MATHEMATICS
BY
RALEIGH
IN
CHARGE
OF
SCHORLING
THE
MATHEMATICS,
COLLEGE,
LINCOLN
YORK
NEW
SCHOOL
OF
TEACHERS
CITY
AND
DAVID
WILLIAM
TEACHERS'
OF
TRAINING
COURSE
ANI"
EDUCATION,
IN
HEAD
THE
THE
BOSTON
ATLANTA
2883
"
"
IN
MATHEMATICS
OF
THE
NEW
DALLAS
"
MINNESOTA
COLUMBUS
17150
m
CHICAGO
"
"
SAN
COLLEGE
MENT
DEPART
COMPANY
AND
"
THE
SCHOOL
HIGH
OF
YORK
IN
MATHEMATICS
UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY
GINN
REEVE
LONDON
FRANCISCO
1919,
COPYRIGHT,
RALEIGH
SCHORLING
DAVID
WILLIAM
AND
ALL,
BY
RESERVED
RIGHTS
819.11
7171
gtbenaum
GINN
COMPANY
AND
BOSTON
"
"
"
PRIETORS
PROU.S.A.
REEVE
"''A
PREFACE
The
is
follows
as
of this book,
purpose
:
obtain
to
introductory mathematics
informed citizens of
achievements
the
expressionas
should possess.
situation.
There
wood"
of
measure
is still
in this text.
attained.
large
very
material
The
well
It is, of
desires
our
in
to
serve
democracy
not
are
of deud
factor
scholarlycourse
vital,modern
that may
introduction,
the
not
the
impliedin
thinking and
quantitative
training in
course,
as
Our
to
"
prove
im
safety
purposes
of algebra,
principles
presentsuch simple and significant
drawing, and statistics,
geometry, trigonometry,practical
to
along with
the
subjects,
few
modal
is here
and
to
The
an
attempt
here
some
in
1. The
work
in
this work
followingserve
man
and
to
use.
There
current
attempts
to
conventional
cations
rigorousappli(more accurately
teach
to
instruction
brieflyhow
the average
likelyto remember
for
argument
enumerate
The
as
them
discipline
stated
be
is
man)
and
involving numerous
whole
of arithmetic,
the
of other mathematical
elementary notions
it will
of
matics
secondarymathe
practiceand
to
helpful to
be
improve
to
indicate
the
situation.
and
program
firstyear
algebracourse
terized
is charac
drill
by excessive formalism; and there is much
largelyon nonessentials. The excessive formalism is
GENERAL
iv
MATHEMATICS
of
crowding
traditional geometry
the
into
course
one
difficulties of
year,
geometry
the
structi
in
precedethe formal
and the relations are taughtinductively
course,
by experiment
and by measurement.
Many foreignschools and an
of American
this
schools proceed on
increasingnumber
basis. This givesthe pupilthe vocabulary,
commonsense
ideas of geometry.
the symbolism,and the fundamental
If the pupilleaves school or drops mathematics, he nevertheless
has an effective organization
of geometricrelations.
is
On
he
concentrate
"
spreadover
that
course,
and
the years
many
can
on
the formal
work
far
formal
geometry
because
he can
effectively
of space relations
the logical
organization
expressionof these relations. The longer
minimizes
the difficulties met in beginning
more
"
time
exposure
the
traditional
geometry
courses
and
avoids
the
mistake
of
containing many
of
problems,furnishes
Other
delay.
examples
of function, the
good
found
are
logarithms,the
of
use
this
real
easy
in
ample
ex
the
graphical
construction
common
of precisemeasurement,
practicaldrawing, the motivation
in modern
a study of the
importance of measurement
It appears
life,and the introductoryideas of the calculus.
of
the
that
student
mathematics
should
be
given
an
tunity
oppor
these
use
The
of statistics.
makes
of
articles
demand
read
thingsin
order
that
logarithms and
that
an
the
the
devices
practical
laborsaving
function
in
everyday
life
may
in
the
or
of
and
student's
in
the
life. Brief
have
rule
greater number
of method.
differences
make
course,
the
needs
in order
and
in which
be
we
effective devices
study
of
more
The
sively
exten
so
mathematics
chapters on
introduced
use
may
Actual
proved
for
these
whether
classroom
them
to
be
eighthgradeand
reorganized on
now
in
subsequent work,
classroom.
to
information
The
been
students
reader
methods.
magazines
current
life
slide
the
social
our
intelligentgeneral
everyday things of
common,
order
in
of
of statistical
notions
elementary
hundreds
the
that
it necessary
possess
the
growing complexity
possess
the
side
of individual
supervisedstudy should
more
nearly a laboratory
in
effective work
can
be
done.
vi
(i
KN
M ATI
1 KM
AT1CS
teachingof algebra,
geometry,
5. The
separatefields
in
KJ{ A L
permit the
with
that correlate
sciences
an
artificial arrangement
or
trigonometry
that does not
of
solution
easy
of
is
and
problems concerningprojects
logical
problems met in the physicaland biothe manual
and fine arts. To rejectthe
demands
of
logical
of
unit in geometry, and to present the simpleprinciples
of mathematics
in the introductory
the various branches
course
opens the door to a greatervarietyof problemsthat
The pupilsees the usefulness
to be real applications.
seem
of the various modes
of treatment
of the facts of quantity.
Power
is gained because the pupil is equipped with more
formalism
of the most
of attack is not
curious
limited to
one
field.
characteristics of American
instruction
is the obscurity
in the
secondarymathematics
teaching of the function notion. It is generallyagreed
that functional thinking(thedependence of one magnitude
fundamental
another) constitutes one of the most
upon
notions
the
of mathematics.
equation,the formula,
Because
of the
interrelations
the function,the
graph,and
of
the
PREFACE
traditional
7. The
styleof
the
to
misleadinglength of
taught in
school
In the
in this
grade, five
recitations
also
Minnesota
and
have
which
possibilities
and
cooperatingteachers
;
remainder
in the ninth
(it was
(2)
used
so
be
started
achieved
good
may
in
in the
results
of the
teachers
other
familiar
than
the
David
material.
In
Professors
be
to
Smith
Eugene
Nunn,
obliged to
point out
our
thinking we
Smith,
who
such
errors
as
per
the
week
pupils
for
books
indebted
to
are
reasons
stories
Professor
historical
indebted
particularly
may
Myers.
think
We
it worth
still exist.
THE
and
of human
of the wellknown
are
is
consciously,the
Something
Breslich, and
all teachers
and
which
questions relatingto
on
daily
work.
stimulate
these
with
We
with
material
taken
been
by relatingsome
of great mathematicians.
authors
the
by
eighth year
where
obligationsinvolved.
interest is added
which
given
has
it
following are
previous arithmetic
are
taught
schools
recitations
three
and
taught
eighthyear
in the
being chieflyto
become
to
seventh
stock
common
however,
purpose,
Lincoln
in
tested
in the
with
year,
the
Specificreferences
not
(1)
recitations
it will be
the
years
result
hundred
In
is
easilybe
schools
week.)
been
The
can
one
high
eighth
earlyyears.
age.
book
The
per
matics
mathe
rigidlymathematical,
less
typicalhigh school
(The
seventh
in the
approximately
first year.
the
pupils
the book.
in the
made
has
texts
pupils'mental
of
year
sixty recitations.
control
for
book, though
nearly adapted
more
is
this
of
reticence
unnecessarilydifficult
The
vii
AUTHORS
to
shall
while
CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAPTER
I.
THE
EQUATION
Solving
of
Translation
Solution
equation
an
of
12
equation
an
16
problems
verbal
21
Axioms
II.
LINEAR
EQUATION
THE
MEASUREMENT.
APPLIED
TO
26
LENGTH
Different
Squared
Sum
of
of
units
28
length
32
paper
two
segments
geometric
PROPERTIES
44
ANGLES
OF
for
Notation
of
angles
angles
Measuring
of
Comparison
Geometric
50
; the
54
protractor
drawing
56
angles
angles
addition
Parallel
47
reading angles
Measurement
IV.
36
Polygons
III.
addition
and
subtraction
of
61
angles
lines
How
to
THE
EQUATION
68
construct
70
parallelogram
AREA
TO
APPLIED
74
Formula
78
for
Formula
Geometric
the
of
area
79
parallelogram
of
interpretation
products
85
Algebraic multiplication
The
V.
accuracy
THE
of
EQUATION
Measurement
Formula
59
for
the
89
result
APPLIED
of
volume
the
volume
93
VOLUME
TO
98
99
of
rectangular
ix
parallelepiped
99
.
GE^'EKAL
MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER
PAGE
for the
Formula
of
volume
cube
102
102
Exponents
to geometric figures
principles
Applicationof algebraic
.
VJ.
EQUATION
THE
APPLIED
FUNDAMENTAL
TO
ANGLE
Ill
RELATIONS
The
of
all the
of
sum
about
angles
point
of all the
Vertical
112
angles about
THE
The
plane
119
relatingto parallellines
TO
APPLIED
of the
sum
interior
126
....
TRIANGLE
THE
130
....
131
angles
.
angles of
of
construction
POSITIVE
135
.
139
triangle
triangles
NEGATIVE
AND
113
122
theorems
EQUATION
Exterior
VIII.
116
Right triangle
The
angles
Important
VII.
side
one
on
straightline
point in
Supplementary angles; supplement
Complementary angles
Sum
105
142
NUMBERS.
ADDITION
AND
SUBTRACTION
150
,
Use
of
151
signs
Geometric
Geometric
representationof positivenumbers.
representationof negative numbers
Origin
.
153
.
Algebraic addition
Subtraction
162
illustrated
by
the
number
scale
170
....
Algebraic subtraction
of
Subtraction
IX.
POSITIVE
AND
AND
DIVISION.
Law
of
171
173
polynomials
NEGATIVE
NUMBERS.
MULTIPLICATION
FACTORING
illustration
Geometric
178
of law
signs illustrated by
of
178
signs
balanced
bar
of
signs in
Factoring
152
division
180
182
.
192
195
198
CONTENTS
xi
CHAPTER
PAGE
between
Distinction
Use
X.
identityand
factoring in identities
of
for
REPRESENTATION
GRAPHICAL
GRAPH
LINEAR
OF
204
equation
calculatingareas
STATISTICS;
OF
205
THE
EQUATION
214
Pictograms
Practice
How
in
to construct
Practice
How
214
bar
222
224
diagram
in
231
interpreting
graphic curves
is drawn
the. graphic curve
233
distribution
Normal
257
Symmetry of a curve
cost relations
Graph of constant
Graphs of linear equations
XI.
CONTROL
GAINING
OF
INTERPRETATION
262
263
FORMULA;
THE
GRAPHICAL
FORMULAS
OF
Solving a formula
Graphical illustration
259
273
276
of
problem
motion
283
288
....
formula
290
FUNCTION
299
Graph of a
Solving the
Direct
XIII.
287
....
function
301
function
set
equal to
304
zero
variation
Graphing
direct
Graphing
inverse
SIMILARITY;
305
variation
308
variation
CONSTRUCTION
OF
...
SIMILAR
mean
proportional
Fourth
proportionalconstruction
Verbal
problems
solved
of
Proportionality
areas
by proportion
314
.
......
of
311
.
TRIANGLES
Construction
317
.
319
322
332
334
336
341
'
GENERAL
xii
MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER
XIV.
PAGE
SCALE
MEASUREMENT;
INDIRECT
DRAWINGS;
ONOMETRY
TRIG345
righttriangles
Similar
Trigonometric
of
Table
Verbal
XV.
:;.",:,
ratios
:;f"!t
trigonometricratios
361
trigonometry problems
362
THEORY
APPLICATION
AND
LINEAR
SIMULTANEOUS
OF
EQUATIONS
367
solution
Graphic
369
methods
Algebraic
for
solving
simultaneous
linear
373
equations
XVI.
Summary
of methods
Classified
verbal
GEOMETRIC
The
OF
390
Pythagoras
397
of
root
square
of
another
exponents
and
roots
INTERPRETATION
POWERS
Constructing the
Fractional
384
ALGEBRAIC
AND
theorem
379
problems
AND
ROOTS
of elimination
number
404
....
of
means
indicating
412
powers
*
XVII.
424
LOGARITHMS
....
"
Logarithms
427
defined
,
443
Exponential equations
Interest
XVIII.
XIX.
THE
SLIDE
Verbal
problems
The
to
by
solved
by
slide rule
455
.
the
slide rule
QUADRATIC
FUNCTIONS;
solve
of the
means
458
462
EQUATIONS
465
.
467
parabola
More
Maxima
INDEX
449
.
found
roots
QUADRATIC
444
by logarithms
RULE
Square
How
solved
problems
powerful methods
and
minima
of
solving quadraticequations
determined
algebraically
471
479
.
481
INTRODUCTION
The
mathematics
the
is
part of
of
materials
serviceable.
and
that
provide
to
movement
The
the
of
work
of
the
these
be
the
grades
of
asserted, first,that
instead
of
waste
in
like,which
to
into
early
to
the
of
get
do
not
science
of
futile
socialize
and
revitalize
from
have
time
of
of
of
its
time
the
their
lead
this
to
real
all
of
meaning
work
abstract
meaningless
the
careers
with
great
;
juggling
number
it also
into
the
in
important
of
wastes
especial ability
early insight
mathematics.
anything
in
scope
and
of
pupils
that
matics
matheforced
are
in
difficult
and
the
mathematics.
fails
symbolism
pupils
time
the
time
Secondly,
applications, they
on
to
teaching
induce
to
attempt
mathematicians.
idea
an
range
of
needs
pupils
an
reorganization
secondarymathematics
by
deal
down"
by "shoving
The
as
The
possess.
thirdly, that
meet
part
great
problems
And,
in mathematics
college
wide
life
grades.
giving pupils
the
to
human
should
so.
order
American
technical
and
to
in
characterized
become
or
should
years
of
knowledge
year
nation
determi
significant experiences
such
liberalized
be
a
these
school
democracy
cannot
authorities
Competent
to
of
fundamental
more
been
other
material
mathematics
has
and
citizens
conventional
must
of
ing
makconcrete
more
expresses
ninth
and
general
toward
education
education
introduction
the
enlightened
of
in
course
movement
secondary
eighth,
seventh,
enriched
all
in
trend
be
by
extensive
an
study
introductory
an
and
who
effort
subject,
power
go
rather
on
who
of
the
ought
the
real
xiv
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
experiencethat
human
proper
Action
is forced
by
the
demand
of the
time
effort
given
and
each
subjectand
justification
each
item
in
the
"
that
this
program
pupil may
because
be
the
raises
"
difficulties.
administrative
no
elimination
of
material
which
in
algebra,
time
wastes
The
and
ing
possiblethe emphasizing of the topicsconcernThe
which
there is general agreement.
supplementary
from
the other subjectsconstitutes a
material which is drawn
for further study in these fields ; for example, the
preparation
text gives the pupil the vocabulary,the symbolism, and many
of the
This
ideas
type
of
plane geometry.
of
course
introductory
educator
because
of
number
should
appeal to
of other
the
features.
gressive
pro
The
alized
teachingis followed throughout. Rationhas been
The
drills are provided in abundance.
course
in mimeographed form
used
by experienced teachers. Scores
of prospectiveteachers
have
found
the treatment
simple and
"
problem method"
of
Inexperienced teachers
and
have
taught the
have
Pupilsfollowingthis course
easy to present.
difficult situations
have
gone
material
made
out
with
into
faction.
satis
better progress
INTRODUCTION
pupils followingthe
than
manifest
teachers
and
will
authors
material.
such
be
repliedthat enough
to
convince
The
in which
world
and
seen
in the
if
them,
to
what
they
their
compare
the
using
the
students
same
pleting
com
that
unbiased
pupils
when
of them
and
understand
to
one
enable
to
as
more
enables
the
raised
will do
course
and
both,
prepared by
in other institutions
question is
If the
seldom
tests
situations
own
obtained
those
with
The
teachers
for
time
save
and
course,
of interest
mathematics.
in
ordinary class
traditional
degree
xv
to
is that
with
deal
such
the
course
quantitative
he lives.
in
course
aspect. It is
school
teachers
and
as
of real
potent
have
result
are
and
encouraging
become
of their
students
preparing their
the
as
teaching situations,
evidence
textbooks
own
of
outcome
that
own
highteaching,
in the midst
conintelligent
'structive experimentation.
Probably
very
such
publicationto
authors
the
the
books
thorough
have
been
tests
of
subjectedprevious to
teaching
situations.
The
for many
During
shaping this course
years.
last three years the manuscript as originally
accepted by
publishershas been taught in mimeograph form to more
than
have
few
been
schools,among
High
thousand
School
School, Seward
High School,
(small town),
Numerous
Owatonna
and
the
consultations
High
Lincoln
with
School, Mabel
School
the
of
teachers
High
Teachers'
in
these
School
College.
schools
xvi
GENERAL
resulted
in
valuable
many
the
making
toward
of
Each
than
have,
supervised
ten
had
may
which
have
unusual
be
opportunities
regarded
shows
seemed
in
most
by
in
and
courses,
fellow
organization
secondary
public
teachers
many
teachertraining
taught
large
contributed
directly
teachable.
easily
has
in
years
which
suggestions
text
authors
the
more
MATHEMATICS
each
for
free
teachers
and
and
mathematics
private
training
during
schools.
They
have
taught
they
of
most
this
time
experimentation.
of
The
mathematics
subject
as
the
matter
OTIS
D.
W.
COFFMAN
CALDWELL
things
useful.
LOTUS
for
has
text
report
that
GENERAL
letter
let the
to
MATHEMATICS
represent
the
number
of
of
ounces
Just
the
as
from
taken
are
ounces
number
each
if the
same
so
may
pan,
ive
number
of
subtract
the
both aides
from
be. arrangedthus:
f number
Let
to
J.
^
Then
in
of
of
ounces
weight
.,
the
bag
of
candy.
10
4=4
Subtracting4
from
of the
member
each
"I
equation,J
the
precedingproblem
number
same
the
equation,
is obtained.
be
oz.
illustrates the
subtracted
remainders
that if
principle
equal;
Law]
[Subtraction
are
of
an
that is,another
equation
numbers
following
EXERCISES
Find
the value
equations,doing
of the
all you
unknown
in the
orally
can
1.
6.
4.
or
+ 11
2.
10.
5.
3.
l3.
6.
z+9
13
=
18.
7.
10
27.
23.
8.
14
21.
9.
f 33
44.
26.
THE
importance of
2. The
attack
which
its
equation. The
equation is
matical
solvingproblems in the matheof
method
sciences. The equation givesus a new
on
a
problem,enablingus to solve many problems
if not impossible,
would
be very difficult,
without
use.
3. Method
making
of
studying
study of
some
laws
will
be
more
article
laws
the
to
shall continue
we
which
in connection
apply the
complicatedand
easy
of the
nature
equation. In
very
mastered
are
the
the
clearlyunderstand
the
the
for
important tool
very
EQUATION
consideringa problem
in
are
with
involved.
sidering
con
may
If these
the
simple cases, it
equationas a tool for solving
difficult problems. In the next
to interpretthe equation by
weighing.
gether
weights,toequal but unknown
with a 1pound weight,justbalance a 16pound and
gether
a 1pound weight to(Fig,2). How
known
heavy is each unweight?
Let
equal the
p
number
of pounds in
one
Two
Law.
4. Division
of the unknown
weights.Supposethat
1 Ib. be removed
each pan,
DOUnds
from
leaving*2p
in
the
left
FIG.
T(?
2. THE
ILLUSTRATE
THE
THE
pan
balancingthe
SCALES
BALANCED
SUBTRACTION
DIVISION
LAW
MAT
USED
UK
LAW
AND
i
maining
re
the
GENERAL
the
the
rightpan). By
in the
be written
may
MATHEMATICS
of the
use
followingbrief
f This
"
"
member,
Dividing each
is
translation
of the
sentence
of the tirst
problem.
"1
Subtracting1 from
each
form:
member
"
of the
equation by 2,
p=8.
that if both members
problem illustrates the principle
number
of an equationare divided by the name
ing
(excluddivision by zero, to be explainedlater),
the quotients
are
equal;that is,another equationis obtained. [Division
Law~\
This
EXERCISES
Find
of
value
the
the
unknown
you
orally:
can
12.
16.
13.
14 k +
17.
14.
15.
15x40.5
16.
11
17.
1.3y
18.
11 y
19.
1.1
20.
2.3x
49.
21.
6.3
116.
22.
5.3x40.34
2.
3x
3.
4.
3*47
5.
6.
9s
4 21
7.
2y
8.
5 y 4 3
9.
4x43.2=15.2.
10.
6^44
11.
9e +
passes
the
over
62.
93.
l=S.
=
15.
4j
79.
9.
26.
16.
33.
121.
50.
4 2.4
15.
2.99.
5. Addition
that
28.
4 7
^2 13.
9.
1.
Law.
In
EQUATION
THE
makes
arrangement
which
different from
problem
If there
considered.
have
we
the
were
no
the
two
ment,
pulleyattach
the
"
is 5z2
stringbe
as
to
the
li
18.
cut
so
the upward
remove
pullof 2 Ib.,
then
a
2pound
be
weight must
added to the right
to
keep the
pan
scales
balanced,for
removing the
pull of
a
us
gave
ward
upFIG.
3.
IN
CASE
THIS
2 Ib.
THE
SCALES
ADDITION
THE
ILLUSTRATE
LAW
ward
down
pullin
than
we
.
.
_
Adding
2 to both
Dividing both
This
members,
members
"
"
/ This
expresses
may
the
\. originalconditions.
20
by 5,
problem
illustrates the
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
Find
value
the
all you
doing
5
10.
2.
a;
15
3. 3
a;
12
4. 3.r8
12 y
6.
4 1
7.
19,4i
8.
lly9
9.
56
13.
13.
9c
3.2
13.
14.
7 *
15.
14 A
16.
2 y
17.
0.5
18.
1=61
79.
19.
3cc9l
17.r".
0.9.
20.
9.77.5
73.5.
4yf
7j.
21.
1.5
a;
11.
7*
26.
22.
1.6
x
46.
14f
Solving
16.
0.1
10.
6.
35
16
check
equation ;
an
y +
Then
To
8 be the
"3
the unknown
5 +
reduce
When
8.
same
number
5, and
number
the
to
"
number
in
illustrate
3.2.
4.5.
3
The
21.
3.1

