder,and the surface of
a
of a great circle. You
also
sphere equals four times the area
may
read

an

erected

interestingaccount

find

Archimedes'

read

Ball's

"

tomb.
Short

by

Cicero

It will be

of

his

successful

profitableif

History of Mathematics,"

pp.

the

efforts

student

65-77.

to

will

CHAPTER
FUNCTION

; LINEAR

FUNCTION,

XII

FUNCTIONS

EQUATION,

; THE

AND

FORMULA

GRAPHICALLY;
337.

Function

the

One

of the most

another.

RELATED

IDEAS

OF

INTERPRETED

VARIATION

dependence of

quantity

one

notions

common

in

upon

lives is

our

dependence of one thing upon another.


shall here study the mathematics
of such dependence
We
several concrete
by considering
examples.
the notion

of the

EXERCISES

Upon

2.

If Resta

3.

does
4.

year

does the

much

How

at

an

of
length(distance)

would

interest

the

race

hours.

expect

you

of 98.3 mi. per

rate

average

depend?
depend ?
what

Upon

to

collect

in

$200?

on

man

much
7.

car

of cloth

boy rides a motor cyclefor two


the length of his trip depend ?

Upon
depend ?
How

his

10yd.

5.

6.

the cost of

does

drives

what

hour,upon

what

the

does

wishes

number

he

buy

circular

tickets

theater

inclose

of the

of sirloin steak that


of

running track

square

lot.

each
quantities

what

amount

length of

buy wire fencing to

to

fencing must

State upon

(a) The
(b) The
a

what

1.

can

be

that

followingdepends :
bought
can

be

for

dollar.

bought

for

dollar.

(c)The height of

maple

tree that averages

4 ft. per year.


299

growth

of

300

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

(d) The
solve

you

it takes you

time

problem

one

to

mathematics

get your

lesson if

three minutes.

every

(e) The value of a submarine as a merchant vessel.


(f) The rate of interest charged by your local bank.
4 of the rectanglein Fig. 215.
(g) The perimeter4 x
"

The

precedingexercises illustrate the dependenceof one


had
have
other
numerous
quantity upon another. We
examples of dependence in the chapterson statistics and
formula
In fact,every practical
the formula.
impliesthat
the value of some
or
more
quantitydepends upon one
of a circular running track
others. Thus the circumference
a
depends upon the diameter. When
quantitydepends
another quantityfor its value, it is said to be a function
upon
of the latter.
of the

diameter

because

its value ; the amount


for

dollar is

expression4
changes with
familiar
338.

"

circle is

of the

change

of

because

in the value

examples not given


number

idea

of

of wheat
339.
C

In

take

its value

or

that may

d is said to be the

equal to

other hand, the value


value
the

of C is

of d is determined.

dependentvariable.

variable.
the

variables.

In the formula

of circles

we

please. On
fixed once
automatically

number

Because

price

independentvariable.

construction

any

ten

change,assuming a

independent variables.

in the

by

above.

discussion

the

its value

"

and

bought

; and

"

Dependent

for

x.

throughouta discussion,is called


it is able to vary." Thus
obligedto vary
and the number
s2 are
s in the equationA

ird the number

be

of function

series of values
It is not

can

priceper pound

function

function

the diameter

depends upon

illustrate the

can

Variable.

of

area

of sirloin steak that

is

every

if you

See

it

function

the

Thus

we

may

the
the

of this fact C is called

FUNCTION

INTERPRETED

301

GRAPHICALLY

EXERCISES

1. What

if d

if d

5?

is the value of C

the

ideas of

with

The

Constant.

differs from

and

has

number
A

appearingin
and the ""-and

"

"

2?

of circles.
we

formula

the 32

formula

is

Trd

never

number

like this,which
arithmetical

Obviously any

constant.

own

your

changes at any
is approxiThis number
mately
are
dealingwith small or

as

therefore call

We

it

from

or

in the

TT

whether

fixed value, a

ird if d

"

ables
independent vari-

and

the text

d inasmuch

3.1416,
or
-2y2-,

largecircles.

from

number

in the discussion

time

dependent

chosen

examples
experience.
340.

equationC

W?

Illustrate

2.

in the

in .7^=

constant

^ "7+ 32

thus the 2 in
are

constants.

2
EXERCISE

Turn
that

to

Chapter XI,

illustrate the

idea

the

on

of

formula, and

find five formulas

constant.

graph may be constructed


showing how a function changes as the value of the
x
independent variable changes.
The
rectanglein Fig. 215 is a
x-z
picture(eitherenlarged or re- x-z
whose
duced) of every rectangle
lengthexceeds its width by two
shall now
units. We
proceedto
FlG
2i5
that the perimshow graphically
eter
The table
varies with every change in the value of x.
values for
the followingpage givesthe corresponding
on
4, the perimeter.
the lengthx and for 4 x
341.

Graph of

function.

"

302

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

plot the pointscorrespondingto (3, 8), (4, 12),


(5,16),etc.,usingthe horizontal axis to plotthe values of x
and the vertical axis to plotthe values of 4 x
4, we obtain
in Fig.216. The
line AB
the pointsas shown on the straight
If

we

"

that

line shows

as

increases,the value of 4

4 increases

"

accordingly.
EXERCISES

in

Tell

1.

that

shows

the

2. Determine
the

lengths

9 in.; 10.5
in.;,

Determine

3.

the
whose
30

words

function

of

25

the

increases

"

graph

follows

as

are

how

in

graph
as

Fig. 216
increases.

4x-4

rectangles

in. ; 11 in.
from

length of the
perimetersare

in.;

the

from

perimeters

whose
8

own

your

in.; 20

the

graph

rectangles
as

follows

in. ;

18

--20

in.;

10 in. ; 3 in. ; 0 in.

Suppose you chose to make


a particular
rectangle10 in. long.
How
longwould the perimeterbe?
How
does the graph show
this ?
4.

5. How

long would you make


a
rectangleof the same
shape
in Fig. 215 so as to
the one
as
have its perimeter16 in. ? How
does the graph show
this ?
6.

you

Relyingon
could

"whose

your

FIG.
THE

216.

GRAPH

PERIMETER
IN

FIG.
OF

OF

215
THE

tell how
past experience,

construct

in the

length shall

exceed

shop

or

construct

their width

by

GLE
RECTAN-

THE

is

FUNCTION

LENGTH

many
in your

two

THAT

SHOWING

rectangles
notebook

units ".

INTEEPBETED

FUNCTION

342.
4

Linear

4 is

"

If

Since the

function.

line,the
straight

graph

function

of the

is called

let y represent the value

we

expression
linear

function.
function,

of the linear

get the correspondinglinear equation y

we

303

(GRAPHICALLY

"

jc

4.

"

EXERCISE

Give

five

343.

Solving

of linear functions.

examples

of

family

equations by

graph. The' graph of the function


all

solve

to

example,
then

if in

the

equation 4

the

equation y
#

"

question,What

the

16

be

may

is 4

the

used
r

"

For

constant.

or

"

be

may

members

4x

"

number

arithmetical

some

of whose

equations one

the other

and

of

means

let ;z/ 16,

we

as
interpreted

ing
rais-

'of x that will make

is the value

questionwe find
16 on
the ?/-axis(the vertical axis),pass horizontally
to
the graph of 4 x
4, and read the correspondingvalue
value of x is seen
of x. The corresponding
to be 5. Hence
4. r

"

4=16?

order

In

to

this

answer

"

"

16

when

5.

be
problem the equation4 a*" 4=16
may
What
sentence:
translated into the followinginterrogative
shall be the length of the rectanglein order that it may
have a perimeterof 16 ? A glanceat the graph is sufficient
the answer
to determine
; namely, 5.
As

verbal

EXERCISES

Solve

by graph, and

1. 4z-4
0

2.

20.

Z4.

check

the

followingequations:
4z-8

5.

Add

HINT.
4ic

"

2.

both

to

mem-

bers

3.

4.r

4.

4"-

4
4

12.
6.

4z-4
6.

so

to obtain

as
=

the

6.

4x-5

13.

equation

MATHEMATICS

";KM-:KAL

304
7. 4.r-9

4.r +

8.

members
result 4

344.

for two

19.

J.

12, Art. 343,

_i_

"

""

"""i

is

./"

function

the

0.

equal

set

to

case
interesting
special

an

ing
givesus an easy method of find4
in the equation4^
0. We
need
x
graph and observe where the line crosses
It

(1)

of

"

line is seen

The

12.

to the

checks

4a: +

the

16.

value

the o"axis.
x

obtain

to

graphical solution of

only refer
of

both

from

10

reasons:

the

10.

26.

Problem

zero.

12.

The

9.

as

so

10.

Subtract

HIM.

4ir+

to

4-1"4

because

where

cross

0.

1. This value

Hence

1 is

tion
solu-

4
0. (2) It furnishes us
a
equation 4 x
for solving all linear equationsin one
graphic method
unknown
because
unknown
be
can
every equation in one

of the

thrown

into

be

may

"

form

done

similar

with

the

to

"

equation 3:r

Show

0.

:r

how

this

+ 12.

EXERCISES

1.

HINT.

The

equationmay

be written

Graph

the

function

See

where

Check
x

+ 7

2.

check

the

value

correct

graphicallythe equation3x

Solve

of

graph

just as

of 2

the

the

(c)5a;+
x

graphed
the

crosses

12.
5

"

4#

"

x-axis.

value

of

in

the

Why ?
(Fig.216).
0.

This

is the

originalequation

followinglinear equationsby

results
+

(b) 6x

"

in the form
we

+ 12.

(a) ox

x.

by substitutingthis

Solve

(d) 11

2x"

2x

S.

(e) 2.ox

4x

2.

(f)

graph, and

|_ 7

+
=

3x

5.

8x-4.
x

the

14*

7.

')

=2~7'

7.

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

306
is said to

the other
as
directly

vary

Thus

the other.

to

the

be

to

or

number

rtiwtlyproportional

is said to vary

y if the ratio

as
directly

remains

constant,

as

and

y both

changeor

The

vary.

equation

k expresses

algebraically,

i7

and

the statement

equivalentto,

is

that

JT

varies

directly

as

The

y.

equation

written

jc

Show

ky.

this is correct.

why

k is often

EXERCISES

the

Translate
form

into

following statements

equations of

the

/.":

y
The

1.

cost

the

to

of

yd. of dress
price per yard.
10

for the

I 'sing c

Solution.

total cost

and

10,

10,,.

or

is

goods

directlyproportional

j" for the

price per yard,

This

illustrates

variation, for the

direct

greater^theprice per yard,

the greater the total cost.

The

2.

mile.

Write

the

to
proportional

The

3.

fare within

railroad

certain

that the distance

equation,showing
the

weight

is 3 cents

state

is

per

directly

mileage.
of

of

mass

iron

varies

directly as

the

volume.
If

4.

body

directlyas
The

5.

uniform

rate, the distance

varies

the time.
of
length (circumference)

circle varies

directlyas

diameter.

the
6.

The

varies
A

at

moves

distance

the
as
directly
body is observed

constant

through
square
to

ratio of d to t2 ?

which

of the

fall 400

How

body

time

ft. in

far does

t in which

5
a

falls from

sec.

body

What

rest

it falls.
is the

fall in 2

sec.

FUNCTION

INTERPRETED

The

Solution.

equation for

GRAPHICALLY

d and

t is

k.

j2
In this

problem

*gg-

hence

Substitutingk

16 and

t'2=

This
value

of t and
this

Thus,
7.

How

8.

If

when

10.

did
The

Write

of

fallingfrom

varies

directlyas

fell from

it reach

the

rest

at

moves

?.

directlyas

second.

one

time

/,-.A

The

the time.
what

a-, and

when

-w

24

when

Find

varies
V

type.

sec.

8, find

2, find

the

the

how1 many

length of

the,time

of

the

body

second

of

length

long makes
a

the time.
t.

ft. per

oscillation

root

39.2 in.

and

6.)

five

will be the speed attained

fall. What

square

of Ex.

directlyas

of 180

the rate

(in seconds) of

pendulum

oscillation in two
13.

40

building576 ft. high. In


ground ? (Use the method

seconds

in 5

one

mined,
deter-

of this

rest in -3 sec.
x

as

Once

problems
(approx.).

16

soon

all

in

as

is known.

in nine

v/

used

of d

11.

beginsto

The

determined

15.

after it

"-

be

body fall from


directlyas y, and

seconds

varies

64.

" may

be

may

k,

when

speed of a fallingbody
equation for the speed

the

12.

16.

Why.'

corresponding value

varies

stone

seconds
11.

the

that

far does

ic

falling-body
problems

a:

If

shows

value

the value of
9.

f/ =

solution

in all

22 in

Solving,

307

pendulum

one

pendulum
I ; that

is,

oscillation in

which

makes

an

seconds.

simple interest
If the interest

on

an

investment

for 5 yr.

on

will be the interest for 6 yr. 4

a
mo.

sum

directlyas
is $150,
money

varies
of

308

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

sphereof

given material varies directly


material
the cube of its radius. Two
spheres of the same
as
If the first sphere
have radii of 3 in. and 2 in. respectively.
weighs 6 lb.,what is the weight of the second ?

of

Graphing direct variation.

346.
two

weight of

The

14.

Direct variation between

be representedgraphically
by means
quantities
may
back to ChapterXI, on the formuline. Turn
las,
straight
direct variation.
and find three graphs illustrating

-20

FIG.

An

217.

GRAPH

OF

ird

interesting
example

SHOWING

DIRECT

is furnished

VARIATION

by graphing the

equation

"

TT

(where TT

the circumference

Complete
as

to

obtain

the
the

of

3.14). This equation says

circle varies

that

as its diameter.
directly
table, and graph the results so
following
graph in Fig. 217. Interpretthe graph.
a

FUNCTION

INTERPRETED

309

GRAPHICALLY

EXERCISES

Graph

the

16 1.

2.

5 /.

lever

the

3.

varies

equals16
(Velocity

3b.

(The

Inverse

of

area

the

times the number

of

seconds.)

of 5 times

shall

We

variation.

seed

to

rectangle whose

altitude

is 3

base.)

interestingkind

of

consider

now

new

variation.

64 sq. ft. of

Suppose a gardener
garden in lettuce. If he

his

it 16 ft. long,the width

makes

(Turning tendency equals the weight

directlyas

wishes

of direct variation

arm.)

347.
and

following examples

be 4 ft.

(Why?) If he
it 32 ft. long,the width need
makes
be only 2 ft. (Why ?)
How
possibleshapes do you think the gardener
many
might choose for his lettuce bed ? The following table
will help you
remember
this question if you
to answer
that

it has

been

The

table

shows

the

area

constant,

must

the

decided

that

that the

length must

and

that

shall

area

so

vary
of

because

as

this

width.

64

sq. ft.

to

fact

leave

the

The

length is
the width
thus said to vary
to be inversely
or
as
inversely
to the width.
speaking,a number
Algebraically
proportional
varies inverselyas y if the product xy remains
constant
x
greater the length,the

as

both

and

y vary

the

be

smaller

that

is,if xy

k.

Jc
also

find

this

equation written

student

The

or

-"

may

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

310

EXERCISES

1.

each

Express

tin-

of

following statements

by

of

means

equations:
needed

time

(a) The

to go

certain

distance

inversely

varies

the rate of travel.

as

the

(c) Tke

varies

stove

at which

rate

the

inverselyas

square

of

it.

from

distance

varies

of

heat

(b) The

the

to

goes

it takes

time

the

inverselyas

boy

drug

corner

store

him.

18
If

2.

.u

show

"

that

with
inversely

varies

z.

ir

If y varies

3.

the

of y

value

By

Solution.

when

of inverse

1'J

Therefore

12,

4.

k,

48.

2.

4S, since /."is constant.

24.

"

Therefore
Then

the value
5.

of

When

gas

the

us

6.
as

how

The

the

If the

number

If 10

days

can

men

12

the

that

volume

men

12 when

of

13, find

can
men

do
do

gas

is 14
a

the

pressure,

cc.

ume
vol-

The

varies

volume

under

volume

doing

under

is increased.

pressure

is the
of

cylinderis put

the

as

lb.,what

time.

many

?/, and

2.

by experiment

pressure.
is 9

in

is reduced
shows

"

inverselyas

when

4, find

variation,

case,

varies

k.

or

when

and

If

12

xy

In the first case,

4.

2.

definition

In the second

x, and

inverselyas

physicist
inverselyas

when

pressure

the
of

sure
pres-

16 Ib. ?

pieceof work varies inversely


a
piece of work in 33 da.,in
the same
piece of work ?

FUNCTION

348.
to

INTERPRETED

how

show

inverse

Two
various

find

take

train

which

moves

uniformly

the

two

cities.

the

at

24

mi.

per

make

to

traffic between

how

it will

hour

mi.

now

attempt
out

of

the

carry

long

rate

48

are

shall

We

proceed
be representedgraphically.
may
running at
apart. Trains

variation.

variation

cities

rates

Suppose we
to

inverse

Graphing

311

GRAPHICALLY

the
40

6 mi.

trip,then

per

hour, 8 mi. per hour,


etc.

The

following

table contains
of
means

some

values

by

of which

the

the

""30

points in Fig. 218


were
plotted. The

20
Rate

equation representing
is

the situation
48

rt.

FIG.

the

When

GRAPH

218.

INVERSE

SHOWING

VARIATION

of the .table

points
are
plotted,it
line, as

was

is clear

the

case

connected, the result


line is

one

of

two

that
in

they

direct

is the

branches

not

variation

curved
of

do

line
curve

lie
;

on

but

if

straight
they

are

Fig. 218. This


called a hyperbola.
of

312

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISES

from

1. Determine
a

the

graph

the time

Fig.218

hour ; 20 mi. per

rate is 31 mi. per

train whose

in

it takes

hour

; 25 mi.

per hour.

from

Determine

2.

makes

which

runs

the

graph in Fig.218 how fast a train


hr.; 2| hr.; 5^ hr.; 8^ hr.
tripin 1|-

the

Graph the equation^?y


the graph.
interpret
3.

See
mathematical
curve.
hyperbolais an interesting
it by consulting
about
help your class learn more

The

4.

if you

(seeEx. 5, Art. 347) and

144

can

books.

other

349.

In

Joint variation.

depends for

its value

the

interest formula

r, and

/=

Prt,

change in any
of these letters causes
a
one
correspondingchange in the
this by saying that the interest
value of /. We
express
the principal,
varies jointly
as
rate, and time. The algebraic
kyz.
equation which defines jointvariation is x
I

P,

on

EXERCISES

Turn

1.

and

*3.
of

varies

2, find

horizontal

length I
*4.

1920

Ib.

material

and

between

at

when

the

formula,and

trations
find five illus-

10 ft.

y, and

^ and

if

"

60 when

^.

the supports.

both

What

and

followinglaw as a formula: The safe load L


beam
supported at both ends varies jointlyas
the square of the depth d and inversely
as the
12 ft.

beam

supported

as
jointly

the

Write

the width

on

jointvariation.

of
2. If

Chapter XI,

to

long, 4

ends

would

long,3

can

be the
in.

in. wide, and


bear

wide, and

maximum

safelya

safe load

for

8 in.

beam

6 in. thick ?

deep

when

load
of the

same

of

CHAPTER

XIII

CONSTRUCTION

SIMILARITY;

OF

SIMILAR

TRIANGLES;

PROPORTION

Construction

356.

of

first

method

followingexercises will helpto


of this chapter. The
student
basis for the work
study them carefully.
The

introductoryexercises.
form

similar, triangles;

should

EXERCISES

On

1.

length.
of 32".

At

2.

drawn
3.

else

the

Compare
with

the

class

What

done

was

venient
con-

the

triangle.Call

might

the

of those
in Ex.

you

have

that

ought

to

the
two

drawn

1 to

protractormeasure

be

by

any

vertex

insure

your
that

have

you

classmates.
all members

of

shape ?

same

your

figure.How

its size ?

angle C

in your

figurewith angle C

classmates.

your

angle

equal to

by

angle (.'in

determined

size of

that

triangleABC

get trianglesof the

Show

any

of the

the

With

7. Are

Are

form

to

shape

shape

Compare the
the figures
drawn

6.

of any

AB

an
angle
protractor,
angle of 63" and produce the sides

an
as

segment

C.

5.

in

line

construct,with

.1

angles so

the class should


4.

At

construct

of the two

angle

lay off

squared paper

drawn

other

any

drawn
triangles
of
necessarily

by
the
314

by any
angle C

member

size '.'

the

drawn.

the class of the


same

of

same

size ?

CONSTRUCTION
357.

Similar

OF

SIMILAR

315

TRIANGLES

triangles.Triangles
havingthe

shape

same

called similar

Similar triangles
not
are
sarily
necestriangles.
of the same
size. They may be constructed
by making
two anglesof one
equalto two anglesof the other,as was
done
in Ex. 1, Art. 356.
If two angles6f one
are
equal
to two anglesof the other,it follows that the third angles
is
Thus
are
equal.(Why ?) The symbolfor similarity
AABC^AA'B'C"
is read "triangleABC
is similar to
A'B'C'"
The results of Art. 356 may
be summed
triangle
geometrictheorem : If two angles of
up in the following
to two
are
one
anglesof another
triangle
equalrespectively
the triangles
similar.
are
triangle,
are

~-".

358.

student

of parts in similar

Second

relation

should

be able to discover

similar

if
triangles

he

triangles. The

second method

studies and

of

structing
con-

understands

followingexercises.

the

INTRODUCTORY

EXERCISES

for Ex. 1,Art. 356, letter the


drawn
ABC
triangle
side oppositeangle C with a small letter c, the side opposite
angleB with a small letter I,and the side oppositeangle A with
1. In the

small
2.

lengthsof the sides a, l",and c


to I, of
decimal places.Find the ratio of
(in each, case to two decimal places).

to

3.

Compare

the other

by

make

the

Measure

to two
a

letter a.

with

359.

your

members

reference

Construction

results in Ex. 2 with


of your

class.

What

to the ratios of the

of similar

in Ex.

1" to c, of

the results obtained


conclusion

do

you

sides '.'

triangles;

second

method.

be summarized
as
results of Exs. 1-3, Art. 358, may
sides
the ratios of corresponding
follows : In similar triangles

The

are

for

equal. The work of Art. 358 suggestsa


constructingsimilar triangles.

second

method

3 It)

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISES

second
a
triangle.Draw
trianglewhose
are
respectivelytwice as long as the sides of the
triangle.
Draw

1.

they similar

Are

Draw

3.

Give

the ratio* of the

Find

triangle with

correspondingsides
for

reasons

of

Call the

three

segments x',y',and z'

shape. Are they


correspondingsides ?
to

as

shape.

to

as

long as the
they similar?

as

Are

do

the

ratios

of

the

compare

times

How

first

correspondingsides.

triangle.

answer.

ABC.
triangle
halves x',y\ and z'.

4. Draw

as

sides

another

your

corresponding sides

the

in Ex.

Compare the trianglesconstructed

2.

sides

Bisect the lines AB, AC,


Construct

EC.

second

triangle,
using
Compare the two triangles

sides.

similar

and

What

are

the

ratios of the

precedingexercises suggest the followingtheorem :


Two
trianglesare similar if the ratios of the corresponding
sides are
of
equal. This gives us a second method
; namely, by making the
constructingsimilar triangles
ratios of their correspondingsides equal.
The

360.

We

of

Construction

shall

study

which
triangles

third

is

similar

third

triangles;

method

suggestedby

of
the

method.

constructingsimilar
followingexercises :

EXERCISES

1.

and

Construct
with
a

and
What

the

protractor make

second

the included
is the

trianglewith

two

sides 4.6cm.

the

included

and

angle

trianglewith two sides 9.2 cm. and


angle 70". Compare the trianglesas

ratio

of

the

correspondingangles.

correspondingsides

6.2cm.,

70".
12.4
to

Measure

struct
Concm.

shape.
the

CONSTRUCTION
2.

OF

If convenient

SIMILAR

317

TRIANGLES

the class sholild divide

itself into

sections,

first section

constructinga trianglewith two sides and the


included angle as follows : a
12, b
18, and C
40"; the
second section takinga
8, b
40"; and the third
12, and C
section takinga
40". Compare the triangles
4, b
6, and C
is the ratio
drawn
by the three sections as to shape. What
of the correspondingsides ?
,ne

"

precedingexercises support the geometrictheorem:


Two triangles
are, similar if the ratio of two sides of one
equals
sides of the other,and the angles
the ratio of two corresponding
included between these sides are equal.This theorem
suggests
of constructing
similar triangles.
the third method
The

361.

Summary

are
triangles

of constructions

for similar

triangles.Two

similar

constructed equalrespecare
tively
If two anglesof one triangle
to two anglesof the second triangle.
constructed so that the
2. If the sides of the triangles
are
sides are
ratios of their corresponding
equal.
constructed so that the ratio of two
3. If the triangles
are
is equalto the ratio of two sides of the other and
sides of one
the anglesincluded between
these sides are equal.
1.