root.
5.7.
14.8.
41.
1.5.
1.7
1.5.
process
of
equation
an
equation.
the
check,the
test,or
problem,
12m
17.
5.
in each
12.
number
orally:
can
1.
unknown
of the
equation
correctness
is said
to
of the
be solved.
result
replace
taining
originalequationby 5, obof the equation
both members
in the
Since
number,
is
the result y
put in place of
5 is correct.
literal number
it
When
number
both
for certain
equationis
y +
sides of
values
said to be
5.
an
equationreduce
of
the
unknown
Thus,
satisfied.
to
the
same
number, the
the
satisfies
tion
equa
EQUATION
THE
that
number
satisfies
equation is
an
of
root
the
equation.
Thus, 5 is
HISTORICAL
NOTE.
of Mohammed
The
found.
The
See
equation
an
Ball's "A
equationz
word
Abu
ibn Musa
of
root
of the
root
Jafar
(likethe
Short
"
"root
8.
AlKhwarizmi
of
root
History of
in the
first appears
algebra
(about
830).
A.D.
plant) is hidden
Mathematics,"
until
p. 163.
EXERCISES
"
Solve the
the results
1.
5y+3=18.
5.
26
2.
7z4=17.
6.
7x3x
3.
7.
5*
8.
7m
a;
4. 3a
7.
1.3
2.7.
4.5=7.5.
Terms;
monomial;
order
of
of the number
number.
+14
3f
Thus,
2 a\ 3 b. A
parts of
3 b
number
oneterm
an
(" ) signsare
and
7.1.
3j.
The
minus
3.1
=15.
9
"
and
2.71.3=11.4.
of terms.
check
followingequationsand
are
the
is called
monomial.
EXERCISES
1.87+2
4.
8x"7x
2x
2.8
27=?
5.
8x
2x7x
3.2
87=?
6.
2z
8z
lx
"
8. Similar
literal
common
Their
and
sum
is
dissimilar
factor,as 2
oneterm
r,
terms.
Terms
3 x, and
5 x,
are
which
have
similar terms.
expression
; namely, 10
a;.
When
GENERAL
do
terms
have
not
MATHEMATICS
literal factor,as
common
and
XOTE.
HISTORICAL
830
A.D.
in
Arabian
an
AlKhwariznii.
by
be translated
number
The
work
added
to
equation; "almukabala"
similar
terms
it
say
The
called
and
the restoration
be
writers
about
"algebra" first appears
Aljebrwa'1mukabala," written
which
"algebra" is derived, may
"
"Aljebr,"from
by
may
word
into
or
of the Arabs
interest
had
these
Enormous
whose
million
of medicine
These
fortunes
and
about
was
whose
"
income
Elements."
See
p.
Mathematical
nomadic
1.
the
followingequations and
2./7
fortunes
of
rumor
dollars and
about
was
Subtract
2.
3x
3.
5ix
4.
16y8y
5.
204.r
6.
5.T
+
"
both
from
3x
j3
"
38
05
"
and
10
.r
2x
3y2
+
=
members
S.
+
2x
of
Ball's
"Historical
demanded
merchant
Christian
fiftythousand.
Short
for
the
check
a.
+18.
5y
Greek
History
the results
proceed as
culture
Introduction
3.
=x
some
tribes
EXERCISES
Solve
the
In the seventh
leisure time
necessary
books
translated
was
many
Mathematics,"
sides
the
the
learning.Among
seven
annual
them
gave
geometry, Euclid's
same
of
combination
high.
banded
cites
doctor
the
ran
conquering,nourishingnation.
mathematical
manipulation. Cantor
income
both
the
term.
annual
fact that
of comparison,and
with
connection
century religiousenthusiasm
into
the
from
the process
in
one
mathematical
to
subtracted
means
used
was
refers
usual.
of
to
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
10
when
an
principleis convenient
multiplication
equation contains fractions. It enables us to obtain a
fraction but containingthe
second equationcontaining
no
This
number.
unknown
same
To
illustrate this:
\
Let
Multiplying both
members
the
ix
21.
simplestform,
to
ORAL
Find
7.
by 3,
3
Reducing
value
of
."
7.
EXERCISES
unknown
the
number
in
each
of
the
following equations :
"
/"
tn
"
IT
fractions whose
by
the
Find
denominators
followingproblem :
x
if
7
"4
2.
Solution.
90
Simplifying,
r
=
"
"
2.
5
90
Multiplying by 20,
whence
different,as is illustrated
are
"
40.
40 ;
40.
fact that
The
of
number
and
times)into
11
EQUATION
THE
5 will
divide
the numerators
integrally
(a
givesus a new
whole
tion
equa
fractions.
in which
easilyfound
may
be
of the unknown
the value
than
number
This
precedingone.
by the followingrule:
more
discussion
in the
summarized
is
contains fractions,
If the given equation
multiplyevery term
in both members
multiple{L.C.M.} of
by the least common
which does
in order to obtain a new
the denominators
equation
not contain fractions.
EXERCISES
Find
the
check
and
2
"S"
^
"
54
4.
it
+i
value
of
the
^9
"
2x
"?"
a
H.
"
6.
Iy
7.
^
6
"
,x
f
'
11
5
problem,
96
in each
number
unknown
18
,
"
"
12
GENERAL
10.
MATHEMATICS
of the
Definition
equation; properties of
used
problems were
foregoing
The
iifa
that two
statement
show
to
numbers
that two
same
be
balance
the
numbers
unknown
Some
of the
which
is like
equation
both
sides.
number
both
equalitysign.
the discussion
letter.
An
find the
to
one
both
to
sides,or
so
Thus,
balance
disturbed
is not
value
on
enables
It may
of values
tween
be
into
tion
equa
number.
enters
representedby
an
equation
of
value
that
number.
unknown
An
is
that
sides of the
which
number
problem
is written
the two
on
equation.
equal. It indicates
are
the
in
in
that the
balance
aides, or
subtract
the
number
same
of
made
same
from
to
or
side is
one
is the other
11.
we
may
subtracted
from
one
divided
multipliedor
side than
by
of
Translation
not
either with
with
be
an
"
equation may
"
form
plus
Find
equals
of
an
translated
be
equation3x
follows
number
expresses
shorthand
the
as
be
situation of
concrete
number
2
times
2x
problems in
abstract in the
regarded as meaningless.Just
which
in the
list of
equation. The
an
in any
verbal
problem,
such
as
relation
sense
connected
a
past experience.However,
our
if
side.
or
than
largernumber
the
way
the other
an
list need
tence
English sen
may
be written
equation,so, conversely,
into
+
2Q
ample,
problem ; for exbe interpreted
may
such
that
the
number
3 times
plus
the
20.
ber
num
The
equation.c"
number
What
21
2"x
of the
5 may be
diminished
13
EQUATION
THE
140
'
be
may
considered
is the altitude of
What
followingproblem:
whose
base is 21 times
rectangle
and whose
perimeteris 140 ft.?
long as
as
the translation
as
the altitude
EXERCISES
verbal
form
the
of
questionor
problem:
1. 056
2a 1
3.
9 k 10
4.
ly
5.
7s
6.
3x
7r2
8.
5.2
x
87.
9.
3*
=12.
10.
7.
3.
2.
12.
followingin
of the
each
State
112.
10.
4*
=16.
81.
11.
2x
2x
12.
:;.
8.
4.1 x+
4x
1.4.
18.
rl.
2T2
of algebra. The
"shorthand"
Drill in the
3x
6r
following
number
expressions
give practicein translating
relations from verbal into symbolical
language:
exercises
and
1.
follow
Consecutive
numbers
integral(whole)numbers
are
which
each other in
The
2c.
of
is denoted
person
Indicate in
years
ago ;
(b)his
twice
as
decreased
old
as
by
now
60 ;
age
;
fourteen
(d) 60
(f)his
age
years
decreased
increased
hence
by
by
his
one
by
x.
fourteen
14
GENERAL
3. A
he ?
4. A
marbles
is the
What
has
has
boy
buys
How
more.
has
many
b ?
loses
b marbles
boy having
marbles.
How
many
he?
and
the
home
the
win
team
visitors'
win
team
6.
What
7.
Two
the
made
made
(b) If
points,by
the defeat
be the value of
must
pointsin a
points. By how
team
(c) Substitute
is the 5th
how
many
for
by
7.
many
(d) If
team,
the game
part of
pointsdid
scored h points
team
points did the home
h in the last question
home
of the home
differ
numbers
the
numbers
when
basketball game
is
tie ?
f of
y ?
The
smaller
5, what
of t ?
is
Express
s.
larger number.
8.
Divide
100
9.
Divide
The
10.
is I.
one
12.
received
14.
Express
A
has
15.
does
cents
16.
he
of border
does
by
give
insurance.
What
the
larger
the
quotienta?
destroyedby
fire.
was
lacks 5 yr. of
ties and
then
have
has
ties. If A
being three
times
such
around
sells B
ties,how
have ?
dollars
and
spends
cents.
How
many
left ?
wide.
length of a rectangleexceeds
feet wide,
(a) State the length of
the distance
is d and
dollars,was
3 will
The
17.
part is 5.
one
one.
is I feet
room
".
B's age.
has
man
part is
one
numbers
two
worth
old and
years
will each
many
It is
house,
that
parts so
divided
i dollars
is
old.
parts so that
the smaller
number
man's
into two
Express
What
13.
into two
difference between
11.
He
as
and
of 'a and
sum
5.
to
MATHEMATICS
the
rectangle.
How
its width
each side,
feet
many
by
feet.
(b) Find
THE
18.
What
is the
19.
What
is the cost
for
bought
What
part
what
If
how
he
far
go
per
by
priceis
be
can
it takes
of 31 mi. per
in 5 hr. ?
in 3
them
trip.
days,
in 1 da. ?
the rate
hr. ?
automobile
an
in li hours
hr.,how
hour,
?
miles
many
does
by
the
pipe in
minutes.
How
much
of
fraction
exceeds
the
denominator
(b) Write
numerator,
the
fraction,
fraction.
the
of
class
of
sum
and
17;
and
of
What
17
17 ; of
and
elected
presidentwas
If the unsuccessful
were
make
difference
27.
if b sheets
of paper
to
at
car
miles
of
numerator
Write
26.
is filled
the
(c) Head
each
cents
(a) Write
3.
is filled in 1 min.
The
25.
drives
tank
tank
da.
in 3
drive
man
hour
24.
drives
he
boys
'two
man
can
If
23.
the
22.
of 1 sheet
they do in 1 da. ? If
the trip do they travel
can
of
part
21.
pencilsat
100?
It takes
20.
of 7
cost
15
EQUATION
candidate
17
is the cost
and
x.
Write
if the
the
x.
by
received
majority of
votes,how
7 votes.
many
votes
cast ?
Algebraic
1. Divide
shall be four
pole 20
times
Many
solution.
as
ft.
long
long
as
into two
the other.
parts so
that
one
part
16
.MATHEMATICS
GEXKKAL
SOLUTION
ARITHMETICAL
shorter
The
The
The
shorter
The
longer part
The
the
Hence
is
part
of 20
part is
is 4
length.
times
this length.
five times as long as
certain
The
4 ft. and
parts are
Then
and
4 n,
or
Then
16 ft. long
Hence
the parts
SOLUTION
number
number
of feet in the
length of
.""n
'20.
4.
10.
4 ft. and
are
respectively.
"
part.
16 ft.
ALGEBRAIC
Let
shorter
4 ft.
ft.,or
4 ft.,or
the
the
1(J it.
part.
longer part,
pole.
long respectively.
2.
is three times
rectangulargarden
It takes
80
yd.
of
fence
inclose
to
it.
as
long as
Find
the
it is wide.
width
and
length.
ALGEBRAIC
x
number
.3
number
of feet in the
distance
80.
10.
30.
Let
Then
and
:" x
./" +
Then
3
Hence
14.
the
The
width
is 10
SOLUTION
yd. and
important steps in
around
the
length,
garden.
the
length is
the
30
yd.
and
the
story)problems. Before
one
or
more
problem
so
as
as
unknown
to
and
to be
determined.
in mind.
get these facts clearly
Read
18
GENERAL
The
6.
of
MATHEMATICS
7.
of
sum
is 52.
number
his
gave
half,one
one
What
final result
is the
third,and
number
Find
two
consecutive
9.
Find
three consecutive
10.
Find
two
11.
Find
three consecutive
12.
It is requiredto divide
divide
fourth
one
his
was
of
PROBLEMS
whose
numbers
odd
is 223.
sum
whose
numbers
consecutive
What
Think
CONSECUTIVENUMBER
8.
13.
as
"
whose
numbers
is 180.
sum
is 204.
sum
even
a
numbers
whose
70 in.
board
such
that
four
the
of the different
A
13.
The
boy
in
distance
inside
manualtrainingschool
2 in. from
The
distance
what
room
464
Find
other
the
lengths
to
spaces
to the
the
bottom
in three
top.
Find
field is three
rd.
bookcase.
shelves,each
the
in.,
1 in.
successively
spaces.
RELATIONS
times
its
width, and
If the field is
the
rectangular,
is 15 ft.
the
is 4 ft. 7
will diminish
GEOMETRIC
INVOLVING
put
to
making
square
equals 64
ft.
side.
"square,"
"rectangle,"
geometric terms as "triangle,"
metic.
arithfamiliar from
in this list of problems (1424),
are
occur
However, they will later be defined more
closelyto meet
NOTE.
etc.,as
book
board
is
around)a
perimeterof (distance
The
16.
four
the dimensions
15.
wishes
length of
around
are
top
the bottom
PROBLEMS
14.
the
He
by
Find
parts.
from
measure.
is 156.
sum
Such
needs.
17.
the
sides of
than
the
the side of
Find
18.
the
5 ft.
side is 3 ft.
second
longerthan
the
first,
29 ft.
perimeteris
the
and
triangleif
Find
longer
19
EQUATION
THE
equilateral
(allsides equal)triangle
an
if the
perimeterof
The
19.
Find
in.
is 145
ft. Find
is 192
is the side of
What
22.
its
if
figure)
perimeteris
many
equilateral
dodecagon (12sided
an
288
in. ?
into two
23.
decagon (10sided
equilateral
figure)
an
in.
perimeteris 173
if its
equilateral
hexagon (6sided
figure)
an
side.
the side of
Find
21.
side.
perimeterof
The
20.
equilateral
pentagon (5sided
figure)
an
are
five times
in each
perimeterof
The
the smaller
parts. Twice
part by
15 in.
the
How
part ?
A BCD
quadrilateral
(4sided
figure)
is 34 in. The
side CD
is twice as long,as the side AB;
the
is three times as long as CD;
the side BC
side AD
equals the
Find the length of each side.
of the sides AD
and CD.
sum
24.
MISCELLANEOUS
be
may
$48,000 among
Divide
25.
what
26.
and
The
twice
28.
wide,
A
as
A
and
that
have
and
much
own
of
A, B, and
B,
and
may
that
so
A's
have
one
in.
The
share
half of
together.
perimeter of
the altitude.
double
27.
times
three
PROBLEMS
Find
a
rectangle is
the dimensions
house
capitalas
B.
worth
How
132
of the
$16,100,and
much
has each
base
rectangle.
A
has invested
invested ?
its dimensions.
is
it is
Find
20
GENERAL
A
29.
four times
has
man
each
3^
has
selling14, he
After
MATHEMATICS
school
high
the
electinga presidentof
In
30.
received
143
than
first.
the
1019
cast
for three
votes
than
more
How
athletic board
the
the
did each
votes
many
candidates.
third, and
certain
The
second
49
first
more
get ?
boy has $5.20 and his brother has $32.50. The first
200 each day and the second spends 100 each day. In
amount
?
days will they have the same
many
A
31.
saves
how
has
seven
first sold
9 A.
One
32.
man
the
After
than
second
the
then
times
the
to
had.
as
second,
How
acres
many
he
did
many
had
each
as
another.
36
A.
have
more
before
the sale ?
find
To
33.
the
of
weight
the
he
right;
finds
golf ball
balance
of
that
too
puts 20 golf
man
and
2pound weight
the
but
much,
balance
is
restored
the
if he
weight
of
The
34.
in the
puts 2. oz.
United
States
more
the number
35.
36.
the
left scale
and
representatives
Congress is 531. The
than
What
pan.
was
of
number
is 51
Find
golf ball
into
four
times
together
senators
number
the number
of representatives
of senators.
of each.
have the
boy, an apprentice,and a master workman
understandingthat the apprenticeshall receive twice as much
four times as much
the boy, and the master
workman
as
as
does each receive if the total amount
much
the boy. How
is $105 ?
received for a piece of work
father leaves
children, so
that
the
and
second,
share
of
pa
oh ?
the
twice
$13.000 to
eldest
as
be divided
child
much
receives
as
the
his three
among
$2000
third.
more
What
than
is the
37.
5 ft.
fence
lengthwise. The
fence
to leave
as
the
to
up
number
above
it,what
240
paid $8
number
One
The
tenth
annual
advertisement
an
income
This
Thus
Axioms.
in
line
of
of the
open
spaces
lines,as
after
open
one
the boards
that.
follows
family is
third
one
clothing,
leaves $660
savings account.
laws
20
of these
between
of 8
placed
so
is half
of the
of each
first insertion,100
is used for
15.
upwards,
are
the
of the
Firid
the
insertions.
of
39.
If each
them.
running
build
to
they
be the distances
five insertions,and
next
the
for
boards
necessary
is 5 and
the bottom
must
boards
that is,what
38.
of
of 6inch
out
between
spaces
is made
high
required height
open
21
EQUATION
THE
How
far
much
we
for
divided
for
other
used
follows
and
groceries,
expenses
is the income
have
as
and
one
for
the four
following
solvingequations:
I.
be added
number
to equal numbers, the
If the same
sums
are
equal. [Addition
Law]
number
be subtracted from equalnumbers,
II. If the same
the remainders
are
equal. [Subtraction
Law]
III. If equal numbers
be multiplied
number,
by the same
the productsare equal. [Multiplication
Law]
be divided
number
IV. If equal numbers
by the same
division by zero), the quotients
are
(excluding
equal.[Division
Law]
Statements
be true,
so
are
is sufficient to make
example,
and
more
if two
are
seem
clear
laws
above, when
assumed
to
same
then
number
our
of marbles
experiencetells
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
22
that
us
boy
again one
precedinglaws
respectively.
IV
V.
In
numbers
are
just as
the
the
as
many
addition
axiom.
called Axioms
will be
the
Hereafter
III, and
have
of
validity
illustrates the
This
other.
would
I, II,
quent
chapterwe have also made freof another axiom.
In solvinga verbal problem
use
obtained the necessary equation by finding
two
we
sions
expresand then we
which denoted the same
number
equated
these two
expressions.This step impliesthe following
16.
Axiom
axiom
this
If
two
the
numbers'),
numbers
truth
the
Illustrate
number
(or to equal
equalto the same
are
equal.[Equality
Axiom]
of
Axiom
by
familiar
some
experience.
The
and
review
the
equations,and
check.
Be
followingexercises
test
axioms.
EXERCISES
Solve
at
the following
every
12 #15
1.
12 1
15
both
to
Dividing both
2.
y

24
sides
members,
=30
15
15
12 t
45
by 12,
(Axiom I)
"
12 y
6 y +
3 y
the
that
equation by the
least
is, by 12,
12
2^+ ^:=y
Then
used.
15
Solution.
common
state
to
30.
Solution.
Adding
able
4.
(Axiom III)
THE
By reducing
we
the
obtain
fractions
the
similar
Combining
of
9 y
terms,
sides of the
Dividing both
the
does
12a+13
4.
18r12r
5.
21^+15=120.
6.
28*
7.
20y+
"="
251.
2y18y
22.
13.
3.5 y + 7.6
14.
5.8
15.
16.
3.41
17.
8 y
18.
2s
""
3.5
"
""
4.5 y +
+7s
fractions.
3s
(Axiom IV)
8.
17s
9.
17x
10.
16m
+ 2m
11.
202y152//
12.
3.4
+ 12.6
0.59
3s
"
16s
3x
5.5
x
6?/
280.
70.
68.
1.77
5.2 y
6
58.
22.3.
87.
24.
27.
^ _
J*
2.
28.
15
21.
fa;
6.
Solution.
22.
fa;
20.
22%.
+ 4.8
6.
lx
88.
13m
"
1.2
=105.
9x
19.
terms
8.6y=15.
?/
3.9
"
contain
not
f.
33.
lowest
to
4.
"
73.
3.
equation
equation by 9,
y
9
first
equation, which
second
23
EQUATION
36.
3sc3.
Adding
to
both
members,
23
18
25.
J)ividingboth
jj.
2=1"
+
3
24.
25.
"
3.
^+ ^
8.
6.
that
in
the
26.^
members
by 3,
6=x.
Note
"
3*.
31.
17=2^3.
preceding
appears
24
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
32.^
33.^
4.
5.
Multiplying
Solution.
16
both
_
"
.
_
members
by
#,
1Q
ix.
x.
Hence
Multiplyboth
the
problem
the
in
by
x.
unknown
"
that
members
3
_
"5o.
Note
1.
"
preceding
13
in
occurs
,g
the denominator.
"
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followof an equation,
words and phrases: equation,
members
check, root of an equaequationis satisfied,substituting,
tion,
solution of a verbal problem,
verbal problem,algebraic
17.
term,
This
literal number,
monomial,
In
Axioms.
used
and
similar
terms,
dissimilar
axiom.
solvingequationsthe followingaxioms
I. If the
numbers, the
II.
If the
19.
If
number
same
sums
are
number
or
to
equal
same
equation contains
involvingthe
every
or
same
term
unknown
of the
fractions,a second
may
be obtained
given equationby
equation
by
plying
multi
the L.C.M.
CHAPTER
LINEAR
II
MEASUREMENT.
THE
APPLIED
EQUATION
TO
LENGTH1
21.
the
Length,
drawing
obtaining
what
drawn.
line.
In
to
the
an
exact
Thus,
of
edge
of
chalk
wide
lines, but
is
line
definite
point
1
is
of
some
point
pupil
should
to
the
metric
squared
length
definite
The
by
word
scale.
He
himself
should
to
real
boundary
marks.
in
AB
as
determine
to
Fig. 4.
and
beginning point
is used
thickness.
nor
short
to
line
cross
mean
The
that
is,
intersectinglines.
two
fractional
ruled
boundary
wish
we
the
not
chalk
"point"
by
provide
and
paper
of the
edges
is shown
now
inches
the
see
us
neglected
are
are
length, breadth,
is determined
graduated
units
and
The
help
whose
has
segment
of
nor
SEGMENT
court
briefly,a segment,
or,
position, not
position
LINE
line
crayon
to
outside
ending point.
merely
4.
tennis
line
wide
the
are
of
on
segment
line
width
width
made
are
part of
The
of
characteristic
marks
lines, which
straight line
table
and
thickness
at
are
length only
the
of the
part
possible,thus
as
straight line, we
in
and
of paper
FIG.
has
edge
If
lines.
sheet
important
line has
sense
as
length
on
the
us
In
thickness.
the
with
ruler
near
is familiar
concerned
once
as
of
characteristic
lay the
object we
an
sharpened pencil
pass
important
the
26
with
parts
also
metric
of
a
an
ruler
inch
obtain
scale.
one
and
pair
edge
the
of
of which
other
compasses
to
LINEAR
MEASUREMENT
27
EXERCISE
Give
line
of
examples
segments that
be
can
in
seen
the
classroom.
22.
of
Measurement
is
inch
an
zero
on
determined.
is to be
line segment AB
ruler
of your
fractions of
edge
B
f
FIG.
5.
How
LINE
SEGMENT
MAT
MEASURED
BE
reading on
oppositethe point B.
In the precedingproblem we
length of the line segment AB
compared
that
segment AB;
and
segment, the
wellknown
be
21
lengthof the
the length of
line
segment
segment.
to
The
line is called
to
measure
times
as
segment
we
line
segment
segment
to it to find out
how
or
is to
many
the
we
the
found
inch.
unknown
we
the
line
Hence
the
determine
measuring the
compare
unit
of measurement.
apply a standard
times
the
line
given
Hence
unit segment
contained in it.
EXERCISES
1. Draw
line
segment
and
length of
2. Measure
the
3. Measure
the width
express
your
of your
desk in inches.
desk
is
wellestablished
When
are
the
inch, and
long as
segment is 2^ in.
line
with
the ruler
in inches.
28
(rEXEKAL
23.
units
Different
for
inents
length. The
of
of tape lines.
of
The
and
yardstick,
'
Ii
O
'
by
familiar
most
measuring are
several kinds
read
MATHEMATICS
I' I '
means
' t'
i' i '
INCH
i' M
i' i ' M
1
CENTIMETERS
'
,
.
if m
..
1 1 11 1 ' M M
11
1' 11 1
..
I.
....
'
I"
iCm.
FIG.
6.
PART
decimal
note
now
is divided
In
the
Ten
millimeter.
In the
is
AB
figure,
is
DIFFERENT
SHOWING
in all countries.
(m.). It
(mm.).
meter
RULER,
system and
work
is
OF
standard
into 1000
make
centimeter
one
two
in scientific
figureabove,
millimeters
LENGTH
OF
generallyused
very
The
UNITS
in
fifths of
division
the smallest
a
centimeter
length,and
an
inch.
meters
milli
(cm.).
will
you
Ten
meters
centi
and ten
(dm.) (about 4 in.),
make a meter (39.37in.,or about 1.1 yd.).We
summarize
these facts in the followingreference table
make
decimeter
f 1 millimeter
0.03937
2.54 centimeters
10 millimeters
1 centimeter
10 centimeters
10 decimeters
may
:
inches
\linch
meters
deci
24.
of the
Advantages
29
MEASUREMENT
LINEAR
metric
part
0.386
we
third of
is 12.386
3 dm.
we
us
wide,
m.
cm.
know
we
wide.
mm.
who
one
at
This
little
.a
m.
more
practicewith
the
system.
the
segments of
line
metric
awkward.
Thus, there
5^ yd. in
rod, 1760yd.
in
familiar,are
seem
foot,3 ft. in
mile,
equal to
are
yard,
etc.
It is
NOTE.
HISTORICAL
1 2 in. in
are
lie in
larger.In contrast to
system, though they may
.of our
system
unit
any
of the next
one
road
is far
last statement
had
has
one
is 12
once
At
definite to
metric
tells
mal
correspondingdecisay a street is 12.386 yd.
nothing about the smaller
a
divisions
best
if
yard. Thus,
of the advantages
One
system.
nations
their word
the
commission
of
is the
linear
French
to
Revolution
devise
of which
name
the
National
from
derived
was
Assembly appointed
the inconvenience
eliminate
The
measures.
present metric
system
of this commission.
commission
attempted
millionth
measured
on
raised
the
unit
existingweights and
work
This
for foot.
During
a
used
some
of this
the earth's
the
doubt
meridian
as
to the
distance,we
quadrant, but
to
make
from
the
the
equator
of Paris.
Since
exactness
of the
now
as
define
the
the
standard
to
unit
the
north
later measurements
commission's
meter
not
as
ten
one
pole
have
tion
determinaa
fraction
of
GENERAL
30
between
is
which
transverse
two
the
kept at
Paris.
Sevres, near
Application of
25.
MATHEMATICS
the
metric
give practicein
to
the
This
scale.
article is intended
of the metric
use
system.
EXERCISES
1. With
the
measure
ruler
whose
segments
AB
FIG.
the
Measure
2.
length and
Check
ruler.
in
CD
Fig.7.
width
of your
results with
the
those
desk
of
with
Exs.
meter
centi
and
3,
Art. 22.
Estimate
3.
the
measure
the
Turn
4.
Millikan
metric
to
and
26.
"
to
an
standard
Practical
fact
process
and
sources
meter
standard
Gale, pp.
of the
some
2 and
in
stick. If
and
then
stick
is not
meters
meter
3) and
in
report to the
class
the
on
system.
the
about
room
the
of
yardstickand
Refer
5.
with
room
use
available,
length
seems
of
error
can
you
"
In
of precise measurement.
difficulty
that
line with
spite
enter
into
the
result
if
we
use
not be exactlystraight
: (1) the yardstick
yardstick
;
may
(2) it may be a little too long or too short ; (3) it may
slipa little so that the second positiondoes not begin at
LINEAR
31
MEASUREMENT
the
exact
fractional
parts of inches
eliminate
these
For
line tends
stretch,but
to
do
we
errors
example,a tape
wet, while
Nor
be correct.
not
may
by
contracts
heat and
if
cold.
the
EXERCISES
have measured
Suppose you
1.
desk)with greatcare
Is this the exact
If you
2.
If
3.
the
would
27.
you
The
of
use
that may
Why
segments. Since
common
have
it
likelythat
result
measure
compasses.
be used
to
still greater
classroom, what
your
(Fig. 8)
with
measurement
same
asked
finergraduatedscale,is
exactlythe
were
you
length
of
use
find
you would
before ?
as
repeat the
to
it to be
found
the desk ?
length of
were
making
care,
have
and
is
in
passes
pairof com
instrument
an
measuring
the
use
of
line
passes
com
of the
greatlydecreases some
in measuring that
errors
been pointed out, and is consequently
FIG.
8.
PAIR
OF
COMPASSES
drawing which
requirea high degreeof accuracy, it will be helpfulif the
student learns to use
the compasses
freely.
very
useful
in
many
forms
of
32
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
28.
Measuring
line segment
with
the
To
compasses.
FIG.
the
Then
clamps the legsof the compasses.
pointson the marks of the ruler and count the
which
screw
placethe
number
of inches
or
centimeters
them.
between
EXERCISES
With
the compasses
2. With
the compasses
1.
the number
4. Estimate
the
Measure
page.
compare
29.
device
with
to
inches
inch
and
(used by
to the
this page
Squared
paper.
Squared paper
by 2.54.
What
of centimeters
lengthof
is often
which
Fig 9, in
centimeters.
do you observe ?
in the
with
inches.
length of
the compasses
this
and
estimate.
your
Squared
Fig.9, in
in
AB
measure
result of Ex. 1
Multiplythe
3.
in
AB
measure
useful
in
is ruled either
fractions
the
of
is another
paper
important
an
engineer)or
scale.
and
ruler.
Thus,
to
FIG.
10.
MAY
BE
place the
Clamp
Fig.10
sharp points of the
the compasses.
MEASURED
LINE
BY
SEGMENT
THE
USE
measure
OF
HOAV
SQUARED
PAPER
in
Place
the
compasses
on
sharp pointson
and
one
B.
of
GENERAL
0.4, but
be
to
2.74
this is 0.04
This
units.
it is
of
unit;, hence
the 4 is
course
long as
approximation,
only an
as
reasonablyclose.
EXERCISES
Fig. 12
1. In
CD,
DE,
that
of
equals
CD
times
is 2.74
that CD
means
Of
MATHEMATICS
and
decimal
two
the
Compare
EC.
other
the
to
measure
placesthe segments
results of
your
work
with
of
members
the class.
Is the
2.
the
result obtained
method
Art.
of
than
accurate
the
30
one
more
result
by using 1 cm.
claiming accuracy
decimal place?
and
by
as
tained
obunit
to
only
Kt
FIG.
31.
Equal
segments.
the end
When
with
as
line
6,the segments
and
are
be
as
in
cide
Fig.13, coin
of another
segment,
said to be
expressedby
I
b
32.
12
inequality. If
segments, as a and J,
Unequal segments;
LINE
SEGMENTS
pointsof two
be made to coincide,
the segments are said to
cannot
possibly
be unequal. This is written a =" b (read a is not equalto 6").
the end
"
The
an
statement
In
inequality.
3=
bis called
Fig.14 segment
(written a
"
i), and
ment
seg
is greater than
(writtenc
"
ment
seg
6).
FIG.
14. UNEQUAL
LINE
SEGMENTS
LINEAR
In
precedingequation and
the
article will
This
Ratio.
show
INTRODUCTORY
refer
1.
Measure
the segment
2.
Measure
the
accurately to
places.
What
segment
quotientof
The
The
is, 2^4.
of
unit
"I
15
FlG
there is
It should
be
now
of
mean
unit, the
"
ratio of 24
is 1 in.
measure
clear
that
every
lengthof
that
meter
or
kinds
""
for
is
ple,
exam
cm.
is the
measurement
approximate. Thus,
the classroom
it is ten
5 in.,that
in. to
times
and
say
long
as
as
it"is
the
:
"'
"
is called
Obviously there
gal.and
measure
long,We
kind
same
ratio between
no
determination
of the
quantitiesof different
ratio between
standard
places.
\"
m.
decimal
two
ratio is
forming the
expressed in terms
10
mental
funda
numbers
two
Before
we
a.
their ratio.
when
ratio is
Fig. 15)
to
quotientof
the
by
that
accuratelyto
decimal
two
part of b is
4. Find
no
be
can
EXERCISES
(Exs. 14
The
length
in measurement.
notion
divided
which
to
determined
3.
of the
need
we
inequalities
remember
33.
35
MEASUREMENT
"
.
.
36
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISES
1. The
Chicago in
death rate in
population.Express this
alloyconsists of
part of the alloyis
An
2.
What
What
3 to 6.
4. The
ratio of
given by
copper
part is
of
of
ratio of
?
and
of water
times
many
and
hydrogen
this ratio
Express
Sum
How
"
"
in the
water
is water
tin ?
per
cop
heavier
is
consists
1 to 7.84.
34.
and
water
Water
5.
copper
the fraction
16 to 1000
was
year
fraction.
than
copper
as
recent
3. A
is
ratio
as
in the
oxygen
ratio of
fraction.
decimal
It
two
is
b is laid off
FIG.
sum
sum
16.
is 5.4
in
case
and
indicate the
lay off
line from
same
ADDITION
segment
work
In
once.
is the
AC
of
and
of the compasses
as
is
the
Fig.16
of
sum
are
we
C, then
to
SEGMENTS
LINE
OF
be read off at
construction
that
means
can
The
cm.
either the
by
the
GEOMETRIC
of these lines
Very often
about
on
not
their
a
the
and
b.
concerned
sum.
In
working line
"+b.
geometricaddition.
Addition
formed
per
LINEAR
37
MEASUREMENT
EXERCISES
1. In
Indicate
line.
find the
Fig. 17
the
of
sum
b,
a,
and
on
working
sum.
"
.
Fig.17 add
In
2.
ments
line of
Express
b +
of
in centimeters.
of
In
by
squared paper
In
5.
either
or
35.
that
VI.
The
VII.
18
FIG.
19
+ b.
what
tion
rela
between
and
Why?
b?
Exs. 4 and
Axioms.
axioms
two
FIG.
ber
num
by c.
measuring on
Fig.19
exists
17
denoted
is
Show
FIG.
whole
the
Fig.19
segment
fencing
Fig.18.
needed
4.
of
yards
the value of
one
squared
On
3.
the scale
c on
sheet
paper.
a
b,and
a,
the seg
5, above,
illustrate the
following
whole is
The whole
equal to the
sum
is greater than
of all
one
any
its parts.
of
its parts.
EXERCISES
1. Draw
Draw
the
2. Let
the
sum
a,
segments
a
b, and
b +
c
2.3 cm.;
represent a \3
3.2 cm.;
1.3cm.
c.
denote
b j4
c.
line segments.
three
segment to represent 2a + 3b +
to
; to
represent 4
Draw
a
line
f b f 2
38
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
Fig.20, if a, b,and
line,such that a
straight
In
3.
c, show
that
by measuring
three consecutive
c are
I +
segments
with out
b +
c.
20
measuringthat
What
c.
FIG.
4. Show
on
axiom
does
Quote
the axiom.
36.
same
when
sum
that
of terms
Order
do
we
we
when
we
of the truth
geometricillustration
This
law
when
the order
of the
arithmetic, as
and
get the
We
add
then
add
then
of the commutative
of
does
sum
is
law.
change
not
addends
illustrated this
we
from
the value
that
asserts
fact that
The
in addition.
is
514
2 +
4}5.
2 +
EXERCISES
validityof the
everyday experience.
1. Illustrate
from
your
in the most
2. Add
law
To
find out
how
we
commutative
124
; 2187
of two
+ 469
greater
is than
found
Then
the
equation form
this method
toward
difference
c
164.
of
the compasses.
1
fact
difference
with
commutative
142
The
by
the segment
from
; 36 +
line segments.
also be
much
+ 213
b backward
law
segments may
the segment
on
Difference
line
two
412
.376 +
37.
the
A.
cb
A.
FIG.
GEOMETRIC
21.
SUBTRAC
between
is
this may
expressedby
be written AD
"
two
b.
In
Illustrate
pencils.
MEASUREMENT
LINEAR
39
EXERCISES
1. Transfer
and
2. Subtract
line
3.5
segment
MB
MN
long from
that
show
If
6.
of the first
3 cm.,
If a,
b,and
construct
How
8.
Ex.
be
38.
^IG
+
chapter is
and
2 cm.,
2 a + 3 b
segment representing
7.
22
b +
How
c.
illustrated
long
if
to
1.
literalnumber
construct
representing5a
f2 #
; 4
of
the
each
would
b
"
4,
The
and
Thus,
+ 2 "
; 5
literal number
can
Written
is
thus, 5
be
c.
"
method
6.+ 3
c.
in
1
many
When
#.
understand
we
The
x.
used
the
no
cient
coeffi
coefficient of
times
as
2#
x
~
an
x+x+x+z+x
a: means
in this form
coefficient may
lengthof the
2b +
"
3 ?
means
is to be
expressedby
convenient
line
constructed
literal factor
in #,
indicates how
segments
arithmetical
as
"
addend;
"z
of the
coefficient
the
be
"
1 cm.,
"
5,
coefficient is written,
and
Exs. 3
by
Coefficient.
is called
the
would
4 ?
and
b ?
axiom
What
5.
segment
simpler if we
write the fact in algebraic
form, using the small letters. Thus,
you
line
h^+
is
long.
cm.
4. Ex.
one
equals the
AB
MB.
squared paper
to
b in centimeters.
and
cm.
MX.
Fig.21
between
In
3.
AB
difference
the
express
of
we
the
equation5x
that the
see
use
x+
of
x+x\x+x.
a
coefficient
of
a
abbreviating.Geometrically
follows: Let x be the
be interpreted
as
cates
segment in Fig.23. Then the 5 in 5x indi
is to be
40
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
on
a
working line. 5.r expresses the sum
consecutively
ally
Usuobtained by this geometricaddition. Find this sum.
the term "coefficient" means
justthe arithmetical factor
in a term, though in a more
the coefficient
generalsense
in a term, is the productof all the
of any factor,or number
other factors in that term.
Thus, in 3 aby the coefficient
of y is 3 ab, of by is 3 a, of aby is 3.
EXERCISE
Give
the
7x
39.
coefficient in each
8#
of
the
following terms
3 b ;
a.
of
consisting
number
Polynomials. An algebraic
two
2 2,
(each called a monomial),as bx + % y
is a polynomial.The
word
"polynomial" is derived from
termed.
A polynomialof two
a phrasewhich
means
many
terms, as 5 x + 3 #, is a binomial. A polynomialof three
or
terms
more
terms,
"
is
2af3J44c,
as
trinomial.
EXERCISE
of terms
number
(a) 2
"
(c) 6
r.
(d) a
of similar
Algebraic addition
frequentlyadded
review the process by means
now
"in order to see
clearlythe law
complicatedadditions :
Add
units
of
the
of the
to
be
2 y.
2"
In
3.
simple problems
We
terms.
shall
followingexample
used
in
the
more
4:r!3a:+ 2:r.
Solution.
x
terms.
similar
have
we
basis
(b) 6x.
40.
the
following expressions on
Classify the
can
be considered
as
the
sum
long.
Therefore
4x
x.
of four
segments each
42
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
Tickets
1.
and
There
14.
D,
total
receipts.
2.
Express as
Can
3.
add
you
2 1 +
Add
5.
(b) 3y
7 + 14
"
which
indicated
y +
"
Do
5a;; "x
halfway
with
be written
can
confuse
not
dicates
in
up
by
followingsums
3x
(a)3
15y+ily
school's
The
2 f 5
and
in
5 3 ;
+ 3; 13 +
4.
as
"
of the
of monomials
the form
"
the
57f47.
dot
4. Indicate
37
term
one
112
were
sells
; A
cents
numbers
two
placed between
multiplicationand is read "times."
decimal
point.
A
NOTE.
the
sold at
were
running
+ 17
track
is
3s +
(c) 9* +
2y;
20
3s
+ ~x
+
.s
j2s ;
/ feet. While
a
training,
boy runs around it five times on Monday, six on Tuesday, ten
011
on
Wednesday, seven
Thursday, six on Friday,and nine on
Saturdaymorning. How many feet does he run duringthe week ?
6.
41.
Subtraction
of similar
is similar
illustrated
Subtract
from
5x
x.
Subtractingequal numbers
5
The
addition
in
and
in subtraction
may
be
x.
Solution.
Hence
law
the
law
follows:
as
to
The
monomials.
5x
"
"
from
x
2x
x.
equal numbers,
x.
x,
precedingexample illustrates
similar monomials
or
x.
the law
is a monomial
that tJiedifference
havinga coefficient
equalto the difference
of the givenmonomials
of the coefficients
and havingthe same
literalfactor.
of two
LINEAR
43
MEASUREMENT
EXERCISES
3 b from
1. Subtract
Write
2.
146.
lOce
monomials:
3ic; 13x
"
The
13x
42.
3x;
11.5c
2.3c
"
line
sides
the
The
distance
numbers
2.68
5k;
"
as
r
i*.
addition
"ix}6x
fa
and
"
"
traction.
sub
2x;
a.
points,as A, B, and
segments, the figure
are
Ja
If three
Triangle; perimeter.
f*
c;
(7
and
3z; VI
"
followingexercises requireboth
Write each result as a singleterm
2x
"
12z
5x;
"
feJe;
0.27/; 1.03a0.08a;
3.
followingpairsof
of the triangle.
of
sum
around), is
the
three
sides, as
perimeterof
the
the
(the
triangle.
a
fb +
EXERCISES
1. A
yard
each
triangle,
fence
will
2.
What
be
has
the
form
side
being
needed
to
is the
sum
3. What
of "times
is the
sum
? Express the
triangle
equalsided(equilateral)
rods
of
long. How
many
inclose it ?
sides
of the
2x
sides
number
an
rods
triangle(Fig.25) whose
3
2 x feet,2 x feet,and
are
as
long? Express the sum
of
of
feet
3x
tain
cer
FIG.
25
3b, 4b,
and
x.
of the three
result
as
one
sides
is the
of
term.
6b
are
2x,
answer
44
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
as ABODE
figure,
(seeFig.26),formed
by connectingpoints,as A, J5, C, D, and E, by line
segments, is a polygon.
The
Greek
phrase from
which the word "polygon"
43.
Polygons.
is derived
means
Polygons having 3,
nered.
4, 5, 6, 8, 10,
called
are
cor
many
"
"
sides
.,
triangle,
lateral,
quadri
pentagon, hexagon,
octagon,decagon,