362.

Similar
We

right
shall

angles.
tri-

now

orem:
followingtheD
The perpendicular
FIG. 219
to the hypotenuse
from the
into
divides the triangle
vertex of a right
triangle
that are similar to each other (see Fig. 219).
prove

the

Proof.

.-.

"x

Z.V

"\ADC

two

triangles

/.x'.

Why?

Z/.

Why?

AEDC.

Why?

318

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

(Exs. 1-4 refer


1. Show

that A.I

IK'

"

also that A BCD

2.

Show

3.

Translate

the

results

to

Fig. 219)

ABC.
^

A.-lLv

of Exs.

'.
1 and

into

geometric

theorem.
4.

State

363.

theorem

Similar

learn

that

expressing the

polygons. In
similar

results of this article.

later

work

polygons also

in

mathematics

have

corresponding
sides
anglesequal and that the ratios of the corresponding
are
equal. This rests on the fact that two similar polygons
into sets of similar triangles
be divided
by drawing
may
correspondingdiagonalsus
in Fig.220.
of
Similar
figures are
The
frequent occurrence.
plansof construction work,
FJG
22Q
POLYGOXS
SIMILAK
in
veyor's
shop, a surdrawings
blue prints,
a photograph,
copy of a field triangle,
all examples. The relation
are
enlargedand reduced pictures,
of the different parts in all the foregoingis shown
by
magnifyingor reducingall parts to a definite scale. Thus,
be able to determine
by lookingat a photograph
you may
of a man
that he has large ears, although in the picture
we

the actual
than

of

house

centimeter.

reduced

One

whether

the relation
are

of either of his

measurement

to

tell

the windows
is

the

corresponding
parts

can

brought out
same

are

scale ;

equal.See

ears

may

be less

by looking at the plan


cause
are
large or small, beby the fact that all parts
that is, the ratios of the
if you can
find examples

that will illustrate the last statement

CONSTRUCTION

OF

SIMILAR

TKI

319

ANGLES

Similar

be regardedas copiesof the same


triangles
may
trianglemagnifiedor minified to a scale,or both may be
ferent
regarded as scale drawings of the same
triangleto difscales. We
shall study the geometricrelations more
in detail in the^nextchapter.
364.

Algebraic problems

similar

on

figures. The

fact

gons
correspondingsides of similar polyequal furnishes us with an algebraicmethod of

that the ratios of the


are

findingdistances.
EXERCISES

and

a'

in.,how

and

8 mm.,

triangles of

similar

the

In

2.

of Fig. 221, if a
triangles
long is // ?

the similar

1. In

how

8 mm.,

in.,a'

if

Fig. 222,

in.,

6 -mm.,

long

is b1?

if

.a'=10.5

sides

The

2.7 cm.,

and

sides of

6.

casts

of

side

stick'at
the

same

221

FK,

223

sides.

triangleare 2.3 cm.,


The
corresponding
a-, y, and

triangleare

and

are

board

desired.

long,

How

wide

"/ \

be?

day

long.

time?

y.

6 in.

and

long.
IS^in.

10 in.

Flo

similar

other

the

certain time of

shadow

16, 20,

triangleare

4 in. wide

second

//

"

a/\h

the values* of

be

the
At

cm.

is to be

the other

7.

and

mm.,

rectangularboards

Two

should

of

similar

is to

One

Find

12cm.

Find

triangleis 22.
5.

of

is

shortest

The

26.

and

long

sides

The

b =12

mm.,

how

15 mm.,
4.

trianglesof Fig.223,

the similar

In

3.

Draw

How
a

foot rule

long

is the shadow

of

yard

diagram and prove your work.

820

Fig. 224 the pole,the length of its shadow, and


the top of the pole form a triangle.
sun's rays passingover
of the pole is measured, and is found to be 60 ft.
shadow
In

8.

the
The

A I. MATHEMATICS

; K.\ KK

the

long. At
is

high

time

same

of

the shadow

ft. long.
7|-

to be

measured, and is found

vertical stick

determine

the

7.5'

60'

trianglesimilar
If

stick? the
the

to

let h denote

we

FIG.

22 1

The

Solution.

shadow,

the

is the
10.
paper

chimney
Draw
as

in

draw

AC

of

the shadow

time

ments

of

shadow

6"

2.5

7.5

EB

paper,

making

in

it DE

Fig. 227.
as

in

the

ratios

high

decimal
Howdo

EB

? What

does this show

coincide

Choose

Fig. 227.

squared

triangleon

base

z
A'

seg-

with

one

compare?

FIG.

the triangles

any

line

Find

the

to
parallel

the

ratios

and

"

"

DA

these

same

Cf

of the horizontal lines. Letter


as

and

scalene
the

squared
pointD on

to two

DA

the

on

Measure

IIAB.

CD

Draw

At

places. Find the ratios

11.

long.

6 ft. 2 in. tall is 9 ft. 2 in. How

man

CE, and

these ratios compare

Why?

is 85.2 ft.

chimney

triangleABC
Fig.226. Through

form

rays

20.

DA

sun's

line DE

CD,

the

triangle (see Fig. 225). Why?


height of the pole,we get

The

and

225

first

Then
9.

we

may

heightof the pole


actuallymeasuring it ?

without

FIG.

How

2^ ft.

State

your

conclusion

base
"

and

-7-A B
as

227

How

letter
do

theorem.

322

GENEKAL

EA

Show

19.

the

that the distance A B

the lines shown

in

is drawn.

to be 80

distance

could also be found

the swamp

365.

found

are

Find
respectively.

the line AD

and

to CB,
perpendicular

of CB, DE, and

MATHEMATICS
The

lengths

ft.,90 ft.,and

250 ft

AB.

across

uring
by meas-

Fig. 232.

The

preceding
with similar triangles
exercises dealing
solved by means
of a special
were
type of equationexpressingthe fact that two ratios in the
geometricfigurewere
equal. Thus in Fig.233 the line AB
is divided into two
parts whose ratio is | (see the method
of Ex. 16, Art. 364). In this construction it turns out that
Proportion.

4F

3-

Wh.v'-'

f.

A.

,B

''
~2*"

?.
DE

AF

AD

and

"="-

Such

''

Vs/

Why?

Why?

Fio.

233

of two ratios,
which expresses equality
equation,
is called a proportion.
The line segments AF, FB, AD, and
said to be proportional,
in proportion.This
DE
or
are
that AF
divided
means
by FB will always equal AD
divided by DE.
A proportionmay
thus be defined as an equationwhich
of two fractions ; as, T8:rf. Another
expresses the equality
an

ct

example
"

a
c

of

divided

is to

written

by

"

rf,"or
a

proportionis

a
=

c :

c
=

"
-

This

may
"

be

is to
a
equals c divided by "?,"or
b equals c over
d." Sometimes
over

d, but this form

is not

desirable.

read
b

as

it is

CONSTRUCTION

OF

SIMILAR

TRIANGLES

323

EXERCISE

Is

the

366.
a

Means

and

proportion are

third terms

Is

answer.

your

f f a proportion? Give reasons


for
-^ a proportion? Explain your answer.

statement

the

first and

last terms

the

extremes

and

second

Thus,

in the

called

means.

the extremes

are

The

extremes.

and

b and

the

the

proportion
-

"

"

in
and

and

means.

EXERCISES

1.

What

statement

2. Make

the

can

with

Theorem
of

extremes

product

the relation

on

proportion. Exs.

law

well-known

proportions and

the

productof

theorem

or

the

The

theorem
ft
a

Let

means

-.

may

be

represent
bd

we

between

-"

extremes.

the

and

the
a

then the law is algebraically

follows

get

fraction

proportion.Multiplyingboth

any

cbd
_

each

means

1-2, Art. 366, illustrate

proved as

abd

Reducing

product

be.

by

the

the

c
=

f*
c
=

members

ad

of

compare

namely, that in a proportion


equalsthe productof the extremes.

is
givenproportion

stated thus

product of

a.

If the

the

concerning the products?

make

you

several

up

means

367.

the

with
product of the means
the following proportions
:

in

the extremes

of

the

Compare

lowest

to

ad

"

be.

terms,

324

proportionis a specialkind of equation,there


a
are
proportioneasier
speciallaws which often make
other equationswhich
not proportions.
to solve than
are
of the many
The law given on page 323, Art. 307, is one
of proportionconvenient
to use.
Thus, instead
principles
Since

"

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

16

4
of

findingthe

in the

L.C.D.

equation

in that way,

The

law

is also

it is

since

48.

16.

convenient

the ratios to lowest

reduce

say

of

test

find

usuallysimpler to

solving

precedinglaw, and

the

simply use

we

and

"

"

the

proportionality
productsthan to

terms.

EXERCISES

Test

1.

following

the

statements

to

if

see

they

are

proportions:
'

l5 J 12/

15
.

'

'

'

35

77'

"

11

"-

Find

2.

the values
check

.=

1.4

t .o

in the
the

Solution.

o~o
Z.Z

"

"

originalequations :

"/- +

20

yz

11 +

"d"n"iT5'
3^

3+1
,

"

'y-2"-".

3
Check-

11 -3

irT3=irri
i-"

8
_

14

followingproportions,

} 10"5'
y~12

7.7
_

o.o

unknowns

in
by substituting

"

'

2.5

11.5

(*")

"

^~K

"66_l
ff-\\

_
"

of the

^
-

_^21

~~

5a

ox

and

(b)

2^5
2

v*)

\~J

42

'

~~

14"

7'

9.

!(3F SIMILAR

CONSTRUCTION,

13

IL

"

.^

If 5 and

3.

1. and

each

are

obtained

in

are

Show

4.

whose

What

The

anglesand
formed

is
If

8.

League

11.

If

making
make

the

other

The

of

Boston

won

long into

parts

68, lost

Chicago

have

lime

and

ft. of

of two

2 is to 5

as

32 ;

complementary
two anglesthus

cm.

4^ in. wide;

is

wide

in

teams

other
have

ft. of

much

as

the

ten

American

more

of each

are

36.

gauit-s.
tied

been,

sand

it ?

64, lost

Chicago won
to

won

mortar, how

ft. of mortar

with

used

is needed

in
to

Proportion involved

in variation.

Many

physics,chemistry,generalscience, domestic

astronomy, and

represents 80 mi., what

play each

must

cu.

|?

is

shape. One
in. long ; how

leading

two

to

2.4

ratio

long

cm.

in.?

is 18

scheduled

or

two

10

segment

ratio of the

map

same

were

ft. of

line

one

other,the

railroad

have

cu.

variation

thus

number.

54 in.

from

representedby 2|

records

cu.

numbers

angles.

96

368.

subtracted

books

many

Boston

in

be

on

were

the

four

righttriangleare
the angles.

-|.Find

the

If the teams
how

angles of

^. Find
1| in.

The

10.

it,the

board

a.

certain number, and

parts whose

two

ratio is

in. long.
7-g^

and

to

parts of

two

to the

Two

9.

divide

added

is

distance

from

into

acute

10"

If

7.

subtracted

the

are

is,their

added

K'

y^.

if it is divided
6.

each

are

to

J-

O
_

proportion.Find

how

ratio is

5.

326

~3

U/

_1_

"

/i\
.

~~

_I-

/T

~T~
x

'
"

'

that

14:

TRIANGLES

mathematics

proportion.In

may

be

fact, the

solved
whole

problems
science,

by either
theory of

826

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

involved

proportionis
this fact is not

in

discussion

our

obvious

always so

to

of variation,but

beginner.The

fact

problems may be stated both in terms of variation and


of proportionmakes
it necessary for the student
terms
the relation between
variation and prorecognizeclearly
portion.
This relation will be illustrated in the following

that
in
to

list of exercises.
EXERCISES

Solve

by

1. If 11

either variation
men

will it take 15

(a)

Solution

build

can

walk

cement

in 82

variation

problem
mt

k.

(The

time

it

walk

Then

11

"

82

Hence

k
this value

Whence

in

the

same

inverse

This
group
takes

902.

as

the

902 ;

15.

15 t

902,

*TV

time

build

inverselyas

of men.)

60T2Sda.

The
to

necessary

number
build

of
the

men

is not

walk, but

in

ratio ; that is,

proportion means
of

men

as

the time

"

the

is to the second
first group
of men
it takes the second
group is to the time it

the first group."

the
Substituting

three

known

facts,

II -!i
15

Whence
and

to

case,

proportionproblem.

ratio

mt

and
as

k.

of k in the second

but

Solution

takes

varies

the number

(b)

long

the

Using

da., how

to build it ?

men

as

proportion:

or

15

7 82'

d,

c/

902,
T*

60

da.

CONSTRUCTION

If 200

2.

ft. of the

of 125

The

3.

Two

4.

same

farmer

the

has

other

must

doubletree

as

so

horses

369.

forms

to

is the

weight

certain

12

rods

work

varies

the

to

work

that it takes

the

as

$12.80,how

cost

proportion

same

kind

much

they

do.

16 da. to do.

of which

team

lb.

If"

horse

one

they pull in proportion

the farmer

place the

distribute

the

load

clevis

on

according

lb.

1200

weighs

their

to

four-foot
the

to

size

Different

will

1500

weight, where
of the

60 lb.,what

327

their wages.

Compare
5.

in

paid

are

men

TRIANGLES

of wire ?

fencing of

do in 24 da. the

can

and

weighs

yards bought. If
bought for $44.80?

be

wire

kind

of wire

cost

SIMILAR

of

number
can

ft. of copper

OF

be

of

arrangements

interested

proportion may
by solving the exercises
a

in
be

proportion. The

seeing in how
arranged. This

that

different

many

he

dent
stu-

may

learn

follow.

EXERCISES

Arrange

1.

Can

the

you

How

3.

write

the
two

2, 5, 8, and

numbers
do

you

3, 6, 7, and

numbers

possible.Do

as

2.

the

decide

for the

same

20

as

many

tions
propor-

2, 5, 8, and
be

not

of these

terms

which

as

numbers
will

ratios that

in

14

arrangement

20.

equal, using

ratios ?
constitutes

proportion?
The
as

precedingexercises suggest
-

may

take

four

forms,

(a) The

given proportion

as

that

follows

proportionsuch

328

GENERAL

(b)

The

form

MATHEMATICS

obtained

the
by alternating

means

in

(a):

in

(a):

a
=

~c d'

(d)
and

obtained

form

(c) The

The

form
in

extremes

the
by alternating

obtained

both
by alternating

last form

the

means

(a) :
b

The

extremes

be obtained

can

simply by invertingthe

ratios-in (a).
know

We

that the

applyingthe
of the

means

Furthermore,

case.

obtained

both

number.

members

of the

of

one

any

by dividingthe

the proper

by

proportions
givenabove are true, for by
that the product
test of proportionality
we
see
in each
equals the product of the- extremes
them

of the

members

Thus,

could

to

get

equationad

"

be

have

been

equation ad
we

by

ab.

must

be

divide

Why ?

l"-

ad
".

Then

ab

from

which

"=

"

ab

or

form

(c).

precedingdiscussion illustrates the


of the theorem
which
use
says that if the product of two
numbers
is equalto the productof two other munbers, either
and the other pair the extremes
pair may be made the means
of a proportion.
370.

Theorem.

The

330

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

is

What

1.

between
proportional

mean

Let

HINT.

*
-

X
=

-.

From

which

Then

Show

2.

9 ?

the number.

TU

Ineii

4 and

x-

36.
6.

"

that the value of b in the

proportion

the

by
root

of

equationb

372.

is a

2 and

equals -f- or

"

the square

2 and

18 ? between

800 ?

between
proportional

mean

a? and

i2; between

y3.
How

pick

to

triangles. The
that in certain

cases

AC

corresponding sides

of Fig. 236
triangles
line is

is

are

of

similar

-placedso

side in each of two

similar

and also of

side of A ADC
the similar

out

similar

Thus,
triangles.

This

"

between
proportional

mean

40 ? between

4. Find

3? and

(read

given

ac"~).

3. "What

10 and

"

" Vac

is

ABC.
triangle

suggests that

twice
line may
occur
of the
the proportion

respondingsides.
it is seen
way
line becomes
a

the
in
cor-

In this

that

FlG

236

the

between
the other two.
proportional
This analysiscan
be checked
only by actuallywriting
the proportionof pairsof correspondingsides of similar
the student must
triangles.In order to do this correctly
sides of similar triangles
remember
that "he ("nrrexpondinri
mean

CONSTRUCTION

OF

the sides which

are

lie

the fact that A ADC

SIMILAR

TRIANGLES

381

oppositeequal angles. Hence,


ABC

""

we

write the

may

from

following

proportion:
(oppositeZ

AD

in A

^4 C

ADC)

(oppositeZ

2:

in A

ADC)

(oppositeZ

A C

z' in A AB

^(opposite

(7)
AD

Z.C

in

AACB)

AC

",

1 hat

is,

AC

is thus

AC

and

be

to

seen

the

proportionalbetween

mean

AD

AB.

Show

in

similar

the

between

that

way

is, show

that

"

BC
=

BC

"

is

BC

and

hypotenuse AB
BD

that

AB

the

proportional

mean

adjacent segment

BD

-"

AB

cussion
preceding exercises and disIn
a
right triangleeither side
by the theorem:
between
the
proportional
including the rightangle is a mean
hypotenuseand the adjacent segment of the hypotenusemade
by a perpendicularfrom the vertex of the rightangle to the
We

may

the

summarize

hypotenuse.
righttrianglea perpendicularis
drawn
from the vertex of the rightangle on the hypotenuse,
the perpendicularis a mean
proportional
the segments of the hypotenuse.
between
will
The truth of the precedingtheorem
A
D
from
the following:
be seen
Fio. 237
In AABC
(Fig. 237) Z C is a right
373.

angle,and
and

the

If

Theorem.

CD

"

AB.

in

|f ff

because

correspondingsides

are

therefore

ADC
in

CDS,

proportion.

332

MATHEMATICS-,

..GENERAL

:...-.

...;_

EXERCISES

1. Write

drawn

altitude

the

Find

2.

complete proof for

the

out

the

to

the

precedingtheorem.

hypotenuse

of

right

triangleif it divides the hypotenuseinto two segments whose


Find
also each leg
lengths are 4 in. and 16 in. respectively.
of the right triangle.
In

*3.

right triangleABC

from

is drawn

length of

the

Find

374.

on

line

two

In

of

ments

and

mean

If

AB.

CD

furnishes

with

us

as

will

the

On

equation

construct
B

b from

and

mean

Proof.

is

and b.

A K

in

lay off

Fig. 239, we

AC

as

diameter

we

~~~

^--

/'

at D.

the

required
proportional.
BD

'

will represent the

With

C:

to

perpendicular

intersectingthe circle
Then

At

semicircle.

erect

we

CC
=

working line, as

structing
con-

Construction.
to

of

be shown.

now

situation,

theorem

given two line seg- '


b. The
struct
problem is to con(say x units long)between
proportional
that

4.

any

CL

from

then

dicular
perpenA I)

method

are

we

know

We

8,

proportional. The

mean

between
proportional

segments,

331

page

mean

Fig.238

to

AB.

Construction

of Art. ^73

at C)
(right-angled

Connect

with

/'

'

I /'
[^_

rJL

and

C with

the

required

tional
vided

D.

between
we

can

BD

Then

propor-

mean
a

show

is

and

b pro-

OK

FIG.

239.

MEAN

PROPORTIONAL

CONSTRUCTION

that Z-D

is a
right angle. (Why?) We shall proceed to show that ZD
right angle by proving that if any point on a circle is connected with
the ends of a diameter, the angleformed at that pointis a rightangle.
is

CONSTRUCTION
In
AC

Fig.240
and

show

that

ZZ)

Connect
Z

two

equal

Z y

for the

+ Z

same

with

.s',

the

ends

the

on

of

AC.

FIG.

240

diameter
We

must

(1)

angle of
the

to

circle constructed

333

right angle.

.s

nonadjacent

and

given

TRIANGLES

0.

SIMILAR

connected

exterior

an

is

is

and

Then
because

have

we

point

OF

of

sum

angle
tri-

the

interior

angles;

Z t + Z I'

(2)

reason.

By adding (1) and

(2),

Since

+ Z y

+ Z y

Z / + Z t + Z ('.

,s-+

180",

Why?
Why

But
and

Z "'.

Why?

2 Z"

180".

..Why?

Z"

90".

Why?
Why?

Z "

Therefore

2 Z.v +
Zs

Then

ZZ)--90".

Then,

if in

Fig. 239

Z D

90", the proportion

"

BD

and

BD

is

proportionalbetween

mean

Give

and

is true,

b
reasons.

EXERCISES

1.

Explain

line segments
2.

25, 25

3.

is

In

be

16, 4

and

9, 16
A

Fig. 241, Z.C

right angle, CDA.AB,


AC

and

given

constructed.

36.

triangleABC,

lengths of

two

between
proportional

mean

16, 4 and
and

proportionalbetween

mean

may

Construct
9 and

and

how

CB.

AD

2, and

DB

6.

Find

the

334

GENERAL

4. Find

and

the
in

proportionalbetween

mean

the line segments

Fig.242.

Measure

5.

MATHEMATICS

and

in

in Ex.

in

Fig. 242 and

the

Square the value of


the mean
proportionaland see how the
with
the
value compares
product of m
constructed

and

proportional

mean

4.

n-

Fir.. 242

*6.

Construct

equal in

square

given rectangle;

to

to

area

given parallelogram
; to

given triangle.
a

375.

proportional. In the proportion


T

Fourth

called

the

to
fourth proportional

methods

two

of

given numbers

findingthe
5, and

a,

Let

method.

Algebraic

",

fourth

6, and

d is

-^'
\Jv

There

c.

are

three

to
proportional

c.

represent

the

value

the

of

fourth

proportional.
a

TI,

Then

c
=

ft

(bydefinition

of

Solvingfor

fourth
ax

x,

proportional).

be.

be

x_
a

FIG.
Geometric

lines,as
draw

b, and

a,

See

Then

shown.

as

if you

given

Fig. 243,
angle, as
line A Clay

On the other
IIDF

three

in

convenient

any

DE-l.

EG

Take

method.

FG

show

can

How

FOURTH

CONSTRUCT

TO

PROPORTIONAL

and
Z.BAC.

On

oSAF=c.

is the

why

243.

AB

lay

off AD

Draw

DF.

Then

required fourth

the construction

a,

draw

proportional.
is correct.

EXERCISES

1.

Check

construction

the

to

if

see

"

2.

Construct
2 cm.,

the

four

and

"

fourth

3 cm.,

by measuring

segments

above

cm.

three

given
long respectively.

to
proportional

line segments

CONSTRUCTION
Show

3.

1\ cm.

4. Construct

6 cm., and

fourth

obtained

segment

33o
in Ex.

'1

three

proportionalto

segments

5 cm.,

long respectively.
work

your

find the

To

376.

the

TKIA^ULES

long.

cm.

5. Check
*

SIMILAR

that
algebraically

be

should

OF

22

by

quotientof

To

specialmethod.

in Ex. 4

find

|| in

method.
algebraic

an

arithmetical

two

per cent

numbers

by

need to solve the

we

equation ^
w
(Why?) This proportion
lar
suggestssimiIf we
triangles.
=

take

horizontal line

(Fig. 244)

OM

line

dividend

as
on

squared paper, and


to
ON
perpendicularOM

then
OM

and

divisor

as

lay off OA on
equalto 22 units,
at A

erect

and

units,

we

pendicular
permark
Di

equal to

off AB

our

line,

we

de nd

70

solve

can

-M-

-Li

FIG.

244

problemprovided
draw

to it.

another

Call DR

Stretch

line DR

NOTE.

Therefore

proofis
22

is

at

so

and

that it passes

C.

or

The

at

quotientline

Then

OM

parallel

quotientline.

the

stringfastened

J5,meeting the

units above

100

left to the student.

31%
approximately

of 70.

through

330

( J KN

K1J A L

M ATH.EMATK

'S

EXERCISES

Point

*1.

the similar

out

in

"used
quotients
proportional.

of

Fig. 244.

the device

Read

the

for expressing

sides which

are

gardener planted 12 A. of potatoes,8 A. of beans,


A. of onions,3 A. of celery,
and 5 A. of cabbage. By means
in Fig.244 show
the distribution
used
the device
of his
A

*2.
13

trianglesin

garden
377.

in per

cents.

Verbal

solved

problems

by

proportion. We

have

said that many


problems of science,the
be solved by proportion.We
can

shop,and engineering
shall proceed to
problems by using our

of these
study how to solve some
knowledge of proportion.
Art. 233, we recognized
In the studyof turningtendency,
familiar principle
of the balanced
beam : The
the following
leftweighttimes the leftlever arm equalsthe rightweighttimes
As
the rightlever arm.
a
formula
"

I~-

7-77

tins

may

This
to

all

seesaw.

that

be

written

wlll

u'2lz.

is alreadyfamiliar
principle
who
have
played with a
They discovered long ago
board

teeter

will

100

60
Ib.

Ib.
FiG

245

balance

obtained
by multiplyingthe
equal products are
weight of each person by his distance from the point of
support (fulcrum).
crum
If, in Fig.245, B weighs 60 Ib. and is 5 ft. from the fulF, then A, who
weighs 100 Ib.,must be 3 ft. from
5
100
3 is a specialcase
of
the fulcrum.
Thus, 60
generallaw wll1 w%lz.
If we
divide both members
of the equationiv^^ W212by
when"

"

"

w^ly we

get

nn

"

'2

wi

which

is in the form

of

proportion.

MATHEMATK

GESEKAL

In

7.

with

force is exerted

What

the axle

on

Find
62

if

as

ward
up-

18

51 Ib.

19

Jaif ^

40

ft.,
in.,

MIXTURE

much

1. How

FIG.

Ib.

Ib.,and ^=38

=26
"/-2

added

make

to

it test

gal. of milk,

10

fat?

butter

4%

the

number

of

gallonsof

water

10

the number

of

gallonsof

diluted

10

the amount

of butter

fat in the undiluted

10)

the amount

of butter

fat in the diluted

248

PROBLEMS

be

must

water

Let

Solution.

ALLOY

AND

butter fat,to
testing"\"fo

Then

lever 10 ft.long. The distance

result

Ib.,and w1

Find

9.

lifts

man

?
lifting

of the man's
8.

(Fig.248)a

is 2" ft.

the axle to F

"/-2

automobile

an

force of 150 Ib.at the end of

from

raise

attemptingto

"

added.

milk,

51
and

"

$ff(x

Since

"

"

of butter

the amount

-$1

10=

fat remains

milk.

milk.

constant,

(x

Why

'i

Whv

'{

100
110

a:

200
4

2.

much

25

40

fjo.

1,the

physicianhas

water

Solution.
100

10

25%

he add

must

Consider

number

of

gallonsof

mixture

to be added.

of listerine in water.

to it to make

it

arbitraryquantity

an

water

How

mixture

15
of

the

mixture,

say

oz.

Let

the

number

100
Then

100

oz.

the number

of

ounces

of water

added

to

of the mixture.
of

ounces

in the

new

mixture.

every

CONSTRUCTION

OF

Since 25% of the

SIMILAR

originalmixture

is

TRIANGLES

339

listerine,

25
"

the per cent

"

mixture.

new

And

since

15% of the

mixture

new

25

of listerine in the

is to be

listerine,

=JL5_
'

100
1500

+15
15

Hence

66$

oz.

of water

must

water

should

100

a:

2500.

1000.

be added

to

100

every

of the

oz.

originalmixture.
much

How

3.

of the

4oz.
mixture

patent medicine

of other

How

quarts

many

5% solution
is salt)
to make

7.

Two

worth

28$

15%

added

of water

qt. of

it

that

so

alcohol ?

be

must

mixture

12

to

much

70

mixed

with

pure

30

qt.

take place from


evaporationmust
of salt and
water
(of which
5% by weight
the remaining portionof the mixture
a
7%

In
are

in order

gold ?

pound.

per

used

be

that

so

How

in the

dealer

costing a

pounds

many
mixture

oz.

that

in

case

weighing

30$ per

mixture

will be

of

kind

each

of

alloyfor watch cases


of gold. How
much
a

and

25$

50 Ib. of the

which

of

mass

30

of coffee

mixed

be

to

coffee must

of

it

of

cent

grades

are

there

2 to make

pound

8.

bottle containing

30% alcohol,how

only 20%

pure to make

"\Yhat per

solution

be

shall contain

of alcohol 82
6.

to

in Ex.

contains

ingredientsmust

mixture
5.

originalmixture

added

4. If

the

be

copper
oz.

there

contains
must

shall

be
be

80

oz.

added

-}""/.

340

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL
Let

Solution.

Then

80

4-

the number

of

ounces

of copper

the number

of

ounces

in the

the

30

and
y

between

ratio
the

the ratio

80

Then

Hence

40

In

of

of

10

oz.

of the
Gun

10.

Ib. of gun

2050

How

copper.
gun

metal

metal

*378.

weighs

may

should

is

silver

of

of tin and

certain

861

be

added

as

much

as

of

the

are

that

gold ?
An

contains

alloyof

1722

that 1050

so

Ib. of copper

in order

copper.

grade

there

oz.

be added

only ^ oz.

contain

tin must

contain

weighing 80

silver should

composed

metal

times

alloyto

new

be added.

Specific-gravityproblems.
2.89

the

Why?

much

much

alloy

Why?

alloyshall

new

sample of
sample.

120.

How

gold.

the

alloyof gold and

an

oz.

of

mass

_..

of copper

oz.

10

whole

"_

80

9.

alloy.

new

gold.

gold in
ri-,1

the

to be added.

Ib. of

Ib. of the

cubic

cubic

foot

foot of
of

glass
water
(a

foot of water

2.89 is
weighs 62.4 Ib.).The number
called the specific
gravityof glass.In general,the specific
gravityof a substance is defined as the ratio of the weight
of a givenvolume of the substance to the weightof an equal
it mean,
would
volume
of water at 4" centigrade.What
therefore,to say that the specific
gravityof 14-karat gold
cubic

is 14.88 ?

cubic centimeter

of distilled water

at 4"

tigrade
cen-

Since the specific


gravityof
weighs just 1 gm.
14-karat gold is 14.88, one
of goldweighs
cubic centimeter
14.88 gm., 2 cc. weighs 29.76 gm., etc. In short, the weight
of an objectin grams
equalsthe product of its volume in
centimeters times its specific
gravity.

CONSTRUCTION

OF

SIMILAR

TRIANGLES

341

EXERCISES

1. How

cubic

many

centimeters

of distilled water

(specific

with
400 cc. of alcohol
gravity equal to 1) must be mixed
gravityequal to 0.79)so that the specific
(specific
gravityof
mixture

the

Find

HINT.
the

to

shall be 0.9?
the

of the

weight

2. Would

How

cubic

many

with

be used

4. What
1

379.
to

be

should

of copper and

and

set

the

equal

sum

zinc.

gold on the
Explain your answer.

dition
con-

specific
gravityis 8.5.
centimeters
of copper (specific
gravity8.9)must
cc. of zinc (specific
gravity7.15)to make brass ?

is the

and

cm.

100

parts

cubic foot of

carry it to the bank

is made

Brass

3.

two

mixture.

accept half

you

that you

of the

weight

specific
gravityof

weight 32.7

steel

sphere of

radius

gm.

geometricexercises
article are
important. The student
them, and
try to
carefully,
prove

Proportionalityof

given in this
study them

Its

The

areas.

each.

illustrate

EXERCISES

1. Prove
as

the

that

the

areas

their

products of

of two

rectanglesare
ing
correspond-

to each

other

dimensions.

by #j
and

the

Denote

Proof.

their

and

is

tangles
rec-

'

shown.

Rl

albl.

Why?

Rz

a2b2.

Why?

2LI.
a A

Why?

5l

R2
It

as

the

Fig. 249,

in

7?2,as

dimensions

Therefore

of

areas

important to
dividingthe members

note

FIG.

that

of the

the
first

249

proportion is obtained by
equation by those of the second.
last

842

GENERAL
2. If two

to each

rectangles(Fig.250)

other

3. If

their altitudes.

as

to each

they are

of

other

as

have

equal bases,they are

(Followthe

rectangleshave

two

The

MATHEMATICS

method

of Ex.

1.)

tudes,
equal altitheir bases.

rectangleis 48 sq. ft.


is the area
and the base is 11 yd. What
of
altitude and
a
rectanglehaving the same
base equal to 27.5 yd. ?
a
4.

area

that the

5. .Prove
are

to each

their bases and

The

6.

each

other

of

the

as

7. The

as

The

each other

their

trianglesare
products of their

altitudes.

are

to each

other

as

their bases.

two

other

as

their bases.

triangleshaving equal bases

and

tudes
equal alti-

angle,
of Ex. 9: a righttrifollowingby means
isosceles triangle,
each equal
an
an
obtuse-angledtriangle,
given triangle.

*10.

and

equal.

are

to

bases

parallelogramshaving equal bases are


of two parallelograms
altitudes ; the areas

to each

are

that

Prove

to

triangleshaving equal bases are to


of two triangles
altitudes ; the areas
having

their

equal altitudes
9.

of

areas
as

products of

two

having equal altitudes


8.

the

of two

areas

to each other

as

grams
parallelo-

altitudes.

areas

other

of two

areas

Construct

the

SUMMARY

lowing
chapter has taught the meaning of the folsimilar
and
words
phrases: similar triangles,
extremes, fulcrum, mean
polygons, proportion,means,
fourth proportional,
alloy,specific
gravity.
proportional,
380.

This

381.

Polygons that

382.

In

equal and

the

same

shape are

similar.

the correspondingangles are


triangles
correspondingsides are in proportion.

similar
the

have

CONSTRUCTION
383.

1.

Two

OF

similar

Making

SIMILAR

triangles
may

angles of

two

TRIANGLES
be constructed

equal

one

343

to

two.

by
angles of

the other.
2.
3.

Making
Making

ratio

the ratios of

correspondingsides equal.
the ratio of two
sides of one
equal to the
sides of the other, and the angles included
two
these sides equal.

of

between
384.

proportionexpresses

385.

convenient

that says the


the extremes.
If

386.

ad

be,

equalityof

ratios.

two

test of

product of

the

we

is the theorem
proportionality
the means
equals the product of

the

write

may

following four

:
proportions
a

387.
similar

method
388.

The

fact that

...

the ratios of

correspondingsides of
equal furnishes us with an algebraic

polygons are
of findingdistances.
Inaccessible

determined

by

distances

means

of

out

of

doors

often

may

be

proportion.

problems and mixture, alloy,and specificgravityproblems may be solved by equations which take
the form of proportions.
389.

Beam

the base of

triangle,
and the
the triangle
cut off is similar to the given triangle,
correspondingsides are in proportion.
390.

If

391.

followingimportant theorems
have been proved:
parallelograms

of two

the

line is drawn

to
parallel

The

1. The
as

areas

of two

product of

about

are
parallelograms

their bases and

altitudes.

to

the

each

area

other

344

GENERAL

2.

The

other

each

to

are

of

areas

their

as

altitudes,

having
and

altitudes

equal

the

of

areas

each

to

are

bases

equal

two

other

as

bases.

Three

392.

for

proved

If

393.

of

vertex

1.

3.

similar
of

areas

right

triangle

each

also

similar

of

side

Either

between

the

about
the

is

the

to

the

hypotenuse,

similar

given

triangles

triangle.

proportional

mean

were

from

drawn

two

the

to

is

perpendicular
segments

into

391

Art.

triangles.

perpendicular

divided

is

and

line

in

those

to

rectangles

right angle

triangle

The
two

the

the

are

2.

theorems

in

The

which

the

parallelograms

two

having

parallelograms
their

MATHEMATICS

between

hypotenuse.
the

right angle

whole

hypotenuse

is

mean

and

tional
propor-

the

adjacent

segment.
The

394.
1.

How

2.

How

following
to
to

constructions

construct

construct

parallelogram,
3.

How

to

triangle equal

4.

How

to

construct

5.

How

to

divide

have

given

ratio.

given
a

taught:

equal

square

to

given

tangle,
rec-

triangle.

or

construct
to

been

proportional.

mean

have

line

right

triangle

scalene

fourth

or

an

isosceles

triangle.
proportional.

segment

into

two

parts

which

34l"

In

GEXE11AL

form

another

MATHEMATICS

of

graphic work, scale drawings have


helped us to understand the meaning of functions,equations,
and
In addition to the foregoing,
formulas.
scale
drawings are probablyfamiliar to the student in the form
of shop drawings,geography maps,
blue prints,
in
maps
railroad guides,and architects' plans.
The shop drawing in Fig.251 illustrates a use
of a scale
detail.
drawing,which we shall now
study in some
The figureshows that a scale drawing givesus an accurate
pictureof the real objectby presentingall the parts
in the same
order of arrangement and showing the relative
of proportional
sizes graphically
line segments.
by means
of similarity,
and
Obviouslythis fact rests on the principle
the ratio between
any two line segments in the plan equals
the lengths of the two
the ratio between
corresponding
table (Fig.252).
parts of the library
of the scale drawing we
able to determine
are
By means
of parts of the table even
the dimensions
though
they are not given on the plan. In fact, in the case of
scale drawings we
architects' and surveyors'
able to
are
in the real objectare
lines which
inaccessible.
measure
which
This last procedure illustrates preciselythe use
of scale drawings in this chapter. In
want
to make
we
cases

many

shall want

we

to

distances

measure

that

not
can-

with steel tape or other surveying


directly
devices; for example, (1) the heightsof towers, buildings,
trees ; (2) the width of ponds,lakes,or rivers ; (3) the
or
lengthof boundary lines passingthrough houses, barns, or
be measured

other obstructions.
We

can

usuallydetermine
set forth in the

the method
1. Measure

objectso

that

enough
a

scale

such

distances

by following

followingoutline:
angles in the real
objectcan be made.

actual lines and

drawing of

the

TRIGONOMETRY
2. Draw

347

the

on
figureto scale,preferably
squared paper.
3. Measure
carefullywith the compasses and squared
ible
paper the lines in the figurewhich represent the inaccesslines of the actual objectthat is being considered.

FIG.

252.

THE

(Courtesyof
the

4. Translate

used

units

in

LIBRARY

FINISHED
Industrial

Arts

Magazine)

obtained

measurements

measuring the

TABLE

lines of the

(3) into the


actual figure.
in

EXERCISES

1. A

He

from

starts

east, then
home

walks

man

his home

around

his home

from

at

0.35 mi. south.

0.95 mi.

A, walks
How

far

from

swamp

(Fig.253).

north,then
B

1.2 mi.

i2ml

is he ?

Solution.

drawing
shown

Let 2

cm.

represent1

mi.

Make

squared paper of the distances as


Fig.253. Then on the squared paper

on

in

side of every
(Why ?) The

small square

represents0.1

mi.

of miles

requireddistance is the number


representedby the segment A D, which

is 13.9

small

units

long. Hence

AD

represents 1.39 mi.

Why?

348
2.

Show

how

followed

are

3.

to

4.

132

in the

startingat

man

yd.

walks

man

north.

Two

6.

8.

from

far

of

a
"

plate

"

Find

it would

of the

from
the

is

desk

your

top

the scale 1

cm.

whose

square

find

and
=

side

the length of

the

ft.)
is 90 ft.

throw

from

ABC
try
coun-

onally
diagA

3'3

to

mi"

FlG-

road.

is said to have

520

south, then

they ?

are

rises 6 ft. in 100

roadbed

12 mi.

15 mi.

much

be to walk

roadbed

road

to scale

how

it is to follow

than
9.

out

walks

walks

base."

line

country

across

yd. east, and then


? (Use
starting-point

point. One

other

the

drawing,find

second

broken

The

road.

diamond

scale

to

154

the

same

(Fig.254) represents
nearer

from

the

apart

scale

baseball

means

yd.)

yd.)

start

to

10

plan of
diagonallyacross.
(Use

7. A

home

cm.

395

yd. north and then


the stopping-point

48

from

distance

far is he

How

Draw

walks

pointS

yd. south, then

9 mi. north

east.

distance

By

12

men

west, then
16 mi.

92

How

for every

cm.

5.

"

steps given in the outline of Art.


solution of the preceding problem.

the four

yd. east. Find the direct


the starting-point.
(Let 1

56

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

6% grade

which

when

the level
'

Draw
horizontally.

ft. measured

yd. long

254

has

6% grade.

triangularchicken lot are 20 ft.,16 ft.,


and
18 ft. respectively.
scale drawing of this lot on
Make
a
squared paper and estimate the area
by counting the small
and approximating the remaining area.
squares
10.

The

11.

In

will

sides of

map

drawn

to the scale of 1 to

represent the boundaries

40 mi.

long

hundredth

and

of

an

20 mi.

inch.

wide ?

of

Give

200,000 what lengths

rectangular-shaped
county
the

answer

to the nearest

TRIGONOMETRY
A

12.
at A B

to

Find

the

angle

at

NOTE.

stone

is 70"

means

surveyor'schain
measured

by

used

FIG.

256.

by

and

distance

The

by

are

wishes to

represented in Fig.255.

tree A

railroad surveyor

the

if BC

and

of

steel

tape (Fig. 256)

(Fig. 257).
of

means

surveyors

STEEL

13.

transit

FIG.

Lake

the

and

determine
15.

In

ured
meas-

at

or

is

(Fig.43). Chainingpins (Fig.258)


the

end-pointsof

the

SURVEYOR'S

shore.

steel

report to class

Fig. 259,

Michigan.

lake

angle

257.

If available examine

In

are

chain

FIG.

CHAIN

by surveyors
14.

AC

The

to mark

yd.

if the
swamp
100 yd.-

BC

across

measures

lines

TAPE
*

He

the swamp
the distance from

measure

finds it to be 110

across

and

349

is represented. Find

ING
CHAINPINS

tape,chain,and the pinsused


the length,graduations,
etc.

represents a water-pumping station in


and B represent two Chicago buildingson

the distance
a

258.

tape.

Reproduce

Fig. 260"

on

or

of S

the
from

swimming
A B

by

means

to

measurements

each of the two


AB

course

of

across

scale

scale and

buildings.
a

small lake

drawing.

350

GENERAL

BC

triangularlot has these


30 yd. Make
a
yd.; A C

16.

40

"

dimensions:

and

of

area

triangleA

its

determine
=

20

yd.;

drawing of the lot on


(Sincethe formula for

area.

calls for

"

.4.6

scale

squared paper
the

MATHEMATICS

the
altitude,

an

student

will draw
*17.

from

one

In

order

to

stations A

to BC

measure

and

long (1 chain
followingangles

chains
The

50";

scale and

to

66

Z.BCD=

*18.

Two

Z.CDA

find

then

the

distance

in Lake

Michigan
then

intersect

streets

from
at

along

angle

an

the

Draw

132"

figure

in feet.

to B

ing
pump-

the shore.

Z. A CD

125".

two

base line C/"=18.8

measured:

46"; ZCZ""

distance

the

between

measured

ft.)was

were

apply the formula.)

and

of

80".

The

corner

frontagesof 200 ft. and 230 ft. on the two streets,and


the remaining two boundary lines of the lot are perpendicular
is the length of these two
What
to the two
streets.
boundary
lot has

lines ?

Construct

HINT.
draw

diagonal

altitudes

two

*19.

transit is
is found
the

Line
The

AB

396.

The

the

to

compasses.

triangles and

two

construct

Then
their

16, above.

surveying wishes
stack
height of a smokein Fig. 261.
The
and

62":

be

is 48 ft.

long
on

the

then

is found

angle x

perpendicularswith
form

Ex-

placedat B,

transit rests

of the

were

in

two
to

as

in

shown

as

and

so

of the lot ?

area

the

as

class

to determine

ij

is the

What

to

and

angle
at

A,

l"e 32".

is measured

tripod 3^ ft.

along level ground.


high. Find the height

chimney.
Angle
measured

angleKAH

of

elevation.
in
in

Ex.

19

Fig.262

angle of .elevation. To.

The
are

angles x and
called angles of

shows

find .the

what

angle

is meant
of

which

elevation.

by

an

elevation, the

TRIGONOMETRY
transit

is

of

transit

the

placed

smokestack.

at

is first

The

in

Fig.262. The telescope


toward
pointed horizontally
the
as

farther end

is then
^

raised until

the top of the chimney


is in the line of sight.The angle

through

KAH,

is the

turns,

which

the

telescopeA

angle of elevation of

"0JLtal
\{
Une

K
FIG.

the

A,

irom

pouit

262.

observation.

or

ANGLE

OK

ELEVATION

EXERCISES

By

of

means

solve

the

the

82 ft. long on

protractor

is 20"

sun

level ground. Find

the

building
heightof

building.

2.

Find

3.

the

angle
ft. high casts

spire80
A

roof

4.

the

An