ngon
.,
FlG
26.
POLYGON
of
The
sum
respectively.
all the
the sides of a polygon is its perimeter.When
sides of a polygon are
equal it is said to be equilateral.
EXERCISES.
1. What
each
In
is the
case
perimeterof
express
the
result in the
thus, for
polygonsin Fig.27?
form of an equation
;
each of the
12
x.
IX
FIG.
2.
Show
by equationsthe perimeterp
Fig28.
by equationsthe
perimeter of an equilateral
side is
whose
quadrilateral
3. Show
11;
9;
9 + 3;
xfy.
s;
a
27
b;
x;
+ 5;
2e;
z\
+ d;
of the
polygons in
figureswhose
following equations:
different
the
4. Name
the
expressedby
p
3 s,
5 s,
j)
7 s,
4 s,
6 s,
8 s,
Find
how
out
each
that
Assume
5.
9 s,
10 s,
all the
figures in
Ex.
of your
classmates
can
many
Assume
at least six of
that
is the
7. What
ifs
if
3cm.?
5s,
perimeter is
15 s,
20 s,
ns.
equilateral.
are
give the
of
name
Show
10.
the value of
"
12.
by
4a
120
in.
If
: 3x
expressions
2.25 xy;
2.27
and
x
?/ ;
3a
5 and
15s
tions
equa
2 in. ?
3x
3 s, p
each
if in
of
value
=
are
4 s,
the
case
with
made
pressed
perimeters are expolygons whose
66 + 6a;
by^? 4" + 12; by^?
6 ;
25; by
2 ; if
equationsp
hexagon
equilateral
(Use all the string.)
in the
an
sketches
8
and
10s,
long ?
the
Find
11.
by
4 if s
Ex.
6s,
in.
string144
and
is the side of
What
9.
by^"
Determine
8.
=
12 s,
polygons in Ex.
which
the given
the
not
be
perimetersmight
polygon.
6.
45
MEASUREMENT
LINEAR
\2b.
the
find
y;
"
perimetersin
3 ; if
3,
"
3x
the
"
Ex.10
1 and
value
2 ?/; 2x
of
"
if
5.
the
3; 4
following
a;
"
2^?/;
1.12 y.
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followwords and phrases: line segment, point,measurement
of length,
unit segment, standard unit,ratio,metric system,
mutative
coincide,intersect,equal segments, unequal segments,comlaw, coefficient,
polynomial,binomial, trinomial,
44.
This
46
GEKEKAL
of
MATHEMATICS
polygon,vertices of a polygon,perimeter,
sides of a triangle,
polygon,quadrilateral,
pentagon,
hexagon, octagon, decagon,ngon, equilateral.
vertex
triangle,
45.
whole is
The
followingaxioms
equalto
the
The
illustrated:
were
sum
VII.
46.
The
Axioms.
VI.
instruments
following
ing
measur
squared
paper.
The
"
48.
49.
The
pointis
determined
metric
by
lines.
intersecting
two
our
English system.
50.
The
51.
The
of precisemeasuring has
practicaldifficulty
enumerated.
been pointed out.
Five possible
errors
were
Measurement
impliesthe determination of a ratio.
of two
sum
law
was
segments
discovered
found
was
to
as
serve
with
the
passes.
com
short cut
in
algebraicaddition.
52.
compasses
53.
were
54.
difference of two
The
and
Addition
The
illustrated
found
was
subtraction
algebraic
Subtraction
and
of
laws
with
the
stated.
was
Chapter
geometrically.
perimeterof
The
segments
figuremay
be
expressedby
an
equation.
55.
The
when
the
algebraicnumber
given for a particularcage;
value
of 3
2 y when
x
==
value
of the
unknowns
example,how
and #==2.
for
1
to
of
an
are
find the
III
CHAPTER
56.
drawings
of
straight line,
Fig. 29,
in
rotates
direction
0, in the
as
If
Angle.
indicated
the
by
in
OX
as
plane
the
it reaches
until
ANGLES
OF
PROPERTIES
about
either
fixed
arrowheads
of
the
point,
clockwise)
(counterit is said
position OT,
to
FIG.
29.
through
turn
of turning
ILLUSTRATING
the
made
angle
by
angle
57.
vertex
Thus,
XOT.
line
DEFINITION
THE
rotating
that
as
point
OF
an
about
the
ANGLE
AN
angle
a
is the
amount
fixed point
rotation
in
continues,
increases.
Vertex.
of the
The
fixed
(Fig. 29)
of "vertex"
is
is
called
the
"vertices.")
48
GENERAL
58.
MATHEMATICS
The
side.
line OX
side of the
the terminal
Symbols
"
A
angles,"
for
Size of
60.
angle." The
"
for
59.
angle. The
angle.
"
Thus,
see
we
is called
is written
the definition of
for
possible
(Fig.29) so that the angle may
rotating
of rotation (turning).
amount
56
in Art.
line OT
angleXOT"
angles. From
(Fig.29)
that it is
/^XOT.
anglegiven
an
the line OX
contain
to
stop
given
any
EXERCISE
angle made
by
fourth of a complete turn ;
rotated one
of a complete turn
turn ; three fourths
and onefourth complete turns.
one
freehand
Draw
61.
Right angle
about
rotates
T
an
fourth
one
is called
a
straight angle
fixed
of
point
in
line
half of
one
; one
which
OX
complete
complete turn ;
perigon.
plane
has
so
as
If
to
line
make
X
O
(c)Perigon
(b)StraightAngle
FIG.
30.
THREE
SPECIAL
ANGLES
one
half of
EXERCISES
1.
Draw
angles;
an
Draw
freehand
an
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
4
1.
Draw
2.
Point
of
obtuse
angle ;
acute
an
an
obtuse
angle ;
reflex
angle.
angles.
C\
C
D
(b)
(a)
FIG.
34.
In the
3.
angles;
63.
of
ILLUSTRATING
THE
(c)
VARIOUS
KINDS
OF
Notation
for
are
ANGLES
of acute
number
reflex
three
angles.
common
"
"
"
of the two
"
sides of
angle,as
angleA" (Fig.36). This last method
only when there is no doubt as to what angle is
the
is used
meant.
PKOPERTIES
OF
51
ANGLES
EXERCISE
In
the
illustrate
of
drawings
the
three
Fig.37, below,
methods
of
select three
notation
angles and
described
above.
(b)
FIG.
64.
of
If
Circle.
line OX
an
line
the
trace
which
we
Thus,
OX
will
curved
line
call
circle
closed curve,
all
37
be
and
taken
the
as
line
the
be
initial side
rotated
circle.
is
points
FIG.
38.
THE
CIRCLE
one
52
The
fixed
point 0 is the
of the circle. The
is
length of the curve
(circle)
the circumference
(distancearound) of the circle.
65.
Center
center
called
66.
of
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
circumference.
; diameter.
Radius
line drawn
from
the circle is
any point on
A
radius of the circle in Fig.38.
circle to
OP
is
two
pointson
radius.
line
center
Thus,
connecting
passingthrough the
of
center
diameter.
"
the definition of
From
the
"
radius
given above
it is clear
radius has
given circle or in equal circles one
ing
the same
lengthas any other. Thus we obtain the followcircle
importantgeometricrelation,Radii of the same
or
of equal circles are equal.("Radii" is the plural of
radius.")
that
in
"
67.
of
Arc;
to
If two
circle.
intercept;
circle to two
radii
different
angle. An
central
are
drawn
pointson
from
on
"
is called
68.
central
Quadrant;
the center
is
arc
"
is ""^
Thus,
at the center
angle at
part
of the
off
an
is
AB
of the
the center
angle.
semicircle.
An
arc
of
circle is called
quadrant. An
of
circle is called
semicircle.
equal to one
arc
equal to
fourth
one
half
EXERCISES
2.
How
does
How
many
diameter
quadrants in
what
connection
have
word
"
"
quadrant
compare
we
mentioned
in
length with
semicircle ? in
the idea
radius
circle ?
In
expressedby
the
OF
PROPERTIES
longitude. The
69.
of the circle in
made
53
ANGLES
geography is
no
doubt
use
that is
familiar to
wich,
prime meridian, that passes through GreenEngland (see Fig. 39), is the zero meridian. We
as
being
speak of placeslying to the west of Greenwich
in west
longitude and of those lying to the east of
Greenwich
as being in east longitude(see Fig.39). Since
hours to make one complete
it takes the earth twentyfour
rotation,the sun apparentlypasses over one twentyfourth
all of
us.
The
N.P.
N.P.
S.P.
LATITUDE
pointslyinga
turn
In
distance of
one
LONGITUDE
hour.
carry
the
AND
54
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
is the
1. What
have
? the
greatest latitude ?
How
2.
in
degree of
( $7 What
surface
seconds
many
the
4.
north
5.
to the
6.
How
degree
of
longitude?
the
"
of
length
minute
arc
of
accuratelythe officers
ship out in midocean.
how
latitude ?
is
of
there in
are
would
you
of
degree
second
a
a
ship
read
on
arc
arc
know
the
earth's
Try
to find out
the
location
longitude?
of
latitude ?
Compare
method
Find
the method
used
out
70.
Amount
If
we
remember
in
in
in what
of
of rotation
that
plane about
an
determines
live ? in what
the
angle is formed
fixed
point,it
Fio.
will
size of
latitude ?
an
angle.
by rotatinga
be
clear
that
line
the
40
of turning,
angle depends only on the amount
the sides may
the length of the sides. Since
not
upon
be extended
an
indefinitely,
angle may have short or long
sides. In Fig.40 the angleA is greater than angleB, but
the sides of angle B are longerthan the sides of angle A.
size of the
71.
Measurement
instances
as
that
when
we
selected
of angles;
of
the
protractor. In
many
as
unit
of
measure.
PROPERTIES
The
OF
protractor (Fig.41) is
and
measuring
55
ANGLES
constructingangles. The
consists of
semicircle
devised
instrument
an
monly
protractor com
into
divided
for
hundred
one
of
In
arc.
of
the
shall
angleswe
consider
unit
to
and
arc
ment
measure
sponding
corre
of
unit
called
degree
of angle.
If
straightlines
drawn
from
these
pointsof
are
each
of
division
on
FIG.
0,
center
one
41.
THE
PROTRACTOR
hundred
EXERCISES
in
2.
How
at
rightangle?
in
straightangle?
perigon?
A
angle ?
3.
degrees in
many
degree is
of
What
part
of
right angle ?
of
straight
perigon?
angle is formed
o'clock ?
7 o'clock ?
what
at
by the
9 o'clock ?
at 11 o'clock ?
at
hands
12
of
o'clock ?
clock at 3 o'clock ?
at
o'clock ?
at
56
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
Give
4.
right angle;
of
is the correct
What
5.
the
read
to
way
of
the hands
day when
straightangle.
time
clock
form
followingangles:
rightangles? in
third of a rightangle ? in two
four straightangles ? in one
fifth of a rightangle? in
thirds of a straightangle? in one
x
straightangles? in y rightangles? in 2 x rightangles?
degrees
6.
How
7.
Ordinary scales
with
made
many
what
8.
is the
angle
What
is the
there
face like
pounds.
between
72.
may
sometimes
successive
two
angle
between
divisions of
on
in three
for
circular
are
represents12 lb.,
pound
successive
two
marks
marks
ounce
7 ?
protractor
to
measure
EXERCISES
1. Draw
three
reflex. Before
one
each
angle. Find
of the
angles,one
measuring,estimate
the number
of
2. Draw
freehand
of 180" ; of 204".
means
different
of the
an
Test
the number
degrees in each
results
angle of 30";
the accuracy
protractor.
acute, one
with
of
obtuse,and
of
degreesin
angleby means
the estimates.
45"; of 60";
of
90";
anglesby
58
GENERAL
Secure
MATHEMATICS
over
the
the
angleto
of
vertex
and
be
ured
meas
in
sight
of
the
angle,
the
noting carefully
readingon the protractor.
The
number
of
degrees through
which
the
pointer
is turned in passing
of
from the position
BA
to
is
the
of BC
that
of
measure
angle ABC.
74. Transit.
it
is
secure
important to
gree
a
higher deof
described
accuracy
in Art.
(Fig.43).
Three
When
This
FIG.
than
73,
we
is
43.
THE
with
possible
use
instrument
an
instrument
is necessary
transit
are
TRANSIT
instrument
the
called
in
(1)
transit
surveying.
horizontal
59
graduatedcircle
for
NOTE.
HISTORICAL
The
and
Cantor
and
others
somewhat
as
the
follows
At
first the
Babylonians
reckoned
as
three
hundred
and
each
sixty minutes
Babylonians. Cajori cites
into
and
"
"
"
Mathematics," 1917
75.
between
vertex
we
angles,
placeone
one
over
to make
the other
comparison
so
that the
If the terminal
and
sides coincide,
60
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
"
360".
greater than
EXERCISES
in order
the
2, in
Make
tracing of each
thin
on
and
Construct
sheet of paper
paper
and
an
over
angleequal to
the angleABC
Test
Try
freehand
Draw
another.
large as
the
freehand
to draw
drawings by
your
4.
to
fit each
given angleABC.
and
make
Lay a thin
tracingof it. Cut
try
44
the
out
them
arrange
other.
FIG.
2.
Fig. 44,
size.
to
as
HIXT.
on
y, and
Compare anglesx,
1.
Test
the method
of Ex.
angle twice
your
The
equal angles.
two
one
the paper.
drawings
1.
as
with
protractor.
76.
Angles
which
exterior
Adjacent angles ;
x
and
have
y in
Fig.45
are
vertex
common
two
and
sides.
angles
a
FIG.
45
mon
com
the
The
same
vertex
sides OT
and
them.
and
OR
The
have
are
common
side between
to be
have
them.
PKOPERTIES
OF
ANGLES
61
EXERCISES
1. Indicate
the
which
angles in Fig.46
and
vertex
common
the
are
common
adjacent.Point out
side in each
pair of
adjacentangles.
Draw
2.
angle of
45"
adjacent
to an angle of 45"; an angle of 30"
adjacent to an angle of 150"; an
angle of 35" adjacent to an angle
an
of 80".
Do
3.
notice
you
in
significant
of Ex.
to
angle of
an
angle
an
of
60".
sides ?
be
this
in order
that
adjacent?
What
77.
and
Does
Geometric
parts
to
seems
relation
the
need
total amount
add
to
FIG.
angles shall
addition
to
adjacent
their exterior
4, above, suggest
angles.Thus,
30"
What
exist
of the
any
2 ?
Draw
4.
anything particularly
and
of
turning is represented?
subtraction
method
46
of
angles. Exs. 2
for
FIG.
47.
GEOMETRIC
ADDITION
OF
ANGLES
sulting
Fig.47, angle y is placedadjacentto angle z, and the reangleis called the sum of x and y. The anglesmay
be transferred to the new
of tracing
either by means
position
of the protractor.
conveniently,by means
paper or, more
62
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
anglesby placingthem
Add
two
We
may
also find
the
difference
given anglesare
the larger,
a:, so
In
each
adjacentto
between
and
other.
angles.
two
y.
Place
tin
FIG.
pairof
one
other
two
and
y.
48.
GEOMETRIC
SUBTRACTION
sides coincide.
sides of
in
Thus,
and
The
part remainingbetween
y will be
Fig.48
ANGLES
OF
obtain Zz
we
the
"
/.y=/.AOC.
EXERCISES
Draw
1.
x
"
z.
three
Draw
an
equal to y \x
2. Draw
to it. What
unequal anglesx,
angle equal to x +
an
"
y, and
y +
2,
;
so
that y~"x
equal to
"
z.
angle
is their
of 60" and
sum
draw
Fold
the
another
of 20"
Construction
problem.
At
adjacent
20degreeangle over
78.
and
given point on
x.
the
What
given
of ruler and
an
by means
compasses
we
angle equal to a given angle. In this construction
tween
make
of the followingsimple geometric relation beuse
central
angles and their interceptedarcs : In the
circle or in equalcircles equalcentral anglesintercept
same
line
to
construct
PROPERTIES
OF
63
ANGLES
on
center
(circle
B)
coincide with
whose
must
the
cle
ciris E
center
because the
(circle
E1),
radii of equal circles
equal. Then
are
A will
FIG.
fall
on
Z",and
arc
therefore
49
F;
on
CA
will fall
on
the
arc
FD,
and
the
arcs
equal.
It is easy to
true : In the same
that the
is also
followingstatement
circle or in equalcircles equal arcs
the
on
circle are
by equal central angles.For circleM
intercepted
be placed on
circle E so that arc CA
coincides with
can
are
arc
FD, since these arcs
given equal,and ''so .that B
falls on E.
A will fall on Z", and C on F.
Then the angles
must. coincide and are therefore equal.
The two precedinggeometricrelations make
clear why
the protractor may
be used to measure
angles as we did
in Art. 71.
that every
of
we
one
know
The
see
method
central
degree on
used
angle of
the rim
the number
of
there is based
one
of the
upon
the idea
an
degree intercepts
arc
degreesin
an
angle at
the center
64
GENEKAL
of
circle
know
we
idea
measured
number
of
vice
expressed thus:
arc
intercepted
by its
degrees are used as
the
degrees in
the
arc
versa.
be
can
by
the
its sides,and
intercepted
by
The
MATHEMATICS
central
angle is
sides (when angular
the respective
units
degreesand arc
of measure).
How
degreesof an arc are intercepted
by a central
many
angle of 30" ? of 40" ? of 60.5" ? of n" ?
We
are
now
ready to proceed with our problem: At
of
a
given point on a given line to construct
by means
ruler and compasses
an
angle equal to a given angle.
FIG.
CONSTRUCTING
60.
Let
Construction.
be the
given point on
With
a
center
the
as
and
with
sharp point
With
The
as
Z.BPC
and
and
center
is the
ER
as
{ER^
at
compasses
the
radius
same
TO
the
radius
radius
same
of the
EQUAL
in
the
the
ANGLE
Fig. 50 be
given line AB.
DEF
center
AN
draw
cut
GIVEN
ANGLE
given angle
draw
and
circle. With
another
cut
an
an
arc
and
circle.
let P
through
arc
as
Place
M.
at N.
requiredangle. Why?
EXERCISES
1.
Check
the correctness
by measuring
directions
2.
to
How
many
of your
ways
given angle?
have
we
with
for
construction
a
for the
ceding
pre
protractor.
constructingan angleequal
06
GENERAL
81.
Let
With
AB.
with
the
bisection
82.
given
line
greater
above
and
center
and
is the
and
C and
at
\ /~
D.
point
of
53.
FIG.
for AB.
The
Perpendicular bisector.
called the
171
scribe
de
below
and
as
before
as
first arcs
Then
CD.
as
radius
the
intersecting
given
With
arcs
above
arcs
Draw
same
be the
radius
describe
AB
below
with
and
center
AB
(Fig.53).
segment
than
bisect
to
AB.
Construction.
problem. How
Construction
segment
line
MATHEMATICS
bisector
perpendicular
line
How
TO
BISECT
SEGMENT
LINE
in.
CD
Fig.53
is
of AB.
EXERCISES
1. How
into
line be divided
may
four
equal parts?
into
eightequal parts ?
Draw
2.
triangleall
of
angled triangle).Construct
each
of
Cut
3.
each
the
three
out
of
sides
whose
triangle and
paper
fold
it
so
as
to
bisect
side.
4. Draw
in
trianglfe
which
draw
the
and
angled triangle)
three sides.
Draw
5.
the
construct
Draw
6.
point of
83.
the
trianglein which
one
angle is
perpendicularbisectors
ABC.
triangle
bisection with
Median.
midpointof
the
of the sides.
each
side and
connect
each
oppositevertex.
joiningthe
oppositeside
line
the
Bisect
rightangle and
vertex
of
is called
to
triangle
median.
PKOPEKTIES
OF
ANGLES
EXERCISE
Draw
84.
triangle;
Construction
With
(Fig.54).
with
cutting AB
and
greater than
either above
\
or
line PD
is
and
the
with
given point
arc
an
radius
describe
MR
line.
tance
dis
With
R.
that
the
side
out
arcs
low)
be(preferably
Connect
the point
below
and
center
given point
perpendicularto
the
describe
and
at
centers
as
as
to AB
from
be
AB
greater than
radius
drop
to
Let
Construction.
From
problem.
line
given
its medians.
construct
with
P.
Then
\/E
the
perpendicularto AB,
as
FIG.
How
54.
TO
DROP
A.
PERPENDICULAR
EXERCISES
is it
Why
the line AB
2.
draw
Draw
Altitude.
a
describe the
in
arcs
Fig. 54
below
triangleABC
perpendicularsfrom
85.
from
preferableto
vertex
An
all of whose
each
to the
vertex
altitude of
to
perpendicular
angles
and
acute
oppositesides.
triangleis
the
are
line drawn
oppositeside.
EXERCISES
1. Draw
the three
2.
draw
3.
Draw
trianglein
which
one
angle
is obtuse
and
draw
altitudes.
a
trianglein
which
one
angle is
right angle
and
triangle?
outside?
GENERAL
68
86. To
the
be
bisect
and
and
with
at
BC
convenient
and
With
greater than
meeting at
the
radius
draw
Then
is
BD
cutting
arc
radius
arcs
and
the
as
1'
draw
Join
to
vertex
an
ABC
spectively.
re
and
a
^ XY
D.
with
and
centers
as
With
center
HA
MATHEMATICS
D.
bisector of
FIG.
How
55.
/.ABC.
AN
TO
BISECT
ANGLK
EXERCISES
1. Bisect
the
crease
2.
Bisect
3.
Divide
4.
Draw
Draw
5.
angle is
87.
the
trianglein
all acute
and
bisect
which
is obtuse
and
bisect
same
AB
and
angle
one
for
which
trianglein
one
rightangle.
lines.
of
amount
Thus,
they
direction
same
angles are
the
do
angles ;
Parallel
same
EF.
the
are
said
and
from
angularrotation
have
Fig. 5(3
in
CD
the
have
had
initial line
parallel.The symbol
is II. Thus,
''parallel"
be
to
for
AB
equal parts.
angles.
of the
each
into four
trianglewhose
that
so
paper
angle.
given angle
by foldingthe
angle of
an
of the
each
check
angle and
an
is read
IICD
to
88.
"AB
is parallel
CD"
A
Corresponding angles ;
FIG.
transversal.
// in
Fig.56
Angles
are
called
C
56.
PARALLEL
LINES
and
angles. The
corresponding
line EF
69
is called
It is clear
transversal.
that
the
lines
are
allel
par
the
when
that
lines
and
the
EXERCISES
1. Draw
in
statement
Point
2.
89.
to
illustrate
figures to
Art.
the
of
last
lines
parallel
Construction
How
problem.
can
you
to
draw
line
parallel
given line.
Choose
Construction.
outside
given line A B
Draw
a line through P
so
with
convenient
a
angle x
the
importance
88, above.
the
out
the
the
point of
point P
in Fig.57.
to
as
Call
AR.
D.
intersection
form
At
P,
had
the
same
tion
from
the
initial
of rota
amount
FIG.
57.
How
TO
PARALLEL
line PD.
DKAW
LISKS
EXERCISES
1.
Construct
point outside
2.
ends.
He
In
in Z. y ?
given
line
through a given
the line.
makes
be
Fig.57
Give
mark
straightedgeboard
each
across
end
with
to
his
have
parallel
Why
square.
?
parallel
if
anglex
reason
60",what
for your
is the number
of
degrees
answer.
4.
two
parallelto
carpenter wants
line
Two
angle. Make
drawing
to illustrate your
work.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
In
5.
IICD,
what
other
angles besides
In
6.
90.
Fig.58, /.x
Z
and
bisectors
Z.y.
Bisect
that
these
show
y and
each other.
to
parallel
are
If
Parallelogram.
lines cross
parallel
another
pair, the
figurethus formed
onepair
(intersect)
of
foursided
is called
FIG.
58
91.
How
to
the method
to
easy
construct
in Art.
used
another,
to
it will
P,
on
MT
for
AR
construct
draw
89 for
Rectangle.
remember
we
line
constructingone
parallel
FIG.
59.
How
TO
CONSTRUCT
PARALLELOGRAM
line
to AB.
Through any pointM
parallel
The figureAMSP
parallelto AR.
its opposite sides are
parallel.
92.
If
parallelogram.
parallel.
are
be
parallelogram.Thus,
draw
a
working line
AB
(Fig. 59). Draw
AR
ient
making a convenangle with AB.
Through any point,as
P
and
equal correspondingangles ?
are
if AB
Fig. 58
If
one
of
the
A B
on
is
draw
line
parallelogram,
terior
in
angles of a parallelogramis a
right angle, the figure is a rectangle
(Fig. 60). Thus, a rectangle is a
parallelogramin which one interior angle
FIG.
is
60
rightangle.
PROPERTIES
OF
ANGLES
71
EXERCISE
Show
Extend
HINT.
93.
angles of
If
Square.
all
the
equal, the
(Fig.61).
are
square
rectangleare
right angles.
rectangle.
sides
of
figure is
tangle
rec
called
FIG.
61
EXERCISES
examples of rectangles
; of
1. Give
Construct
2.
and
cm.
squares.
cm.
only).
3. Construct
ing
to
the two
the
K
line
rectanglehavadjacentsides equal
a
segments
and
,
.
FlG
b in
62
62..

4. Construct
side is 7
in
square
whose
FlG"
long.
Construct
5.
line
cm.
square
side of which
is
63
units
long (use
Fig.63).
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followwords
and phrases: angle,vertex, vertices,initial side
of an angle,terminal side of an angle,rightangle,straight
angle,perigon,acute angle,obtuse angle,reflex angle,
94.
This
7^
(JKNERAL
MATHEMATICS
bisector,perpendicular
transit,perpendicular
to
protractor,
of a triangle,
median
bisector
a line,altitude of a
triangle,
of an angle,
lines,corresponding
transversal,
parallel
angles,
and square.
rectangle,
parallelogram,
The
"
"
'
96.
The
97.
This
"
tation
followingnotations have been discussed : (1) nofor denoting and
reading angles;(2) notation for
denoting a circle by its center.
of
1.
Classifying
angles.
2. Measuring angles.
3. Comparing angles.
4. Drawing anglescontainingany amount
of degrees.
any number
5. Adding and subtracting
angles.
6. Measuring anglesout of doors.
'
98.
In this
chapterthe pupilhas
fundamental
constructions
1. To
draw
2. To
draw
an
3. To
draw
been
of
turning or
taught the
ing
follow
circle.
at
given point.
4. To
a
draw
the
perpendicularbisectors
of the
sides of
triangle.
5. To
draw
the medians
6. To
draw
line
draw
of
triangle.
to a given line
perpendicular
a
the line.
the altitudes of
triangle.
from
CHAPTER
THE
107.
Measuring
Fig. 64,
in
within
of
the
of
area
with
the
the
in
as
the
of the
area
triangle
triangle.
accepted)
determine
that
108.
of
of
involves
length
measure
The
and
unit
of
of
area
width.
of
unit
Thus,
the
polygon
of
area
is
the
each
square
length. Such
we
area.
unit
may
result
the
express
the
in
between
unit
standard
and
area
ratio
standard
area.
is
contained
are
the
and
64.
and
area
units
many
sides
whose
of
determine
Unit
in
(defined
unit
given polygon
As
given polygon
how
is, we
ABC
compare
FIG.
and
of
amount
is
process
standardized
some
AREA
determine
polygon,
We
comparison.
TO
we
measuring the
are
we
If
areas.
APPLIED
EQUATION
inclosed
area
IV
in
1cm.
square
feet, square
inches, square
square
centimeters,
etc.
109.
Practical
of
method
meters,
FIG.
estimating
practicalway
is to
polygon
by
of
we
units
lines
approximate.
should
it to
tracing
square
bounding
but
transfer
of
means
not
such
go
of
area
squared
squares,
it
reasonable
74
OF
ix
RIC
MET
THE
SYSTEM
count
we
the
figure.
becomes
approximations
beyond
the
within
inclosed
UNIT
paper
then
and
paper
the
cut
In
the
estimate
to
65.
area.
AREA
cm.
should
limits
ber
num
If
the
necessary
to
be careful,
of accuracy.
THE
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
75
AREA
EXERCISES
1.
The
figuresin Fig. 66
six
the
or
Express
squares.
as
2.
small
One
FIG.
If
66.
3.
the
Do
either
areas
equals 4
square
AREAS
ESTIMATING
estimate ?
think
you
that
sq.
by counting
centimeters
as
square
OF
SQUARED
much
Give
any
an
of
PAPER
finer,would
argument
your
you
for your
results
are
to Ex.
110.
CASE
Area
I. The
that
accurate?
C
3.
of
rectangle.
sides of the
has
been
tangle
rec
ferred
transFIG.
67.
How
squaredpaper of
OF
are
integral
multiples
Using 1 sq. cm. as a unit, there
A
of 1
cm.
to the
Fig.67
get
answer.
paragraph in
preciseterms, supportingyour
4. Write
answer
of
means
mm.
MEANS
BY
ruled
were
paper
accurate
more
the
of them
of each
areas
by
millimeters.
square
HINT.
the
Estimate
tracingpaper.
transferred
were
TO
FIND
THE
AREA
RECTANGLE
are
two
rows
of
76
GENERAL
units, and
four
MATHEMATICS
units
in
equals8, or 2 x
equals the base times
4.
area
law
111.
we
are
of
of
Area
given a
The
in this
law
In
the altitude.
A
that the
see
The
is :
case
area
equation form
this
Let
that
a.
rectangle. CASE
II.
sides
whose
square
assume
for
Counting,we
row.
suppose
integralmultiples
not
are
us
base (length)
rectanglewhose
and
altitude (width) is 1.3 cm.
whose
If we
cm.
that the preceding law holds, then we
ought to
cm.
is 2.3
2.3
get
written
be
may
1.3
example,
2.99 sq.
Instead
cm.
of
ruled
is
millimeter, as
there
13
23
are
millimeter
as
(in
this
of units
result
as
I,
the
with
23
if
in
sq. cm.,
that obtained
of
unit,
Since
and
cm.
then
which
is
to
same
0.1
of
as
we
of
may
squared paper
a
in
millimeter.
Cases
and
there
But
mm.
the law
square
rows
there
be
are
the
number
same
This
can
rectangle
of length
by 100,
of Case
III.
square
13
are
the
precisely
rectangle. CASE
upon
sq.
the unit
hence, dividing299
temporarilyadopting a smaller
drawn
299
or
row,
cm.
the
temporarilyadopt
we
by assuming
a
FIG.
integralmultiplesof
millimeter).Hence
in 1 sq.
Area
2.3
unit of area,
is 2.99
112.
Fig.68.
in
case
mm.
sq.
in
cm.,
in Case
are,
100
as
smaller
mm.
1.3
in
mm.
to
I.
process
of
continued.
From
II.
here
the
reasoningis
the
77
AREA
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
EXERCISES
1.
Finish
2.
The
The
3.
What
the
The
of
in
113.
and
its altitude
by counting
find
if the
that
show
fractions
a
to
is2cm.
the
area?
sides
of
centimeters.
square
parts of
squares.
its altitude
and
5cm.
is
which
be
may
unit, the
expressed
is the
problem
a
as
same
II.
Case
in
found
exercises
rectangle involve
as
3^ cm.
temporarily adopt
you
area
decimal
foregoing paragraph.
rectangleis 5 cm.
preceding
exact
be
may
would
the
the
rectangle is
area
base
unit
Express
of
base
that
Show
reasoning of
the
Second
for finding
method
area
of
rectangle. It is
whose
whose
altitude
wish
to find the
unit
at
is 3
segment
pointsE, F,
method
the
Also
Draw
and
(review
of
Art.
Then
12
with
80).
perpendicularsto
each
(by definition),and
of units
the
to
of each
end
construct
and
We
cm.
area.
the
and
cm.
perpendicularline
line AB
is
four
in
times
small
square
line AD
is
at the
unit
the
a
the
of
measure
three
area
points
rows
equals
78
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISES
1. The
is 1.7
without
is
The
of Ex.
4.3cm.
of
area
squared paper.
x
What
".
advantage has
this law
1 ?
An
115.
a
of
use
the law A
Apply
114.
the
to find the
the
the method
over
rectangleis
how
Show
cm.
but
2.
of
base
for the
Formula
of
specialcase
which
b.
method
The
for
as
of
area
The
square.
is
square
in
; that is,it is a rectangle
rectangle
formula
be developedby the same
can
rectangle.The only difference in the
reasoningis
of
that in every case
there are as many
rows
(Why ?)
square units as there are
square units in a row.
of a square is A
b x b.
Hence
the formula
for the area
b x b,
This formula may be written A
J2,where i2 means
=
and
the formula
is read "A
equalsb square."
EXERCISES
By
1.
square
method
the
counting squares
2cm.
side is
whose
the formula
Apply
2.
of
find the
area
of
long.
=
in Ex.
1. .Compare
results.
3.
x
Find
the
inches ; y
4. How
square
yards ;
many
lot whose
of
area
m
square
meters
feet of wire
area
is 4900
side is
whose
; 0.07
; 2.41
mm.
fencing are
sq. ft.?
oft.;
feet;
m.
needed
b2 sq. ft.?
to inclose
4 r2 sq.
yd.'.'
Express by
5.
3" in.
and
long
5 in. wide
long and
is 8 in.
equation the
an
wide
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
; 8 in.
8 in.
area
of
rectanglethat
long and
6^ in.
and
long
79
AREA
wide.
inches
; y
high
How
8.
60 ft.
of
10.
of
11.
of
of the
area
in it if each
tiles contained
4 ft. wide
grate is
mantel
and
tile is 3 in.
of
areas
of
areas
write
case
an
and
and
6 in. and
inches ;
area
116.
square
(g)altitude
b inches and
long
inches
rectanglesof
12^ ;
; 10 ;
32 sq. in. ;
3 in. and
in.
rectangles1
equationfor the
rectangle,having given (a) altitude
In each
area
walk
inches.
Express by equationsthe
the followinglengths: 8
the
shows
to make
needed
are
Express by equationsthe
the followingwidths : 12
inches ;
and
the
many
long and
9.
Find
The
48 in. wide.
and
side.
and
high
28 in. wide.
and
of square
the number
on
is 54 in.
mantel
7. A
32 in.
inches.
area
Formula
inches ;
inches and
square
for the
7^ sq.
area
area
(f)base
A
area
; I; b ;
other
z.
dimension
8 in. and
area
ft.;
27
5 in. and
square
width
area
inches ;
square
(h)base
inches.
area
of
parallelogram. Fig.70
80
GEXKi;
MATHEMATICS
A L
EXERCISES
triangleA
by
the
count
Fig. 70)
to
of
square
units
in the
number
units in the
ED.
2.
Estimate
the number
3.
Compare
the
4.
If the
area
is the
the
and
relation
equals the
the
between
of the
area
BFC.
triangle
2.
.BFC
triangle
the
what
A ED,
triangle
rectangleCDEF
of square
of the
area
of
area
AB
parallelogram
the
CD?
"70.
FlG.
HOW
TO
FIND
MEANS
5.
Write
6.
7.
What
seems
to
you
is the
What
What
be
to
the
support
BY
PAPER
area
of the
the
relation
between
base
your
of the
rectangleCDEF?
be
the
base
What
?
rectangle
relation between
to
seems
the
of the
evidence
answer
and
8.
for the
PARALLELOGRAM
the formula.
and
parallelogram
have
OF
SQUARED
OF
is the formula
What
AREA
THE
the
altitude of the
rectangle?
formula
Give
lelogram
paral
the evidence.
expressing the
area
of
?
parallelogram
9.
Without
(use ruler
Divide
the
and
compasses
and
parallelograminto
follow
two
parallelogram
of Art. 91).
the method
a
triangleand a
parts
construct
"
82
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
Estimate
the number
of square
units
in
triangleABC.
7. Estimate
the number
of square
units
in
triangleCBD.
6.
8.
does
What
9.
triangleand
What
10.
What
11.
for
then
the base
of the
is the
relation
between
parallelogram? Why
between
relation
angle
tri
altitude of the
the
the
and
be the relation
to
seems
What
is the formula
the
of
area
any
?
parallelogram
What
12.
formula
the
of
to
appears
for
the
be
area
triangle?
FIG.
Construct
13.
lelogramABCD.
the diagonal AC
sharp knife cut
diagonalso as to
coincide with
What
14.
The
the
area
its base
form
73.
paral
OF
(a
line
FIND
THE
AREA
TRIANGLE
out
the
form
the
two
With
joiningopposite vertices).
other.
does
the evidence
precedingexercises furnish
of a triangleis equal to
of the
TO
Construct
conclusion
and
How
altitude.
This
law
of Ex.
evidence
one
may
to
13
support ?
show
that
written
in
the
followingformula:
ab
119.
quadrilateral
having only
sides parallel
is called a trapezoid
two
(Fig.74). The
sides are said to be its bases. In Fig.74 the upper
parallel
Area
of
trapezoid. A
lower
trapezoidis 6, the
the
of
base
altitude is h.
find the
To
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
base
draw
area
the
83
AREA
and
is a,
the
diagonalBD.
The
area
of the
ABD
triangle
.h.
Why
The
area
of the
triangleBCD
h.
Why
2,7
the
Therefore
'
of the
area
trapezoid
=
that
and
"
are
similar
Why ?
"
2t
77
Note
Why ?
terms.
In
the
first term
b is the
always
is the coefficient of
in the second
and
"
as
coefficient;
hence, adding coefficients,
do
in
term
we
may
AREA
OF
adding
area
is (a + b)
trapezoid
of
"
We
can
the
sum
of
indicate
only
the
74'
FlG
two
How
bases until
meet
we
FIND
J"
A
THE
TRAPEZOID
an
that a + b is to
means
problem. The parenthesis
law is: The area
be thought of as one
number.
The
of
is equalto one
a trapezoid
half the product of its altitude by
the sum
of its bases. This law may be written in the form
formula:
of the following
actual
EXERCISES
1. Find
and
2.
whose
The
the
bases
the value
an
of
trapezoidwhose
8 in. and
are
altitude of
is 4 in. Write
Find
of the
area
4.6 in.
respectively.
parallelogramis
2, and
its base
algebraic expressionrepresentingits
x
when
the
area
is 28 sq. in.
area.
84
GENERAL
2 in. Write
Find
altitude
The
3.
the value
of
./"
triangleis
10
algebraicnumber
an
of
MATHEMATICS
when
the
in.,and
the
hast is
representingthe
area.
is 55 sq. in.
area
4.
and
man
owns
shown
dimensions
to sell his
neighbor
$5600, how
for the
what
(a) A=x\
(b) A
=
=5
(d) i
(e) .4
(f) .4
(g) A
and
ft. If the
much
should
70
property
he receive
of
the
polygons may
the
express
FIG.
75
'.'
areas
(h) A=l
3".*.
_3
(a:+
"(".+
a("5+
*(y +
3).
2).
4),
2).
Find
1, and
10
kinds
following equations
strip'.'
5. Of
6.
equal to
frontage DF
is worth
3, y
2, a
4,
5.
contain rightangles ?
quadrilaterals
7.
What
8.
In what
9.
Having given
respectdoes
the square
side,construct
differ from
a
square,
the
?
rectangle
usingonly ruler
compasses.
HINT.
Review
line segment
the
Hg"w
does
11.
Is
rhombus
rhombus
12.
side
constructing a perpendicularto
differ from
square
a
rhombus
?
parallelogram
Is
parallelograma
Construct
rhombus
for
(Art.80).
10.
method
given
ruler
with
the
for
and
included
compasses,
given a
angle between
parallellines (Art.89).
two
rectangle,the
the
the
square,
85
AREA
PRODUCTS
OF
for the
formulas
product. The
monomial
TO
INTERPRETATION
GEOMETRIC
120.
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
of
area
the trapezoid,
etc.
triangle,
product of numbers
geometrically
;
may be represented
ab
for example, the product of any
numbers
be represented
two
may
FIG. ~6 ILLUSTRATING
dimensions
by a rectanglewhose
are
equal to the given numbers.
Thus
the rectanglein Fig.76 represents the product ab.
that the
show
EXERCISES
Sketch
2.
Sketch
an
3.
Show
of
by means
rectangle3 a by
a
a
On
of
5
squared
7.
the
Show
121.
that
ba.
area
Law
by
product 6
x.
of
the
2
area
2x?
a
figurethe
area
a.
the
prod
x.
draw
an
area
To
the
same
Compare
the
areas.
paper
that
figureto represent
and
the
represent kry.
product
Show
of 5
6.
to
Fig. 77
is the
5. Draw
uct
area
from
4 x2. What
4.
rectangleto represent
drawing
of order.
on
The
repre
1NG
paper
two
ILT.USTRAT
SQLARE
THE
A
squared
last
77.
lio.
scale
OF
MONOMIAL
that
exercises
45
54.
illustrate
in
"
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
3 y
"
(b)(2 x y) (3 x y};
"
122.
formula
and
polynomial
The
monomial.
for the
of drawing
trapezoidsuggests the possibility
binomial by
represent the product of a sum
The process is illustrated by the following
to
areas
a
of
Product
monomial.
exercises.
EXERCISES
1.
of
Express by
dimensions
means
and
of
an
equationthe
to
f.
hnd T
,,
the
DCEF
DCBA
3)=5
3. Show
by Fig.80
4. Draw
an
area
to
representbm
5. Draw
an
area
to
represent 2
4?/ +
Fig. 79
that
from
15
78.
ILLUSTRATING
PRODUCT
OF
A
FIG.
the
F
5x
THE
POLYNOMIAL
MONOMIAL
that
15.
a(x + ?/)
T/
ax
6"byan
rectanglewhose
area
z)
In +
ax
(x +
Why
Why?
ABE1*,
2. Show
Kepresent 2cc
of
area
DCEF.
area
T"(x +
7. Sketch
"
entire
rectangle
AND
Since
6.
The
(see Fig.78).
(x \3). D
rectangle equals 5
If a perpendicular
be erected
Why?
at B (seeArt. 80 for method), the
tangles.
"rectangleis divided into two recof DCBA
The area
equals
of ABEF
5x.
The
area
Why?
It is now
equals 15. Why?
easy
whole
of
area
"//.
ax
a?/
az.
be.
2 ay +
az.
area.
equals 2
ax
2 ay +
az.
EUCLID
88
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
"
HISTORICAL
phrase which
serious
to
means
for
need
of the
overflow
The
NOTE.
word
"geometry"
reliable method
Nile.
of
practicalbasis.
The
oldest
collection
written
by
earlier
than
other
an
Ahmes
the
pyramids.
do
we
The
and
of the
data
his
is
at
to
be itself
rest
papyrus
considerably
copy
which
of
instances
the
work.
results
to
appears
date
after each
land
hieratic
know
not
of
Ahmes
numerical
.some
accuracy
problems
had
of
some
,
older.
years
that
by giving
Since
check
thousand
commences
geometry
barns.
the
measuring
this is believed
H.C., and
1000
collection
of geometry
Greek
earlyEgyptians
earlyhistoryof geometry
The
this
on
The
the earth.
measure
from
comes
shape
of the
he
However,
given agree
with
deals
the
of
contents
barns,
cannot
we
problems
gave
closelywith
on
sions
the dimen
existingpyramids.
took
Geometry
definite
form
as
science
when
Euclid
(about
B.C.)wrote
Athens,
at
set
in
his
Greece.
"Elements
He
became
head
of
the
proceeded to collect
geometric principles.He is
Alexandria, Egypt,
form
of
the known
and
mathematics
school
and
into
organize
said to have
insisted
read
sake. Thus, we
of
knowledge of geometry for its own
is no
his tellingthe youthful Prince Ptolemy, There
royal road to
geometry." At another time, so the story goes, when a lad who had
do I gain by learning all this
just begun geometry asked, "What
stuff ?
Euclid
his slave give the boy some
made
since,"
coppers,
he
said he,
he must
make
of
what
learns."
out
a
profit
Euclid organized his text so as to form a chain of reasoning,beginning
with obvious assumptions and proceeding step by step to results
of considerable
The student
should read about his work in
difficulty.
tary
Ball's "A Short Historyof Mathematics."
Cajori's"Historyof Elemenon
the
"
"
"
"
Mathematics
Literature
"
and
"
are
Miller's
further
"
Historical
sources
Introduction
of information
to
about
matical
MatheEuclid.
90
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
1: Sketch
rectanglewhose
will be
area
the
product
of
(a + ft)
(e+ d).
2. Find
Perform
multiplication
(2 f x)(m
geometricfigure.
3.
the
4. Find
the
Find
the
product (3x +
representedby this product.
5.
f
;/ +
n).
w) by
z),using
of
means
Sketch
(a + b).
?/)
+
product (a + b~)(x
the
area
geometric
figure.
126.
Algebraic product
of two
polynomials. The
figures
in the
EXERCISES
of Art. 126,
Using the principle
indicated products as polynomials
:
1.
(a) (m
2.
How
side of
One
much
largeas
(g) 3(2 a2
n) (a + 5).
wider
before?
/"
the
following
5).
(j) (3x
2
d) (2x
"p](3
f
3 y +
+
a
rectangleis 4yd.
must
express
it be
made
so
7 J +
and
as
z).
5*).
the other
to be
l"
is
6yd.
times
as
EQUATION
THE
Solution.
Let
Check.
(x
2 and
2 x2 +
Avoid
NOTE.
each
4
equal to
4 xy +
lettingx
2.
xy"
8 +
127.
a) (m +
0.3 y +
Geometric
(x + y*)(x+ yy,
may
of
each
four
x2,2 x8,etc.
0.6
s)(10 x
of
sides
The
is
is
square
20 y +
z).
The
an
uct
prodsquare
(see
parts
of
xy
are
j
side
same
the
area
"
of
o
a
.
product is
law
whose
square
r"
isajtyisar+Jsa^
the
product of
interesting
specialcase
composed
two
30
binomial.
(z + y)2,is
or
parts, of which
Hence
are
").
square
whose
Fig.82).
2 x, 2
case
indicated and
the
68.
36
Why?
24
1, for in this
3.
"
the result
check
2 x2 + 4 xy +
y)
Multiplythe followingas
(a)
(b)
(c) (m +
(d) (m +
(e) (0.4x
of
2 y +
91
AREA
indicated and
Multiplythe followingas
3.
TO
APPLIED
+ ^r.
rru
1 he
obtained
for the
xy
x
FIG.
82.
THE
SQUARE
ILLUSTRATING
OF
Bi
by ing
applyproduct of two polynomials; thus,
x
+y
+y
+
xy
xy +
2 xy
92
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
In
sum
the
Use
Fig. 82
show
to
what
this law
means.
EXERCISES
of
By means
polynomials:
1.
figuresexpress
(b) (m + n)2.
(c) (c+ d)*.
2. Sketch
trinomials
following squares
(e) (x + 2)2.
(f) (m + 3f.
that
squares
(h) (2x
(i) (2x
+
+
suggested by the
are
as
y)2.
3 y)2.
following
(a) a2 +
(b) x2 +
(c) A2+
(d) x2 +
3.
the
2 ah +
lr.
a2.
ax
(e) mz +
(f).r2+
(g) 49 +
(h) c2 +
2 A"(r.
4*
Indicate
4.
what
lias been
number
MI
10
a
14
c
16.
25.
z2.
],
multipliedby
itself to
produce
(a) or2+
(b) r2 +
4.
What
5.
The
axioms
by
the
2 vy
4
are
+
+
(c)z2 +
(d) "a +
/.
4.
the factors
in the trinomials
a
10 // +
of Ex.
9.
25.
.3 '.'
of
(a)30 + 4) =22
(b) 9 0 + 35) =5
(c) 3(x + 15)+
(d)?fe"28.
,.
(2 a + 45).
2(2* + 9)+ 4(.r+ 3).
=
Wi
=
2.
.
fc,
1.
52.
(h)ff=a
(i)^^
8.
93
128.
The
Evaluation.
considered
figures
the
upon
in this
of the
chapterhas been
the figure.This
of
dimensions
of each
area
geometrical
found
depend
dependence has
been
to
of formulas, as A
ab in the case
expressedby means
of the rectangle.Whenever
definite numbers
tuted
substiare
in the expressionab in order to find the area, A,
for a particular
rectangle,the expressionab is said to be
evaluated.
This
impliesgettingpracticalcontrol
process
=
of the formulas.
EXERCISES
1.
a
22.41
2.
a
value
of
ft. and
23.42
the
value
of
ft. and
2.144
Find
12.42
the
Find
12.41
3.
a
Find
129.
ft, b
This
is
it claims
The
get
we
to
accuracy
of your
classroom.
actually know
we
thousandth
of
square
all involved
we
in
the
formula
=
20.12
above
the
the
"
In
of
Shall
we
some
meaningless?
are
and
time
energy
tively
respec
floor accurate
discard
we
How
These
to
of
one
ten
the
mal
deci
much
question
many
?
process of multiplication
places
clear
understandingof
along in the
wasting time and
carry
of the
questions are
decimal
How
have
foot.
square
product 524.8422
of the
area
foot?
are
when
("i)fi)
Does
important that
question. For if we
when
="
ft.
this result
fundamental
we
result.
in the
regard as significant
decimals
formula
the tenthousandth
It is
the
the
when
ab
findingthe area in
(22.41)(23.42)= 524.8422 sq. ft.
four decimal places.As it stands
.1
ft.
of the
A
formula
in
ft.,and
with
number
Suppose the
that
6.43
the
ft.
of .1 in the
accuracy
1 above
Ex.
value
the
The
in
process
energy,
ingless
mean
and,
94
what
is
the
result
serious,
more
hand,
other
it does
doing
not
are
we
dishonestlyclaiming for
are
which
accuracy
an
we
not
have.
scientific work
On
when
the
we
formulas
area
Hence
an
is sufficient to
alone
result
524.8422
of the
area
(b)
tape
not
If
make
sq. ft.
as
we
measure
and
that
If the scale is
the
record
line ments.
segapproximation.This fact
an
us
an
of the classroom
measure
mean
is
area
exceedinglycritical of the
absolutelyaccurate measure
floor.
lengthof
the result
room
as
with
reliable
ft.,this does
23.42
accurate.
regardthe result as absolutely
graduatedto hundredths of a foot,it means
we
that 23.42
of
the measurement
involves
to
the true
value.
The
eye
us
us
range
that
of
over
23.425
0.45
ft. is too
of
square
foot.
In
short, the
THE
APPLIED
EQUATION
TO
95
AREA
half of a square
one
by practically
of the third figure
from the
foot. We
not actually
sure
are
shall be reasonably
left. It mayfce a 4 or a 5. We
near
record the result simply as 524.? sq. ft.,
the truth if w%
and
the largest
chosen roughlyhalfway between
a number
smallest possible
areas.
that the product of two approxiIt can
thus be shown
mate
is not to be regarded accurate
numbers
fourplace
than four places.
to more
result
might be
*130.
wrong
Abbreviated
answer.
Thus, 47.56
34.23
may
take
the
followingforms
USUAL
FORM
ABBREVIATED
METHOD
we
By multiplication
47.56
34.23
get
47.56
1427
34.23
190
10
1
1628.
than
accidentally
only a little more
be shown
0.02 sq. ft. It can
by the method used in the
classroom
problem (Art.129) that 1628 is easilyin the
not actually
are
sure
range of probableareas ; that is,we
about the fourth figurefrom the left.
The
difference
Hereafter
omitted
without
is
destroyingthe
exercises
sequence
marked
with
of the work.
an
asterisk
may
be
GENERAL
96
The
MATHEMATICS
method
abbreviated
of
consists
see
regarded as
sum
While
been
by
than
accurate
no
to
be
cannot
of the
less accurate
of this very
discussion
it is easy
numbers
the
the truth
Illustrate
the
subtraction
or
difference of two
or
more
numbers.
two
addition
In
important topichas
means
which
purpose,
exceedinglycritical of
decimal places.
results
make
is to
the student
of
involvingthe significance
EXERCISES
*1.
with
as
Assuming
ft. and
47.56
in Art.
ft. respectively,
show
34.23
largestpossiblearea
a
write
By
the
*3.
means
of
product of
Multiplyby
result with
*4.
hall is
the
abbreviated
measured
are
recorded
are
the method
smallest
actuallyover
used
and
four
the
fifths of
foot.
square
*2.
of the
by
the
129
hall
of
Which
46.54
and
the usual
multiplicationmethod
32.78 ; of 23.465
method
and
compare
and
34.273.
cut
the short
this result.
result is the
more
accurate
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases: area, measuring area, unit of area,
of Multiplication,
Law
Commutative
rhombus, trapezoid.
formula, formulas.
partialproducts,parenthesis,
131.
This
CHAPTER
137.
that
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
The
Solids.
solids.
occupies
drawings
solid
is
in
of
portion
VOLUME
Fig.
commonly
83
of
Frustum
Pyramid
surrounding
study only
interested
the
figures we
altogether in
Fig. 83 ?
two
For
in
FAMILIAR
SOLIDS
its
surface.
by
space
of
solid
the
color, weight,
have
a
83.
form
the
not
figures in
from
lelepiped
Paral
of
Pyramid
FIG.
the
object
an
Rectangular
Sphere
Triangular
as
metric
geo
separated
is
It
Cube
lelepiped
represent
thought
space.
Paral
Oblique
TO
plane, but
involves
dimensions
example,
the
are
its
A
in
geometry
size.
solid
that
third
is
we
We
are
differs
from
it does
not
dimension.
suggested by
square
98
and
etc.
studying
been
In
the
suggested by
lie
What
solids
the
in
cube.
138.
has
cube ? How
in
corners
many
all
are
parallelepiped
it?
How
140.
How
? How
is
How
of
oblique
an
faces
many
edges?
many
parallelepiped. The
Rectangular
formed
corner
faces
are
edges
many
How
parallelograms.
vertices?
many
all of which
edge.
an
99
VOLUME
faces
six
139.
has
has
faces intersect
Two
squares.
cube
The
Cube.
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
faces
of
tangular
rec
are
parallelepiped
rectangles.
141.
solid
we
of
cube
each
is
volume
inclosed within
volume
we
edges equalsa
expressednumericallyby
cube
the unit
of volume.
goes
Formula
for the
volume
of
the surface
solid. To
the
solid with
unit
of
length. The
of times
the number
The
unit cube
is called
piped.
rectangularparallele
is
Fig. 84 a rectangularparallelepiped
which is 5 cm. long,3 cm. wide,
and 4 cm. high. The unit cube
is represented
by K. Since the
/
/
base of the solid (the face
7
it stands) is 5 cm.
which
on
long and 3 cm. wide, a layerof
3 x 5 unit cubes could be placed
In
upon
high,it contains
cubes
unit
layersof
that is,4x3x5,
cubes.
Thus
the
or
shown
B
cm.
unit
60,
volume
FIG.
84.
VOLUME
How
OF
TO
A
THE
FIND
RECTANGULAR
PARALLELEPIPED
rectangular
parallelepiped
is obtained by multiplying
the lengthby the width
height.This law may be expressedby the formula
of
we
of the
compare
of whose
the unit
142.
solid
When
; unit of volume.
measuring the
are
the volume
measure
a
of space
the amount
determine
of
of volume
Measurement
by
V=
the
Iwh.
100
EXERCISES
Find
1.
the
dimensions
*2.
of the
adopt
by
be true
"
of
means
if I
See
Volume
Ex.
that
the
"
suggested in
formula
1.7
2j,
Iwh
cm.
Art. 111.
generaldiscussion
3j,h
3f
.
3, Art. 112.
of
generalway
mathematics
Show
the method
HINT.
143.
cube.
2.3 cm., h
Follow
Show
would
unit
smaller
HINT.
63
its
the
holds when
in
if
rectangularparallelepiped
42 in.,and w
56 in.
in.,h
a
tangular
preceding discussion the edges of the rechad not been given as integral
multiples
parallelepiped
unit cube, it would
have been necessary temporarilyto
If
*3.
are
in
of
volume
course
an
the
to show
used
in
advanced
more
V=
Iwh holds
in
}h
R
FIG.
85.
MODEL
ILLUSTRATING
OBLIQUE
for aji
HOW
TO
FIND
THE
VOLUME
OF
AN
PARALLELEPIPED
III is a
obliqueparallelepiped.
Parallelepiped
and we know
the formula holds
rectangular
parallelepiped,
II is a rightparallelepiped
for it. Parallelepiped
(it has
even
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
rectangularfaces,and
101
VOLUME
and
parallelograms)
III.
by advanced methods is shown equal to parallelepiped
I is obliqueand is shown
equal to parallelepiped
Parallelepiped
I equalsparallelepiped
II. Since parallelepiped
II,
II in turn equalsparallelepiped
and parallelepiped
III, the
I. The student should not
formula
holds for parallelepiped
if he cannot
be concerned
fullyunderstand this discussion.
for an oblique
He should be ready to apply the formula
when the need for it arises in shop or factory
parallelepiped
of arithmetic.
justas he does many principles
four
two
are
EXERCISES
models of the
student
to make
easy for some
II
precedingfiguresin the shop. Thus, to show parallelepiped
*1.
It will be
III construct
II and
equal to parallelepiped
parallelepiped
from D to the base. Then
saw
along the
drop a perpendicular
Place the slab obtained on the right side,
and DF.
edges MD
III.
like parallelepiped
and parallelepiped
II will look exactly
This will be helpfulto your classmates,
and you will find the
exercise easy and interesting.
*2.
much
difficult and
more
I look
parallelepiped
HINT.
Construct
edges RK and
the figurewill
Ex.
1 to make
KI
like
RK"
and
exercise
interesting
III.
parallelepiped
to
AC
placethe
and
and
more
18 ft. wide
4. A
along
on
to
is to be lined with
zinc
requiredif
^ in.
4 sq. ft.
20 ft. wide
reservoir than
thick.
are
as
in
con
depth of
the
Now
to
contains water
rectangulartank
zinc will be
Saw
II. Continue
parallelepiped
I look like parallelepiped
III.
parallelepiped
be transformed
rectangularreservoir 120
water
to a depth of 10.5 ft. A
water
to AC.
slab obtained
3. A
tarns
KI"
is to make
in the first?
wide, and
How
allowed
many
for
much
5 ft.
cubic
deep
feet of
overlapping?
102
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
If 1
6.
An
cu.
tank
open
dimensions
are
follows
as
ft. If 1
height,2
is made
length,3
ft. of iron
cu.
of iron
in. thick.
ft. ;
The
outer
1 ft. 9 in. ;
width,
the
weight
of the tank.
In
7.
of
acre
an
144.
a
Formula
cube
if 1
ground
is
ft. of water
cu.
for the
in the
computed
cube
volume
of
same
of water
tons
many
62.5 lb. ?
weighs
a
way
The
cube.
that of
as
fall upon
volume
of
piped.
parallele
that the
specialcase in the sense
width, and heightare all equal.Hence, if s equalsan
length,
edge of a cube, the volume may be expressedby the formula
The
is
The
s.
form
abbreviated
the
into
the mbe
of
formula
s3
V=
briefly
more
V=
be
may
of
s.
following law
The
formula
The
volume
may
of
s3
written
being an
be
cube
lated
trans
equals
edge.
an
EXERCISES
1.
Find
the volume
2.
Find
the volume
in.; 1
145.
m.
0.01
of
cube
of
cube
whose
whose
edge
is
m.
Equal factors
The
ucts
prod
and
sions
three equal dimenequal dimensions
of a square and
have been representedby the area
of a cube respectively.
Hence
the notation
the volume
and "s cube."
tors
The product of four equal faca square
be represented
cannot
though you may
geometrically,
alreadyhave heard people talk vaguely about the fourth
dimension.
However, the product of four equal algebraic
of
"
two
"
factors,say
s,
is
as
definite
as
2x2x2x2
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
103
VOLUME
Thus,
in arithmetic.
write
algebraand
bxbxbxbxb
The
b5 is
term
is
small
to
"
b*
show
b6 is called
hi
written
number
number
another
sxsxsxs
The
bxbxbxbxb.
extend
we
the
to
how
little above
is to
that number
times
many
exponent. It
an
rightand
than
the 3 is
factor. In 53 (meaning 5x5x5)
5 is the base,and the product
the exponent,the number
of 5 x 5 x 5 is the power.
Thus, 125, or 53,is the third
be used
as
of 5.
power
exponent
y
each
are
is the
When
to be 1.
is understood
to
be used
same
in x, the
written, as
only once
if the term
as
is
exponent
no
factor.
ast a
and
The
ing
mean
Mjritten2xlyl.
were
EXERCISES
1.
State
clearlythe
difference between
of
3.
(c) 2 a.
(d) a?.
Write
the
(e)4 a.
(f) a4.
2J 5J 2J ;
4.
"
Find
(g)5 a.
(h)a5.
followingproductsin
yyyyy,
and
(a) 3 a.
(b) a8.
the value
(i)2
(j)3
a2.
(k) 4
(1) 2
a2.
briefest form
a
5555;
g^j"i
m'"
"
of
3 ^3
"
"
"
"
a2.
a4.
333
"
an
of each
1111
4 V4f
the value
coefficient and
numbers.
2.
y.
(1.1)8.
5.
Letting m
polynomials:
=
2 and
m2 +
); 5(m
2
+
mn
ing
3, find the value of the follow+
w2 ; m" +
n); 6(2 ws
3 ra2n,+ 3 wp2 + w8 ;
+ 3m2
f4mn
3).
104
GENERAL
Find
6.
(a) 2z;
(g) (3*)2
3 :
followingnumbers, where z
(b) *"; (c) (2*)2; (d) 2*2; (e) 3z8; (f) (3z)3;
Lettinga;
following:
7.
the
xy +
1, y
xz
yu
f y +
MATHEMATICS
"
146.
Exponents
147.
Product
"
2, z
x* +
zu
3, and
x3#f6 x2y24
x^3 + 2/4
xy
Since
the
subjectof exponents
is fundamental
to a clear understandingof two
very
devices,namely the slide rule and
importantlaborsaving
which we
shall presently
logarithms,
study,it is necessary
to study the laws of exponents very carefully.
law
to
be
important.
of powers
used
having
in this
type
the
may
be
The
exponents.
same
illustrated
the
by
"
"
"
Hence
a2
"
a3
means
aa
"
aaa,
or, hi
short,a6.
EXERCISE
In each
case
(a) 3233.
(b) 668.
(c) 52 5*.
(d) 10 108.
(e) x x2.
(f) 122.12S.
(g) x2 xs.
(h) x x4.
"
"
"
"
"
The
more
is
mm
exercise
(i)
(j)
(q)
axx.
(r)66.*"fl"
"
(s )
(;t )
"
"
"
"
2.
"
m.
4 tfc
"
5 iV.
x2yz2 2 xifzs.
(u) (2xyf.
(v) (2xV)3.
(w) (3x2?/)2.
(x) 3 5 2 5 2 38.
xy"
"
'
"
"
"
shows
x2
xs x6.
(k) b e b.
(1) bb.
(m) e e 2
(n) cc3.
(o ) x x5.
(p) m a2.
above
briefest form
that
the
"
"
"
product of
"
two
or
ivJwse base
base is a number
factorshaving the same
that of the factorsand whose exponent is the
the same
as
of the,exponent*of the factors; thus, b2 " /" 2"10.
"
106
EXERCISES
1. Find
edges of
of the
If the
2.
of the
sum
the actual
are
Find
3.
the
for
Fig. 86.
dimensions
in
express
sum
is 172, what
Fig.86
solid ?
the
2X+3
algebraic expression
an
total
surface
Also
for
the
of
solid
the
in
volume.
What
4.
will
which
algebraicnumber
the solid in Fig.86.
an
ume
vol
and
FIG.
of the solid in
if x
equals10
the
Express algebraically
5.
in
Fig.86
of the
sum
in
If
the
Fig. 87
edge ?
one
is
the
of
sum
edges
is
what
112,
of
the
the
the total
Express algebraically
of the cube in Fig. 87.
volume
and
8. What
The
9.
the
the cube
NOTE.
of the
tetrahedron
Find
in
The
whose
is
faces
length of an
Fig. 88 if the
the
Fig.89
in
shows
(Fig.88)
sum
is
if x
denoted
2 ?
by
of all
and
edge
lower
of
sum
frustum
bases
of the
of
the
hedron
tetra
edges
is
40.5
mid.
pyra
equilateral
pentagons ; the sides are trapezoids
in the figure.
with the edges denoted
as
Find
of all the edges. If e
the sum
of the edges ?
equals 2. what is the sum
upper
Fig. 87
tetrahedron.
tetrahedron
11.
of
surface
of the cube
1. Express algebraicallythe
edges
10.
of
edge
culx
length
7.
edges of
Fig.87.
6.
are
FIG.
89
cm.
DESCARTES
108
GENERAL
The
NOTE.
HISTORICAL
MATHEMATICS
of
idea
using exponents
raised was
to which
a
quantity was
power
the French
philosopher(15961650). It is
due
mark
to
Rene1
to
the
Descartes,
interestingto read
of the
of the Hindu
words
of the Hindu
third
"
square
of the unknown
power
practicalsettingwith
In
warriors.
are
powers
French
Bhaskara
"
the
used
and
"
example, arcs,
Vieta
denoting the
problems, which
as
in
references
following centuries
; for
"
solid
numbers
many
the
)*using
(1114
to
fair damsels
great
circles,
etc.,until
second
and
he gave
and
varietyof
initials
gallant
symbols for
we
to
come
(15401603),who
wrote
matics
matheon
lawyer, Frangois
did much
the notation
of
to standardize
as
a pastime. Vieta
of exponents he employed
A quadalgebra. Thus, in the matter
ratusx" A cubus," to represent z2 and x8, instead of introducing a
From
this point it is only a step to
letter for each power.
new
"
"
Descartes's
method.
The
Bhaskara, Viet;a,and
biographiesof the three mathematicians
Descartes
are
exceedinglyinteresting.Thus, you may enjoy reading
of Bhaskara's
of the
syncopated algebra in verse, in which
many
problems are addressed to lovelyand dear Lilavati
(hisdaughter)
by way of consolation when he forbade her marriage.
read of Vieta's being summoned
of Henry IV
You may
to the court
of x.
of France
involved
the 45th power
to solve a problem which
The problem had been sent as a challenge to all mathematicians
in the empire. Vieta appeared in a few moments
and
gave the king
solutions.
Next
two
correct
King Henry asked Vieta to decipher
the Spanish military code, containing over
six hundred
unknown
was
characters,which
periodicallychanged. King Henry gave the
in findingthe solution to the system,
cipher to Vieta, who succeeded
which
held
the French
greatly to their profit during the war.
"
Or
you
found
the
leisure
1621
"
may
gave
Discourse
realized
He
of
Descartes, a member
of the
who
nobility,
and
toward
read
"
the
the
is often
on
his time
to travel and
Methods."
relation
called "the
In 1637
now
used.
existing between
father
of modern
he wrote
considerable
system of exponents
close
study.
The
text
shows
geometry and
algebra."
book,
advance
that
he
algebra.
109
VOLUME
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
figurelike
the figureon
cardboard, using a larger scale.
Fig.90. Draw
Cut out the figurealong the heavy lines ; then fold along
of gummed
the dotted lines. Join the edges by means
paper.
tetrahedron
12. A
90.
FIG.
How
The
the
Draw
let
FIG.
STRUCT
CON
91.
How
TETRAHEDRON
13.
TO
from
constructed
be
may
cube
figureon cardboard,using a
Cut out the figure
cm.
CONSTRUCT
CUBE
figurelike Fig.91.
largerscale ; for example,
from
be constructed
may
TO
the
14. Measure
cube
model
Find
surface.
15.
edge
cube.
of the
constructed
compute the
of
area
of
the
the volume
whole
also.
FIG.
rectangular parallelepiped
How
92.
RECTANGULAR
may
a
be constructed
CONSTRUCT
from
area
TO
PARALLELEPIPED
the volume
the
of the surface.
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases: a solid,surface of a solid,volume
of a solid,unit of volume, cube, parallelepiped,
rectangular
parallelepiped,
obliqueparallelepiped
rightparallelepiped,
triangular
pyramid,exponent, base, power, tetrahedron.
150.
This
110
GENERAL
the
solid.
is
cube
unit
The
to
is
of
each
The
solid
how
see
process
cube
152.
of
volume
The
151.
MATHEMATICS
times
many
essentially
whose
is
formulas
it
by
one
have
applying
contained
is
unit
long.
been
used
the
in
The
comparison.
edges
following
determined
is
cube
unit
Iwh,
v=s3.
equals
number
whose
and
of
product
The
153.
factors
whose
exponent
having
base
the
is
is
the
of
sum
same
the
as
the
base
common
factors
of
exponents
the
factors.
The
154.
another
base
the
divisor
from
base
common
is
exponent
the
having
power
is
obtained
quotient
obtained
the
by
exponent
by
base
same
of
the
the
is
given
subtracting
of
dividing
number
powers
the
dividend.
exponent
by
power
whose
and
whose
of
the
CHAPTER
THE
APPLIED
EQUATION
ANGLE
155.
Fundamental
discussed
relations.
angle
relations
angles. Draw
and
this
equationis appliedto
of exterior
two
Chapter
III
we
between
angles and
see
how
them.
sides
of
supplementary adjacent
adjacentanglesof 64" and 116", of 75"
What
In
of the fundamental
Relation
FUNDAMENTAL
of
In
156.
TO
RELATIONS
constructingthem.
the
VI
What
is the
sum
of each
pair?
pair?
FIG.
157.
form
precedingarticle
illustrates the
two
93
straightline.
ill
of
sides
112
GENEKAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
1.
Show
that the
the definition
with
2. In
read
Fig. 93
the
of
number
XOD,
3.
What
is the
sum
4.
Express /.XOD
as
the
5.
Express Z.AOB
as
6.
Express /.XOE
as
the
of
on
of /.XOA
of all the
Sum
PS, and
Fig.94
and
of the four
shown
find
the
What
be the correct
the
about
line AB
angles.
angles.
a
point
and
on
choose
one
side
point
sum
then
tractor.
proto
seems
sum
sum
press
Ex
of the
equation.Give
159.
of three
sum
angles.
in
the
with
measure
of two
sum
anglesformed.
first and
Estimate
Z.AOB?
lines Pit,
as
PT
and
angles
agrees
XOE.
XOY,
158.
157
XOC,
XOB,
an
Important
angles x,
word
y, z, and
statement
geometric relation.
for
of
by means
the equation.
w
Art. 158
illustrates
EXERCISES
1. Find
the value of
and
angle in Fig.95.
In the
114
GENERAL
MATHKMATICS
The
at.
(a) 3 x, x, 2 x + 35, 125
10, 118.
(b) 2x, 72 + 3x, 4*
35 x, 8 x + 49.
(c) 10 x + 20J,
(d) 5 a, 3x + 27f,*7z20, 9a.+ 112j.
(e) x + 1, 7 (a;+ 1),3 (35 + x),2 x + 169.
(f) 3x, 117 + 15 a, 9 a; 27.
(g) 14 x + 48, 28 x + 106f 133^ 6 x.