4 ft. above

light to
the

the

be

What

plane
a

shadow

120

ft.

when

sun

church

long.
What

angle does

certain steamer

observer

on

finds

water

6". What

is the

is known

the

shore

the

angle

to

whose
of

be 30 ft. above
instrument

elevation

from

the

slopemake

with

distance

is
this

of

observer

to

steamer

5.

of the

with the horizontal ?

lighton

water.

of elevation

in. per horizontal foot.

slopes1

the roof make

of

and

the angle of elevation of the

shadow

drawings, compasses,

following exercises

1. When
casts

scale

angle

does

if it rises 150

mountain

ft. in

horizontal

distance

of

horizontal
one

tenth

mile ?

captiveballoon is 620 ft. long. Assuming


how
the cable to be straight,
high is the balloon when^all
the cable is out if,owing to the wind, the cable makes an angle
of 20" with the level ground (thatis,the angle of elevation
6.

is

The

20")?

cable of

352

GENERAL

On

flagpole.At a pointA on
the buildingthe angle of elevation of
level grour/470 ft. from
the top of the^lagpoleis 42". At the same
point,A, the angle
of elevation of the top of the buildingis 32". Find the height
of the flagpole.
How
high is the building?
7.

the

top

of

MATHEMATICS

building is

Angle of depression. A

telescopeat M in the top


of a lighthouse(Fig.263) is pointed horizontally
(zero
reading),and then the farther end is lowered (depressed)
until the telescope
pointsto a boat at B. The angleHMB,
throughwhich the telescopeturns, is the angleof depression
In Fig.26 3,Z HMB
^MBC.
of the boat from the pointM.
Why is this true ?
397.

EXERCISES

If

1.

the

water, and

above

from

the

the

angle

lighthouse (Fig.263)
of

is the

40", what

is

M.

of

height

depression of

be

to

if R C

known

boat

passes

tower

which

on

beam
the

horizontal

Find

horizontal line

is

level.
220 ft.above
sea
searchlight
the
the
angle through which
be depressed from
of lightmust

is

seen

40ft.?
A

2.

from

boat

boat,as

ft.

distance
H

of the

."

the

is 220

,i

the

directlyon

boat

",

it may

that

so

when

B
FlG-

263-

ANGLE

OF

DEPRESSION

"

shine

it is 300

ft. from

the

base

of

the tower.
3.

far is the

How

boat

the base

from

of

the tower

if the

is 51" ? 30
? Xote that the height of the
depression"
lighthouseis known, and that the distance of a boat out at sea
depends on the size of the angle; that is, the distance is a
function
of the angle. In other words, the lighthouse keeper

angle

needs

"

of

only

distance

of

to know
a

boat

the
at

sea.

angle of depressionto

determine

the

354

GENEKAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

2. WTith

ruler and

the

bearingsof

the

Read

1.

lines in

arrow

protractordraw

Fig. 265.

lines

having the

lowing
fol-

bearings:
(a) 26"
(b) 39"
(c) 40"

(d) 37^"west of south.


(e) 33" west of north.
(f) 3" east of south.

east of south.
of north.

east

of north.

west

in abbreviated

3. Write
N

the

form

bearingsof

the lines in Ex. 2.

,V

*f
V

W-

-E

"

W-

"

"

W-"-

"-E

s
FIG.

399.

from

(Fig.266)
with

of

Bearing

reference

to

W-

-h^--

265

bearing of

point

bearingof the line


north-south line through 0.
is the

point 0

point. The

W"^-

the

OB

EXERCISES

ing
Fig. 266 read the bear-

In

1.

of
from

(a)A
(b)0
(c)B
2.

and

from

A.

from

O.

Point

9.8 mi.

(d) 0
(e) C
(f) 0

O.

does

north

AB

north-south
What
from
3.

the

A?

of A

Sketch

and show

from

O.

from

C.

east

of B.
A to B.

make

line

is

B.

is 6.4 mi.

the distance from

angle

from

Find

What

with

the

through B?
bearing of B
from

B?

the

figurefor Ex. 2
why the anglesappearingas

results for Ex. 2

are

equal.

TRIGONOMETRY

355

The

bearing of a fort B from A, both on the seacoast,is


N. 55" W.
An enemy's vessel at anchor off the coast is observed
from
A to bear northwest; from
B, northeast. The forts are
4.

known

to

8 mi.

be

apart.

Find

the distance

from

each

fort to

the vessel.
400.

The

limitations

of scale

drawings.

By

this time

the

student

probablyappreciatesthe fact that a scale drawing


has its limitations. He would
probablynot agree to buy
lot whose
down-town
altitude and area
had
a
triangular
been determined
by a scale drawing. If a millimeter on
the squared paper
represents 0.1 of a mile, a slightslip
of the pencilor compasses
disaster to accuracy.
means
Scale drawing is used extensively
by the surveyor and
mating
engineerin the followingways: (1) as a method of estiprobable results; (2) as a help to clear thinking
about the relations of lines and anglesinvolved in a geometric
drawing ; (3) as a valuable check on results obtained by
of fact we
need a
But as a matter
more
powerfulmethods.
lines and angleswhere
refined method
to determine
more
shall now
is desirable. We
a high degree of accuracy
ceed
proof determining
efficient method
to consider a far more
such lines and angles.Most students will find the method
because the solution is simpleand the results
fascinating,
the lines and angleswhich are
obtained are as accurate
as
measured.
directly
TRIGONOMETRY

401.

Similar

right triangles. A
the

student

method

of

righttriangleswill help
new

and

more

angles. This
drawings,is
for future

accurate

method

may

shorter in most

mathematical

few

be

work.

to

on

similar

understand

determining lines

the
and

independentof scale
and laysthe foundation

used

cases,

exercises

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

1. With

having

the

angle

an

Fig. 267.
2

protractor construct
37".

of

the lines a,

Measure

Find

represent1 unit.

cm.

ratios

"

"

and

right-angledtriangle

figure as

suggested

Let

c.

the value of the

result

your

of the class.

places.

Did

with

other

all members

bers
mem-

of the class

207

";.

the

use

length for the bases ? Are any


drawn
of the
triangles
necessarily

same

of the

two

the result obtained

why

in

l"

Compare

2.

the

b, and

decimal

to two

"

Letter

for

same

size ?

ratios

of their

Show

"

should

be the

number

same

the results of your


that

Prove

3.

triangleshave
of one

Could

which
HINT.
side

right

acute

angle

draw

you

two

right trianglewith

that in every

means

oppositea 37" angle is approximately"

5.

balloon
to the

Owing
makes

37"

(Fig.269) is

wind

the

This

angle drawn

by

triangleis

angle A =37"

"

as

Prove.

righttrianglethe

long as

the

hypotenuse.

How

to every

high

is the balloon

?
B

tri-

Prove.

1.

O.GO.

200

Solving,

in

by a cable 200 ft. long.


straightand
practically

is held

similar

the class in Ex.

Therefore

fastened

the horizontal.

angle with

Solution.

cable

sponding
corre-

proportions.
(Use Fig.268.)

equal approximately0.60,or

not

fact that

The

angleof the other,the

equal. Write

are

does

if two
acute

an

sides
4.

classmates.

an

equal to

as

90;
a

120

\37

ft.

b
Note

that

the

solution

(only two

equations) and

the

does

result

not

now

is

exceedingly simple

that

the

depend

accuracy

upon

the

FIG.

269

of
accuracy

of

Fig. 269.

TRIGONOMETRY
402.

Sine

sine of the

of

angle. The ratio

an

angleA.

definition

(Fig.270) is called the

The abbreviation for "sine" is"sin." This

be written

may

357

sin A

Thus,

"

"

c
'

sin 37"

"

would

we

O.GO

(approx.).Do

have obtained the

same

you

think

value

for

if in Ex.

had

we

made

the

angle 47" ?

FHJ.

C
270

EXERCISES

1. Find
HINT.
and

the sine of 20",usingthe definition


As

in

Ex.

find the

c, and

1, Art. 401,

value

of

decimal

to two

the

construct

given in

Art. 402.

measure
triangle,

places.

2.

Find

the

sine of each

2u", 32", 47", 68", 87".


of your

403.

the

of the

following angles : 10",15",


each

Compare

result

with

the results

classmates.

of

sine

The

precedingexercises show that


the angle changes with the angle; that is,
equal to sin 37". By takinga largesheet of
could get a fairly
and a very largeunit we
of sines.

Table

sin 68" is not

graphicpaper
good table, but it would
for every problem. Such
for

calculated

in

you

be
a

the

too

much

trouble

table has been


first column

very
of

do 'this

to

the

carefully
table

in

Art. 410.
EXERCISE

Turn
have

the

to

been

table in Art. 410

by comparing your

and

.see

results for Ex.

how

efficient yo\i

2, Art. 402, with

the table.

404.

Cosine

article will

of

an

introduce

another

exercises

given
ratio.
trigonometric

angle. The

in

this

358

MATHEMATICS

GEJSEKAh

INTRODUCTORY

Construct

1.

right-angledtrianglewith

43".

Fig. 270) equal to


decimal

-.to

two

the

other

of

b and

ratio

the results with

ought

to

(Fig.270) is called

Find

c.

angle .1 (see
the quotient
those

of

class.

the

all results

that

places.The

Measure

places. Compare

members

Show

2.

EXERCISES

to

agree

decimal

two

the cosine of the

angle A

(approx.).This
side

adjacent

"

for

abbreviation

The

to

"

cosine

means

that

in

the

angle

43"

"

is

cos."

an}-

Thus,

43"

cos

0.73

right-angledtrianglethe
as
-j7^-

is about

long

the

as

hypotenuse.
of

the cosine

3.

Find

4.

Compare

the

5",18", 25". 35", 47",65", 87".


3 with

results for Ex.

the

of cosines

table

in Art. 410.

405.

of

Tangent

an

important ratio connected

third

the tangent
Historically

occasion

learn

to

with

ratio

about

more

In

the results obtained

with

Show

2.

by

righttriangles.

first.

We

shall have

EXERCISES

other

all the results

that

it.

is the value

Fig.270, what

introduce

now

similar

came

INTRODUCTORY

1.

shall

angle. We

of

Compare

of the class.

members

obtained

result

your

for

in Ex.

1 should

b
agree.

The

ratio

is called the tangent of

of the tangent of 43"

angleA
The

is

abbreviation

for

mean

In

that the side

lengthof the side


tangent"is "tan." Thus, tan

y9^ (approx.)of
"

we

A.
angle.

the

ing
speak-

opposite
adjacent.
45"

1.

TRIGONOMETRY

359

EXERCISES

1. Find
2.

the

tangent

of

11",36",45", 57", 82".

the results of Ex.

Compare

1 with

the table of

tangents

in Art. 410.

406.
a

-"

-"

Trigonometric ratios. Solvinga triangle. The ratios


,

and

a
-

are

called

ratios. We
trigonometric

shall

now

that the use


of these ratios greatly
proceed to show
the solution of many problems involving
simplifies
indirect measurements.
By their use
be found if
can
any part of a righttriangle
parts (not both angles)besides the
any two
rightangle are given. This process is called
solvingthe triangle.
FIG.

407.

Summary

outline

helping him

will
to

The

of definitions.

be

found

convenient

remember

A=-

sm

side
"

side
=

"

"-

408.

"C-

Trigonometric ratios

adjacent
"

"

hypotenuse
side

opposite

side

adjacent

Fig.271):

opposite

"

i'

3. tan

in

lii/potennse

b
A

student

"

'2. cos

the

to

the definitions (see


a

1.

271

ing
follow-

clear

examples of

function

buildinga table
table of ratios given,it is easy to see
or
by a
that the value of the ratio changes as the angle changes:
ratio depends for its value upon
that is, a trigonometric
idea.

Either

by your
study of the

own

crude efforts

the

at

360

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

angle. Hence the ratios furnish us


idea. We
clear example of the function
refer to them
as
trigonometric
functions.

size of the

the

more

one

therefore

NOTE.

Trigonometric ratios
Papyrus (c.1700 B.C. ?),which,

HISTORICAL
the

in

Ahmes

may

itself be

time

of

other

some

collection

has

may

been

even

stated,

before

written

dealing with pyramids Ahmes


possiblycorrespond roughly to

In

Moses.

ratio that

one

of

copy

may

suggested

are
as

with

makes

the

cosine

our

of

use

and

tangent.
first to make

The

Hipparchus,

trigonometry was
studied

He

where
of

at

Alexandria,

he did his

The

Hindus

from

about

from

about

A.D.
A.D.

and

in the

Greek, who

later

He

principalwork.

within

to

year

noteworthyprogress

any

development

lived

about

retired to the island

of

able to calculate

was

150

of

n.r.

Rhodes,

the

length

six minutes.

contributed

the

500, and
800

to

to

the

earlydevelopment of the science,


Arabs
added
materiallyto their work

1000

A.D.

Miiller,1436-1476),a German,
Regiomontanus (or Johann
its direct astronomical
connection
and made
the subjectfrom
independent science.
In the sixteenth century the subjectdeveloped slowly,but

in the

seventeenth

to

it made

century

very

decided

advance, due

freed
it

an

the

later,and to the great improvelogarithms,mentioned


ment
made
of algebraicsymbolism which
it possibleto write trigonometric
in a simple manner.
in
formulas
the
form
Trigonometry
be said to have
been
it may
that we
know
fullydeveloped,except
the
seventeenth
in
in
for slightchanges
symbols,
century.

invention

409.

The

of

Table

student

of

should

become

now

the

followingpage.
approximate, but are

on

1" to 89".

trigonometricratios of angles from


The

familiar with

ratios

accurate

are

in most

enough

for

the
cases

all

table

only

ordinary

work.
410.

The

use

of

beginningon page
in the use
practice

362

trigonometry
are

intended

of the table.

table.
to

The

problems

furnish the student

362

GENEliAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

1. A

balloon

(Fig.272) is

anchored

the

to

ground

at

point.1 by a rope, making an angle of 57" with the ground.


under the balloon is 146 ft.
The point C on the ground directly
from A. Assuming the rope to be straight,
find
the height of the balloon.
Let

Solution.

Then

tangent of 57".

-"

balloon.

height of

146
But

by

table,Art. 410,

the

57"

tan

1.54.

-"-

Hence

1.51.

Fir

Solving for
NOTK.
results

a.

The

figure does

need

not

272

ft.
to

independentlyof

obtained

are

224.84

"

146/

be drawn
it. The

for
accurately,

our

is brief and

solution

of the angle 57", the accuracy


upon the accuracy
line A C, and the accuracy of the tangent table.

depends for its accuracy


of the lengthof the

angle of elevation of an aeroplaneat a pointA on


level ground is 53". The
point C on the ground directly
the height of
the aeroplane is 315 yd. from A. Find
under
the aeroplane.
2.

The

3.

The

length of

line of the

supposing the
4.

pole 20

area, and

ft. in

of elevation of the
HINT.

stringto

its shadow

be

straight.

in
vertically
is 16.78

horizontal

ft. Find

the

angle

sun.

the value

Find

kite

length stands

length of

the

string is 210yd. and the angle of


48".
Find
the height of the kite,

kite is

the

of

elevation

kite

of the tangent

-"

Then

look

in the

table

to

-"

b
not

see

what

It may

angle

has

be necessary

calculated

complete table

for minutes.

of

tangent corresponding to

for you
Ask

to

approximate, since

your

trigonometricratios.

instructor

to show

the

value

the
you

table
a

more

of
is

TRIGONOMETRY
A tree

5.

with

is broken

the ground

angle of
ground from
the length of

an

6.

edge
A

7.
to

55"

the

pool

and

ladder

has

upper

part makes

the

distance

the

and

subtended

by

and

At

the

point in

pole

against a
the

house

is 25".

reaches

and

the angle between

distance

the

foot

of

the

the house.
two

adjacentedges of your desk or of a


your study table. Find the angles that

diagonal makes with the edges (1) by drawing


figure and measuring the angle with a protractor
of the trigonometric
ratios.
; (2) by use
tread

The

its

pool.

the ground. Find

house

the

the surface.

of the

area

ft. from

table,say

9.

the

on

at
pole standing vertically

35 ft. long leans

Measure

8.

parts form

the to.pof the tree is 57 ft. Find

to

pool the angle

is from

ladder

and

ground,

its top is 50 ft. above

of the

ladder

the

its two

the tree.

point 19.6

with

the trunk

the radius

Find

circular

center, and
the

by the wind so that


right-angled
triangle.The

of

step on

certain

tangular
rec-

the

accurate

an

stairway

is 11 in. wide ; the step rises 8 in. above the next


lower step. Find the angleat which the stairway
of
(1)by means
figure; (2) by means

rises

protractorand
of

10. To find the distance


between
a

ratio.
trigonometric
across

pointsA and C, a
to A C.
perpendicular

two

line EC

accurate

an

lake

FIG.

273

(Fig.
273)

surveyor
He

measured

off 71 ft. on
^,Z"

Find A C.

then found ZC^"=53".

Washington Monument
far apart are
ft. high. How

11. The
is 555

observers

two
west

who

from

observe

of the monument

anglesof
HINT.

Fjo

Then

value

274

? (SeeFig.274.)
respectively

If.

its

elevation to be 20" and 38"


Find.

pointsdue

of A C

tan

20"

GENERAL

364
A

*12.

of the

of

summit

tree

Find

the

on

oppositebank

the

edge of the river


height of the tree and

the

FIG.

275

straighthorizontal road running


of the hill. The
angles of depressionare found
Find the height of the hill.
8" respectively.
on

Construct

HINT.

the

secutive
con-

milestones

13" and

the

are

two

the base

is

hill

(Fig.275) there
observed

that the

the

From

*13.

river observes

river.

of the

width

is 32".

elevation

angle of

of

top

of

retires 55 ft. from

he

56" ; when

bank

standing on the

man

of elevation

angle

MATHEMATICS

TC

from
to be

CMZ.

_L

Let

CMl

Then

x.

tan

77",

(Why?)

(1)

tan

82".

(Why?)

(2)

tan

82"

and
h

Subtracting(1) from
the

Consult

railroad

*14.

through

table

on

field

tan 77".

36, substitute,and

page

having

farmer's

(2),

hundred-foot

as

shown

in

for /;.

solve

right of

Fig. 276.

way

cuts

If the field is

rectangular and the measurements


made
as
ber
are
shown, find the numrods

of square

rightof

way

if the

land

an

and

is

the

occupied by the
assessed damage

appraised at

$200

acre.

FIG.

.15.
a

the

ship

has sailed

distance

of

startingpoint?

due

2.05 mi.
How

276

west
southHow

far is the

far is it west

of the

ship

south

of

startingpoint?

of

angle

the

summit
the

Sketch

*17.

mountain

depression of

from

boat

distant

of

the

ft. above

4260

is 41".

boat

mountain
solve

figure and

level the

sea

far is the

How

the

right-angledtriangle

when

ABC

the top of

From

16.

ft.

(a)

30", a

30

(b)
(c)
(d)

42",

60 ft.

64", f,

22

ft.

35", I

85

ft.

(f) a
(g) .1
(h) B

411.

trigonometric formula

can

be

shown

It

productof any
of the

the nine

that the

92.5",c

100

15.2",c

50

ft.

40",

80

ft.

82",

100

for the

of

area

area

of

ft.

ft.

triangle.

triangleequalshalf the

by
multiplied

sides

two

(e)

angle ; that is,

included

ab sin A

~2~
In

Solution.

the

construct

Fig. 277

CD.

altitude

Then

(the area)

But

sin A

(seethe

Substitutingthe

of

"sine").(2)
(3)

(1),

of 7t in

value

definition

(Why?)

h=bsinA.

Whence

(1)

(Why?)

y.

be sin A
i

_
"

"

EXERCISES

1. A

their

covers

the

angle

tries
*

to

of two
two

find

sides

sides.

the

area

that

the

and

and

the

streets
of the

area

that

With

corner.

the

between

Prove

2.

triangularlot

father's drug store

his

that

discovers

sides from

two

on

boy

of

sine of

and

lot.
a

it extends

completely

60 ft. and

80 ft.

field

protractorhe

finds

it to be 58".

He

then

result should

he

get ?

What

measures

equals the product


parallelogram
these
between
the angle included

366

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

SUMMARY

This

412.

and

words
steel tape,
of

has

chapter
angle

taught
scale

phrases :

of elevation,

line, bearing of

the

lowing
meaning of the foldrawing, surveyor'schain,
of

angle
of

point,sine

depression,bearing

angle, cosine of an
angle, tangent of an angle, trigonometric ratios or nometric
trigofunctions, solving a triangle.
a

Scale

413.

drawings

used

were

an

as

of

means

indirect

measurement.

414.
of

scale

angles, lines,
of the

mind
and

in

and

of the

the

it is not

useful
in

areas,

relation

checking

However,

is

drawing

parts that

brief

making

getting
of

accuracy

as

in

and

estimates

clear

make

picture
the

up

in

figure,

algebraic solution.

an

accurate

the

as

algebraic-

sol ution.
If

415.

equal

to

right triangleshave

two

sides

corresponding

of

are

1" to 89"

angles from

Trigonometric

417.

of

method

other, the

of

of

ratios

one

their

equal.
table of

and .correct
ratios

to

furnish

trigonometricratios

three
us

decimal

with

places.

powerful

solving triangles.

The

418.

of the

chapter contains

The

416.

angle

acute

an

angle

acute

an

of

area

trianglemay

be

expressed by

the

be sin A
,

,.

formula

T=

419.

The

two

sides and

two

sides.

"

"

area

the

of

sine

parallelogram equals
of the

angle

included

the

product

between

of

these

XV

CHAPTER
AND

THEORY

which

methods

the

graphic method
shown

; solution

LINEAR

SIMULTANEOUS
VERBAL

OF

by the

PROBLEMS

graphic

method.

desirable to
problems it is sometimes
This chapter aims
teach three
to
pupilmay apply to such problems. The

unknowns.

two

use

LISTS

unknowns

Two

solving verbal

In

OF

; CLASSIFIED

EQUATIONS
420.

APPLICATION

is

cussion
the dis-

in

of the

lowing
fol-

problem:
In

baseball

the

between

game

Chicago
-1-5-

Cubs

and

York

the

New

Giants, the
made

Cubs

hits

more

Giants.
hits

than

How

the

many

each

did

-10

four

team

make?
"x-

If

let

we

the

by

y the

the

the

graph

of the

made

condition
there

number

number

Fir.. 278

the Cubs

Obviously
the

of

number

expresses

that

sent
repre-

number

hits made
and

made

by

set

as

are

the

any

number

the

eqxiationx

other
?/ +

by

one

team.

4 in

the

equation x
in the problem.
of possiblecombinations

forth

of hits made

by

Giants, then

team

may

This

is

Fig. 278.

367*

be

four

more

clearlyshown

y +

such
than
in the

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

3b'S

EXERCISES

made

graph in Fig. 278 find the number


Giants, assuming that the Cubs made

of

the

From

1.

the

by

hits

6; 8;

10; 15; 20.

line will

the
on
point (withintegralcoordinates)
possiblecombination of hits such that x
y + 4.

that every

Show

2.

givea

definite

solution

involves

two

of the

hits made

of

number
both

by

given but

fact. Another

one

it

fact

problem

the

is that the total

that

convinced

is impossible,because

stated

as

have

we

doubt

no

been

have

in

included

is

student

problem
and

unknowns

should

which

the

this time

By

NOTE.

"

-20

teams

18.

was

If

the

write

we

tion
equa-

=18, expressing

fact,and study

'this second

-10

it

by

of the

means

Fig. 279, we
is

that there

see

than

more

that

such

number

total

of

hits

is 18.

made

3. Find

from

the

Fig.279

the

of hits made

by

in

ble
possi-

one

combination
the

graph,

line will give

because

we

have

separately.The
the two

if the Cubs

Giants

4 ; 6 ; 9 ; 12 ; 15.

made

the
on
point (with integralcoordinates)
18.
possiblesolution for the equationx + y
=

pair of

this

we

two

numbers

must

shown

not

been

unknowns

one

scale,as

the

have

We

XOTE.

279

FIG.

number

.that every

Show

4.

graph

been

able

consideringthe
equations

in the

which

will

different

This

means

satisfyboth

graph both equations on


in Fig. 280.

definite

facts about

two

express

ball game.

obtain

to

the

same

solution,

the ball game

relations
that

between

equations,and
sheet

find

must

we

to

the

to
same

do

'61it

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

is said to be solved

solution
unknowns

when

determined.

are

In

the correct
the

values

of the

graphic method

the

tion.
point of intersection furnish the soluof the graphic method
The followingis a summary
linear equations:
solvinga pair of simultaneous
of the

coordinates

of

1.

Graph

'2.

Find

loth

the

equationsto

point of

the

scale.

same

of the

intersection

two

Hnrs

obtained

in 1.
3. Estimate

the
possible

accuratelyas

as

x-raluc

the

find

y-valueof this point.


4. Check by substituting
in both equation*.
EXERCISES

1.

Solve

check

each

following systems by

the

graphic method

v2x

3y

23,

5y-3*

')

W-

3*

^5z-4*/

values

l.

423.

of Ex.

there

it to the exclusion
+

of the

in

points of

finding the
intersection

correct

in the

is

by

an

no

one

is satisfied

representedby

the

equation

singleequation in