The
of all
first two
the
anglesabout
Left side of
161.
Fig.98
pointin
an
and
direction BD,
then
(becauseit
lies
side of the
on
and
left),
the right
our
is called
side BA
to
a*
^''"
A
Right
In letteringan.
fi
is
figuresit
often
FIG.
the
letter
likenesses
by
easily.It
angle and
is clear that
the
same
same
98
able
desir
anglesor
denote
in the
say
s\f"^~~'
angle.
Notation.
,
gles and
of
vertex
162.
angle. If in
is called the
the
an
side BC
the
sum
is 360".
j)lafie
we
/.ABC
that the
to
so
use
I for the
as
certain characteristic
identifythem
to
I for
the
more
left side of
one
angle
in the
same
discussion
three," etc.
be read
"
I subone,"
"
subtwo,"
"
I sub
163.
xv in
size ?
by
estimate
with
Give
Two
in
compare
Check
your
to
seem
so
115
RELATIONS
ANGLE
FUNDAMENTAL
angles,a;1 and
left
are
parallel
li
ing
measur
protractor.
argument
an
showing that
x^
x"
FIG.
article shows
This
that
to
EXERCISE
freehand
Draw
two
obtuse
angles
so
that
their
sides
will
look
be
HINT.
the
two
anglesequal.
164.
y, in
Important
to exist
with
each
Give
that
geometric relation.
This
180".
article
angles,x
left. What
ure
? Meas
showing
"
shows
11
that
if
are
relation
protractor.
argument
an
z
them
so
Two
two
FIG.
100
and
allel
par
seems
116
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISE
the conditions
accordingto
parallel
Is the
approximately 180"
sum
165.
whose
Supplementary
sides
of Art. 164.
in the theorem
angles ; supplement.
Two
angles
is
are
said
are
the other.
166.
Supplementary
angles. Place
adjacent
101
supplementary
two
so
EXERCISES
1. In
Fig.101
what
2. In
Fig.102
are
is the
angle whose
several
angles,some
supplement
pairs of
is Zee?
which
are
FIG.
3.
State
whether
:
and
the
40" and
140"
102
of
following pairs
; 30"
and
150"
angles
; 35"
and
are
plementar
sup
135" ; 55"
135".
4.
How
angle of
many
degrees
are
there
in
the
supplement
of
an
5.
What
is the
supplement
of
y" ?
of z" ? of 3 w" ? of
"
117
130"
equationwhich expresses
supplementary and solve for the
Write
6.
are
7.
80".
x" +
and
9.
if
One
10.
other.
11.. What
size of each
largerthan
is the
Find
the
2x"
25"
supplementary angles
the other ?
the number
of
the
degrees in each.
of
number
degrees in
each
of two
mentary
supple
difference is 95" ?
angleswhose
12.
of two
values
angle.
supplementaryanglesis
of two
Find
the
and
is the
What
is 76"
one
Find
of the following
each
y" and
value of y.
Write
pairsof
8.
the
of
value
and
the
angles in
the
following
supplementarypairs:
(a) x" and 6 x".
(b) 2 x" and 3 x" +
(c) 4" x" and 6 x".
(d) 2 aj" + 5" and 7
13.
Write
the
2".
x"
8".
followingexpressionsin algebraiclanguage:
If
an
is 100".
angle
Find
supplement, the
supplementary angles.
is added
the
to
one
half its
118
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
If
15.
angle is
an
is increased
supplement
is 90".
obtained
16.
Construct
17.
Find
Find
the
increased
supplement
of
given angle.
followingadjacentpairsof
of the
supplementary angles:
(a) 0"llft:+"i
130
60,
(d)
*.
"
(b)
(c)
+
167.
32, 88
150,
(f) 65
problem. To
construct
2f, ^.
92 +
the
supplements
equalangles.
Let
Construction.
a;
and
the
given angles.
ment
suppleof Zz, adjacent to
it (Fig.103). In the same
(e) 2 (* + 10),
10.
Construction
of two
be
^""
\x.
Z z, the
Construct
Zw,the
construct
manner
supplement
of
Compare
Fm
/x
103'
HOWTO
OF
MENTS
/y
CONSTRUCT
T\VO
SCPPLK
THE
GlVEX
AHOLES
Z.y.
the
supplementsof
and
Z y and
show
that
/Z=/W.
article shows
This
that
the
Supplementsof equalangles
equal.
are
EXERCISES
1. Prove
In
HINT.
then
2.
Zz
the
Are
preceding fact by
Fig.103 prove
that if Zx
an
+ Zz
algebraicmethod.
=180"
and
Z.y +
=180",
Zro
Zw.
supplements of
the
same
FUNDAMENTAL
that
Show
3.
ANGLE
bisectors of two
the
to
angles are perpendicular
that Z
show
Z. AOD
of Z.
*5.
solve
example, in Fig.104
90".
60"
following examples
review.
for
the
and
In
value
each
of
the
case
known,
un
check.
(")Y
(b)
; for
Z. y.
The
furnish
Z. y
each other
supplementaryadjacent
and
Fig.104, if Z. BOD
4. In
and
119
RELATIONS
(e)
\y
t ^
(g)
16 +
OD
*
"
"
19
12.
3.
168.
anglesis a rightangle,the
two
angles are called complementary
plement
angles.Each angleis called the comof the other. Thus, in Fig.105
Z.x is the complement of Z y.
of two
sum
FIG.
105
EXERCISES
1. What
2.
Are
3.
Draw
place them
4.
of two
is the
23" and
complement
57"
of 30" ? of 60" ?
complementary ?
32" and
existingbetween
adjacent complementary angles?
What
is the
relation
58" ?
and
50"
and
120
GENERAL
5.
In
pairsof
6.
is the
of
complements
of
complement
the
which
following angles:
^?
7. 40"
y
of tracingpaper
by means
complementary.
to be
the
are
50"?
20"?
decide
Fig. 106
angles seem
What
MATHEMATICS
y".
How
degrees does
many
represent?
8. Write
the
50"
are
equation which
complementaryand
FIG.
9.
In
equation x"
the
possiblepairof
values
of
and
equations that
followingpairsof angles are
10.
Write
11.
Write
the
90"
y ?
solve
of
x.
will
is there
than
more
one
Explain.
express
the
fact
that
the
complementary:
(c) x" +
(d) 2 x"
algebraiclanguage
106
y"
in
says
25" and

x"
30".
3 x" +
3" and
8".
in algebraic
language:
followingexpressions
(d) Five
(e) Three
(f) Four
times the
sum
of
an
angle and
an
angle,minus
6".
13".
an
angle and
12".
122
GENERAL
170.
MATHEMATICS
angles. Dra\v
Vertical
tersecting
in
two
straightlines AB and CD as
in Fig. 108.
The
angles x and z are
called vertical,
or
opposite,
angles. Note
that vertical angles have
a
common
and
vertex
that
but
line
straight
same
vertical
Thus,
have
which
the
in
tions.
oppositedirecangles are angles
and
vertex
common
their
A
FIG.
108.
VERTICAL
ANGLES
EXERCISES
refer to
(Exs. 16
1. Make
Check
2.
with
4. Show
sum
that
Ex.
in Ex. 1
and
them
compare
to size.
as
by measuring the
two
/. y ? of Z.
/ y ?
angles
The
that y +
six exercises
the vertical
171.
anglesare
Value
of
relation between
that in most
and
and
jy.
help
in
obtainingthe
relation
between
is this relation ?
What
Show
6.
/
and
of /
is the
does
How
and
estimate
your
What
5.
/
protractor.
3.
tracingof
Fig. 108)
cases
above
+w
and
show
from
this that y
that
if two
lines
w.
intersect,
equal.
mathematical
vertical
thinking. The
anglesis
the truth
would
of
course
be
so
preceding
easilyseen
granted even
out
with
sion
However, the discus
is another
simple illustration of
in Exs.
36
above
123
the
of mathematical
power
of
is to
covery
thinkingwhich makes the distruths rest finally
that
on
nonmeasurement,
intellectual basis. This type of thinking
an
to an
increasingextent in subsequent work.
new
on
say,
used
will be
EXERCISES
the
what
Upon
1.
geometric
2. Find
each
relation
and
the
does
the
size of
First
angles
Since
method.
are
"
vertical
equal,
3r
from
Subtracting4
Subtracting2
Substituting6
from
3
2
9
vertical
Check.
22
Second
method.
8*
Solving,
The
158
By
+
".
"
10
+ 104
+ 158
9*
6.
6 +
22,
6 + 10
22,
6 + 104
158
(forZ. BOC),
equal,
360".
of
+ 104
r
remainder
definition
4 +
angles are
22
2x
member,
each
for x,
2ar + 10.
member,
each
3x
since
~^_^__
Then
and
of
of the work
supplementary angles,
=180.
=
is the
6.
same
as
124
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
vertical
(a) 3
(b) ,
angles made
15 and
105
by
5x
a;
(f) Jx
(h)
21".
$x
(e)*8andj
12.
Alternateinterior
(i)
"*
5,
In
angles.
fx
and
and
+
8
172.
160.
"
of the following
each
15.
181 and
and
intersecting
straightlines
two
5.
"
and IS*
10 and
(c) cc."
(d)
the
3. Find
and
Fig.110
55.
11
18.
""
^
the
].
angles
and y, formed
by the lines AB, CD, and the transversal
called alternateinterior angles(on alternate sides
EF, are
of EF
and
interior with
FIG.
and
AB
respect to
CD~).
110
FIG.
Ill
so
that
EXERCISES
(Exs.
1
2.
What
Measure
The
seems
and
lines AB
14
compare
and CD
to be the
refer to
Z
and
Fig. Ill)
Z //.
and
FE
are
drawn
relation between
3.
Show
that if Z
4.
Show
that 4^ is
parallellines,Art. 87).
Z y, then
parallelto
Z
CD
the lines AB
y
Z.x=Z.y.
and
CD?
z.
(seethe
definition for
FUNDAMENTAL
Exercises
formed by
14
show
lines and
two
if the
that
a
125
RELATIONS
ANGLE
alternateinterior
transversal
equal,the
are
angles
lines
are
parallel.
The
In
Proof.
Fig.Ill, Z
equal).Then
each
take
proof may
Z?/
Z.z
other). Therefore
the
brief
following
Z
(given).Z x
(thingsequal to the same
IICD
AB
(by definition
Z y
form:
anglesare
(vertical
thing are
equal to
87).
of IIlines,Art.
EXERCISE
In
Fig. 112
construct
by making
AB
why
line
through
alternateinterior
an
the lines
parallel.
are
FIG.
173.
112
Interior angles
on
the
In
same
are
same
called interior
the
angleson
EXERCISES
1. Measure
2.
In
What
Fig.114
AB
and
Prove
that
angles
the
on
transversal
the
lines
are
are
y in
are
relation
the
if the
same
Fig. 113
drawn
CD?
between
lines
and
the lines
be
to
seems
between
3.
anglesx
so
and
find their
that /Lx +
Z.y
sum.
180".
'\
interior
side
two
of
a,
D
allel
par
supplementary,
parallel.
FIG.
114
126
GENERAL
In
4.
Fig.115
alternateinterior
terior
angles
MATHEMATICS
angles,and
the
on
in
side
same
pairs of correspondingangles,
F
of
/?/
"./"'
the transversal.
174. Important theorems
to
exercises
ing
which
include
Arts. 172
and
ing
relat
follow
y^
work
theorems
supplement the
of
'E
FIG.
173.
115
"
EXERCISES
1.
Art.
Show
by
87 that
reference
to the
if two
definition of
parallellines
correspondinganglesare equal.
2.
Show
that if two
the alternateinterior
3.
the
parallellines are
angles are equal.
that if two
Show
interior
angles
cut
are
parallellines
the
on
are
by
parallellines
transversal,the
cut
by
transversal,
cut
by
transversal,
side of the
same
in
transversal
are
supplementary.
Two
so
parallellines are cut by a transversal
form
in Fig.116.
the
Find x and
angles as shown
all the eight angles in the figure.
4.
as
to
size of
"K'^
Ab
\
FIG.
5.
Find
6.
Draw
and
two
X
FIG.
116
all the
lines
parallel
117
all the
and
transversal.
supplementary pairs.
175.
a
Outline
When
transversal.
in
as
lines
two
by
by
cut
are
lines cut
two
by
transversal,
Fig.118,
e~]
"a and
b and
anglepairs
and
anglesof the f d
angleparrs
jc
*:',,
and
are
called interior
are
called exterior
and
are
/j
J
and
and
b and
^
angle pairs
side
transversal
of.the
on
the
;
trans
""
versal
called
are
alternate
e\
"]on
h\
and
Y
\
interior
angles ;
oppositesides
of the
trans
.
,
versal
called
are
exterior
alternate
angles.
FIG.
student
angleson
angles;
angles;
called interior
same
J
the angles ot the
corresponding angles
g\
angle pairs
called
anglesc, d, e, f
anglesa, 5,#, h
the
are
IT?
and
The
1.27.
RELATIONS
ANGLE
FUNDAMENTAL
119
should remember
equal,
(b) that alternateinterior anglesare equal,
(c) that alternateexterior anglesare equal,
(d)
that interior
angleson
the transversal
are
the
same
side of
supplementary,
are
(Fig.119).
parallel
128
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followand phrases:left side of an
words
angle,rightside
of an
angle^
parallel
rightto rightand left to left,parallel
rightto left and left to right,supplementaryangles,
angles,
supplement,supplementaryadjacent
complementary
alternateinterior angles,
complement,vertical angles,
angles,
interior angleson the same
side of the transversal.
176.
This
177.
The
followingfundamental
constructions
have been
:
presented
1. How
to
2. How
to construct
construct
the
the
supplement of
supplements of
given angle.
two
equal given
a
angles.
3. How
the
to construct
4. How
to
construct
angles.
5. A
new
6. How
178.
method
to form
of
lines.
drawing parallel
vertical angles.
This
1. If the
of two
the
mental
followingfunda
adjacentanglesis a straightangle,
line.
their exterior sides form a straight
2. The sum
of all the anglesabout a point on one
side
of a straight
line is a straight
angle(180").
3. The
of all the anglesin a plane about a point
sum
is two straight
angles(360").
4. If two angleshave their sides parallel
left to left and
the anglesare equal.
rightto right,
5. If two
left to right
angles have their sides parallel
and rightto left,the anglesare supplementary.
6. Supplements of the same
angle or of equal angles
are
equal.
sum
CHAPTER
THE
179.
APPLIED
EQUATION
Notation
for
VII
TO
THE
TRIANGLE
triangles. It is customary
to denote
The
sides
be
also
may
"
The
is a small
symbol for triangle"
is read
ABC."
triangle
triangle
(A). The expressionA ABC
The three anglesshown in Fig.120 are called interior angles.
"
180.
now
Measuring
consider
anglesof
some
the interior
angles of
of the methods
triangle.
EXERCISES
130
of
triangle. We
measuringthe
shall
interior
131
Fill in the
1.
the
to
table
the
on
trianglesABC,
preceding page
and
DEF,
FIG.
Draw
2.
triangleon
off the
tear
three
to be the
seems
of the
a
? Test
triangle
straightedge.
181.
and
2, above,
anglesof
be
to
methods.
Such
proved
is called
182.
More
prooffor
the
180"
interior
may
with
be
a
122
FIG.
123
interior
advanced
geometric
geometricrelation
theorem.
of
The
preceding theorem.
be illustrated
more
of
statement
methods
sum
proved by
advanced
angles of
FIG.
is
triangle
place the
angles
"The
of the interior
can
and
straight
angle
statement
straightangle"
it out
geometric
of the
(180"). The
a
Then
results of Exs. 1
sum
is
anglesof a triangle
Fig. 123.
answer
illustrate the
the
relation that
Cut
What
shown.
your
The
Theorem.
(Fig.122).
in
of the three
sum
(Fig.121).
GHI
paper
angles adjacent as
reference
121
shown
as
corners
with
sum
of
is
triangle
as
Ji
follows:
FIG.
124
Place
as in Fig.124.
triangle
indicated in the figure,
as
a pencilat A
notingthe direction
in which
it points.Rotate
the pencilthrough angle A as
Draw
132
sliown
the
by
GENERAL
.M ATM
arrowhead.
Then
K.MATK
'S
slide it
along AB to the
positionindicated in the figure.Rotate the pencil next
through angle B as indicated and slide it along BC to
Then
sliown.
the pencilthrough angle
the position
rotate
the
last positionshown.
This
C
to
rotation
through
angles .1. /;, and C leaves the point of the pencil in what
positionin respect to its original
position? What
part of
a
complete turn has it made ? Through how many right
angleshas it turned ? Through
how
straightangles?
many
Through how many degrees?
The
of the interior
angle is
as
180"
follows
(oven
':
that
theorem
"
the
sum
triangleAB"'(Y\%. 12o),to
that
prove
Z.I
+ Z/"
ZC'
180".
Proof
REASONS
STATE.MK.NT"
Draw
Because
correspondingangles
formed
by two parallellines cut
by a transversal are equal.
Then
alternateinterior
Because
And
if
by
formed
Z B.
by
cut
transversal
the
Because
But
./.; 4
Z // +
anglesabout
180"
one
..
This
is
side of
a
a
sum
parallellines
are
equal.
of
]"oiut in
all
i Z B
is
more
the
triangle.
number
formal
proof
of the
measurement.
of
for Z
degrees
if.
straightline
and
Z C
in the
an
sum
is 180".
for
for Z
theorem, inasmuch
Write
the
plane on
By substitutingZ.A
z.i
independent of
express
two
gles
an
Zr.
r.
as
it
equationwhich will
of the angles of
EQUATION
TO
APPLIED
THE
133
TRIANGLE
equation is
This
find
angleof
one
Thus, if
we
and
we
70",
know
know
know
XOTK.
to
us
all three
who
is thus
angles of
enabled
triangleby
directly.
measuringonly two
HISTORICAL
the surveyor,
to
size of
the
it enables
as
one,
when
the other two are known.
triangle
that two
anglesof a triangleare 50"
that 60" is the third angle. This is of
value
great practical
to
useful
very
Thales
school of
(040 B.C.
about
mathematics,
o50
B.C.),the
founder
of stories
of remarkable
man
in business.
and
market
direct
and
a
about
told
Thus,
that
river
that
so
might
shrewdness
time
one
he
time
ford
and
read that at
we
be
on
mules
caused
one
some
constructed.
it rolled
over
at
trick,Thales
the
water, made
the
interior
the
next
it with
load
heavier
ford
to
rags
and
and
in science
the olive
engineer to
The
following
as
it
which
came
break
; to
it of
which, by absorbing
effectuallycured it of its
sponges,
soon
habit.1
Problems
involving
angles of
the
theorem
triangle is
the
"
The
Ball, "A
Short
Account
of the
sum
of the
straight angle."
both
when
once
loaded
183.
have
must
salt which
loaded
was
transporting some
of the animals, slippingin a stream, got its load wet
and so
of the salt to be dissolved.
thus lightFinding its burden
ened,
that
this
troublesome
he
he cornered
employed
was
that
indicates
influence
another
at
Thales
is
to
History of Mathematics,"
In
apply the
p. 14.
134
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
followingproblems
In the
(d) Solve
(e) Check
equationand
your solution" by
the number
2.
is three
third
each
and
first angle of
The
times
is
triangle
of the
the conditions
triangleare x, 2x,
degrees in each angle.
of
equation
problem.
the
anglesof
1. The
of the
conditions
the
twice
the
problem.
Find
3x.
the
angle.
and
second,and the
of
number
degrees
in
angle.
3. If the three
angles of
equal,what
triangleare
is the
size of each ?
4. If two
angles of
is the value
5.
One
angle
largerthan
6.
7.
third
first
The
large is
each
the
10.
two
third
the
The
triangleif
third
of
is
times
as
the
55"
second,
e.achangle.
the
third
one
triangleis
is four
anglesof
second, and
Find
first. Find
times
angle is
first is
of the
fifths
two
large
the
as
half
one
first.
as
large as
first. How
angle ?
a
angles of
15",and the
firstangle of
the third
is two
triangleif the
the third
the
anglesis
11.
and
Find
angle
four
the
of
angles
the
triangleis
half
one
second, and
The
than
is
the
another.
9.
the third.
Find
of the
8.
of
equal to 30",what
angle ?
first angle of
The
the
and
of the third
each
triangleare
times
is 14"
more
the second.
triangleis
30"
more
the
more
between
than the
angles.
second,
APPLIED
EQUATION
the
Find
12.
the third
angles of
The
13.
is the
What
Let
HINT.
angles of
TO
triangleif
the first
triangleare
135
TRIANGLE
THE
angle is
two
times
to each
other
twice
the first.
as
1, 2,
size of each ?
x
2
the first,
the third.
Find
14.
second
3.
the
the
the
second.
In
15.
triangleone
angle is
rightangle; the
other
two
%K"
anglesare representedby x
How
16.
obtuse
many
acute
right angles
angles ? How
many
anglesat
may
acute
each
trianglehave
anglesat most
angle.
How
How
least ?
Two
17.
the
Find
respectively.
many
many
the
and
184.
Theorem.
185.
Right triangle. If
one
is called
angle,the triangle
for
righttriangle is rt. A.
is a right
triangle
righttriangle.The symbol
"
"
EXERCISES
1.
is
equal to
2.
one
Show
Find
that the
a
sum
anglesof
righttriangle
rightangle.
the values
angle is
of the acute
two
times
of the acute
the other
angles of
; if
one
is 5"
righttriangleif
more
than
three
130
GENEKAL
MATHEMATICS
/'
The
3.
anglesof
acute
the number
and
Draw
4.
angles of
the
Use
the
of
righttriangleon cardboard
trianglewill contain 30"
what
or
First
Cut
out
draw
the
so
and
60"
acute
respectively.
at
convenient
any
angle of
the third
point
60" and produce
angle equal.30"?
in Ex. 4 and
tell
trianglemade
constructed
by its use without a protractor
cardboard
be
anglesmay
tracing paper.
6.
are
Find
"
protractor.
HINT.
*5.
/'
and
^
righttriangleare
degrees in each angle.
a
Draw
each
to draw
on
cardboard
equal to 45",cut
angles of 45" and
it
right trianglewhose
out, and
90"
show
how
angles
acute
it may
be used
respectively.
wooden
triangles. A
triangleis
triangle
in drawing
(usually a right one) made for convenience
the blackboard
or
on
on
triangles
(see Fig.126).
paper
The
acute
angles are usually 60" and 30
186.
or
Wooden
45"
and
45".
These
nish
furrighttriangles
of
method
a
practical
drawing a perpendicularto
line at a given point on
a
that line. If no
triangles
wooden
of
a
this
kind
cardboard
can
with
be
had,
FIG.
two
pendicular
per
board
edges or a cardrighttrianglewill serve
187.
Set
square.
set
square
126.
WOODEN
FIG.
the
just as
purpose
is made
trianglefastened to a straightedgeso
along the straightedge
(see Fig. 127).
127.
SET
SQUARE
TRIANGLE
up
that
of
well.
wooden
it will
slide
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
138
To
6.
in the direction
walks
man
^BCA
C, where
angleof
acute
AD,
(Fig.129),a
swamp
60",to
that /.BAD=
so
=
across
300
point
yd.,
AB
of
the number
7. Find
AB
If AC
90".
lengthof
is the
what
the distance
measure
degrees
in each
if one angleis
righttriangle
(a) four
(b) three
(c)two
(d) 5" more
(e)5" less
wooden
using
Ex.
Practice
*8.
the other ;
the
illustrates
truth
of the
theorem
In
90"
right
opposite
a
whose acute
triangle
the 30" angleis one
be
in
practical
applications
its many
construction
by
work
will
of
and
elsewhere.
189.
has
angles. A
trianglewhich
isosceles triangle.The
called the base anglesof
an
are
EXERCISES
1.
Two
by
2.
Draw
equal
2
acute
5 and
angles of
3
15.
"
right triangleare
Find
the
size of each
ABC
righttriangle
a
(Fig.130). Draw
C"AB; call the foot
P.
Show
line from
of the perpendicular
that
the
into two
righttriangles.
FIG.
130
sented
repre
angle.
APPLIED
EQUATION
In
3.
Ex.
\4\ In
no
of whose
two
these
two
angles?
two
angles. Indicate
of two
complement
three
isosceles
triangle. A
190. Scalene
of what
complement
/.
that
freehand
Draw
is the
139
TRIANGLE
THE
relation between
is the
2, /.y
Ex.
Show
5.
angle
is the
What
angles?
them.
the
TO
sides
triangles.
triangleis
scalene
triangle
acute
angles
equal.
are
EXERCISES
freehand
1. Draw
Do
2.
60"
30" and
are
Draw
3.
191.
scalene
? Support
triangle
the
angle
tri
extended, one
are
each
vertex,
as
in
''
FlG
13L
I^STRATING
ANGLES
formed
(x, y,
and
called exterior
are
answer.
your
angles
of
sides
right trianglewhose
triangle.
Exterior
three
triangle.
obtuse
triangle. If
at
that
is
an
scalene
angled
of
think
you
scalene
OF
EXTERIOR
THE
A
TRIANGLE
z)
angles of
the
ABC.
triangle
EXERCISES
1. How
of
exterior
many
be drawn
at each
vertex
sum
interior
angles has
triangle?
How
many
angles?
Draw
Measure
their
angles can
?
triangle
2. How
3.
exterior
many
triangleand
extend
sides
the
angles with
as
in
Fig. 131.
protractor.What
is
GENERAL
14""
Cut
another
and extend
triangle
exterior angles (takingone
I"ra\\
4.
the
out
and
scissors
pairof
other
What
does
their
Find
the
sum
//. and
pencil as
vert
ices
seem
to
the
of
sum
angles x,
rotating
placethem
their
with
each
5.
MATHEMATICS
next
at each
as
in.Fig.131.
vertex)with
to
together.
be'/
three
terior
ex
Fig. 132
in
..
the sides
indicated
In
by the
arrowheads.
FIG.
Show
6.
that tin
mini
nf
132
flic e;rti'ri"n
niKjlix
"f a triangle(takingone
each
at
vertex)/\
"""0" (two
straightangles).
How
HINT.
in the
degrees are
many
sum
w/?
// +
r?
(S,,.Fig. l:;i.)
Show
that tlie
+
(.'"
Then
sum
m)
(x +
?/ +
(//+ n) + (z + ?")
=
be
But
(x +
Therefore
7. The
the
(m
three
size of each
interior
8.
Find
r)
of
each
FIG.
540".
Why
:5i;o
triangleare
exterior
\Vliy?
equal.
Find
angle.
133
triangleof Fig.133.
540".
z)= 180".
y +
angles
interior and
r)
180"
follows
expressedas
r) + (HI +
exterior
angles in
the
APPLIED
EQUATION
in
is
Fig.134
equal to
and
angles A
that
(inrjle
of
flif
f'"
('ijiinl
that
Note
HINT.
Extend
the
by
Ex.
What
the
two
FICJ. 134
angles.
methods
by drawing
suggestedby
are
a
line
this
figure.
to
through C parallel
AB.
off the
and
corners
place
other
of
180.
the
sum
interior
gles
an
be ?
to
seem
\x
\
Tear
quadrilateral.
angles
Art.
does
nonadjacentinterior
line A C.
method
2,
triangleAB(.'
each
to
the
terior
ex
the
different
interior
next
of
Ex. 10
Draw
12.
of
which
an
interior
two
Prove
11.
of the two
sum
triangle is
sifin
nonadjficent
the
the
angle
141
TRIANGLE
THE
C.
BD
exterior
Using Fig.135, in
10.
of
the
that
Show
9.
TO
the diagonal
in Fig.136.
Draw
as
quadrilateral
is
What
into two triangles.
.4 C. This divides the quadrilateral
of the interior angles
the sum
in each triangle
? What, then,
13.
is
the
Draw
of
sum
angles of
14.
the
interior
?
quadrilateral
Draw
as
quadrilateral
in
do
the
you
think
exterior
is the
sum
of
angles
of
the
Check
?
quadrilateral
15.
Find
the
is 25" smaller
estimate
your
angles
than
FIG.
of
in
quadrilateral
the consecutive
136
angle.
which
each
angle
that
16. Prove
is,prove
that
anglesof a paropposite
allelogramare equal.
that Zx
Za
If
18.
Fig.137
In
HINT.
one
largeas
/"?"___"
_Dl
of
"'
twice
size of each
between
difference
is
parallelogram
parallelogram.
Find
30".
that the
Show
20.
180", in Fig.137.
show
angle
is the
The
+ y
137
FIG.
consecutive
angle,what
19.
parallelogram
Zz.
is
parallelogram
as
angles of
the
that
'17. Prove
consecutive
the
supplementary;
are
MATHEMATICS
GENEEAL
142
two
the
of
sum
angle
in the
parallelogram?
consecutive
the interior
angles of a
angles in the
angles of
trapezoid
straightangles (180").
is two
that two
Prove
21.
consecutive
are
angles of
pairs of
a
zoid
trape
supplementary. (Use
Fig.138.)
Fl0'
In
22.
more
of
than
Fig.138, Z
Z. A, and
degrees in
192.
The
each
/.B
138
is 40"
is 96" less than
Z. C.
Find
the number
angle.
construction
of
triangles. We
shall
now
proceed
putting
required
which
study three constructions
require the
togetherof anglesand line segments into some
combination..
With
little practicethe student will see
a
that the processes
are
even
simpler than the thinking
involved in certain games
for children which
require the
various combinations
of geometric forms.
These constructions
are
very important in all kinds of
construction
work ; for example, in shop work, mechanical
to
TO
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
therefore
193.
as
problem. To
Construction
should
construct
when
triangle
given.
are
Let the
Construction.
student
them.
master
Draw
143
TRIANGLE
FIG.
139.
How
TO
CONSTRUCT
as
with
and
center
intersectingthe first.
triangleis constructed
Call
as
THREE
WHEN
SIDES
GIVEN
ARE
With
TRIANGLE
radius
the
point
required.
equal
to
construct
of intersection
C.
an
Then
arc
the
EXERCISES
1. Construct
with
triangles
(a) a
(b) a
(c) a
are
5 cm.,
5 cm.,
cm.
1 cm.,
8 cm.,
cm.
7 cm.,
9 cm.,
cm.
always possibleto
given ?
3. Construct
using the
Fig. 140.
followingsides
2. Is it
sides
the
construct
sides
trianglewhen
1
c
Compare
4.
,
shape
you
the
to size and
as
,
FIG.
triangledrawn
will
triangles
three
triangle,
given in
fold
those
over
140
by
drawn
each
by
other
other.)
pupils.(See if
the
MATHEMATICS
(JKNKKAL
5.
Is it
a
fact that
of the
is made
use
great deal of practical
6.
wn.id.n
wooden
is a rigidfigure
; for example, a rectangular
triangle
of a wooden
by means
gate is usuallydivided into two triangles
stable (lessapt to sag).
diagonalso as to make the gate more
that is made
use
Try to give other examples of the practical
of the triangular
figure.
^of the stability
a
7. Construct
and
of the two
one
Use
HINT.
Uais
8.
.anglesof
Make
base
and
use
// twice:
one
the isosceles
angles of
tracingsof
Compare
10.
base
that
is, in
to
the
be
relation
triangledrawn
the base
between
'.'
triangle
the base
angle
representthe
to
appear
the
as
appears
to fold
attempt
Fig.140
isosceles
an
the
equal sides.
the base
What
7.
trianglehaving given
/".
Measure
for Ex.
9.
in
take
case
isosceles
an
the
over
other.
witli
Do
for Ex
the two
7 and
angles
of rotation ?
amount
same
results
your
angles drawn
those
obtained
by
your
classmates.
NOTE.
theorem
Results
obtained
Tin buxe
of an
angltx
11.
Construct
12.
Study
the
the theorem
To
pointat
must
we
support the
following
ef/"inl.
the
walk
89.
State
which
measure
50", until
/.ACB
distance
from
50".
to obtain
AB
toward
reach
we
side.
equilateral
triangleby pairsin
discovered.
measure
that Z/J
710
equilateral
trianglehaving given
the
(Fig.141) we
so
Exs.
isoscelestriangle
fire
angles of an
suggested by Exs.
manner
13.
an
from
What
A B ?
C,
line
Why
FIG.
141
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
146
EXERCISES
1. Is the construction
2. Draw
with
triangles
the
3 cm.,
lin.,
ljin.,
(a) a
(b) c
(c) J
3.
given in
Construct
FIG.
4.
with
Compare
those
drawn
two
FIG.
Construction
anglesand
146.
How
TO
Construction.
4 cm.,
Z C
47".
2i
Z.I
112".
87".
lf
the
see
if
INCLUDED
Let
given included
ZA
side
and
for Ex.
ZB
(Fig.146).
(Placeone
when
triangle
them are given.
construct
between
Two
WHEN
THEM
be
they fit.)
TRIANGLE
BETWEEN
class.
in your
students
problem. To
CONSTRUCT
145
SlDE
the
other
triangleover
195.
by
?
always possible
drawn
shape the triangle
to size and
as
194
trianglewith
Art.
the
ARE
ANGLES
AND
THE
GIVEN
line
be
APPLIED
EQUATION
THE
147
TRIANGLE
down
TO
EXERCISES
1. Draw
with
triangles
(a) Z
(b) Z
2. Draw
3.
the
30",
Z B
80",
110",
Z"
20",
trianglewith
Is the construction
the
Compare
with those
over
as
of Ex.
drawn
to size and
by
other
see
2 in.
cm.
?
always possible
147
drawn
shape the triangle
members
if
FIG.
4.
of your
class.
for Ex. 2
(Foldthem
they fit.)
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followcardboard
words and phrases: righttriangle,
triangle,
isosceles triangle,
scalene
wooden
set
triangle,
square,
exterior angles of
interior angles of a triangle,
triangle,
base angles.
a
triangle,
The
following notations have been given: notation
for the angles and
sides of triangles,
notation for right
triangle
(rt.A).
196.
This
148
1.
"
3.
4.
or
198.
This
constructions
three sides
1. Given
2. Griven two
the
to construct
3. Given
two
the
to construct
to
of a triangle,
sides and
triangle.
anglesand
triangle.
sum
of the
interior
have
the
angle of
side
the included
The
1. The
construct
the included
followingtheorems
chapter:
199.
this
of
This
197.
been
angles of
triangle.
triangle,
of a triangle,
presented in
triangleis
straightangle (180").
2. The
sum
of the exterior
anglesof
triangleis
two
straight
angles(360").
3. If two
anglesof one triangleare equal respectively
the third angle of the
to two
angles of another triangle,
is equal to the third angle of the second.
first triangle
4. The
acute
angles of a right triangleare complementary.
5. In
60"
whose
acute
right triangle
angles are
the side oppositethe 30degreeangle is one
a
30"
half
and
the
hypotenuse.
6. An
exterior
8.
is
The
four
9.
10.
right
The
The
of
sum
the
of
angles
exterior
quadrilateral
(360").
angles
opposite
of
angles
consecutive
parallelogram
of
angles
equal.
are
parallelogram
are
supplementary.
11.
Two
pairs
of
consecutive
angles
of
trapezoid
are
supplementary
.
12.
The
13.
An
equal).
base
angles
equilateral
of
an
triangle
isosceles
is
triangle
equiangular
are
(all
equal.
angles
VIII
CHAPTER
ADDITION
NUMBERS.
NEGATIVE
AND
POSITIVE
AND
SUBTRACTION
200.
Clock
toy clock.
Each
objectof
Mary
game.
took
the game
of the clock
Edith
and
her turn
at
to guess
was
playingwith
were
spinningthe
the number
on
hand.
which
The
the
MARY
Solution.
Won
players(the words
Lost
Lost
Won
Won
The
as
follows
score
are
kept by the
inserted)appeared
as
EDITH
Lost
Lost
Won
Won
Lost
Who
game?
won
the
Edith
won
150
the game,
2 to 1.
POSITIVE
201.
Positive
adding of
The
AND
and
NEGATIVE
negative
mathematics.
It is
began
and
zero
she wrote
On
zero.
counted
two
and
more,
by writing3
Mary's score.
she
within
Her
backward
writingthe
the number
that
the
over
it
above
was
score
subtracted
scores
was
to
was
or
zero
next
same
1.
was
3 from
turn
lost
the
On
1.
she
pointto
to
the next
In
two
one.
"
hole
from
away
idea is shown
count
necessary
below
in
one
the
circle. The
and
zero
the
above
two
was
"
she
continued
and
points,
score
had
circle. On
in both directions.
two
won
hand, Edith
second
She
and
study of
the players
that
scores
remember
1 within
she wrote
their
zero
to
meant
to
numbers.
further
our
notice
important to
the other
order
In
useful in
very
Algebraic
familiar games
like the one
extension
of our
idea of counting
an
at
numbers.
in many
scores
illustrates
cited above
151
NUMBERS
doing so
less than
lost
zero
in
turn
she
zero.
indicate whether
zero.
shall
presentlyhave numerous
problems which
which
involve pairsof numbers
opposite
qualities,
possess
It is generallyagreed to call numlike those above.
bers
and those less than zero
positive
greater than zero
called algebraic
numbers.
are
negative.Such numbers
The
oppositequalitiesinvolved are designatedby the
words
negative."In the precedinggame,
positive and
below
whereas
numbers
numbers
above zero
are
positive,
zero
are
negative.
We
"
"
"
is
designatewhether a number
positiveor negativewe use the plus or the minus sign.
4.
4 and
4 means
a negative
a positive
Thus, 4 4 means
The positive
signis not always written. When no signprecedes
is understood
the number
to be a positive
a number
202.
Use
of
signs. To
"
number.
Thus, 3
means
3.
152
CHICAGO
The
shows
last column
STOCK
the
EXCHANGE
net
loss
gain or
during the
Radiator
stock closed two
day; for example, American
points lower than on the preceding day, Swift " Co.
familiar
gained 2, Peoples Gas lost 5, etc. The man
with stock markets
to see
glances at the first column
of
the
extent
the
specific
gain or
need
would
In
the
sales and
of the extension
we
of
definitions,familiar
203.
We
will
unit
be
Geometric
have
the
column
to
last column
see
one
learned
discussed.
representation of positivenumbers.
in
measuringa
is contained
(say^[_^)
check
last
precedingday.
see
something of the importance
may
number
our
system by the preceding
examples of positiveand negative
To
the
order that
numbers
loss.
at
line
Origin.
segment,
if it is contained
long. (In general,
segment is a units long.) We may
This suggests
respectively.
the
1 and
followingrepresentation
MATHEMATICS
GENEKAL
154
EXERCISES
3, 7,
If
2.
consecutive
5, won
won
scores
could
2, lost
1.
of
fifteen minutes
Where
23.
2, +
205.
and
Addition
negative numbers
and
add
count
To
add
To
add
To
add
The
4 to
further
be
"
4 to
4 to
5 +
(" 4)
on
the
"
"
are
+(+4)
right.
+ 5 begin
5 begin
4 to
results
the
4 to
"
9;
added
at
at
+
"
"
f 1
is
"9
is
following
1, lost 2,
of the last
in
"
show
play ?
negative
that
positiveand
tion
by counting,the direcwhich
count
we
being
which
) of the numbers
of
scale
5 and
count
4 to the
5 and
count
4 to
5 and
count
4 to the
the
at
left.
left.
right.
+5+(4)
forth.
certain football
positive and
of
use
number
begin at
follows
as
their
and
0, lost
at
of the field in
(forward or backward)
determined
by the sign (+ or
we
are
adding. Thus,
To
back
to
as
may
clock
add
of the
sum
Began
precedingexercises
The
numbers.
the
the
graduated
measure
was
in
on
found
be
play
players
tape
scale how
its
ball shifted
the
game,
the
by slidingthe ring
the middle
Startingfrom
3.
ring
the number
on
of
string or
to time
time
Indicate
"
has
scale, with
from
scores
each
that
imagine
we
number
the
3,
(Art.200)
game
scale
number
the
following points on
the
Locate
1.
read
l;
"positive5
5
(4)
9;
plus negative 4
equals
plus negative 4
equals
positive1."
5
+("4)
negative9."
"
read
"negative
AND
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
155
NUMBERS
EXERCISES
Give
1.
the
interpretthe
in each
sum
result
the
on
(a) 3 +(+2).
On
the
scale.
number
3).
horizontal
straightline,as
X'OX
part
(m) 2+(5).
^(n)
4 +
in
as
"
the
to
6,
3,
following
OF
negative and
line YOY'
the
4.
OY'
segments
correspondingto
xr
on
4,
"
3, 0.
from
starts
bicyclist
certain
How
far and
traveler
by
these
"
16
Denoting
6.
and
after
pairsof
f27 mi.?
in what
direction
going eastward
numbers
(+)
16
mi., then +
followinglatitudes
by
:
pIG
from
or
of the
"
100
startingpoint?
the
startingpoint is
(" ) as shown
3 mi.?
28", +
11".
longitude east
is
of the
4 52 mi.?
plus sign
meaning of the
that
mi.,then
the
equator by
sign,give the
12", 18", + 22",
it be definite to say
"
mi.,then
the minus
4
JCQ
the
westward
mi.,then
16 mi.?
latitude north
latitude south
7. Would
"7
2,
"
and
positive
as
construct
2, + 3, + 4,
5, 0.
3. Consider
as
numbers
6.
sider
Fig.150, conpart OX' as negative.
and the
positive,
segments corresponding
OX
line
Construct
following. Be prepared to
(g) 6+(l).
(h) 6 +( 3).
(b) 4 +(
2.
of the
is the