infinite

pairof

each
=

4.

equation.

by

as

Such

example, the

tion
equa-

pairs of values
point on the graph

many

distinct
an

two

(unlimited)number
values which
satisfy

of all the others ; for

are

in determinate

have

you

equations. A

is satisfied

of values, but

'

1 ?

Indeterminate

unknowns

3x=13,

5y-6x=-S.

for the coordinates

problems

difficulties did

What

2.

19,

2y

2^=27,

and

y=s7'

M*

the

equation

is called

as

of
an

LINEAR

SIMULTANEOUS

371

EQUATIONS

EXERCISES

Find

1.

three

solutions

of the

for each

minate
following indeter-

equations:
7.

(c) y
(d) 2

6.

(a) x
(b)m

424.

Contradictoryequations.

3n

5.

"

4 ?/

(e) 5

"

(f) 3z

3.

2.

4 "/ -1=

0.

happensthat

It sometimes

though we have two equationsin tyvo unknowns, it


is still impossible
to obtain a distinct or a unique solution,
is shown
as
by the followingexample:
even

Find

numbers

two

such

is 12 arid such

that their difference

that twice the firstdiminished

by

twice the second

is equalto 14.

-20

"Z
-1-0

20-

281.

FIG.

If

we

let

THE

GRAPH

denote

OF

one

PAIR

CONTRADICTORY

OF

number

and

y the

first condition,
x

From

the second

condition,

study the
graphs of (1) and (2)
axes
(Fig.281).
In

order

to

'2.c

problem
with

'2
"

"

other, then

from

the

12.

(1)

14.

(2)

fxirther

reference

EQUATIONS

to

will

we

the

same

construct

the

coordinate

372

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

What

1.

the

relation
in

graph
Are

2.

of the

of

system

the

the

equations which
the

which

numbers

two

problem given on

between

relation

between

lines of

two

there,then, any

conditions

Fig.281

exist

to

seems

will

preceding page

contradictory

expresses

unknowns

satisfythe

called

is

system of

or
inconsistent,
contradictory,
equations.The graph consists
of two
(at least)parallellines. The definition suggests

that

in

not

verbal

problem

of the

one

given

conditions

is

true.

425.

equations. A type of problem which

Identical

unique solution but admits


by the followingproblem:
Divide
first

pole 10

part increased

If

let

we

of the

and

problem

ft.

long into

by

3 times

two

the

that

parts so

3 times

and

3 y

the

part is equal to 30.

second

the

no

solutions is illustrated

length of the two parts,the


representedby the equations

?/ denote

are

of many

has

conditions

10,

(l)

30.

(2)

EXERCISES

1.

the

Graph

scale.

same

2.

the

the

Divide
result

the

with

10
equations x + y
Interpretthe graph.

equation 3sc + 3?/


the equation x -\-y

Equations like (1)


same

relation

and

between

and

30

by

3 y

and

30

to

compare

10.

which

(2), above,

the unknowns,

the

called identical,

are

or
dependent,
equivalent
equations.Like
equation,they have an infinite number

express

an

indeterminate

of solutions

but

LINEAR

SIMULTANEOUS
distinct

no

problem
426.

to

two

expressedin

been

has

graphs coincide.
identical equations,one

Their

solution.

leads

Outline

different

two

that

seen

unknowns

may

be

1. Determinant

and

have

in two

intersect.)
and have
2. Contradictory
are

If

condition

their

distinct solution.

equations
(Tlie lines
{The

distinct solution.

no

of

number

linear system of

verbal

ways.

systems of equations and

have

We

solutions.

of

373

EQUATIONS

lines

parallel.}
3. Identical and

lines

have

number
infinite

an

of solutions. ( The

coincident.}

are

EXERCISES

the followingsystems according to


Classify

1.

outline

by drawing graphs

of each

system

the

preceding

Could

2.

without

427.
two

8 y
you

; 2

10.

have

graphing

them

classified the
?

Algebraic methods

four

3 y

3.
in

systems

Ex.

Explain.
of

solving systems of equations in

It is often difficult (sometimesimpossible)

unknowns.

judge the exact values in a graphicsolution. The graphic


method
helps us to see what is meant by a solution,but
and concise a method
the
exact
i,tis not, in general,
as
as
methods
which we
shall now
illustrate.
algebraic

to

428.

of

graphs it

in two
process

To

Elimination.

solve

will be necessary

unknowns

to

one

to

system without
reduce

equation in

is called elimination.

one

the two

the

use

equations

unknown.

This

MATHEMATICS

GENEKAL

374
429.

Elimination

problemswhich
by addition or

by addition

follow

illustrate the method

Multiplying (1) by
in both
numerically the same
Solution.

Adding,

Solving for

for

.c

in

Solve

3 y

4 +

6.

2.

4 + 2

6,

8-6

2.

Multiplying (1) by 2 and


coefficients of x numericallyequal,

t;.,

Substituting"1

8 y

for // in

(1),3

23 y

+
3

"

"

(2)

7.

-f 15 y

Why

(1)

(2) by

addition.

l,

Solution.

Subtracting,

coefficients of

("j)
(4)

by

-f 5 y

a-

the

3;r-4y

make

18

elimination

(1)

=20

(1),

is called

to

as

so

y,

method

6,

or

Check.

This

of elimination

equations,
+

2ar-3y

Substituting4

two

subtraction.

Solve

//

The

subtraction.

or

-21

so

as

to

make

the

(3)
(4)

23

4 =1.
a:

=-3.

a
Hefeee

and

This method

-c

="

is called elimination

1.
"

"

1,
1.

by subtraction. Why ?

SIMULTANEOUS
430.

simultaneous

two

by the

unknowns
as

of elimination

Outline

solve

To

follows

LINEAR

by addition

subtraction.

or

linear

equationsinvolvingtwo
addition or subtraction,proceed

of

method

375

EQUATIONS

Multiply,if necessary, the members of the firstand


second equations
by such numbers as irillmake the coefficient
the same
in both equations.
of one of the unknowns numerically
have the same
2. If the coefficients
signs,subtract one
from the other; if they have opposite
signs,add
equation
This eliminates one
unknown.
the equations.
3. Solve the equation
resulting
from step2 for the unknown
1.

it contains.

which

4. Substitute the value

of the
either equationcontainingboth

unknown

found

unknowns

and

in step 3 in
solve

for

the

unknown.

second

5. Check

the solution

the
equations

in
by substituting
found.

values

both

of

the

given

EXERCISES

Solve
addition
3

'

check

and

followingsystems by

the

subtraction

or

+ 2 y

ox

3 '//
=

"

"

14,

2z

3y=8.

4z-3?/

-l,

!'

2a; +

4//=10.

7a- +

9y=-lo,

5ar-9y

2y=16:

"

-21.

2i/

o.

+
=

8.
=

"

in '"

$(,.+11,--

35.

3x

'

?/

0.

11.

"

"j

23,

3y

:--2y

llx-7y=-6,

+ y

// =

2ar +

'

''

"

5*

of

''

"

method

7,

"

the

28.

10

54

376

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

GEOMETRIC

EXERCISES

heightof

combined

ALGEBRAIC

FOR

SOLUTION

flagpoleis 110 ft. ;


is 70 ft. more
than the length of the
the height of the tower
flagpole.Find the height of the tower and the length of
the flagpole.
13.

The

14.

rectangularfield

The

15.

is

length

perimeter of
10 yd. more
What

the width.

(Use

Find

difference is 70".

Find

ri)"and

and

their difference is 30".

and

the

43".

of the

angles

difference

angles

acute

Find

the

of

acute

of the

picture.

all of the

y, and
side

same

"

of

angles.

transversal

y)"and (x + y)". Their

are
parallelogram
\

Find

represented

m,

n,

parallelogram.
between

the

right triangleis
angles.

1
picture frame
(Fig.283) has an area of
is 4 in. longer than
frame
21.

282

y.

+ 4
i-g-

The

FIG.

and

and

by

20.

60"

by

cut

are

/o

(2m

the

diameter.

adjacentangles of

Two

19.

and

circle

angles on the
parallellines are (5 x

cutting two

yd.

interior

The

18.

of the field.

-2y2
d.~)

Fig. 282.

in

shown

the

The

forming eight angles,

transversal

as

the dimensions

75 ft. Find

lines
parallel

Two

17.
a

formula

the

it is wide.

twice

than

of

by

and

the circumference

Find

its dimensions

are

the diameter

exceeds

longerthan

football field is 320

circumference

The

16.

is 25 rd.

the field is 130 rd.

of
perimeter

and

tower

in.
44

2g3

wide
sq. in.

it is wide.

The

pictureinside

Find

the

the

dimensions

378

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

Solve

the

3ff +

46

followingproblems by
ll,

the method

-2ar-5?/?

'

3m

17,

'

oa-b
7s

3.

3y

l,

"llz-5y

2n

130,

'

3x

2"";

2*

3y

2.

"'3z-5y

21.

of substitution:

8,

42.

30.

y_
'

*'

9* +

7"-=-12,

7ar-3y=8,

//
_

8"

15*-2r=21

2y

l34.

NUMBER-RELATION*

check
9.

followingproblems by the
by one of the other methods

Find

two

Find

two

numbers

PROBLEMS

Solve the
and

whose

method

substitution,

is 150 and

sum

of

whose

difference

is 10.
10.

to twice

is added

one

Find

11.

times

the other

the

such

numbers

two

difference is 15 such

whose

The

12.

quotientof

two

8 times

3 times

equals 100, and


equals 87.

the

the first

is 2 and

numbers

that when

is 295.

sum

that

the second

the second

Find

numbers

first

plus

plus 7

their

times

is 54.

sum

the numbers.

13.

The

value of

numerator

and

fraction is

^.

The

certain

the

7 to the denominator,
Find

is 4-. If 2 is added

fraction

value

of the

to the

resulting

the fraction.

of the two

is 8.
two-placenumber
If 18 be subtracted
from
the number, the resultingnumber
order.
will be expressedby the original
Find
digitsin reverse
14.

sum

digitsin

the number.
Solution.

in tens'

Let

represent the digitin units' place and

place.
represents the originalnumber.

Then

10 t +

From

the first condition,

t +

8.

the

digit

LINEAR

SIMULTANEOUS
From

second

the

condition,
10 1 +

Simplifying (2),
Solving (1) and

for

the

Therefore

units'

the

If

If the

has

of

2.

2 t

10.

5.

3.

(2)

t.

(3)

54

is three

two-placenumber

be

subtracted

expressedby

the

from
the

times

number, the

digitsin

the

reverse

be
49.

by
the

fourth

one

of

the units' digit,

number.

of methods

Summary

the

of

divided
Find

ference
by 13, and this difdigits,the quotient is 5.

be decreased

number

433.

the number.

quotientis

the

10

"

two-digitnumber
divided
by the sum

16.

is 53.

number

Find

order.

If

18

(1),

digitof

digit.

difference is

in

number

tens'

The

15.

(3),

Substituting5

379

EQUATIONS

This

of elimination.
of

taught the followingthree methods


simultaneous
linear equations
:

chapter

solvinga system

1. The
2.
3.

graphicmethod.
Elimination
by addition or subtraction.
Elimination
by substitution.
EXERCISES

Some
method

of your

classmates

may

called elimination

algebraand

by comparison.
classmates

report to your

1. A

followingproblemsby
has

grocer

pound

and

of the

30-cent

another

coffee to make

two

worth

coffee must
a

mixture

Turn

to

fourth

standard

this method.

on

PROBLEMS

MIXTURE

Solve the

be interested to learn

kinds

of

any

method

coffee,one

worth

200 per pound. How


be mixed

worth

240

with
per

many

300 per

pounds

12 Ib. of the 20-cent

pound?

380
A

2.

makes

grocer

nuts

to sell at 28

nuts

must

milk

How

4.

butter

butter

fat ?
"What

5.

milk

much

25.5%

of the

much

protein and 100 g.


proteinand 12.4% fat.

1.3%

Find

requiredto

are

in

fat.

Let

HINT.
and

mutton

furnish

and

bread

and

If
up

8.

of

22%

test

the

or

The

one

out

diet

table

protein and
daily diet.

and

pure
pure

adult

test

20%

85%

pure

be added

oz.

contains

that 10

so

oz.

requiresabout

75 g.

Mutton

(leg)contains 19.8%
(average)contains 9.2% protein
each

grains

of bread
of

requiredamount
day.

represent the number

of

and

mutton

proteinand

fat

required of

grains

0.198

0.092

75,

(1)

0.121

0.013

100.

(2)

equations (1) and

y turns

standard

the

gal.that

15

of copper
an

testing

cream

respectively.

Then

Solve

fat.

many

for

for

Bread

how

ration

standard

of

fat and

gold 80%

^ oz.

dailydiet

standard

of

and

gal.that

gold 75%

silver must

contain

alloymay

new

The

7.

testing

cream

silver weighing 50

and

copper

How

of

oz.

make

to

of

ounces

give 10

to

of copper.

be mixed

of

numl)er

alloy of

An

oz.

30

butter

testing3.7%

fat must

be mixed

G.

to make

mixed

be

of

grade

fat and

butter

32-cent

each

60 Ib. of the mixture

testing5%

fat must

and

nuts

fat ?

butter

must

make

20-cent

quantitiesof

What

pound.

of

mixture

to

much

butter

25%

"

he take

How

3.

-MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

(2) simultaneously.
know

negative,we

out

of the two

on

the

foods

following

fats in the

various

that it is not

possibleto

make

mentioned.

page
foods

gives
often

the
used

amounts

in

the

SIMULTANEOUS

Find

three

standard
each

pairs of

(a)

434.

Mutton

and

and

Bread

and

the number

rice.

of grams

make

required of

(f)

Bread

and

rice.

(g)

Beans

and

cabbage.
cabbage.

(h)

Bread

and

beans.

(i )
(j)

Beef

and

bread.

Beef

and

rice.

Pork

and

eggs.
bread.

Pork

and

beans.

Systems
list of

student

will

that

following list :

(b) Eggs
(c)
(d)
(e)

381

EQUATIONS

combinations

food

determine

diet and

in the

LINEAR

of equations

containingfractions.

problems offers

merely needs

no

to remember

difficulties.

new

to

The

remove

lowing
folThe

the fractions

equationby multiplyingthrough by the L.C.M. of


denominators
in each, thus reducingeach equation to
standard form
efficient
a
ax
+ by
c, where
represents the co-

in each

the
the

of

x,

b the coefficient of y, and

the constant

term.

:6'

3
x

"

The

first

equation may

12

(1)
(2)

be written

(3)
or

Similarly,
(2) reduces

to

+
"

y=i:
y

\^

Why?

382

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

Reduce

435.

the standard

to

Linear

form,

of

systems

and

solve

the

type

-+-

work

c\

y
.

problems of Art. 434 we have seen the


of reducingeach of the equationsin a system
advisability
form
the standard
to
by eliminatingthe fractions and
similar terms.
There
ever,
are
some
collecting
problems,howin which
it is advisable to solve without
eliminating
the fractions.
An
example will illustrate what is meant.
problems.

Two

and

In

pipes can

the second

second

the

runs

Solution.

2
Let

fill ^
3

runs

cistern if the

fill

can

of the

the number

to

2 hr.

runs

the

3 hr. and

cistern.

of hours

pipe alone

first

first runs

if the

hr.,but

hr.,they
x

of

it will take

fill the

the

first

cistern,

and

the

number

second
Then

the

of; hours

pipe alone

part of the

to

cistern

it

will

fill the

the

take

the

cistern.

first

pipe can

fillin 1 hr.
and

the

y
can

part of the
fill in

cistern

llir.

the

second

pipe

SIMULTANEOUS

From

the

first condition.

;
From

383

EQUATIONS

LINEAR

the second

r^r

(1)

7!
lo

(2)

condition,
+

Multiplying(1) by

(2) by 2,

3 and
6

27
_

and

27
=

that

this

is

linear

Solving,

like the

quits,B

and

can

tank

and

the other

and

the other

alone

(5)

"

in

one

unknown.)

G,
5.

called

work

problems.

PROBLEMS

fence in 4 da.

work

finish the

each do the work


2.

build

can

28
"

preceding are
WORK

1. A

equation

Problems

(4)

"

15

Subtracting,
(Note

in 3 da.

In

If A

works

6 da. and

how

many

days

can

be filled

3 hr.
pipes one of which runs
two
7 hr.,or by the same
pipes if one runs 5 hr.
6 hr. How
long will it take each pipe alone to

can

by

two

fill the tank ?

apprenticereceive $4.40 for a job of


work.
The
5 hr. and
mechanic
works
the apprentice 8 hr.
rate per hour, the
Working at another time, and at the same
works
mechanic
10 hr. and
the apprentice 11 hr., and they
3.

receive

mechanic

and

"7.30. What

an

are

the

wages

per

hour

for

each?

384

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

4.

check

and
fractions,
1

47_15

7; "

"

//i

26

11

19

i.

'M

(y

i/

'J-i-i
x

"

of the

_5

H
*

getting rid

Solve the following problems without

15

,
'

'

436.

13_3

"

list of

Review

The

following
chapters.In actual
by using either one

verbal

problems.

problemsreview types studied in earlier


practicemany problems may be solved
In generalit is advisable
unknowns.
two
or
but

it is easier to translate

sometimes

algebraic
languageif two
of
member
helpfulif some

into

unknowns

be

the

are

use

the

problem

used.

class will show

known,
un-

one

It will
the two

in contrast.

methods

PROBLEMS

MOTION

1. A

to

can

crew

upstream

row

and

the rate

Let

Solution.

and

Then, if

we

express

Find

30 min.

in 1 hr. and

of the current

in 40 min.

8 mi. downstream

of the

the rate

in miles

the rate

of the

the

of the current.

x-y

in miles

rates

per hour

in still water,

="

the

12 mi.

in still water.

crew

rate

and

crew

per

hour,

(2)

S.

(TO

Adding,
Hence
and

20.

10, the

2, the

rate
rate

of the
of the

crew

current.

in still water,

386

GENERAL

weights balance

Two

6.

the

10 in. from

"

inT^em

the

3 in.

the s"soml.

from

subtracted

iron

An

6 ft.

bar

pounds
when

is increased

weight

fulcrum, the
in each

balance

weight.

Find

the

other

the

is maintained

the fulcrum

nearer

by

is maintained.

balance

is 12 in. and

one

The

fulcrum.

weight isriKived

8.

of

weights balance

--3"Two

first

the

the other

is 14 in. and

one

If the

fulcrum.

the number

Find

first

when

placed 10 in. from

2 Ib. and

is 10

MATHEMATICS

if the
if 3 Ib. is

and

weights.
Ib. is used

loug^^^ighing 20

by

two

Ib. How
boys, one at each end, to carry a Io9ji-oi^oO
many
pounds must each boy carry if the load hangs~2~ttr-feaio_the
rightend ? (Considerthe weight of the entire bar as hanging
of the bar.)
at the middle
9. A

weighing 250 Ib.


the running gears
supportedby each

The

bridge supports
the two
11.

the

in

30-foot

loads

two

front

axle of

axle. Find

rear

the load

700

3600

bridge weighs
Ib. at 3 ft. from

the other end.

Three

have to carry

men

of the

placedcrosswise

beneath

end

rear

in order

Find

that each

answered,

man
"

the

Where

RECREATION

If to the
the age

being
sum

oak beam

one

loads

third

The

Ib.

end, and
borne

by

Find

of

iron

ing
long weighiron

an

lifts at

man

bar

bar

be

placed

of the load ?

PROBLEMS

asked

the

of their ages

of the elder ; but

difference of their ages, the remainder

younger."

ends

the

must
one

15 ft.

the third

beam, and

will carry

man

upon

will be double

an

lift at the

men

the

of the beam.

of the

the

over

of ice

axle.

Ib. Two

12.

2 ft.

extends

20 cakes

supports.

250

the

with

is loaded

3 ft. behind

Ib. at 5 ft. from

1500

long

bed

and

material

The

10.

12 ft.

bed

wagon

the age

of each.

age

of

18 be

his two

added, the result

if 6 be taken
will be

sons,

from

equal to

the

the age

SIMULTANEOUS
13.

In

the

guessing game

10 years

LINEAR

age, divide

to your

and
quotient,

tell

leader says,

the

by

sum

"

If you

will add

age, add

your

the result,I will tell you

me

387

EQUATIONS

6 to the
How

age."

your

did he find it ?
14. A
won

to

baseball

28.

How

bring its
15.

16.

Two

has

team

many

worked

won

of which

games,

it win

must

games
of games

average

girlhas

played 40

in succession

it has

in order

to 0.750 ?

up

problems. If she should work 13


more
problems and get 8 of them right,her average would be
thus far ?
72%. How many problems has she worked correctly

one

12

bicycleriders

along

the outside

ride

togetheraround

circular

track,

the radius of the circle is

edge, where

the other

R, and

along the inside edge, where the radius is r.


One revolution of the pedalscarries the former's bicycle20 ft.
and the latter's 25 ft. Write
formula
ence
a
expressingthe differbetween
of pedal revolutions made
the number
by the two
in going around
the track once
cyclists
; five times ; n times.
17.

If 10

rises b
one

size

rises

dropped

are

inches,write

size

one

18 in.

An

formula

how

the

to a

the

which

the difference of revolutions


19.

Divide

shall be
20.

$240.

$183

into

equal to y3^of

Each
The

of your

of

two

elder

money,

and

the second

can

are

the water

times

larger

size.
has

radius

to 17 in.

necessary

is R

the

and

be used

could

parts,so

brothers

of

of

cate
Indi-

because
reduced

to calculate

per mile ?

two

brother

equal marbles

is reduced

originalradius

is the formula

of

many

fullyinflated

revolutions per mile

leakage. If

radius r, what

how

of the second

one

leakageof air,this

more

many

15

bucket

bucket, and

same

showing

.tire when

automobile

Owing

inches, and

a,

into

dropped

are

into the

of the first size is than


18.

of

of

the water

water, and
another

marbles

said

that

of the first

part

part.

wanted
to the

to

buy

lot valued

a
"

younger,

purchase the

l"t-"

You

lend

"But," said

at
me

the

GENERAL

088

brother, ''you lend

younger

lot."

purchase the
A

21.
it

MATHEMATICS

of your
did

money

that if there

had

each

have

been

paid $30 apiece less,but if there


boy less,they would have paid $60 apiece more.
there,and what did they pay for the
boys were
The

22.

46

won

more

by each

Euclid

his

to

donkey

said

I would

twice

and

nl' the
25.
at the

26.
of

(1914)

standing

the

first and

of

number

year

second

losing
and

won

games

market

If you

laden
to

were

B.C.

"

with

wheat.

give

me

you ; if I

as

assigned by

was

mule
The

one

were

to

equal.'What

was

and
mule

measure,

give you
the

one

burden

MISCELLANEOUS

PROBLEMS

bar 30 in.
a

long is balanced by a 40-pound weight at one


32-pound weight at the other end. Find the position

support.
A

man

rate

of

he pay
A

6%

on

the

second, the
of each

6%

acid.

problems.

the

mixed

is

out

same

is

He

$3410.

241.

of the

first

43%

from

pure.

like this
some

in two

acid

with

Problems

Find

income

tax, but pays


finds that after

On

what

amount

tax

if 61.

mixture

frOm

the rest of his income.

has

are

and

exemption

his actual income

tax

chemist

pure,

f2000

has

the second

42%

car?

team

three centuries

would: be

burdens

paying income
does

many

one

following problem

much

as

end

the

How

our

"

of each ?

to
'

donkey,

our

24.

the

going

carry

measure,

that

pupilsabout

were

the

to

The

been

team.

It is said

23.

first. Find

the

than

more

lost

had

for

They

more,

team

less than

winning

games,

League

it lost.

than

games

153

played

American

Champion

ran

paying

boy

one

'.'

After

have

would

and

money,

boys bought a touringcar.

discovered

they

much

How

of

group

me

of the
are

Find
are

chemist

strengths.If
"the
first,

mixed

with

41.

the per cent


often

why

given

mixture

as

it is not

of

of

16 1.
is
the

purity
practical
practical.

SIMULTANEOUS

After

27.

of each

is to

$2.41.

receive
who

what

At

.?"

be

Find

nitiy make

6%
The

HINT.
the

made

new

who

$2.20

is to

of

wage

man

be offered

bonds

5%

one-year

until

them

maturity,

his investment?

profitmade

0.06

the

buyer, by holding

the

price paid for


+

who

man

$3, $4, $4.20.


pricemust

value, which

par

the

over

on

that

wages

i",where

tux

facts

one

b, also

and

ra

the

the

raise

to

formula

by

and
$2.30,.

receive

that

the

by

to y

determined

market

for sale in order

100

from

389

EQUATIONS

corporation decided

formerly received

28.

on

to

are

$2

made

strike

laborer

and

ra

LINEAR

must

is

$5,

the

from

come

the

and

bonds.

two

sources

interest

of the

excess

If

the

the

is

maturity value
price paid, then

x.

SUMMARY

lowing
chapter has taught the meaning of the foland
words
phrases : simultaneous
equations, linear
tory
equations,contradicsystems of equations,indeterminate
equations,identical equations, elimination.
437.

This

438.

This

solving a

chapter has taught


system of equations in

1. Solution
2. Solution
3. Solution
439.

The

by graph.
by addition or
by substitution.
student

has

involving fractions,and

been

the
two

unknowns:

subtraction.

taught how

systems

of the

to

type

solve

-f

440.

The

introduced:

followingtypes

of

following methods

of verbal

problems

systems
=

c.

have

been

problems,
geometricproblems,number-relation
mixture
problems, work problems, motion problems, beam
problems, and recreation problems.

CHAPTER
ALGEBRAIC

AND

GEOMETRIC

ROOTS

441.

XVI

AND

Introductory work;

exercises

OF

POWERS

The

root.

square

to
introductory

are

INTERPRETATION

the work

following
chapter.

of the

EXERCISES

number

1. What
169?
2.

x2?