75"?
of Greenwich
meaning

3" ?
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
156
8.
then
42", then
17", then
G3",
"
after
latitude
its
is
What
1G".
"
20" sails +
all the
sailings?
is the
What)
9.
7", + 18",
206.
The
value.
minus
(1)
sign may
It may
it denotes
true
for
the
the
now
the
process
is
quality.
of
these
(" 3")
of
Thus,
207.
in
the
units
number
of life
include
understood
clearly
of subtraction, or
that
Show
show
to
as
so
negative number.
wish
in
of
absolute
Forces.
In
that
things:
it may
(2)
In
similar
often
the
the
latter
is
statement
focus
to
the
of
mechanics
as
is
us,
of the
intended.
the
since
it is
sentence
Sometimes
3"
to
positive 4".
attention
merely
on
the
regardlessof sign.
In
that
absolute
value
confuse
context
negative
member
directions
acting upward
negative.
28",
Absolute
signs.
entirelydifferent
meanings is
to help make
add
we
opposite
force
used
speak
we
case
two
means
Sometimes
number
15", +
plus sign.
parenthesisis
4" +
scale
two
mean
53"
"
conditions
actual
be
double
This
12",
negative
number
It must
mean
case
in
our
the number
that
mean
of
of number.
this kind
a
need
real
extension
the
for
is
there
that
of
illustrations
many
minus
of plus and
meaning
Double
latitude
of
latitude
61" ?
22", +
in
ship starting
following changes
the
after
of
latitude
value,
either
we
or
f 4
speak
positive and
positive,one
numerical
or
of
"
value.
is 4.
forces
acting
negative. Thus,
acting
downward
is
AND
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
157
NUMBERS
EXERCISES
Three
1.
with
lb.,another
of 27
load
pullinga
boys are
on
force of 56
with
the
third
lb.,and
With
force of 90 lb.
sled,one
what
force
with
being pulled?
Two
small
with
from
3. An
in
FIG.
does
4.
pull of
it 19.6 mi.
balloon
512
upward
if we
6.
4 mi.
a
which
rate
is the
upward
net
70
pull?
with
boy
force of 8
can
hour.
row
How
the
How
fast
river ?
How
fast could
can
What
oz.
weightto
flowingat
flowing5
100
upward
an
453pound weight
hour ?
208.
that
what
per
river
At
exerts
to it. What
tie a 5ounce
A
flying
wind
hour.
an
lb. has
downward
5.
Z12
is
aeroplanefly?
attached
or
hour
151
the
A
rni.an
still air
against
retards
it ?
boat
fast
rate
he
to
pull
8ounce
an
at the rate
he
can
of
go
2^ mi.
ride down
he go up
of
up
per
the
stream
The
thermometer.
32
happens
FIG.
The
(Fig.152) illustrates
and negative
numbers
positive
152.
mometerSIOMETER
therTHE
of
is the result ?
aeroplanethat
fly48.3
can
What
the others.
tion
opposite direc
THE
ILLUSTRATES
IDEA
the idea
AND
in two
TIIKK
NUMBEBS
OF
TIVE
POSI
NEGATIVE
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
158
the first
In
ways.
place,the
scale is
number
actuallyproduced
EXERCISES
is
1. What
recorded
2.
The
top
the next
3.
what
4.
If the
what
first
first reading of
first reading of
first
if
fall : +
readingof
readingof
first readingof
first reading of
first reading of
first reading of
The
reading at
the
seen
ever
The
thermometer
then
stands
it rises
hour
next
read
5",
then
falls
5",
read ?
each
case
10" followed
by a rise of 2".
10" followed by a fall of 12".
20" followed by a fall of 18".
x" followed by a rise of y".
x" followed by a fall of y".
a" followed by a rise of a".
a" followed by a fall of a".
a" followed by a fall of
a".
"
"
P.M.
was
7".
followingnumbers
2", + 1",0",
4 2" ?
at
reading in
the thermometer
stands
mercury
the final
hour.
an
does
Give
1"
3";
the thermometer
"
beginning of
of
column
of the mercury
does
5.
have
temperature you
at 0" at the
and
lowest
the
3",
What
the
express
3",
2",
was
2",
hourly

1",
rise
1",
or
3",
AND
POSITIVE
Add
6.
the
following changes
The
differences
hourly from
read
NEGATIVE
find the
to
3", + 2",
4",
in
readings of
M.
until
A.
P.
the.temperature
If
the
temperature
209.
at
temperature
at 5
and
as
with
of the
reading,the
2",f 3".
that
follows
12".
17",
'that
f20",make
was
hour
3",
were
compare
A.M.
each
at
Positive
P.M.
final
thermometer
M.
159
NUMBERS
table
3", 4",
did
How
at
A.M.?
showing
day.
the
between
was
these
directions
EXERCISES
1.
Construct
with
sign indicates
followingangles with
ruler and
ing
protractor,start
: f 30", (45",
position
90", +43", +212", 30", 45", 90", 53", 182", 36".
2. Find
the
final
228".
3. Do
the
you
see
line in Ex.
2 ?
short
cut
in
findingthe
final
positionof
.MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
idea
of
positive
be further illustrated by the
and negativenumbers
may
gain or loss in a transaction ; by income and expenditure;
by a debit and a credit account ; by money depositedand
checked out; and by the assets and liabilities of
money
is one
Thus, a bankrupt company
business corporation.
a
which has not been able to prevent the negativeside of the
ledgerfrom running up beyond the limit of the confidence
210.
relations.
Business
Finally,the
of its supporters.
EXERCISES
1. The
of
assets
$ 26,460, and
$39,290.What
are
are
company
its liabilities
the week
3.
If
$12,460,and
financial standing?
estate
4. A
he
boy buys
gain or
211.
may
lose and
Addition
exercises will
personalproperty is worth
man's
if his debts
amount
to
much
of three
or
help us
to
see
sells it for
$6.
Does
more
how
monomials.
The
following
be extended.
EXERCISES
1. Add
(a) 2
(b) 3
2.
the
+
followingmonomials
3 +
( 4)+ (5).
(c) ( 4) + 2 + 3 + ( 5).
2'+ ( 4) + ( 5). (d) ( 5) + ( 4) + 3 + 2.
In what
form
stated ?
(Art.36.)
addends
are
negative?
it
seem
to
law of addition
hold
when
some
been
of the
Algebraic addition.
212.
add
1. To
2. To add
two
may
numbers
algebraic
numbers
algebraic
two
of their
sign.
common
preceding
positiveand negativenumbers
laws :
accordingto the follo\f1ng
be added
sum
results of the
The
that
exercises show
the
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
ltli"
it the
sign
EXERCISES
1.
Show
that the
of two
sum
values
of their absolute
sum
Illustrate with
2.
Show
the
but
from
same
actual
3. Find
of two
sum
absolute
with
the
common
like
signs is the
sign prefixed.
experience.
concrete
that the
value is
numbers
having
unlike
Illustrate with
zero.
signs
fact
some
experience.
the
(a) 5
with
numbers
followingsums,
performing all
(g) f
(d)7
+j
"
"1
you
can
orally:
(j)17f*
+261*
H
(b) +5
Find
4
the
6

+
"
(h) fai
(e) Sa
followingsums
5.
f
6.
+51
10
+10
+23
7
18
(k) + 62"z2
28f ae8
7
7.
242
+726
58
+24
POSITIVE
8.
163
NUMBERS
12.5
9.5
2.5
Sx

4z
+
+
10.
NEGATIVE
7.5
9.
AND
17
a;
7x
+
lOx
I2x
+24
11.
"
6a
7a
"
3a
213.
a
Drill
drill in
determining
and
applying
or
is the
this
are
the
is the
same
same
as
case
added
numbers.
following
for
law
We
need
the
step
involves
the
similar
preceding
in which
the
the
to
is
monomials
as
exercises
factor
common
of the
of the coefficients
sum
factor
are
similar
more
the
the
(Art. 40).
monomials
two
The
exercises.
set
the
addition
similar
addition
recall
number
of
constitute
addends
addends.
of
that
The
of
of the
positive and
of
sum
coefficient
whose
similar
the
whose
and
mials
mono
literal
exercises
that
in
addends
negative
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
164
EXERCISES
In each
followingterms
The
20y,
The
factor
common
is
requiredsum
the
3.
b,
4.
ab,
4 ox,
az,
The
Solution.
The
Since
and
thus
14
"
"
factor is
written
11.
m/,
12.
:.
( 14) + (")
"7x,
of
can
12.
only indicate
that
is
(a
"
"
2)z.
ex.
y2,
we
monomial
as
"
Addition
13 mnx*.
12.
b +
mx,
214.
"
still undetermined,
10.
wf,
the
wwia2,
z.
Whence
5 x,
18.
or.
coefficients is
sum
5 ^b.
bz, +12
"
fe are
"
( 35)
"spq*, Bpf.
common
of the
sum
20
13 b.
15
"
a2*,
8 az,
"
14 z,
wmx2,
lpq\
5/,r/,
9.
12
( 6) +
ab, + 13 06.
11
o%,
b, + 11 b,
ab,
mnx*,
7. 3 ax,
8.
b,
17
a2*,
6.
12
ing
add
18 y.
"
5x,"7x,"9x,+12x,"3x.
"
by
is y.
2.
5.
monomial
as
35y.
of the coefficients is 3 +
sum
Whence
sum
(2)express
factor the
what
respect to
3y, 6y,
Solution.
similar ;
are
like terms
1.
with
(1) pointout
case
12
y8,+ c/.

6 aft.
polynomials.
We
have
had
numerous
imeters.
per
involved to polynomials
applyingthe principles
and negativeterms
need to recall that
we
having positive
in addition the terms
be arranged or grouped in any
may
In
order.
Thus,
2 +
3 +
5 + (
3) +
3 +
4
2 + 4

3 +
(Commutative Law)
(5 + 4) (Associative
Law)
POSITIVE
In
AND
NEGATIVE
is convenient
adding polynomials it
in
terms
the
numbers
denominate
much
column,
same
165
NUMBERS
to
do
we
as
similar
group
in
adding
in arithmetic.
EXERCISES
1. Add
the
simplest form
12 yd. + 3 in.
Solution.
following polynomialsand
:
1 ft. +
yd. +
Writing
the
similar
in.,5 yd. +
in
terms
yd. 1 ft.
5 yd. 1 ft.
12yd.
20yd. 2fE
3
Note
inches
written
as
follows
3
separate columns
in.,and
have
we
3 in.
11 in.
factors
them,
or
yards,feet,
not
are
inches.
The
problem
36
12
r" x
36
12
12
1 ft. +
2 in.
all of
to
common
to its
sum
6 in.
mathematical
common
be
may
the
that
the
reduce
36
_
20
2.
Add
tj
36
Add
Solution.
we
27 xs
// +
9 y +
2 i
5 y +
3 y +
81
similar
("
I,and
in
14 a8+
13 xy
25 xy
separate columns
have

8 i.
14 a8+
if',
terms
27 Xs
3 y +
Tar 4 16 i
1C
"13xy+
Writing
12 + 11
/,o
17 y +
3.
16
25 xy +
?/2
6 xz/ +
y2
y2
and
?/,
and
adding,
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
166
followingexercises
In the
2b
3b
"
2b
2x
5.
5x
3x+
3c
9x
4"
3y +
8.
6y"7z
"
4z
"
5y
5c
6r2s
5r
"3t
3s
2x5y2z
2a
6.
3a
"
10.
12A;10Z
12.
14
"
3 y +
6w
7z"
6w
llaj +
"
27c
1 z, 5
+
5 y
19ft
3y
"
"z
3z
"
30 c, and
"
and
2^4m,
"
3 z, and
5x
+4c.
6e +
4:y +
2z.
24z
NOTE.
called
9m,
5z+
3t
x+
13c,
+
+
2x
5c
"
6b
"
11.
13.
Here
certain
terms
These
parenthesis.
treated
be
Sb
"
2x
"
\9\
5b+7c
ly"
8+
2r+6s5t
8s
Sw
15yl6z22y + l6z12w
Sx
2c
9/;
:
polynomials
7. ~6x
"c
the
add
as
one
given when
14.
15.
215.
number
are
indicate
inclosed
that
in
the
quantity. Other
(seepp. 175, 177).
or
needed
one
grouping symbols ( )
terms
within
are
to
grouping symbols
be
will
(6*3
Degree of
indicated
number.
The
degree of
number
is
Thus, x2 is of
by the exponent of the number.
the second degree; a3,
of the third degree; y\ of the fourth
3 xyh* is of the first degree
degree; etc. The monomial
with respect to x, of the second degree with respect to y,
and of the third degree with respect to r.
POSITIVE
AND
Degree of
216.
is determined
the
Another
factors.
Thus, 3? is of the
and
of
4:ry222,
the
167
NUMBERS
degree of
monomial
sum
of
way
literal factors in
The
monomial.
by
NEGATIVE
saying this
is : The
number
of
is called the
EXERCISES
Determine
1.
2ajy.
3.
3 ft4.
5.
2.
2abs.
4.
5x7/V.
6.
followingmonomials
^z
9.
8. rsl.
10.
2"mxy.
7.
rV.
3.2
"
"
m*x*ifz\
217.
of
polynomial
is determined
by the degreeof the term having the highest
degree. Thus, x^y*+ x+%y + 5 is of the fourth degree,
and 5o^
a^ + 7isa
thirddegree
expression.
Degree
"
EXERCISES
Indicate
1. x* +
the
2x3
degree of

2xij +
x4 +
3.
y?"1xy"ryi.
2x* +
followingpolynomials:
y +
7.
4.
5. a;4+
'
2.
the
if.
6.
x5 +
2xif+
if.
4.
x3 +
x* +
1.
Arrangement.
Find the
and
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
168
7, 5a34a
and
adding,we
a2
3a2+2a34a,
of
sura
2"372a2.
3 a2
a2
+7
5 a8
2 a8
One
carefullyin
is to add
check
to
way
5a86a28a
Check.
2 a2
have
order,
reverse
as
in arithmetic.
A
method
second
Let
Then
2.
checking is
for
the
following:
have
we
2 a3
3 a2
"
"
a2
5 a8

by
shown
2 a3
2 a2
5a36a28a
"
3
35
31
3=
EXERCISES
In
the
if
x2 xy
xy,
2.
26xi/, 5y*
3.
5.3 x2
4.
"x8Sx25x12,
5.
8 a3
6.
3 ?2+
2 r8 +
f s2
7.
12x*,
13.6 xy
2 a2 +
"
3
3
5,
" r2,

f,
r*
s*
"
rs
2 a2 +
r
rs +
s
16?f.
5 xy +
3x5x*
3 "8 +
3x*2y'2.
ISxy
0.02
3x* +
6,
14 xy
IQxy
2.3
y*,"
3.2 x2.
8.
7.
1, r2
5r*.
2.
day
which
newsboy
How
much
must
Apply
better off is
20 ?
1 and
12.
Interpreteach,of
13.
Through
reach
(Fig.155) to
born
was
in
he had
figurethat
old
How
what
of
famous
Roman
In
i
"
On
the
the
at
much
11
as
18 ?
verbal
the
45 ?
5 and
problem.
line
turn
OI^
287
"
what
FIG.
155
born
did
year
he
in
in
484
"
59
"
and
die ?
historian,sometimes
born
illustrated
6
I
"
"
3
4
5
I
I
"
called
died in
and
I
"
2
I
"
the
by
find what
we
0 +1
1
I
"
FIG. 156.
to
Ex.
20?
12 and
was
historian,
Greek
History,was
Subtraction
7
8
"
and
in the sand.
drawn
4 from
subtracting
"
How
the
424.
At
scale.
In
"
did he die ?
age
220.
200 left?
in cash.
degrees must
positionOR2?
the year
Herodotus, the
Father
have
tician,
great mathema
650.
he ?
was
Livy,a
15.
total of
soldier
by a Roman
studying a geometrical
while
212
"
12
25 ?
parts of
rule
problem.
many
about
slain
was
the
the
Archimedes,
14.
and
how
between
5 and
the
Apply
is the difference
20 ?
0 and
John
and
in
than
Henry
What
11.
$25
is
10. John
State
newsboys
8 to this
solvingEx.
during
earn
kind.
of this
his debts
to pay
he
must
evening?
three other
earn
rule for
your
the
problems
owes
he
in
850
to solve
use
much
How
410.
have
to
as
so
you
9.
has
newsboy
8.
the
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
170
I
"
THE
I
"
number
42 +3
I
"
NUMBER
number
I
"
be added
must
I
"
i
"
i
"
48
i
"
i
"
"
SCALE
EXAMPLES
ILLUSTRATIVE
Subtract
1.
2 from
"
Beginning
Solution.
3.
at
to arrive at
right(positive)
Note that we
might have
Subtract
2.
Beginning
Solution.
to the
left
5 to
"
This
exercise
Subtract
3.
at
could
we
have
the
as
between
8 from
subtract
can
in
result
same
2 below
and
zero
Interpretas
if +
verbal
scale
8 from
to the
"
8 is added
number
problem.
need
we
namely,
zero
to
to count
equals +
"
is the
6.
2.
reverse
unnecessary
expenses
of
firm
preciselythe
motion
the
examples show
other
to count
problem
temperature
5 above
2.
"
result is obtained
same
of addition,we
2 to 3.
need
we
obtained
"
that
equals5.
2.
"
"
These
the
by adding
scale
8 on the number
Beginning at
Hence, subtracting
right(positive).
6 to the
is
the number
on
stated
Solution.
Notice
the result
2.
"
arrive
be
may
"
2 from
the
to
spaces
2.
"
is the difference
What
count
to
"
obtained
that
Note
7.
"
need
we
Hence, subtracting
3.
at
to
(negative)
equals
by adding
"
"
5 from
171
NUMBEKS
NEGATIVE
AND
POSITIVE
as
same
gain.
net
It is convenient
for
there will be
by
its use
an
automatic
problem,and
us
no
to
make
rules
new
continuation
of this relation,for
use
we
to
learn, but
come
of the process
subtraction
of addition.
preceding discussion
shows that subtraction
of algebraic
numbers
may be changed
To subtract
into algebraic
addition by the followinglaw:
number
one
from another change the sign of the subtrahend
221.
and
add
Algebraic
the result
subtraction.
to
the minuend.
The
to
merely
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
172
example
7a
3a
10
may
be
changed
to the
addition
example
+
la
3a
10
EXERCISES
Subtract
the
lower
following.Illustrate
number
Exs.
111
from
the upper
number
with verbal problems.
in the
AND
POSITIVE
TRANSLATION
33.
into
PROBLEMS
VERBAL
INTO
173
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
verbal
subtraction exercises
following
given:
problem,using the suggestion
(a)As
loss :
(b)As gainor
+ 8246
+ 5
(c)As
debit
(d)As
an
(e) As
an
or
credit :
27
48
"
(f)
angleproblem:
14"
+ 22
age
:
problem(time)
the number
As line segmentson
"
(g) As
bank account
(h)As
latitude problem:
(i)As
(j) As
scale :
246
"
40
(Zo
i
longitudeproblem:
go
~l~75
i
probleminvolvingforces
222. Subtraction of
consists of
more
than
polynomials.When
the subtrahend
term
by
performed
from the corresponding
term
For
"2
example,when
we
of the minuend.
wish to subtract 5
3 quarters,and
dollars,
7 quarters,and 31 dimes, we
12 dollars,
7 dollars ; 3 quartersfrom
dollars from 12 dollars,
leaving
18 dimes
from
from
subtract 5
7
quarters,
23 dimes.
31 dimes, leaving
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
174
reduced
therefore be
addition,
to
examples,which
monomials
of
subtraction
the
from
different
two
algebraicpolynomialsis,then,
subtraction of
The
2 a*
17 ab
7 a2
11 P
3 ft2
3 ab +
5 a2 +
student
should
in the
written
form
is
3 b*
17 "//
14 ft2
the subtrahend
doubt
no
11 tf
Sab
2 a2
whatever
mentally. The
to change them
ability
as
will
example
follows:
as
appear
14 ab
5 a2
14 ft2
The
to his
following
ADDITION
14 ab
may
exactlyequivalent:
are
SUBTRACTION
7 "2
the
in
as
and
not
"2 + 2 ab +
//""
a2
2 ab +
fe2
4o6
The
NOTE.
They
are
neglectedin
Numerous
verbal
hope of givinga
The
lower
student
problems
reasonable
should
have
been
law
the
subtrahend.
with
given
apply the
now
signs of
the
of subtraction.
in
automatically
the
followingexercises.
EXERCISES
Subtract
the lower
1. 4a?3ab
from
the upper
6b2
3.
polynomial :
x3 +
4:a?5ab4:b2
2.
3x2y + Sxy2 + y3
7 xzy + 3 xy* + y*
if
x25zy+
3x24a;//3y2
5.
From
10 xy
6.
From
16 x"
7.
From
2a?2a?b
"
xz
5 mx*
2mn2
4.