itself

multipliedby

equals 9?

16?

each

of

121?

if?

How

answers

many

there

are

to

Ex.

1?

is called

the

part

(Why?)
3.

of the two

One

of

root

square

the

equal factors

number.

of

What

number

is the
4

of 64?

of 625?

ofar2?

of 4^?

of

root

square
4y2

of 49 ?

J?
o"^-J
9
9y*

4. The

positivesquare
) called

sign (V

the

root

radical

of

number

sign,and

is indicated

either the radical

by

sign

alone

(V
) 01" the radical sign preceded by the plus sign
the positive
neath
under(+ V
) means
square root of the number
the sign. The
number
underneath
the radical sign is
called the radicand.
The negativesquare root is indicated
by
the radical sign preceded by the minus
sign (" V
)" With
the preceding definitions in mind
lowing:
give the value of the fol-

V25; Vl6; VlOO; -Vl21; V(X25


'

9
5.

-Vl44;

Vj;

\25iy2

statement
Express the following

number

equals the

square

by

of another
390

means

number

of
x.

formula:

OF

INTERPRETATION
If

6.

If

t"

Fill

squares

FIG.

442.
square

been

of

is the

what
ar2,

391

POWERS

AND

value

of

y?

of y ?
y in the

correspondingvalues of
the followingvalues ofic:

"

1 ;

"

formula
2 ;

-(-3;

~7~ 7)~"j

8.

the

for each

Q.
~~

is the value

Calculate

x'

formula

1 in the

2, what

7.

ROOTS

"*"""

"3*5

in

the

and

square

285.

DEVICE

"

values

proper

Graph

of y

roots.

The

roots

FOR

for

FINDING

x*\

in
in

use

the

following table

the

next

SQUARES

device

values

of the

plottedin Fig. 285.

Values

for

article.

SQUARE

AND

ROOTS

finding squares

preceding table
for

of

were

and

have

laid off

392

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

the 2"axis, and


the correspondingvalues
on
horizontally
for y vertically
the ^-axis. The points were
then conon
nected
This
shown.
as
curve
by a smooth
serves
curve,
device for determiningsquares
and
as, a
roots, as
square

shall

we

now

see.

EXERCISES

Determine

1.

by

the

graph in Fig.285

9; 2,0;22; 3; 2. How

of 9 ? 4 ? 25 '.'for the square

root

square

do

answers'

many

the square

obtain

you

of each

root

of 1 "'":

root

for the
number

shown?

By

2.

of the

means

graph

in

Check
The

given.
by means

of the

Fig. 285

square

is, there

( -H 3) ('+ 3

are

graph

would

that

accuratelythan

more

has

the

give

the

which

i\l : for

roots.

equalseither
the

you

graph

of the

The

in

as

2 ;

"

root

of

also

does

in

curve

graph

-j-*2 or

square

("3) ("3) =9,

symmetry

Fig. 285

explain it.

is not

indicated

The

Quadratic surd.

number

square

for

answers

Thus,

can

two

of 4

root

two

). Note

if you

see

444.

*"

roots

positivenumber

positive number.
and

make

you

that the square

that

by squaring the numbers


approximately those you found

be

443.

shows

2;

graph.

would
and

squares

for Ex.

should

squares

How

4.

results

your

of

1.7.

1.4; 2.2; 2.4; 3.3; 5.6; 3.9;


3.

find the square

Fig. 285

perfectsquare

example,v3, v20,

is called

of

root

square
a

quadratic

V.r.
"

445.

and

Quadratic

.?-'2 2 .ry +
"

trinomial.

y2 are

trinomials.
ijuadratic

Trinomials

of the second

The

word

"

like a2 -f 2 ab + b2

degree,and are
quadratic comes
"

called
from

394

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

ILLUSTRATIVE

the square

Find

1.

of 16

root

If this trinomial

Solution.

EXERCISES

is

of

perfectsquare

25

40a-y +

x~

y2
binomial, it

some

the side of the largestsquare


be illustrated by Fig. 287, in which
may
obtained
by inspectionand corresponding to a2 is 4 x. Therefore
side of each

rectanglecorrespondingto
the area
ab is 4 x, and
each
ing
correspondbe 40 xy + 25 y'2.The
to 2 ab + b2 must
problem therefore consists in determining
the width
of the stripwhich
we
are
adding
sides and which
two
on
correspondsto the

the

5 y

be

may

the

the

doubling
result 8

we

are

Two

boys

length

take

problem might
follows

It is obvious

least 60

60.

by

is constructed.
lines

unbroken

the

is
120

square

it

(b)

because

out

plot

square

sq. ft.

of
5

such

the

form

as

that

We

ft.

we

can

make

shall suppose
See

the

(Fig.288).

square
This

sq. ft. We

already constructed

uses
can

it
that

60

with
up

pIGi

288

add

by adding

to

two

sides

and

still

square.

The

120

(c)

side ?

some

:5600 sq. ft.,leaving 625

keep

stake

to

double

we

(a)

to

287

length of the strip to which


clearlyin the next problem.

boys'thinking about

The

Solution.

of

ab

FIG.

that

more

.of 4225

area

by

(4 x) the

asked

were

an

is the

What

this

x.

shows

Fig. 287

term.

xy

Hence

ing
for determin-

divisor

as

with

ground

at

or

already found

term

next

approximately the combined


adding. This is illustrated

is

2.

serves

the

4 x,

and

ab

b is 5 y. Now

case

by dividing 40

obtained

of

sum

8#

In this

formula.

b of the

ft.

Why
120

combined
Hence

length of the edges to which


the approximate length of the

we

are

adding

strip added

approximate?
is contained

five times

in 625

(with a remainder).

is

INTERPRETATION
If

(d)

stripwill be

(forone
(e)
(f)

the

make

we

125

strip5

the

exactlyfive
must

that is,the square

root

of 4225

Find

square

2ac

the
2bc

c2

The

total

65

length will

be

125

ft.).

in 625.

times

be constructed

square

3.

the other

395

POWERS

AND

ft. wide, the

60 ft. and

is contained

Hence

ROOTS

OF

so

as

be 65'

to

by 65';

is 65.

of

root

the

polynomial

a2 +

2 ab +

b2

(seeFig.289).

largestsquare is a^ therefore the trial


divisor is 2 a.
width
The
of the first stripis b, therefore the divisor
is 2 a + b. Multiplying by b and
subtractingthe
remainder
gives 2 OK + 2 be + c2. The length of
constructed
the square
is a + b. The
now
edge
to which
we
are
adding is 2 a + 2 b units long
times
c
(trialdivisor).2 a + 2 b is contained
If we
in 2 ac + 2 be.
make
the strip c units
wide, the total length of the stripto which we
Solution.

add

is 2

+ 2 b +

Multiplying and
The

zero.

(completedivisor).(Why ?)

subtracting,the

side of the total square

Va2
The

of the

side

work

2 ab +
be

may

Largest square,

bz +

divisor,2

trial

First

complete divisor,2

'+

divisor,2

"i

follows

+ l" 2 ah

trial

Second

complete divisor,2

b + c,

2 be +

2 ab +

Second

Find

a2 + 2 ah +

First

4.

ac

2 I +

289

or

c2

b +

c.

ac

2 be 4- c2 [a +

ac

2 be +

c2

ac

2 be +

c2

b2 +

b +

b*
b2

2 b
a

is
FIG.

is

arranged as

a2

remainder

the first digitin the square

root

of

177,2^1.

(a) that
the square
of a number
the
of one
digitconsists of one or two digits,
of a number
the
of two
digitsconsists of three or four digits,
square
and so
of a number
of three digitsconsists of five or six digits,
square
of digitsin the integralpart of the square
on
; (b) that the number
of a number
is twice
as
large or one less than twice as large as the
This
number
of digitsin the integralpart of the given number.
of digits
suggests the followingdevice for determining the number
Solution.

To

determine

this first digitwe

must

remember

396

MATHEMATICS

GENEKAL

in the

jioint,mark

decimal

the

as

same

the

Then

each.

the

of

integralpart

number

the

toward

of

digitsin

of groups.

Beginning

left groups

the

Thus,

number.

the

off

number

of

root

square

digits

two

be

will

root

square

since

of

is made

177,241

at

the
of

up

the square
of 177,241
of two
root
digits(17'72'41'),
groups
thus able to estimate
three digitsin its integralpart. We
contains
are

three

the

largestsquare
in Ex.

proceed as

The

3.

first digitis

(thatis,the

400

as

work

be

may

17 72'41

follows

arranged as
1400

then

4) and
:

20 + 1

16 00 00

I1

First trial divisor, 800


First

11 64

complete divisor, 820

Second

trial divisor, 840

Second

complete divisor, 841


Vl77241

Therefore

*447.

used

stepswere

study them

00

421.

ing
follow-

findingsquare roots. The


Exs. 1~4, above ; the student
in

involved

Steps

72 41

in

should

carefully.
largest
square in the number.
root alreadyfound for a trial

the

1. Estimate
2. Double

the

3. Divide

the

divisor.

by the trial
firstterm of the remainder
the next term
as
ilirt'xor,
of the root-.
placingthe quotient
the term justfound to the trial divisor to form a
4. Annex
completedivisor and continue the process until the other fcn/i*
f"fthe root are found.
EXERCISES

Find

the square

1. ""'2+

2ab

2. 16z*

2"xy

14 yz +

3.
"4.

49

if

x*+2x8
9.
10.

b2.

4"4+-4"8

9//'.

6.

x4

z\

7.

4 ax*

12

following polynomials:
-"3.

3x2 + 2r

x6 +
9 +

of the

roots

// +

+ l.

+
+

3x2

6 ".2

4 aV

?/ +"

4 ""\r +

if

if.

4 "8 +

8.

2 aV
6

2x3

9a2 + 4 0+4.

a6.

1.
"\

INTERPRETATION

ROOTS

OF

16
** +

11.

8.

'.9,

6 a*

+ 6a

61,504.

42'

17.

57,121.

2_8a3

18.

2.

""2

#2

NOTE.

Write

proceed as

in

576.

14.

9025.

19.

3.

15.

51,529.

20.

3.1416.

of roots

Table

it is convenient
are

to

and
a

use

of very useful
the student is now

form, and

how

easilylearn
and

roots

the

on

449.

The

Art.

446.

and

There

powers.

in textbook

leaflet

or

positionwhere he c,an
simple table of
very

them.

use

great

in

is submitted

powers

quently prove
work

to

tables

4,

and

situations
practical

table of roots

number

In

powers.

2.00WOO

Ex.

13.

448.

397

POWERS

16.

12.

AND

on

398.

page

convenience

the

to

It will fre--

student

in his

studythe

ing
follow-

followingpages.
of

theorem

exercise

Pythagoras.
shall

carefullywe

geometrictheorem

If

we

discover

will be useful

which

well-known

in later work.

EXERCISE

Construct

rightangle3

Using the
On

each

each

and

side

draw

The
the

the other

preceding

familiar

two

the

sum

on

the

of the

sides.

exercise

theorem

Counting

the square

with

divide

,.

of

illustrates
Fro.

Pythagoras:
the sum
righttriangle
of the squares
the--right
angle is-^ualto the .squaw

/// it
ln "i

and

square

find how

hypotenusecompares
on

includingthe

4 units

into unit squares.

squares,

squares

the 'sides

longrespectively
(seeAAJ'"( ',Fig.290).
unit,find the lengthof J /"'.

same

square

these

right triangle,making

on
on.

290

the sides inclml-

tlie'"

398

GENERAL
TABLE

MATHEMATICS
OF

ROOTS

AND

POWKKS

This

ROOTS

OF

INTERPRETATION
is

theorem

of the

one

before

Centuries

AND

POWERS

famous

most

Christ

theorems

399
of

the

Egyptians used a
in
rope divided by knots so that its three lengthswere
This rope was
used in land surveying
the ratio 3:4:5.
of their temples. In fact,
and
also in the orientation
read of professional rope fasteners
we
(surveyors?).
Furthermore, the proof of the theorem itself has always
When
shall
we
appealedto the interest of mathematicians.
in our
advanced
have
it will be
study of mathematics
for the student to find many
possible
proofsof this theorem
understand.
earliest general proof is
that he can
The
credited to Pythagoras,who lived about 500 B.C.
The student has probablyfound this theorem to be the

geometry.

"

basis for

of the most

one

rules of arithmetic.

useful

arithmetic

proofgiven in

"

classes

The

is

usuallythat given in
the exercise above.
However, a generalproof demands
that we
the theorem
independent of the accuracy
prove
of the figure(thatis, independentof the measurements
and
constructions
shall presentlygive
involved). We
such a proof. The
exercises
which
follow are
intended
the material
to review
to establish this proof.
necessary

EXERCISES

1. In
CD"

Fig.291

A A EC

Re view the

AB.

is a

at C, with
righttriangle,
right-angled
A ABC.
proofwhich shows that AADC^
b

2.

and

Prove
that

that in
b2

Fig.291

cm.

b;
3.

Review

that ABDC-^
4. Prove

the

proof which

shows

A ABC.

that

in

A\

Fig. 291

5.

Show

by using Exs.

2 and

41

4 that a2 +

tf

"?.

400

EKAL

( i ION

450.

of

Theorem

student

1~5, aboye.

Exs.

proved by

theorem

the

that

shall, however,

set

the

up

of

the

the

to

sides

to

the

the

is

equal
the

on

squares

In

including the right angle.


to

means

is

/'""'.

that

prove

hypotenuse

of

sum

Pythagoras

prooi'

right triangleA

the

on

the

l",

right-angledat C,
square

doubt

We

for reference.
(liven

No

proved.

Pythagoras

sees

now

MATHEMATK

that

prove

c2

of

terms

this

Fig. 292

a2 -\-l"~.

Proof
REASONS

STATEMENTS

In

Fig. 292

draw

letter the

and

CI)"AJi

figure as

shown.

rr,

Then

Because

(1)
a

and

(2)

if in

line is drawn

of

the
the

right triangle

from

the

rightangle perpendicularto
hypotenuse,either side about
right angle is a mean
portional
probetween
the whole
potenu
hyand

the

segment

hypotenuse adjacent to
In
=

and

(1)

I-

me

and

(3)

nc.

By adding
in

(2)

the

two

vertex

Because
are

in

the

me'ans

the

extremes.

when

four

of the
it.

quantities

proportionthe product of
equals the product of

equations

(3),
a-

a2 +
But

b-

me

ne.

(4)

+ n). (5)
ft2="e(jn
"

"

c.

((5)

Addition

axiom.

By factoringout
The

whole

is

equal to the

of all its parts.


.-.

n-

//- =

,--.

(7)

Bv

c.

substitution.

sum

402

NOTE.

Pythagoras (c.569
great philosophersof Greece, is said

HISTORICAL
of the
of

into

geometry

colony in

the

of citizens

of

the
B.C.),

500

u.c.-c.

"

to hate

liberal education."

changed

After

second

the

study

ings,
wander-

some

the famous

Pythagorean School at Croton, a Dorian


south of Italy. Here enthusiastic
audiences
composed
the upper
all ranks, especially
to hear
classes,crowded

It is said that

him.

of

the form

he founded

of

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

the

to

went

women

hear

him

in direct

violation

against their public appearance.


into
classes : the Probatwo
tioners
Pythagoras divided his audiences
(or listeners)and the Pythagoreans (or mathematicians).
law

a
'

three

After
into

second

the

the

of

years

in

the

first class

class, to whom

listener

confided

were

be

could

the

main

initiated

discoveries

school.

Pythagoreans formed a brotherhood in which each member


bound
was
by oath not to reveal the teachings or secrets of the
Their
food was
school.
simple, their disciplinesevere, and their
of life arranged to encourage
mode
self-command, temperance, purity,
The

obedience.

and

or
triangle,
pentagram (star-shapedregular
of
used
and was
to them
a
was
as
a symbol
sign recognition,
pentagon),
It is related that a Pythagorean while travelingfell ill and,
of health.
unable
although carefullynursed by a kind-hearted
innkeeper,was
Before
to survive.
dying, however, he inscribed the pentagram star
and begged his host to hang it up outside.
This the host
on
a board
after a considerable
did ; and
length of time another Pythagorean,
passing by, noticed the sign and, after hearing the innkeeper'sstory,
him
rewarded
of the brotherhood
:
was
handsomely. One motto
and
not
"A
to
oboli."
a
a
figure
figure
step forwards;
gain three
of society advocated
views
The
were
by the brotherhood
opposite
of the democratic
to those
party of Pythagoras'stime, and hence

tripleinterwoven

The

of

most

brotherhood

the

Pythagoreans
in

501

B.C

school, and

led

succeeded
to

the

in

For

but
dominating affairs,

murder

Pythagoras

aristocrats.

were

of

himself

many

prominent

short

a
a

time

the

popular revolt

members

of the

killed

shortlyafterwards.
no
longer existed as a political
party,the
exist a long time
as
a
philosophicaland
was

Though the brotherhood


to
Pythagoreans continued
mathematical
but to the end remained
secret
a
society,
organization,
as'to the
publishing nothing,and thus leaving us little information
details of their history.
See Ball's "A History of Mathematics," p. 19.

EXERCISES

The

1.

6 and

respectively.What

2.

How

of

16-foot

is

which

90

right triangle(Fig. 293)

is the

of the

length

hypotenuse ?

tent

rope

pole

to

be

from

run

20

point

the

ft. from

pole ?
diamond

ft. What

is

is the

of

length

side

square

of

throw

_b IG.
"

from

Find

4.

side
s

is

5.

and

into

the

for

formula

diagonal

determine

to

of

the

whose

square

diagonal

when

the

the
also

equation

into

that

Vc2

that

theorem

Pythagorean

Vc2

62

"

words.
a2 and

"

the

translate

equation

words.

ladder

8.

wall

The

if the

is the

Using

22

and

the

of
the

formula

above

the

foot

ft. and

the

from

is 35

base.

of

standing

on

Ex.

level

the top struck

the broken

remaining

11.

ladder

the

right triangle

the ground, and

before

of

15ft.

6, find the value

of

when

20.

tree

Find

foot

window

is level ?

ground

hypotenuse

9.

long just reaches

far

is 21 ft.

altitude

10.

20ft.

How

ground.

of the

the

t'f"
"

15.

from

Prove

7. A

formula

Prove

"

second

this

translate
6.

the
Use

s.

"

to

10 ; when

the

"

home

are

Pythagoras.)

must

baseball

3.

of

long

of the

the foot

of

altitude

and

the theorem

(Use

top

base

end

on

ground

the
the

ground
stump.

broken

was

24

18 ft. from
How

tall

ft. from

the stump,
was

the tree

breaking ?
Construct

on

following pairs

squared
of

numbers

paper
for

right triangle,using
the

base

and

altitude

404

GENERAL

: 1
respectively

and

5 ; 1 and

4 and

HINT.

Use

V2

1 ; 1 and

5 ; 2 and

each

for

; 2 and

5 ; 3 and

the line segment

Calculate

12.

MATHEMATICS
2 ; 2 and

5 ; 12 and

obtained

you

part of Ex.

3 ; 4 and

4 ;

1.

for the first part.

11

the

of

the

method

of

length

hypotenuse.
451.

The

constructing with

findingthe

11

is illustrated
Construct

by

and

the

of

number
The

of

root

square
a

method

by

method

followingexercise

the square

12, Art. 450, suggest

compasses.

the

furnishes

compasses

and
root

square

of ruler and

means

Pythagoras

ruler

Exercises

number.

of

of

theorem

of 42.

root

of the exercise
followingstudy (analysis)
the problem.
will help us to understand

The

that

Suppose
that is,let us

Now
a-

tf

then

and

a
=

42.

be

It is clear

Then

AB

is the

can

be of

(Why?)

that

the

V6.

the

that

Let

long is l"'l We
the equation

how

would

imagine

that

figureand

have

we

figure constructed ;
Fig. 294 is the required
requiredlength V42.
various
lengthsprovided
us

suppose

which

from

b would

have

to

problem merely
Some

that

know

members

o(" +

the

tr

"

value

6 ;

42
of

can

be

found.

equal A7/6.

becomes

of

that CB

the

one

class

of
may

learning how to
already know
analysis.

struct
con-

how

proceed with our


A'B'C'
structed
(Fig.295),so con"Imagine another triangle,
that the hypotenuse turns out to be V6 and so
that B'C' is 2 units long; then A 'C' must
equalV2. Why?
Our
problem finallyreduces, then, to a problem of
constructingV2. If we can find this geometricallywe
solve the original
exercise,as our analysishas shown.
can
how
v2
to construct
We
by constructing a right
already know
trianglewith the two legs about the right angle equal to 1. Then
the hypotenuse equals V2.
Why?
to

do

this, but

we

shall

INTERPRETATION
We

then

(a)

Construct

V2

follows

analysisas

our

reverse

above.

indicated

as

405

POWERS

AND

ROOTS

OF

righttrianglewith a base of v'2 units long


and an altitude 2 units long. Its hypotenuse will equal Vti. Why?
(c) Construct a third righttrianglewhose base is \/6 units long
altitude is 6 units long. Its hypotenuse will be \/42 units.
and whose

(b) Construct

second

Why?
EXERCISE

with compasses

Construct

following: V6

the

452.

Mean

VTT

line segment

A/27

Vl43; V214

shall

We

now

that

(Art.374) furnishes
roots.
constructing
square

construction
of

method

VJJ ;

our
us

V2.

for finding

method

see

each of

equivalentto

proportional construction
roots.

square

mean

with

portional
proan

easy

EXERCISES

the construction

Review

1.

between
proportional
the

Construct

2.

4 and

between

segments

and b

of

root

and

6.

is the

For

two

square

The

of the

root

square

of

mean

12,

"

-.

Why?

x2

for

mean

the
finding

and

//.

tional
proporsquare

{_
K"

of 12, for

root

that the

propor-

for

example,
proportionalx (Fig.297)

Whence

method

productof

example,

find the

factors
mean

296

line

root of 12.

squared paper

tional of two

FJG.

furnishes

number.

the square

Find
On

equalsthe

construction

(Fig.296).
ft

precedingexercises suggest

The

16.

proportionalTbetween

a mean

and

mean

for the statement

proof
..

that

findinga

proportional

mean

9 ; 4 and

the

Review

3.

line segments

two

for

(Art.374)

2-

FIG.

297.

METHOD

TIONAL

12^_

Why?

Vl2.

Whv?

ING

MEAN

SQUARE

THE
A

NUMBER

PROPOROF

FIND-

ROOT

OF

406

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISE

the

Construct
76.

the

Compare

under

numbers

Large

the

results with

approximate the

results ought to

453.

of 21 ; 6 ; 5 ; 18 ; 42 ; 84 ; 66 ;

root

square

of

table

decimal

second

radical

the

Art.

Your

449.

place.

signs. When

the

sign is large,the various geometric


for findingsquare
neither
constructions
roots
are
In this
convenient
in general,sufficiently
accurate.
nor,
surd
it is of advantage to reduce the given quadratic
case
to an
equivalentexpression which has a smaller number
wish to find the value
under the radical sign. Suppose we
under

number

of V5056.

The

V5056

the

when

"

number

easily,as

more

7) (22

"

evident

once

of factors

equal groups

7)

is not

V84

"

if
;

84

we

resolve

thus

84.

perfectsquare,

to- find

the student

often enable

will
much

V(22

is at

root

square

into two

the number

Even

the radical

will be shown

its square

ing
factorroot

later.

EXERCISES

Find

following indicated

the

square

roots

1.

V576.

3.

V484.

5.

V3600.

2.

V1296.

4.

V1089.

6.

Vl936.

of

product. The

454.

The

show

that

factors,each of
the square

cises
precedingexerthe square
root of the product of several
be found by taking
which is a square, may
in the following
of each factor separately,
as

square

root

root

examples:
1.

V9-

25=V9V25

3-

5=15.

INTERPRETATION
This

is true

of two

two

the

be written

Vl6 V^

of

square

the

product
(3 5) (3 5). Hence, by the

can

"

groups

is
a;2?/3

25

Vp

square

root

of 9

"

25.

a*f.

as

"

"

16

This is true because


of

"

407

POWERS

AND

equal factors
square root, (3 5) is the

Vl6 xY

2.

because

ROOTS

of

groups

definition of

OF

afy6may be written as the product


equal factors (4 a^?/3)
(4 z2?/3).Hence
root of IGa^y6.

The

precedingexercises show that the square root of a


product is obtained by findingthe square root of each factor
That
and then takingthe product of these roots.
separately
is,in general,
_

This
the

be

principle
may
followingmanner.

of V11858.

"

used

simplifyradical

to

Suppose

Vft.

"

in

to find the value

wish

we

surds

Then
_

V11858

By

V%

the table of roots,

Then

77(1.414)
V11858

Hence

It will be

helpfulto

V2

"

11-

77 V2.

1.414.

108.878.

108.878.

observe

the

11

"

7-7

following:

the radicand
enables us to simplify
to
(1) The principle
a pointwhere
we
can
easilyfind the root by the table or
by several geometricconstructions.
(2) A quadraticsurd is in its simplestform when the
number
under
the radical sign does not contain a perfect
factor.

square
In

general,if the expressionunder

contains

removed

by writingits

factor which

is

square

square,
root

the

radical

this factor

may

before the radical

sign
be

sign.

-108

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

EXERCISES

the

Change

under

square

455.

Value

followingso as
the radical sign:

leave

to

of

memorizing square
1~9, Art. 454, suggest

Exercises

of

roots
square
made
to do

service in

In

numbers.

few

roots

the

of certain

is

students

of

roots

numbers.

the

in which

manner

findingthe

are

large

many

in other fields find that

which

memorizing these numbers,


in their problems,increases

which

numbers, like 2, 3, 5,

small

fact,many

factor

no

again and
efficiency.

again

occur

their

EXERCISES

the table of roots

From

and

V2=1.414,A/3=1.732,

that

Using these facts,compute

2.236.

correct

know

we

decimal

to two

each

of the following

places:

1.

V75.

4.

V72.

7.

V50

2.

V80.

5.

V98.

8.

3.

V48.

6.

V363.

9.

V45-\/|.

V75-V6.

V32

V72

Vl8.

456.

The

root of

square

by squaringits

fraction.

and

numerator

fraction is squared

its denominator

separately

and

the product thus


indicating

".

Hence,

to

bob
extract
root

the

root

square

and

of its numerator

For

example, VT\

of

fraction,we

denominator

J, since % %
"

V-

find

the square

separately.

410

GENERAL

The

2.
root

of

MATHEMATICS

of the

root

square

its numerator

fractionequalsthe square
by the square root of its

netv

divided

denominator.
3.

If desired,express

The
leave

no

the result in

decimal form.
simplest

process of changing a radical


denominator
under a radical
the denominator.

Thus, -yj

expressionso
sign is called
V3

\J\

as

to

alizing
ration-

-^aa

EXERCISES

1.

Find

the value

of the

to the

approximatelyaccurate

(a) J.

(c) 1

(b) f

2.

Rationalize

3.

What

(j),inclusive,if

to

458.

Addition

arithmetic
combined

in
into

(d) 1

of

value
a

and

V45

two

square

roots.

Ex.

2 from

Sometimes

if the
simplified

V5

(e)

the

surds

are

V5

5V5, or5(2.236)
11.180.

V5 justas
the

and simplify:
following,

of surds.

be

By adding 2 \/5 +
need only to look up

(g) TV

Thus,

term.
+

2 ?

subtraction

V20

roots

expressionsin

the

problem may
one

(f)f

of the

3 and

(e) f

second

denominators

is the

decimal

(findvalues
:
place)

followingsquare

we

add

\/5,whereas

2_-4 plus3

V20

+ V45

"

4, we

calls for

OF

INTERPRETATION

ROOTS

AND

411

POWERS

followinglist simplifyeach expressionas far as


possiblewithout using approximate roots ; that is, leave
this is often
result in indicated form.
Practically
your
better than findingan
approximation,for in this manner
It leaves
results that are absolutely
accurate.
you submit
find as
who
the approximationto the next
person,
may
decimal
problem
placesas the needs of his particular
many
In

the

demand.
EXERCISES

1.

Vl08

V75

Vl2.

"

8.

2.

2V98-VT8.

3.

V288

4. 5

V432

9.

Vl8

V3

Vl28.

10.

Vl47.

n.

Vf +
Vf1+^
3

5.

V27

V48 -*3 V75.

12.

6.

V20

Vl25

13.

^/T

14.

4-

459.
two

V28

V2

Vo5

process.

Thus,
of

are

for
to

These

In elementarymathematics
briefly.
involve
verbal problems which
this
involved do not offer anyprinciples
thing

few

Further, the

new

Vll2.

will be treated

there

when

V-

f+

Multiplicationand division of quadratic surds.

processes

form

Vl80.

us.

divide
fraction

V2
"

by V5,
"

and

we

may

proceed as

write
we

this in the

do
ordinarily

involves
finding the value of a fraction which
quadraticsurds.
The
rule in multiplication
is equally familiar.
The
be read
equation Vab=\/aVb
just as well from
may
is
Thus, V2V5
rightto left,and we have VaV5=VaJ.
VlO.
the same
as
precisely

n-2

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

1. Find

the

product

of the

following:

(a) V3 V27.

(d) V(5Wl2a;8~.

(b) vW*8.

(e)

V|VH-_

(c) V3V5.

(f)

V|Vf Vf Vl

(g) (V2
Solution.

We

of the other

and

Va

Vs)(V2

multiply each
simplifythe
V2

VQ

V"

2 +
-

Ve

result

of

one

as

follows

polynomial by

term

Vio
-

VTo

a +

Vis

Vis
Vlo

Vs

each

Vs

Ve
+

(h) (2Vr

Vs).

V5

Va

term

Vs

Vs)(Vs).
+ V5)(2V3).
(i) (4V2-2V3
3 V2 + VTo)(Vs).
(j) (Vs
S Vs).
(k) (3V2 + 4 Vs)(2V2
VI + Vs)(V3 + VI
Vs).
(i) (Vs
+

Divide, and

2.

simplestform

(a) 1 by VS.

(c) V6 by Vs.

(b) 24 by Vs.

(d) 2 Vl2

460.

Fractional

and

roots
as

result in

the

express

without

far

we

and

means

is to be used

"

as

"

x,

but

factor

Xs
one

VlS by Vs.
of

-means

have

evidentlyit
extending the meaning of

Thus, a?
that

Thus

powers.

exponent,

an

another

exponents

not

could

used
not

the word

indicating
a

be

fraction
so

"exponent."

evidentlycannot
half of

used

time.

mean

INTERPRETATION
It is very

formal
the

condition

one

be

of fractional

definition

that

to

assume

Since
the

we

of #,

or

factors

of

write

y?

may

since
Similarly,
\

that

3/

is,Xs

Again, x*
This

Xs

Xs

"

x^

"

x*

"

exponent

under

takes

x'5

"

that a?* is

see

that is, x^ is the

of

one

square

root

V#.

x5

"

Xs

z,

xt.

Xs

is the

cube

of

root

This

is the

x2.

that

the

fractional

which

integralexponents
govern
makes
fractional exponent
a

which

of

way

the denominator

is sufficient to show

the laws

that Xs

means

3/

that is,x*

meaning

just another

we

x,

"

x.

discussion

on

that the

"

of "2

root

order

in

necessary

cube

shall

we

giving a
lay down

integral
exponents shall
ponent
permit the fractional ex-

shall

we

that ^

agree

we

of

be governed

shall hold.

equal

two

should

for

meaning

laws

exponent

exponents,

the laws

and

generallytrue,

413

POWERS

therefore, instead

laws;

same

AND

that all exponents

important

the

by

ROOTS

OF

and

indicatingroots
the

indicates

root, and

powers

the

that is,
cates
indi-

numerator

the power.

8^

Thus,
the

result,or

In

either
to

means

to

means

take the cube

may

appear

and

the

as

Note
decimal

cube

root

familiar with

powers.

preciselythe
dealingwith

The
same

surds

of

root

and

square

of the result.

Again, 10* (or 10"-6666)


100, which, by the table of

is 4.

of

that

common-fraction

exponent

fraction.

this it will be obvious

become

root

take the cube

result
the final,

case

449, is 4.641.

to

8 and

square

Art.

From

take

that the

student
of

needs

only

writingroots
followingbrief list of problems presents
in the preceding list
those
ideas as
;

the

only the

new

form

method

is different.

414

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

EXERCISES

in

1. Write

simplestform

(a) 4* + 9* + 16* + 25*+ 36*.


(b) 1* + 8* + 64* + 0*.
(c) 64* + 9* + 16* + ((d) 24* + 54' 6*.

32)* (- 27)1

(e) 18* + 32*

V2.

Vl28

(f) (^*+8*-(f)4+(50)*.
(g) (81)*2
-

(24)*
+ V28

(a) z*z*.
(b) 10* 10* 10*.
"

fractions
would

be if

NOTE.

in

the

to

we

had

100-8"5

means

look

at

thousandth

getting a

clear

the

or

is to be

raised

understanding

of the

are

"5-=-a5=

a".

o5-5-o6

l.

l.

zero

Thus, 15" =1;

a"

1,

as

of

root

the

numbers

1000.

Another

to the

375th

of very

great importance

the

how

laws

to find

which

of any

root

govern

is shown

:
by the following
Law.)

(By the Division


(The quotientof any number
by itself is 1.)
(By the equalityaxiom.)

power

and

power

logarithms and

chapterson

chapters we shall learn


easilyas the square root.
Under

common

result.

eighth

ideas

exponents.

a"

large

In these

Zero

the

finding the

These

taken.

integralexponents

Thus

10

how

estimate

of

10^,

(say the 15th)justas

Hence

"

"

and

way

it is that
root

slide rule.

461.

"

exponents

as

(c) 102-5 10"-.125 101-25.


(d) 103-6250 10"-3750 10"-0625.

(c)and (d),Ex. 2,into expressionswith

Translate

3.

the

(63)*.

Multiply:

2.

way

number

divided

(exceptzero) is 1.

(560)"= 1; (-6a:)0=l;

10"

1.

462.

Negative

-3-

s
"
"

multiplythe

and

numerator

denominator

obtain

we

x~a

"

"

looAo-^jL,
v-'-mf

"

~~"

10,000.

if you

See
a

X6

by xa,

Tin-,

J^

or

"

X6

x~a
of

as

-|

"

X6

x~

if we
Similarly,

Q
=

"

is,

law

same

"

the

obeys

then

integralexponents,

that

If x~s

exponents.

in

state

can

simple language

the

meaning

of

negative exponent.
EXERCISES

Simplify :
1.

10-

2.

10^

100-0625x

103-125 x

lo"

(56)"x 10*.

3.

(39)(169)"*.

6.

16-

4.

1000

(100)"*

7.

1000-

5.

2X

8.

144~*

"

2-*

(xm)n;

2-4.

9.

2.

in

(+625)*;(-125)-*.

13.

(x2)3;(x3)4;(x0)2.
"

xz

"

(IO2)2;(IO2)8;(IO2)4.

15.

(100-0625)4;
(10"-125)2;
(10"-125)8.
the

formula

(xm}n

xmn

rule.
17.
NOTE.

^x8; ^x5.
-v/x^;
The

3 in

vx"

means

"find

yc

x2.

14.

translate

yb

24.

12.

x2

xn.
"

"

XmH-Xn.

"

"

11.

(z2)3

xm

IO-3.
i

HINT,

16.

10- 1-03675.

the

cube

root."

into

an

braic
alge-

416

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

18.

Since

19.

what

(xm)n xmn,
^

is
m

the

Translate

Find

20.

the value

(a) VlO^.
463.

of

short

of

x"

into

algebraicrule.

an

(d) -x/lO5-8750.
(b) A/10"-'75,(c) -v/H)3-"250.

Cube

other

Vic"

formula

in

cuts

shall

We

binomial.

findingpowers

now

see

be

may

how

certain

illustrated and

explained.
INTRODUCTORY

Find

1.
x

the

and

-f y

of

cube

EXERCISES

by

-f-y

multiplying the

result

2.

find (a
By multiplication

3.

Find
with

cubes
and

the

cube

the

of

(x

results

"

first

by

findingthe

of

y.

")3.

y); of (a

of

square

Exs.

"

"). Compare

these

2.
4.

It will
if you

shown

as

show

be

helpfulto

will make
in

Fig. 298,

your

set of

in

mates
class-

blocks,

order

to

that

(x -f-7/)3 x3 + 3 x2y + 3 xif + ?/3=

How
5.
as

many

blocks

Find

the

many

as

needed

are

following cubes, doing

you

can

mentally:

(a) (c+ dy. (c) (c-df.


(b) (m + nf. (d) (m-nYExercises
the cube

1"5

show

that

(g) (2x +
(e) (a-4-27/)8.
y)s.(h) (2x-3y)s.
(f) (2x
-

the cube

of

binomial

is

equal
square of

term, plus three times the


of the first
the firstterm
by the second, plus three times the
multiplied
firstterm multiplied
by the square of the second, plus the
cube of the second term.
to

418

GENERAL

NOTE.

HISTORICAL

mathematician

the

and
"

binomial

example, the law

for

in

book

and

Newton

(1642-1727). He
laws

numerous

about
his

Among

tions
negative fracgreat English

the

by

written

the law
gravitation,

"

of

positive and

Isaac

the rainbow.

Arithmetic

the greatest books

of

use

theorem

of

explanationof

Universal

first

physicist,Sir

and

the

discovered

The

is found

exponents

as

MATHEMATICS

an
algebra)and
(really

of

lenses and

books

numerous
"

physics;
prisms,
are

"

Principia (one of

all

times).
matics,"
(see Ball's A Short History of Mathe"A History of Elementary Mathematics,"
pp. 328-362, and Cajori's
inspiring. As a boy
pp. 238-240) is very interestingand
of his father's
he was
expected to be learning how to take care
of his time studying and trying mechanical
farm, but he spent much
experiments. Thus, we read of his constructinga- clock run
His mother
which
kept very fair time.
by water
noticing this
resolved to send him to Cambridge. Here followed a brilliant
sensibly
and
teacher.
of thirty-five
As a professorit
career
years as student
then only from
his practiceto lecture publicly
once
a week, and
was
hour at a time.
In the week
half an hour to an
followinghe gave
The

four

"

biographyof Xewton

hours

of consultation

who

students

to

wished

discuss

to

the

repeated a
previous lecture. It is said that he never
where
the
the
at
that
and
course
one
course
began
point
preceding
of
his
second
this
The
result
had
ended.
course
study during
period
understand
all
who
have
to
that
minds
dazed
has
master
attempted
of
Newton
accomplished. Perhaps you will later agree with some
the followingtributes to him :
results

of the

and

Nature

God

said,

There,

Tafcingmathematics

I don't
seem

he

lived,what

Newton

to

know

have

Let

king

among

from

the

had

what

been

only

I may

me.

"

NEWTON

! dost

the

bid in
and

"

kings

beginning
was

much

to

seem

the

ocean

of

light.

was

"

POPE

shine,

divine.

"

of the world
the better

great

night

all

thou

boy playing on
finding a smoother

as

and then
myself in now
than
ordinary, whilst the

before

done

lay
be !

Newton

Priest of Nature
!

Newton

laws

Nature's
"

SOCTHEY

to the time

half.

"

when

LEIBNITZ

world, but as to myself, I


the sea-shore,and diverting
pebble or a prettier shell
truth
lay all undiscovered

OF

INTERPRETATION
464.

Cube

is the

If

the

equation y
is
x
inversely,

of .r, or,

419

POWERS

AND

The

roots.

cube

ROOTS

the

that

asserts

cube

of y.

root

tion
equa-

isgraphed
shall

we

tain
ob-

curve

analogous
the

to

for

curve

and

squares

roots

square

which

be

may

used

find

to

-x-

cube roots and


cubes. We

ceed
pro-

to

find

corresponding
for

values
and

that

in order
we

may

plot sufficient
pointsfor the

-y-

FIG.

curve.

GRAPH

299.

OF

Xs

EXERCISES

1.

when

"

values

following table.

table

of y in the

+ 1 ?

when

equationy
"
"

1 ?

"=

when

y? when
x

2 ?

2 ?

Calculate

2.

the

when

equals 0

value

is the

What

until you

have

as

in Ex.

If the

curve

1 and

fill the blank

is not

enough points to

spaces

obvious, expand

draw

the

curve.

of
the

420

GENERAL

this table

From

One

we

obtain

may

the

Fig. 299.

in

curve

vertically
represents 1 unit, and 5 small
horizontally
represent 1 unit.
this curve
read off, approximately,
the
can
we

small square

squares
From
cube

cube

the

or

2.2 is

about

of 13

root

the table for values


results

accurate

thus the cube of


of any number;
10.5 (by the table actually10.64);

root

to be

seen

the cube

MATHEMATICS

is

be

to

seen

accurate

(see

decimal

places).More
to
by drawing the curve

to two

be obtained

can

2.4

little over

largescale.
465.

Cube

method

for

roots

of arithmetical

findingcube

(a + 6)3could

for

used, because

based

roots

be

cube

on

devised.

arithmetical

An

numbers.

formula
algebraic

an

But

this method

well

is

higher roots
of logarithms.This
more
are
quickly found by means
will be taught in the next
method
time
chapter. In the meanfor all practical
the
the student may
use
purposes
seldom

table in Art.

as

we

analogousrules

could devise

roots, fifth roots, fourth

for fourth

these too

more

are

readilyfound

Indicatinghigher

roots.

and

and

powers,

so

curves

but

on,

by logarithms.

By

means

to indicate other

sign is made

the radical

as

449.

Furthermore,

466.

roots

of

an

roots

index
than

figure
square

roots.

Thus

the cube

is written

The

3 in

V8
v

2.

root

The

of 8

or

one

of its three

equal factors

fourth root of 16 is written

8 is the index

Vl6

2.

of the root.

which contains an indicated root is called


Any expression
a radical
expression.
of reducing surds to simpler forms, discussed
The principles
in detail for quadraticsurds, may
be appliedto
higherindicated roots.

EXERCISES

the

Simplify

1.

following (remove

of

perfect power

the

^32; -\/64;^64
Add

2.

and

indicated

degree

x6/; "\/48 "4

subtract

(a) A/16

which

is

index):

indicated:

as

-^54

the

by

A/16

factor

any

-^250 +

-v

(b) -v/54+ -v/128+ -v/1024 +

SUMMARY

lowing
chapter lias taught the meaning of the folwords
and
of a number,
root
phrases: square
quadratic surd, radical sign, radicand, quadratic trinomial
467.

This

square,

The

468.

device
469.

V4

be

of the

graph

for

findingsquares

positivenumber

or

formula

471.

To

and

472.

roots

used

was

as

roots.

two

square

roots

thus,

find

sum

or

difference

a2 "

A)2

"

geometrically.
root

of

the square

roots

of

square

of its terms

numbers

them
of

by
a

ft2.

2 db +

square

the

connect

of two

the

nomial:
tri-

the two

sign of

trinomial

perfect square

the

consists

perfectsquare
remaining term.
of the

sum

of the

plus twice the product of each term by


succeedingterm.
By remembering this rule the square
of some
polynomials may be found by inspection.

squares

each

The

x2

square

has

illustrated

was

Extract
terms

formula

the

by

(a
This

and

of the

square

found

equation

2.

The

470.
may

index.

422

GENERAL

The

chaptertaught a method of findingthe square


algebraicpolynomialsand arithmetical numbers.

473.
of

root

The

474.

and

roots

MATHEMATICS

includes

chapter
cube

of

find

We

476.

the

square

the

denominator;

often

may

be

root

of

the square
root
of the numerator
that

is, A

simplified
by applying
fraction

the

by

the denominator
'Rationalizing

culation

the
simplifies

of

series

for

rule
the

"

When

478.

the

adding

number

the

terms

similar

occurs

be

may

This

terms.

"

-=-

the

as

radical

in

combined

by the
usually simplifies

479.

The

theorem

of

Pythagoras was

480.

The

theorem

of

Pythagoras furnishes

The

481.

482.

of

and

483.

a" is defined

484.

to

be

number

equal to

positiveexponent;

of

furnishes

of indicating

method

-$2?. The

means

denominator

numerator

the root.

1.

as

with
the

the

method

number.

is another

thus, x%

powers;

the power,

indicates

of

proved.

proportional construction
findingthe square root.

fractional exponent
and

roots

root

square

mean

method

another

difficult than

more

calculation.

constructingthe

as

is

same

terms,

cal-

/~

is, -yj

that

of

root

square

-"

"

by dividing

rn

square

principlevW"=VaVi.

the

477.

table

roots.

Quadratic surds

475.

simple

negativeexponent
reciprocalof the same
a

that

is, a~5

"

"

is defined

number

so

with

OF

INTERPRETATION

of

cube

The

485.

ROOTS

423

POWERS

AND

be

binomial

found

by

the

may

formula:

following

(a

a3

6)3

a26

3
+

Cube

486.

found

be

roots

the

by

table,

graph,

may

easily

or

and

logarithms

by

the

slide

rule

more

methods

will

be

shown

in

the
next

two

chapters).

(the

last

two

CHAPTER
*

LOGARITHMS

APPLIED

AND

ROOTS

XVII

TO

MULTIPLICATION,

AND

POWERS,

VERBAL

EXPONENTIAL

DIVISION,

PROBLEMS

ING
INVOLV-

EQUATIONS

LOGARITHMS
487.

how

Labor-saving

extensive

calculations

placenumbers

apt

are

to

even

Chapter IV
with only

become

laborious

showed

we

four

and,

five

or

in

some

and

involvingunnecessary
steps. We
showed
how to minimize
the inaccuracyand how
of
some
the unnecessary
with
steps may be eliminated, especially
and division by
regard to the processes of multiplication
cases,

inaccurate

In

devices.

the so-called
the work

"

abbreviated

remains

these abbreviated
In

which

Art. 449

method."

But

long and tedious,even

with

many

the

cases
use

of

methods.

will be

found

given for

table of powers
of savingtime

the purpose
Scientific books include similar tables which
are

in

and
and

roots

labor.

helpto save time


devices comand conserve
Other labor-saving
our
monly
energy.
used are adding machines, cash registers,
graphs,etc.
cult
One of the greatestlabor-saving
devices by which diffiof
problems may be readilysolved is the method
calculation by logarithms.This chapterwill be devoted
If the student
to a simple explanation
of this method.
will study the chaptercarefully
and solve the problems
work
in logarithmic
he will get a foundation
correctly,
that will be very helpfulin subsequentwork.
424

426

GENERAL

for
possible
powers

of

below

shows

MATHEMATICS

to work

us

10

out

equal 17.782

which

We
\Vr

can

of 10 which
know

that 10"

as

these

the student

need

1, 101

find the value


10"-5

From

10*

values

the

10, 102
follows

as

VlO

other

values

OF

fractional

1000, and

so

on.

(approx.).

in the table

POWERS

10"-5
100.75

OF

are

easilyfound,

10z

1.0000

V8.162

1.7782

VlO

3.1623

(ioi.5)2 v'31.62

5.6234

lQi-5
lOi-"

lOi

i0i

=10*

100.25

10.0000

100.5

31.623

10""-'5

"

i7.78o

56.234

10*

100.000

102.25
102-5

i0i

jO-2.75

lOi
101

iQi.25

177.82

101.5

316.23

101-75

562.34

=1000.00

10"

the solution of the

resume

above, namely,multiplying17.782

by referringto the

table

Hence, 17.782

that
x

accurate

by
=

see

to the second

problemproposed

3.162.

17.782

3.162

to the table,we
which, by referring

(thisproduct is

lQi-25

10

101

3.162 =10"-5.

The

verify.

can

now

obtained.

3.162

table

later,but it contains

100, 103

10'

may

The

integraland
this point.

at

of 10"-5

TABLE

We

3.162.

the

give us

of several

we

will

are

will be shown

complete,as
approximate values

powers

and

the different values

how

table is not

the

table which

We

can

101-25 and

101-25xlO"-5

see

that

101-78,

equal to 56.234
decimal place).

is

LOGARITHMS

427

EXERCISE

preceding result by actuallymultiplying17.782

the

Check

accurate

490.

17.782

result obtained

than

more

=101-25

decimal

two

by

Is there

actual

plication
multi-

places?

logarithms. In the tion


equaexponent 1.25 (which indicates

; notation

the
10

to which

the power
called the

Is the

to

Logarithms

difference in results.

for the

by 3.162,and account
difference
significant

for

raised to

be

must

give 17.782) is

logarithmof 17.782 to the base 10.


the logarithmof a number
is tlie
Thus
to the base 10
exponent of the power to which 10 must be raised to equal
that number.

From

now

on

shall

we

that the base

assume

The
speak of the logarithmof a number.
3 is read
the
symbol for logarithmis log.Thus, log1000
logarithmof 1000 equals3," the base 10 being understood.
is 10

when

we

"

EXERCISE

By
log 10

;" log 100

491.
well

of the table of powers

means

for

exponent.

an

two

example, in

the

thought of (a)
must

is

the

remember

to

as

be raised to

logarithmof

in Art. 489

find

log 1

log 1.78; log 316.23.

logarithm

of 10

100

the

student

thinkingof

equation102

100

will do
an

the 2

the

nent
expocan

be

of the power
to which
100 ; (b) as
; that is,102

10

exponent

equal 100
to

of

ways

The

base

10; that is,2

the

Iog10100.

EXERCISES

Read
1. 101

the
=

following in
10.

2. 102

two

100.

ways

3. 108

1000.

4. 104

10,000.

428

GENERAL

492.

Characteristic

489

Art.

MATHEMATICS

will show

; mantissa.

that each

glance at

the table of

of 10

(each logarithm
of the corresponding
numbers
to the right)may contain
an
integral
part and a fractional part. For example, in
the equation101-25 17.782 the 1.25 (thatis, log17. 782)
has 1 for its integral
part and 0.25 for its decimal (fractional)
100 the entire logarithmis integral.
part. In 102
(Why?) The integralpart of a logarithmis called the
characteristic of the logarithm,and
the decimal
part is
called the mantissa of the logarithm.
The
characteristic of a logarithmof any number
can
always be determined at sight. For example:
exponent

log10
log 100
log 1000
and

so

the

third

1, because

101

2, because

102

100

3, because

103

1000

these numbers

10 ;
;
;

all

of
integral
powers
10.
However, the characteristic of the logarithmof any
other number
be obtained as well by observingwhat
may
of 10 inclose it. For example, the characteristic
powers
of log 525 is 2 because 525 lies between
the second and

103

But

on.

powers

1000

of 10

that

are

is, between

102

100

and

(see the table,Art. 489).

It is not

the mantissas
mal
(the decieasy to determine
We
have worked
part) of the logarithmsof numbers.

out

few

so

of these in the table of Art. 489, but to compute

the mantissas
a

for all other numbers

tedious'task.
them

would

these

mantissas

powers

of 10

in this way

Moreover, the methods


be

have

(by more

in the table of mantissas

would

necessary

to

be
pute
com-

However,
beyond us in difficulty.
been computed for all the various
advanced
methods),and they appear
which

follows.

So that

now

when

429

LOGARITHMS

want

we

is,
any number
characteristic is and

the

table for the mantissa.

in the

look

then

logarithmof

what
(by inspection)

decide

we

the

what

know

to

EXERCISES

in the table

1. Look

logarithmsof

the

(pp.430-431) for

the decimal

part of

10 ; 15 ; 20 ; 38 ; 86 ; "99.

2.

What

is the decimal

3.

What

is the power

part of the logarithmof


to which

10

100

be raised to

must

produce

10,000 ?
4.

What, then, is

5.

Examine

carefullyand tellwhat
logarithms; that is,those that have

integersfor

7. Find

the

Solution.

By

and

product of
means

tells

between

where

us

0.4216

in

to

mantissas.

zero

55.
we

that

see

101-6812,

55

101-7404.

55

101-6812x 101-7404

and

have

numbers

mantissa

3d

10 ?

tells
4th

us

that the

product of

of 10 ; that

powers

48

55

is, the 3

point. We must find the mantissa


sponds
correlogarithms and see what number

put the decimal


table

the

the

decimal

48

exponent 3.4216

3 in the

number

48 and

of the table

48

Therefore

is

logarithmhave

that

The

the base

the table

will

When

6.

logarithmof 10,000 to

the

of

to it.

If

we

mantissa

look

in

the table

of mantissas

logarithm of the number


logarithm is 3, the number

of the

of the

we

find

264.

that

Now

must

0.4216

since

be

the characteristic

between

4th powers
of 10 ; that is,between
1000 and 10,000. This
that the decimal point comes
after the fourth place,so that we
and

add

cipher to

264.

Hence

the number

is 2640.

is the

the

3d

means

must

430

GENERAL

TABLE

MATHEMATICS
OF

MANTISSAS

LOGARITHMS

TABLE

OF

MANTISSAS

431

432

MATHEMATICS

GENERAL

preceding work

The

be

may

brieflyarranged as

log 48
log 55
Then

logA7
the

By

493.

table,
of

Logarithm

1.6812

1.7404

3.4216

2640.

product. The

48x55

N=

Let

follows

and

discussion

amples
ex-

problem of
of 10 there corresponds
the problem
two powers
multiplying
of adding their logarithms
(exponents). This may be stated
the first law thus: The logarithm
as
of the product
briefly
of the logarithms
of the factors;
of two numbers is the sum
loga -f-logb.
or, by formula, log(aby
It is easily
shown
that the law also holds for any number
of factors in a product; that is,logabc
loga + logb + logc,
492

in Art.

have

shown

that

to

the

and

so

on.

EXERCISES

1.

Check

by

findingthe product
2.

Find

by

numbers

(a) 10
3.

Find

plotwhose
Solution.

Hence,

the logarithmic
method
multiplication

actual

of 48 and
of

means

ing
the follow-

100

1000.

(b) 51

by using logarithmsthe
base
The

is 38 ft. and
formula

in this case,

Then

table,

area

whose

for the

log A
the

55.

logarithms the products of

log 19
log 17

By

of

"

of

(c) 83
a

of any

17.

1.2788

1.2304

2.5092

323.

2.

triangulargarden

altitude is 17 ft.

area

19

40.

triangleis

434

GENERAL

495.

order

In

of

Logarithm

by logarithmsis
methods

(a)

method

of

dividingone

the

1000, by

"

"

1UU

1U

in

as

method

useful in division

as

make

Here,

quotient. The

to

(b)

MATHEMATICS

-2=

103=

number

by

but

review

us

two

our

another.

division.

actual

the exponents.
1000, by subtracting

we
multiplication,

by either method,
operationof actual

computing
multiplication.

in

as

clear, let

of

obtain

second

the

-division to

the

result

same

method

reduces

simple problem

of

the

tracting
sub-

exponents.
EXERCISES

Find

1.

discussed

the

the

followingquotientsby

methods

two

just

100,000

1,000,000
'

1000
Divide

2.

10,000
100

by

So"*ion-

Divide

3.

We

like
10

of
a

may
manner

equal to
equal to

10

law

the

student

562.34

should

by

obtain

the

table of Art. 489.

check

31.62

the

by

by using the

quotientof

the divisor from


the

dividend.

the

logarithmof
as

division.

numbers

two

any

of the

of

of the power

of

the definition
be

expressedas

of two numbers
quotient
minus
the logarithmof

the

formula, logIT)"l"9a

in

power

in mind

is clear that this fact may

the dividend

actual

table of Art. 489.

exponent

Keeping

thus, the logarithmof

divisor ; or,

this result

by subtractingthe exponent

logarithmit

by using

The

XOTE.

31.623

1"9^

is
the

435

LOGAEITHMS

EXERCISES

1. Given

log 2

Find

0.3010, log 3

value

0.4771, find log f ; log J

the

of

following
figuresby using logarithms:
significant
2.

the

59

381

85

fractions

to

three

II3

"a" "43"
752

~^~
71

350

To

HINT.

find

the

logarfthm of

of the

factors of the numerator

of the

logarithms of

496.

division of

of the decimal
one

and

the factors

of the

Position
or

and

48

253

~"

-~

pointone

from

of the

the

sum

10 amounts

the

cation
multipli-

moving
multiplication
to

rightin

division,and

the

since

the multiplication

to
by 100 amounts
moving the decimal point two places to the rightor left,
and
the position
so
on,
of the decimal point in a number
the characteristic onli/.
whose logarithmwe are seekingaffects
The truth of the foregoingstatement
best by
be seen
can
of the table in Art. 489.
In this table,for example,
means
or

division

of

in

subtract

sum

denominator.

by

placeto

place to the left

this

point. Since

decimal

number

fraction,arid the logarithms

each

! Oo.25=1.7782,

If

we

multiplyboth
101-2B=

number

or

log1.7782

sides of this

17.782,

or

1 02.25

and

so

on.

The

177.82,

student

or

0.25.

equation by 10, we

log17.782

Again, multiplyingboth sides of

this last

log 177.82

will observe

that

get

1.25.

equation by 10,
2.25,

only the integral

part of the exponent of 10 (thelogarithmof the number)


is

changing,and

that the array of

figuresremains

the

436

GENERAL

same

the

rightafter

each

sides of

divide both

loo.*-

0.1778,

0.01778,

0.001778,

lOo.ffi-3

place to

one

like manner,
1.778

if

we

and

by 10,

obtain

100.25-2

point moves

In
multiplication.
the equation 100-25

the division,we

continue

and

decimal

the

though

even

MATHEMATICS

log0.1778

or

0.25

log 0.01778

or

or

log 0.001778

1;

0.25

0.25

2,
3,

on.

so

logarithms 0.25-1, 0.25-2, 0.25-3, etc. are


but they are
in the form in which
not
negativequantities,
However, if we adopt
.we
usuallywrite negativenumbers.
of all our
these forms, the mantissas
logarithmswill not
for the same
only be positivebut they will be the same
where the decimal point is found.
matter
no
array of figures
of log 1.778
is the same
the
Thus
the mantissa
as
shown
above.
These
mantissa
of log 0.001778, as was
two
logarithmsdiffer,therefore, only in their characteristics.
1.
In some
texts log 0.1778 is written 1.25 instead of 0.25
The

"

agree with

To
that

only the

this statement
1

is

9.25-10

instead

easilysee

that

\Ve

shall later

of 0.25-1
has

statements

1. We

or

the

dash

above

books

1.25.

may

be

the

means

form

prefer the
The

value

same

advantageof

another

precedingdiscussion

The

fortn

negative. Some

9.25"10
see

the

student
as

the form

summarized

can

0.25"1.
9.25
in

"

1 0.
two

agree

such

to

that

express

the

its mantissa

always be done, whether

logarithmof any number


shall be positive.
This

the number

is

greater or

in

can

less than

or
negativenessof
positiveness
of the characteristic.
the number
is shown
by means
entirely
2. Two
numbers
succession of digits,
containingthe same
that ?X differing
only in the positionof the decimal

unity. In

either

case

the

LOGARITHMS

logarithmsthat differonly

will have

characteristic.

This

table

of mantissas

of

number,

the

point in
both

number.

The

10

7th

This

power.

shall

downward

of the

minus

The

10~6

6th

OF

103

io-*

io4=

10,000

105

100,000

o.ooi

!
=

how

4th

than

and

to find the

three

IO7the

want

we

the

is

of

powers

or

10.

logarithm of 2142,

we

the

0.0142

1st power
far

2142

Again,
that

because

minus

10,000,000

3, because

know

we

Interpolation. So

order to be

we

1,000

io6 =1,000,000

"

498.

upward

0.1

logarithmof 0.0142,
the logarithm is "2,
2d

plus

as

range

extended

10-4-0.0001

and

the

to

10J=10

that its characteristic

minus

more

CHARACTERISTICS

0.000001

example, if

3d

of

much

is

number

any

10

and

io2=ioo

10"

the

determine

may

be

serves

unity.

logarithmof

can

10-2-0.01.'

know

decimal

following'table

power

as

table

the

to

10-5-0.00001

10-

the

of

will.

at

TABLE

For

The

student

is about

need.

ever

less than

characteristics.

the

to

value

table of mantissas

same

given in order that the


quicklythe characteristic
between

attention

no

pay

greater and

of

Table

the

in

explainswhy we called the table a


and why, in looking up the logarithm

need

we

for numbers

497.

437

have

if

we

lies between
we

want

the

characteristic of
lies

between

the

of 10.
shown

the

student

numbers
only. In
logarithmsof three-digit
of numbers
able to'find the logarithms
of more
and to find the numbers
corresponding
digits,

438

GENERAL

logarithmswhich

various

to

MATHEMATICS

for

it is necessary

table in Art. 492.

the

We

obtain

may
how

learn

to

us

we

shall

to

in

calculation,

further

make

consider

proceed to

of

use

two

typicalexamples.
logarithmof

the

Find

1.

of the
decimal
of 2316.
"

No.,"

logarithm is
down

find 23.

The

We

the

2.

To

logarithms 230, 231, 232,


logarithm of 2316. We can

Now

of the tabular

difference

Therefore

The

2.3655

2.3636

0.0019

the

0.0010

way

the

to

from

231

and

so

on.

232,

2.3636

log 231.6

2.3647.

Thus,

0.0019.

obtainingthe logarithm of a
is called interpolation.
The
student
method
by findingthe logarithmsof

number
should

practicethis
numbers.
four-digit
Find

2.

the number

Solution.

We

lying between
that

the

in the

the

know
the

decimal

3874, which

at

minus

If

3883, but
is

1st

and

we

little less

in the

that
-

0.3874

number

0.3883

"

1 is the

lies between

0.244

0.3883

table

the

tells

us

significant
figure

of Art. 492
a

fraction

This

of 10.

is

1.

"

decimal

first

several

do

we

not

find

littlegreater,and

is,

log 0.245.

log 0.244.

logarithm
and

is

0 power

3892, which

find

0.3892

Since

the

just before

look

we

logarithmis
that the number

once

point comes

number.

mantissa

whose

{'^

add

we

logarithm of 231.

log 231.6

23

write

now

to

with

row

of

process

this way

in

f'6of

is

231.6

since

mantissa

table,headed

horizontal

same

ignore the

the

of the

column

acteristic
the char-

we

for

of Art. 492

in the

difference

that

it is clear

find the mantissa,

left-hand

log 232
log 231
Tabular

497

table

numbers

to find the

want

Art.

the

in

of the

the mantissas

are

look

point and
Reading
we

table of

the

From

Solution.

231.6.

0.245.

of the
Now

number
0.3883

we
-

1 is

want,

the

T98of

the

439

LOGARITHMS
.

to the

log 0.244 to log 0.245 ; hence the


1 lies ^, or i, of
logarithm 0.3883

0.245.

Therefore

from

way

the

Here

the

number

corresponding

the

from

way

0.244

to

is 0.2445.

is used on the inverse


interpolation
its logarithmis
when
findinga number

of

process

of

problem,that
given.

desired

number

EXERCISES

1. Find

logarithms of the followingnumbers:

the

91200; 0.567;

(No interpolation.)

logarithms of

the

Find

2.

0.00741.

Find

the numbers

0.3054; 0.0212-2;
Find

4.

; 0.0878

0.8770

499.

we

showed

the

6542

(Interpolation.)

0.8457-1.

whose

2.3080; 1.936;

logarithmsare
(Interpolation.)
by

roots

the

Va

"*

that the
a

of

means

meaning

Va

a*

theorem

logarithms. In

of fractional

V"

exponents

; etc.

of Art.

raised

number

to

494, regarding
holds

power,

for

exponents, then

logVa
logv
so

numbers

that

logarithmof

fractional

and

following

logarithmsare 2.6075 : 1.4249;


(No interpolation.)

of

assume

we

whose

discussed

a*
If

2.

Extraction

Art. 460

and

numbers

the

the

0.002143.

783.4; 91243; 0.4826;


3.

745; 83.2;

on.

This

loga*
loga

-|loga,

loga,

illustrates the truth

of another

namely, that the logarithmof any root of a


divided by the
to the logarithmof the number

theorem,

number
index

is

of the

equal
root.

Thus,
Now

square

logV542
1.3670
root

^~=

logarithmof 23.28
542 is approximately23.28

is the

of

J log 542

1.3670.
Therefore

-.

"

the

440

GENERAL

If

the

logarithmof

be found

may

Find

MATHEMATICS
the

is

negative,the
followingexamples.

in the

as

number

:
by logarithms

(b) ^0.472.

(a) V0.472.
Solution.

1. Now
0.6739
Log 0.472
shall obtain
of this negativelogarithm,we
be confusing. Therefore, in
that would
to
keep the mantissa
positive and the
division)an integer,we write
=

which

number

and

which

has

the

student

if

order

it

characteristic

possible

(afterthe

1!).""73!"-20,

can

.=

characteristic

make

to

take

to

attempt

we

fractional

readilysee
advantage referred

the added

(a) log Vo.472

(c) -V/O472.

"

log0,172
a

root

is

equal to

to

above.

(19.6739

20)

9.8369

0.6739

We

1,

"

get

now

10.

In like manner,

and

In

(b) log V

0.472

i (29.6739

30)

9.8913

(") log v

0.472

J (39.6739

40)

9.9185

(a),above, logVo.472

the characteristic is "1

By reference

1, the number

of 10

hence

V0.472

10.

This

that 0.8369

Since

687.

the minus

pointcomes

student

The

the
actuallyextracting

given in

find

table,we

the decimal

10,

means

that the mantissa

lies between

0.687.

and

logarithmof

of the
-

the

to

-10.

9.8369

square

is the

tissa
man-

1st and

the 0 power
justbefore the 6, and

of 0.472

root

is 0.8369.

the characteristic is

check

should

that

this result

by

by

the method

Art. 446.
EXERCISES

1.

Find

by logarithms :
V9604

V153.76

^42"75;
2.

Given

value

"

the

4.25,ft

of

V0.000529

A/10648

^0.001728.
-v/3.375
;
22.1,and

0.05,find by logarithms

72

\|"

to three

significant
figures.

442

GENERAL

The

10.

for

second

where
head

In

For

NOTE.

thus

is the

equation x
y

"

Fill in the

*12.

Art.

1?

if

30.24

2 ? when

"

piston
of

115

of

Ib.

when

!?

equationx

the table

equaling ^, ^, 2^, etc., use

per

pressure

value

?/=

for the

the

in. and

is the

what

"W1J
y

followingtable

=10?/.

of mantissas,

492.

Plot the results in the table of Ex. 12 and

13.

obtainingthe'graph for

FIG.

that

300.

Show

the

negativenumber
logarithm.
(a)

lO2'

GRAPH

graph
:
followingprinciples

*14.

the

when

in inches

(ininches)over which
of pounds of
number

cylinder.Find

the

0 ? when

the distance

and

in the

*11.

steam

denotes

moves,

steam

v of the
pistonhead
velocity
engine is given by the formula

average
a

MATHEMATICS

for

OF

does not

(ory

"

draw

the curve,

logx) (Fig.300).

=10^

have

(Fig.300) makes

clear

real number

for its

443

LOGARITHMS

is positive
or
(b) The logarithm of a positivenumber
tive
negais greater or less than 1.
accordingas the number
(c) The greater the value of x, the greater its logarithm.
(d) As x gets smaller and smaller,its logarithm decreases
smaller

becomes

and

*15.

Find

by

and

the

smaller.

graph

of

Ex.

the

13

logarithm of 2.25;

of 4.5 ; of 1.1 ; of 2.8.

*J6. Of what
Check

*17.

given in
*

500.

number

the

results for Exs.

your

the table

is 0.35

logarithm?
15

and

16

0.5?

by

0.42?

the results

of Art. 492.

Exponential equations. Instead of findingthe logarithm

of 1000

to the base

10, we

could

arrive

at the

same

1000, for this equaby solvingthe equation10r


tion
of 10 equals 1000?
asks the question,What
power
In other words, What
is the logarithmof 1000
to the
base 10 ? An
is
equationlike this,in which an unknown
involved in the exponent, is called an exponential
equation.
result

EXERCISE

Give
the

five

of

examples

exponentialequations where

10

is

base.

*501.

Method

of

solving exponential equations. The

plest
sim-

exponentialequations may be solved by inspection


be given by
can
justas the logarithmsof many numbers
be
an
inspection.Where
exponentialequation cannot
solved readily
by inspection,
logarithmsmay be employed
will illustrate each case.
the process.
We
to simplify
Solution

(a)

If 2X

(by inspection).
=

4, then

(b)If3a;=

9, then*

(c) If 2V
(,1)Tf 3*

8, then

81, then

(e)

2.

(f)IflOj;=
(g) If 10"

"/ =

3.

4.

If 10?'

2.

100, then
1000, then
10,000, then

y
x

2.
3.
4.

444

MATHEMATK

GENERAL

Solution

II

the

Solve

(by using logarithms).

equation 2X

the

Taking

\S

6 for

both

logarithms of
log 2X

or

log 2

x.

log 6,

log 6.

0"2

!2"e

sides

log 2

2 58

0.3010
G.

The

student

remember

must

that

The

-"

first is

fraction

is not

"

equal

to

log2
obtained by dividingone

log

^"

logarithmby another, and involves division ; the second


indicates that the logarithmof a fraction is to be found,
and

involves

subtraction.
EXERCISE

Solve

the

(a) 2X
502.

following
equationsfor
(b) 3X

7.

Interest

(c) 4*

5.

10.

(d) (1.12)*
=

Some

problems solved by logarithms.

3.

portant
im-

of
problems in interest may be solved by means
exponential equations and logarithms. The
following
simple example will illustrate the principle:
In how

years will a
many
if the interest is compounded
Solution.
will

amount

will

be

will be
the

In

one

be

1.06

year

(1.06)3;and

x
so

Then,
(1.06)3'.

conditions

of the

$1

of money

sum

(1.06)2
;

annually) in

sum

about

in

three

years

years

the

if the

money

is to

problem

will

$1.06 ;

in

(1.06)'* 2. Solving this equation


Therefore

to

Therefore

on.

of money
12.3 yr.

itself at

6%

annually?

will amount

1.06, or

double

will

be

we

get

years

itself at

6%

the

the

amount

amount

of

itself in

representedby

for x,

double

double

in two

the

12.3

$1

years,

equation
(approx.).

(compounded

LOGARITHMS

445

EXERCISES

solution of the

1.

Explain the

2.

If the interest is

will

how

In

3.

interest

4^
4.

The

compounded annually,in

many

will

years

of P

dollars

annually,is given by the


of $1200 for 10 yr.
amount
In this

how

many

3|-%? 4%

years
?

5%

treble itself at

of money

sum

1200,

compounded
"/"%,
.1 =P(1 +/")". Find
the

log 1.04
log A
A

Therefore

at

years

0.04,n

10.

0.04)"

follows

arranged as

log 1200
10

4%.

at

1200(1

be

computationmay

for

formula

problem
^

The

3%

Art. 502.

compounded annually? semiannually?

amount

Solution.

itself at

double

of money

sum

problem given in

3.0792

0.1700

3.2492

1775, number

of

dollars

the

in

amount.

NOTE.
we

As

of fact,this value

matter

using only four-placetables.

are

should

problem
number

of

of the

result.

the

determine

placesgiven

in

$5000

5.

What

6.

Approximately

will

kind

of A

In

is not

practice the value

of tables used.

tin' tables

exact, because

used,

in

the

The

greater

5 yr.

greater
the

3%,
compounded annually? semiannually? quarterly?

would

this

placedon
7.

years

Island

amount

interest at

What

if it had

$24

would
been

ago ?

to

at

6%' and

he

placed

the
on

to

hundred

three

Manhattan

purchased

amount

from

the Indians

at

interest

the

ago
for

Dutch

$24.

present time if it had


compounded annually?
of

annual

10

at

the

compound

the

accuracy

the

amount

3%

years

of the

What
been

present time
interest

tifty

446

GENERAL

MATHEMATICS

boy deposited300 in a savingsbank on 3% interest,


the interest to be compounded annually.He forgotabout his
deposit until fifteen years later,when he found the receipt
to in
covering the originaldeposit.What did the 300 amount
A

8.

the fifteen years


9. What

?
will amount

sum

to

$1600

in 10 yr. at

6%,

interest

$ 2500

in 5 yr. at

3%,

interest

being compounded annually?


What

10.

will amount

sum

to

being compounded annually?


In how

11.

interest
12.

years

will

$4000

amount

to

$8500

at

6%,

being compounded annually?

What

nineteen

many

would

hundred

be

the

amount

and

to-day of 1 cent
placed on
ago was

twenty years
at 6%, compounded annually ? Find
sphere of gold which has this value.
cubic

foot

radius

interest

in miles

of

gold weighs 1206 pounds avoirdupois,


one
pound being worth approximately $290.
V
where
The
volume
of a sphere is given by the formula
3 irr3,
and r the radius of the sphere.
V is the volume
NOTE.

the

which

of

arithm
pupil is convinced of the value of logdevice in complicatedarithmetic
as
a
labor-saving
opportunities
computations.Since he will meet numerous
for applications,
the lists of problems in the chapter are
brief,the aim being to give justenough illustrations to
involved.
clear the meaning of the principles
make
No

doubt

HISTORICAL

the

NOTE.

Logarithms

were

invented

by

John

Napier

His greatest purpose


in Scotland.
(1550-1617),baron of Merchiston
in studying mathematics
to simplifyand
was
systematizearithmetic,
algebra,and trigonometry. The student should read about Xapier's
and
"rods," or "bones," which he designed to simplifymultiplication
division
(EncyclopaediaBritannica, llth ed.).
that led him
desire to simplifythe processes
It was
his earnest
to invent
logarithms; and, strange as it may seem, he did not consider
a logarithmas
an
exponent. In his time the theoryof exponents was

LOGARITHMS
A

Swiss

conceived

the

the

447
of Jobst

Biirgi(1552-1632)may
have
logarithms as early or earlier than
lish
Napier and quite independently of him, but he neglected to pubknown
all over
his results until after Napier'slogarithms were
known.

not

by

idea

name

of

Europe.
Henry Briggs (1561-1630),who, in Napier'stime, was professorof
interested
College,London, became
geometry in Gresham
very much
and
in Napier's work
paid him a visit. It is related that upon
observingeach other
Briggs's arrival he and Napier stood speechless,
for almost
a
quarter of an hour. At last Briggs spoke as follows :
this long journey purposelyto see your
My lord, I have undertaken
and to know
by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came
person,
of this most
excellent
first to think
help in astronomy, namely, the
logarithms,but, my lord, being by you found out, I wyonder nobody
known
it is so easy."
found it out before, when
now
After
this visit Briggs and
to have
the
seen
Napier both seem
of
usefulness
a table of logarithmsto the base
10, and Briggs devoted
of such tables. For this reason
himself to the construction
logarithms
often called Briggsianlogarithms.
to the base 10 are
Abbott
for diversion,
Napoleon had a few moments
says that when
book
of logarithms,which
he always
he often spent them
over
a
"

recreational.

found

Miller

in*his

(p.70) says

saved

Historical

"The

It would

Introduction

fact that these

be difficult to estimate
and

to

Mathematical

logarithms had

explainstheir great

for all time

only once
world.

"

the

value

to

to be

the

computed

intellectual

amount

enormous

ture
Litera-

of time

through the use of logarithm tables


alone."
(For further reading see Cajori's"History of Elementary
also the New
Consult
International
Mathematics," pp. 155-167.
clopedi
Cyby

astronomers

which

contains

others

great deal of

excellent

historical

material.)

SUMMARY

503.

This

504.

The

ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followwords
and phrases: logarithm,
characteristic,
mantissa,
and exponentialequation.
interpolation,

been

theory and practicalvalue


discussed in as elementarya way

of
as

logarithmshas
possibleso that

448

the

GEN

student

KKA

able

be

may

This

505.

of

value

this

the

taught

student

four

tant
impor-

formulas
:

ab

log

the

appreciate

to

has

chapter

logarithmic
(a)

'S

device.

labor-saving

powerful

MATHEMATK

log

log

b*

(c)

log

(d)

log

au

log

a.

"

(b)

log

log

b.

log

"

Va

"
=

"

The

506.

depends
of

entirely

the

of
of

mantissa

the

positive;
507.

508.

problems
problem.

This

the

the

and

exponential

The

student

by

logarithm

of

means

the

mantissa.

same

number

is

either

or

always
"

of

methods

taught

solving

rithmic
loga-

equations.
has

of

be

may

logarithm
having

the

result

any

the

numbers

have

has

of

two

will

characteristic

in

point

characteristic

digits

chapter

decimal

Thus,

sought.

succession

The

the

upon

number

same

of

position

been

logarithms,

taught
for

how

to

example,

solve
the

verbal
interest

450

GENERAL
of

Mantissas
we

or

from

two

logarithmsof

have seen,

as

1000

MATHEMATICS

the

are

numbers

from

for numbers

same

10,000) are laid off to a


rule (seeFig.301) which are
to

piecesof

1 to 10

from

100

certain

made

to

(which,
to

1000

scale
slide

on

by

nr

FIG.

each other
be

can

The
mark

so

tliat the

obtained

301.

sums

SLIDE

KUL.K

differences of the

or

logarithms

mechanically.

scale is numbered

1 to 10 at the

from

pointswhich

the

mon
logarithmsof the several numbers used. The comscale is 5 in. long and the common
rule 10 in. long,so
is put on twice,and the numberthat the series of logarithms
ing
either repeatedfor the second set or continued from 10

FIG.

to 100.

The

Slide Rule.

most

On

common

302

form

this rule,which

of the rule is the Mannheim


is made

as shown
essentially
in Figs.302 and 303, there are two scales A and B justalike
and two
other scales,
(A on the rule and B on the slide),
C and D, justalike (Z" on
the rule and C on the slide).

The
scales A

student
and

will note
is the

same

that the distance


as

from

the distance from

1 to 2

on

2 to 4 and

451
4 to 8.

from

1 to 2

This

of the slide B,

means
or

4.

on

In

like manner,

scale B

shall obtain
C

and

unit

if

twice

add

we

product 4

differ from

the distance from

1 to 2

shall obtain the

we

the distance

to

the

add

we

to the distance from

scale B

on

that if

means

2,

from

scale A,

on

to
we

8.

or

by

product 2x2,

distance

1 to

from

and

the

scale A

on

in

being graduated to

large as the unit to which A and B are


the logarithmof
graduated,so that the lengthrepresenting
a
given number on C and D is twice as long as the