7 mri*
j6yz subtract
+
4 m*
+ al"22b3
"
subtract
subtract
4 m*n
4 xy
7x*
a3
5msn+
"
"
6
+
xz
4 mx*
18
3 yz.
12 m3.
3 a?b + aft2

6s.
Subtract
indicated,doing
as
of the work
much
as
possible
as
mentally.
8.
(4r8
9.
(_
6 r8* +
"
m*pq
10.
(15 xs
11.
(" a8
12
14
(2.3aW
13.
(3 x2
a"y
a"2 +
aW
(1.1
8.7a6*2)
5
3)
(31 afy+
2.1 a6*8
2 a2 +
(
3.2 xy
15.
(5.2ofy
16.
(2.42a262
17.
(3 a63
afe8) (2
18.
19.
Compare
State
20.
5 ab +
polynomial
the
in
223.
6)
in
(3.12a8^"
a"8 + 3 a3
signs.of
the terms
before and
to the
as
after the
2 ai
+

y2).
4 a8
in the
subtrahend
removed.
parenthesisare
6).
9).
a5c8) (
of the
3a364).
sign preceding
parenthesis.
is the
What
21.
if)
rule
+ 2
41xy
y8).
5) f (2 x2
mV)
15
rs2).
3 a8).
5^ "26
6 J *8/)(4J s2*+ 3 ""** + 7 J A).
8f s8*
11 z8 +
a8*) ( f
4.6 a468 +
foregoingexercises
4 s8 f3
(6m*p8m?pq
(5frst
afy + Ty8) (
3J aft8
7 J r8*
6 r2* +
rs8) (2 r8 +
msp 10mV)
12
10 s8
rule
when
the
nomial
poly
parenthesis?
Symbols
aggregation. It has
of
been
found
very
to
"
"
and
to
be
the
use
(vinculum). Thus,
subtracted
from
to
we
the
indicate
may
use
that
any
+
one
is
of
followingways : (# + #) (# + ft),[x + y\
[a + ft].
b. The
is like
vinculum
a +
{x}y} {a + ft},or x+y
the familiar
line separating numerator
and
denominator
"
"
"
.2
,.
oi
"
fraction,
as
in
or
ft
""
a"
ft
MATHEMATICS
(JEMERAL
170'
pair within
symbols are inclosed one
(16 (9 2)}.
another; thus, 19
ment
agreeIn an
example like the precedingthe common
first the innermost
parenthesis.First,
is to remove
the
Sometimes
from
the result, 7, is to be
result,9, is in
This
16.
subtracted from
9, then
from
subtracted
2 is to be
turn
to
be subtracted
19 ; whence
EXERCISES
meaning
1. (live the
(a) 15 {4
of the
(6 8)}.
[_ 7 x
(C) 5 x
(d) 3 (a;+ y) 5{x
_
following:
{"2x2x3y}.
(a) 12{5(2x5)}.
3 x
4}.
{ 12 x
(b) 17
a8}.
(c) 4 a2 (a2 3 a8 + 3 a2
(d) 2e[6e364e(2e46)].

(f)
15 a?
{
3 x2
(3x2
5)}
(20a2
5).
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases
: positive
number, negativenumber,
numbers, absolute value of a number (ornumerical
algebraic
value),degreeof a number, degree of a monomial, degree
of a polynomial,descendingpower,
ascendingpower.
224.
This
IX
CHAPTER
FACTORING
DIVISION.
AND
MULTIPLICATION
NUMBERS.
NEGATIVE
AND
POSITIVE
of numbers
multiplication
having plus or minus signs are easilyapplied to a
of interesting
considerable number
problems. These laws
illustrated in the followingexamples:
are
Multiplication.The
231.
EXAMPLES
ILLUSTRATIVE
1. Find
the
Solution.
segment
zero
the
on
product
Find
"4
segment
on
scale ; that
its
it off two
r^
157
is,in
times
the
the
and
to
O
number
direction
own
3. Find
product
of
I
as
follows:
4 units
that is,oppositeits
4
4
i
Take
terpret
in
FIG.
159
long
own
158
we
Geometrically
this
FIG.
8.
( 2).
Solution.
"4
4
units
(Fig.158).
Thus,(+ 2)(4)
of
product
long
lay
the leftof zero
segment
+ 8
Geometricallythis
and
(+ 4)
FIG.
Take
8.
(+2).
Solution,
means
+ 4
(Fig.157).
the
and
(4)
scale ; that
direction
(+ 4) and (+ 2).
a
Geometrically we
interpret this as follows : Take
units
long and lay it off two times to the right of
number
of
of
laws
and
zero
=
"
;
8.
POSITIVE
4. Find
AND
179
NUMBEKS
the
If the
Solution.
NEGATIVE
first factor
were
then
positive2,
off
"
twice,
we
should
obtaininga
"
Note
as
of
in
that
the
FIG.
161
cand
multipli
EXERCISES
1. Find
State
numbers
232.
as
The
the law
of
signs
suggested by
of
law
the
for the
product of
two
algebraic
precedingwork.
The
law
of
is as follows:
signsfor multiplication
The productof two factorshavinglike signsis positive.
The productof two factorshavingunlike signsis negative.
EXERCISES
Find
of the
the value
signs. Illustrate
the
followingproducts,using the
first ten geometrically.
1.
(+3) (+5).
3.
(3) (+5).
5.
2.
( 3)( 5).
4.
(+ 3)( 5).
6.
law
of
(2) (+3).
( 2)( 3).
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
180
7.
(2) (+7).
11.
(2)(").
15.
8.
(+2) (+7).
12.
(!)(!).
16.
(f)(
9.
(9)(3).
13.
(2*) (3).
17.
(f)(
(4) (a).
14.
10.
of
233 !. Law
2a/"3.
2o
18.
multiplication illustrated
the
by
balance.
The
law
etc.
represent pegs
small
or
equaldistances.
shall speak of rv rv etc.
We
first rightpeg," second
as
rightpeg,"etc. and of lv 12,
first left peg," secetc. as
ond
left peg,"etc. with the bar
PLICATION
MULTIin a position
facingthe class as FIG. 162. THE LAW
in Fig.162. The
weights,w,
BEAM
BALANCED
all equal; hence we
shall
are
two
weights," three weights,"
merely speak of them as
of ounces
etc. instead of mentioningthe number
or
grams
the pulley
In Experiments 13 the stringover
contained.
nails driven at
"
"
"
"
or
ILLUSTRATED
on
THE
"
"
is fastened
BY
EXPERIMENTS
1.
Hang
must
many
two
weights
be attached
/r
on
to the
three
do
weights on /r What
as
compared with the first case
weights on 13.
1
The
device
be
This
hook
tends
H
you notice
? Answer
omitted
at
to
keep
to
about
the
the
turn
the
bar.
How
the
bar level ?
the
turning tendency
same
teacher's
question
Hang
for four
discretion.
The
The
teachers.
has, however, proved useful in the hands of many
be
several
of
book
the
at
bought
apparatus
large
companies or,
may
better still,
in the shop by a member
made
of the class,using a part of
a yardstick for the lever and
small nails for pegs.
181
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
AND
POSITIVE
3.
the
With
be put on
weights must
on
/8? three weights on 12? one
three weights on /4?
the
many
of experiments.
pulley fastened
on
the pegs
The
/j ho.w
to balance
two
weights
?
two
weights on Z4?
lt
hook
weight
Results
the
stringpassing over
seems
on
to
the
to be
rightside,with the
the only difference?
experimentsshow
that
hung
The
on
the hands
234.
is
leftpeg,
of a
Signs
the bar
rotates
in
direction
to
opposite
clock.
of turning
tendency ; weight
; lever
arm.
It
clockwise
conventionally
agreed that when the bar turns counterthe turningtendencyis positive
(as you face it),
;
while if the bar rotates
clockwise,the turningtendency is
negative.
Weights attached to the pegs are downwardpulling
weights and are designatedby the minus sign. Weights
attached at H pullupward on the bar and are designated
by the plus sign.
distance
The
the
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
182
from
the
Lever
of the force.
measured
arms
where
peg
will be
"arm
the
turning point to
from
the
or
turning
point toward
"
"
235.
of the apparatus
means
and
negativenumbers
(Fig.162)
is
ILLUSTRATIVE
1. Find
the
Solution.
AVe
product of
be found.
to
now
the
By
positive
EXAMPLES
may
downwardpulling,or
right (positive).The bar turns clockwise.
hence the product of (2)(" 4) is
8.
four
meaning, Hang
as
the
second
The
force
to
peg
is
the
negative;
"
2. Find
the
Solution.
fourth
The
peg
Hang
to the
force is
3.
Show
HINT.
that
Fasten
does
Show
two
left
positive
;
rightand hang
4.
hence
(+ 3)(+ 4)
the
three
(+2)
hoped that
of
(" 2) (" 4) is
s.
12.
the
pulleyto
the
fourth
peg
to the
the hook.
that
6;
5.
It is
product
stringover
weights on
'that(3)
the beam
the
of
Exs.
the law of
6. How
(+ 2)( 3)
order in multiplication
?
14
with
signsis made
the
law of
signsin
reasonablv clear
should
now
POSITIVE
AND
NEGATIVE
183
NUMBERS
EXERCISES
State the
of the work
much
1.
(+4) (6).
11.
(3.1)(5).
21.
2.
(4) (+6).
12
(f)(f).
22.
(6XS).
3.
(+4) (+6).
23.
(8)(
4.
(4) (6).
24.
(c)(
5.
(+2) (+5).
25.
(
6.
(+3) (4).
16.
26.
(
7.
(5) (2).
17.
8.
(3) (7).
9.
(5) (+6).
19.
(12) (13).
20.
10.
236.
0 +
_6
23.
30.
Multiplicationby
0 +
(9)(+x2
The
zero.
product of
means
0.
EXERCISES
1.
Show
that
geometrically
2.
Show
by
3.
State
In
value
of the
in
product is
is the
What
4.
problem
general both
zero.
(Fig.
162)that
the beam
verbal
Fig.163
change
if you
smaller
and
to
were
smaller
when
of
the
would
the
make
in which
0 and
zero
area
? How
0=0.
ax
that 0
0=0;
one
of the
equal zero.
of the
one
a=0.
factors is
Hence
factors
is
the
zero.
tangle
recarea
the
base
connection
? What
has
this with
the
How
would
5.
in
made
principle
Fig. 163
smaller
and
the
if I"
change
?
0 ?
FIG.
of the
area
smaller
were
What
163
tangle
rec
not
does
changed
but
this illustrate ?
were
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
184
The
product of
several
by multiplyingthe
second, the result by the third, and so
the factors may
order in multiplication
first factor
by
is obtained
factors
rearranged
is often the
in
case
fractions.
involves
problem which
first be
the
the law of
By
on.
This
if this makes
a
factors.
of several
Product
237.
EXERCISES
following products:
of the
the value
1. Find
2. Find
Find
4.
and
5.
the
"
of
value
"
3x*y
Find
the value
of z8 +
3 x2 +
2s ;
Compare ( 2)3and
"8 ; ( a)4and
24 ; ( a)8and

7.
three
which
What
What
State
the
238.
The
to be
By
"
5 when
Secy2+ y*
when
2.
"
"
1 when
3s and
10.
( 3)8; ( 2)4and
a*.
is the
powers
"
are
positive?
of
"
2 ?
of
"
rule.
sign of
+
of
Multiplicationof
the
Find
monomials.
productis determined
as
in Art.
the
product of
232
and
factors may
be
is found
follows
in
0
the
multiplication
,
QN
2( 3)
( o) zxxxyyy,
which
8.
as
x8
12
"
2.
"
6.

5 xs + x*
of 3 a4
the value
Find
of
value
is
equal
to
arranged
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
186
is
What
20.
of
short method
the
of factors ?
NOTE.
it
Multiplicationof
239.
shall
the
how
see
now
polynomial by
of
process
We
monomial.
algebraicmultiplication
is extended.
EXERCISES
INTRODUCTORY
the process of
1. Keview
+ y +
z)
in Art. 122.
2.
Illustrate
product
3.
by
in
obtained
How
is the
of each
area
precedingexercises serve
polynomialmay be multiplied
by a
by the
every term of the polynomial
resulting
products.
DRILL
the
arithmetical
of
the
for the
Solution.
a2
figurecontain
to
monomial
that
by multiplying
and adding the
monomial
EXERCISES
indicated
products as
values
meaning
part ?
The
Find
the
Ex. 1.
many
4. What
geometric drawing
and
check
literal numbers
2 ab + 3 b*
by substituting
3_a= _6
_
3 a3
Check.
Let
2 and
6 a26 f 9 a"2
3.
in the product as
substituting
then multiplyingthe numbers.
Then
the
114
same
result is obtained
by substitutingin the
Note
that
the
check
factors
is not
by
and
reliable
if
let
we
literal number
x5
"
(as a: in
equals x3
also
3x
5x(2x*
2.
literal number
1ST
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
AND
in
"
"
"
"
7).
3.
4.
5.
5.1
"
"4(i
6.
(?"V
7.
3 mV
4 mV
3.5 ?"V.
wV)
8.
9.
10.
11.
240.
of two
Product
In Art.
polynomials.
126
found
we
EXAMPLES
ILLUSTRATIVE
1.
the
Find
The
Solution.
of the whole
area
The
rectanglein Fig.164
is
expressed
line
dotted
suggests a
by (a + ")(c + d).
for expressingthe area
the
of
method
as
sum
two
rectangles; namely, a (c + c?)+ b (c + d).
If
we
use
expressed
namely, ac
equals the
the
as
+
area
line
the
ad
of
of
sum
be +
bd.
of the
one
(a + 6)(c + d)
the
MN,
a(c
area
may
be
four
rectangles;
Each
expression
hence
rectangles;
+
d) + b(c + d)
wo
FIG.
ac
ad +
164
be +
bd.
1.88
Illustrate,by
2.
of
multiplication
3
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
Find
involves
Fig. 165,
polynomials.
two
the
law
for
%x
the
+ d).
productof (a"t")(c
the
In this
Solution.
of
means
case
of the factors
one
negativeterm.
The
product (a b)(c + d) is represented
sions
dimenthe
a
rectanglehaving
by
(a b) and (c + rf)(Fig.166). The
+ ad.
rectangleABEF=ac
Subtracting
from
this the rectanglesbe and
bd, we
obtain the rectangleA BCD.
Therefore
ac
+ ad
(a
b) (c + d)
a
3x
"
FIG.
165
"
be
"
bd, each
"
the
*
side of the
of
area
Findthe
equation
rectangleA
senting
repre
BCD.
FIG.
166
productof (a b)(a fy
"
"
Let
Solution.
a
that
EFGC
the
side
is
of
area
GHIB
(Fig.167),represent
whose
square
Show
ABCD
(a
6) feet.
equals
"
ABCD
FKDE
KHIA.
Then
(a
*5.
area
?/)
(a
b)
Sketch
is 24 b2
"
b)2
(a
a2 +
62
a2
2 ab + IP.
ab
"
Why
ab
"
rectanglewhose
area
is
(m
ri)(r
"
s) ; whose
6 be.
DRILL
EXERCISES
xz +
x
2 xy + yy
_
x3 +
x* +
Check
x
by letting
2 and
x'2y+
xy2
xy* + y*
x*y +
xy* + y*
3.
the
AND
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
7.
(2a
ax3 +
as)(a + a).
8.
(iaft
3)(a 2).
9.
(a +
(a
b +
3.
(a8+
4.
(a2+
5.
(cc23cc+ 5)(2x
6.
(k2+
a;
3 Ar +
1)(A
Comment
12.
tm).
2.
3).
the
on
10.
2).
189
NUMBERS
(
11.
.
4).
" ftc)
(faft + f ftc).
(2 a
ft)
c)2.
3 1"
interestingform
df.
of
c)2.
the
results
in
911.
Exs.
0.4 b
0.5
c)(10 a
30 b +
40
c).
13.
(0.3a
14.
(2 if
15.
o2
16.
(9x2
17.
(x +
18.
Comment
19.
(r2+
20.
(Sr2+
21.
(3x
22.
(3x2
2.y)3(3x2y)8.
iff "x*(xT/2)2 (3xz
23.
24.
12 zy
+
+
Why
28.
Multiply 352 by
.*
3527
may
in Ex.
28.
6).
7 ?
56,872 as
polynomialarranged according to
the
powers
the
"
10s +
"
10a +
243.
form
in the
Write
3).
10 +
be written
Find
17.
."?).
3)2 (5 + 3) (5
27.
30.
in Ex.
(5 + 3)2 (5
descending
y;.
26.
Write
.r2).
29.
of the results
+
rs
6)(3 r2 +
if
y)0* +
s2)(r2+
HINT.
x2)(2
the form
on
rs
(a
z/2)
*z/ +
"
"
103 + 5
102 + 4
"
"
10 +
L"
10
of 10.
productof
5 and
3427
by
the method
suggested
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
190
We
binomials.
of two
Product
241.
shall
the
will
how
see
be
obtained
help the
dent
stu
the method.
understand
and
discover
to
may
now
EXERCISES
Find
1.
by
(2x
3)(4z + 5).
+
2*
Solution.
the followingproducts:
multiplication
actual
(4x
5.
6.
(x + 2)(* + 9).
7.
(2a;+l)(aJ46).
8.
(b + 3)(6 + 5).
9.
(a 7) (a 3).
4x+5
8*2
4.
12*
+l"*
lr'
15
8 x2 +
2.
(3"
(3 *
8)(a + 2).
11.
(3x
4)(2a;3).
12'
14.
(*3)(*10).
(a8 9)(*"+ 9).
+ 10).
(or2 5)(aj2
15"
16.
(2y
17.
("i"
1 o
16
20.
(3a;+ 4y)(3a;'4y).
16
21.
(4a
2a8
13.
24
40
6a2_14a_40
3.
(o ?/ + 4) (o
Solution,
?/
4).
"
My
22.
53
Solution.
23.
61
26.
Can
the
products of
3)(5y
"
"
8).
26)(7a5i).
57.
53
57
(50
503 +
3) (50
7)
(7 + 3)50
21.
'
69.
you
5).
10'
5)(2a8).
+
3
Solution.
22
6)(4a;
24.
see
two
52
way of
binomials ?
any
56.
formulatinga
25.
rule for
37
33.
finding
POSITIVE
If
we
to
agree
numbers
known
use
discover
the
short cut
where
the
b,
a,
e,
4 d
ex
and
to
are
in the
in
productsabove, then we
multiplyingax 4 b by ex 4 d.
EXAMPLE
ILLUSTRATIVE
Find
4 b and
binomials ax
like those
191
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
binomials
two
represent any
may
AND
Solution.
ax
Y
+
CX
d
bcx
+
adx
bd
acx2 +
(be +
ad
)x
bd
the
whose
or
crossmultiplications
crossproducts
It is seen
that the firstterm of the
term.
is equal to the middle
sum
that the last term
product is the product of the firstterms of the binomials,
is the product of the last terms
of the binomials,and that the middle term
is the sum
of the tivo crossproducts.
The
show
arrows
EXERCISES
Using
the
binomials
1.
(2a
The
Solution.
of the
is
a2, the
terms
4
the
products
of the
lowing
fol
the
(3a
7. fx
2fi)(3a
7)(4x
ft).
9).
binomials
two
the
6.
5).
product of
product
is 15, and
above, give
3)(3a
first terms
stated
rule
of
sum
the
last
of the
9.
Therefore
is 19 a.
crossproducts
the product is 6 a" + 19 a + 15.
(x + *")(x
+ 8).
,"
/7
9v.
11.
(4,
12
+ 7ft).
(*49")(aj
4)(3x4 4).
13.
(2aj
2).
14.
(5 a
4) (4 a
2.
(4,,+ 3)(2.
1).
3.
2).
4.
(3x
4
5.
(7x
2)(7 x
3)(3,4).
y) (3x

y).
2).
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
192
15.
(7a
16.
(5a
17.
(3a:
21.
Do
26)(7o2i).
4i)(5" + 46).
2)(12a: 20).
ft)
(3a
(3 a
19.
(6 xy
2)(3xy
20.
(7 ab
5c)(60*
6).
5).
8c).
about
significant
anythingespecially
notice
you
18.
the
product of
the two
signs between
of
ra
23.
and
Try
the
are
except
same
Explain by using
terms
the
for
the
product
n.
"
to formulate
productsreferred
242.
that
binomials
two
"
rule for
to in Exs.
21
obtainingautomaticallythe
and
Special products. We
22.
have
seen
241
in Art.
how
of two
binomials
be performed
multiplication
may
Such
products are called special
automatically.
products.
the
The
student
furnish
should
examples
productof x'+y
is called
observe
of
and
the square
b and
productof a
such
x
+y
products.
is equal to
the
of
21 and
thaf, Exs.
of
sum
x2 +
example, the
2 xy + y*,and
and
y\
while
the
2 db + 62,and
equal to a2
is called the square of the difference
of a and b. Further,
the product of m + n and m
is equal to mz
n
n*, and
is called the productof the sum
and difference
of m and n.
"
"
b is
For
"
"
"
EXERCISES
1. Find
each:
classify
y}\
(j) (3 a
4
2
ft)".
")2.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
194
The
short
1.
Square
of the
each
square
the
EXERCISES
DRILL
the
Find
and
sum
numbers.
the second
2. Subtract
following
numbers:
of two
difference
the
1.
(x + 2)(aj+ 2).
11.
(x
2
(U + 3) (y
3).
12.
(w
3.
("4)(s4).
13.
(10 a;
4.
(2w5)(2tt;
14.
5.
("
15.
6.
(3s
16.
(a5+ ^5)(a5
7.
(3r4")(3r
17.
(20 + 2)(20
8.
(Ja + j6)(Ja.ii).
18.
(30 + 1) (30
9
(i"y*)(t*y
19
(18)(22"
20.
(31)(29).
(x
10.
243.
learned
6).
+
2
i)(s +
2o)(3"
J).
2a).
4").
*)
1) (a + 1).
The
Division.
for
law
recall from
We
c)(w
c)(w*
9)(10 a;
c2).
9).
"5).
2).
1).
algebraicdivision
of the relation
because
division
between
is
and
arithmetic
that
division
numbers
when
their
easily
tiplicatio
mul
is the
process
of
and
the
that
x
quotient
These
of two
findingone
other
number
divisor
are
=
f6
and
also
we
remember
dividend.
that +12=
given
product
law
because
of division.
Thus
we
know
POSITIVE
AND
NEGATIVE
195
NUMBERS
EXERCISES
1. Since
Since
( 2)(+ 6)
3.
Since
( 2)( 6)
4. Since
(+ ")(+ ")
the
If the
sign of
6.
If the
sign of
+
f
the
12
12, what
is
12, what
is +
is
"", what
signs of dividend
the quotient?
dividend
signs of
is
12, what
2.
5.
the
(2)( 6)
and
"
12
s
12
H
2 ?
2 ?
(+ aV) +"
divisor
and
2 ?
s
divisor
are
are
a?
alike,what
is
unlike,what
is
quotient?
244.
Law
245.
Dividing a monomial
The
work
of the
preceding
article may be summed
If
up in the followinglaw:
is posithe dividend and divisor have like signs,the quotient
tive
and
divisor have unlike signs,the
; if the dividend
quotientis negative.
have
an
of
signs
in division.
by
monomial.
law
We
learned
shall
now
in the preceding
article.
EXERCISES
Find
the
of the work
much
1.
(+l5)(3)=?
10.
(10ar)'5(2oj)=?
2.
(15) L(_3)=?
11
(")=?
("/")"*"
3.
( 15)t (+ 3)
12
"*" (+ V)
( ""*)
4.
(+15)i(+3)=?
13
(t*)"(")
5.
( 18)5 ( 3)
14.
(
6.
(12) =(12)=?
15.
( 1.21 x2)^ (
7.
(+5)f(+5)=?
16.
8.
(+*)^(+*)=?
17.
(_")*.(")
(f)Kf)=?
()^(f)=?
9.
2af.a=?
18'
'f
0.5
=?
x) + ($x)=
1.1
=
*)
.?.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
196
19.
20
$).,.(_"{).?
31.
(*V(*)=?
^
( 1) *
(1)
(f)Kf)='.'
(?)+ ( t)=(_2) + (+J)=?
32.
( *2)+ (^"
33.
(9^)(3")=?
34'
35.
(3"*)l(ft)=?
(6fe)K2je)=
36.
(+""")+ (")="."
38.
"_
21.
22.
23.
"
25.
(+12./)(x)
28.
39.
"
27.
(*)4(J*)=?
40.
(//Ar8)
5(oA)='.'
28.
i ( x)
( .r*)
41.
(7
29.
(^
42.
(oir") 5 ( 3j r)
30.
43.
24 a;//t X
( x)
are
t
ww/)*("")
=
"
of the
algebraicsolution
best interpretedas
The
type
x4)s ( x)
XOTK.
this
.?
difficult
more
fractions,
since
problems of
fraction
is
an
"_"4,"
quotient. Thus,
indicated
24 /"//
=3
be
may
written
"
"
The
"
'^ x
24
problem
both
is
now
of
one
reducing
and denominator
numerator
lower
to
be divided
may
Thus,
terms.
by
x.
in
The
jii
result
8w
"
is
"
"
In
aad
and
(or
or
8 y units.
algebra,as
in
altered
if dividend
are
Solution.
The
both
The
sign of
the
numerical
factors
can
by x2; y3 and
"/sare
divisible
***?#
Hence
"
8 xim?
^
=
=
"
"f!.
POSITIVE
197
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
AND
343
Sjfb
49.
47.
45.
49
xz
"
12
46.^
Dividing
will
process
50.
48.
9"
"
246.
a;
polynomial by
The
monomial.
division
extended.
be
now
EXERCISES
6 x2 +
1. Divide
by
xz
a.
in
is 6 x" +
in
quotient
we
As
area
4 xij +
4 xy
the
form
of
altitude
whose
and
xz
is 2
be
a
x.
stated
as
rectanglewhose
Indicating this
fraction,
have
4 xy
6 xz +
xz
42
3X
FIG.
and
Dividing numerator
by
Show
2.
that
be
(Fig.169) may
of the
total
(3 +
form
Which
Find
of
area
three
adjacent flower
either
4).
better ?
Why
obtaining as
followingquotients,
the
mentally :
a5
9 a2 6
27"i
.
(a)
00
+
3a
4*V
6
(g)
r/
beds
5 +
is the
terprete
problem may now be inadjacentrectangles(Fig.168).
that the
by three
expressed in
following forms
or
3.
the
168
denominator
by a rectangleformed
can
tangle
rec
6"2
(e):
(f)
many
as
you
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
198
247.
find two
to
manner,
y and
said to be
unity is
is
monomial
A
thus
15
prime number ;
expressedin terms
advantage to
an
as,
and
5, x,
of its
+ b.
prime factors,
frequentlyeither
very
much
so
"
of the method
of expressing
in
algebra,as
expressionoccur
divisions
4 ay.
ax
In
as
'In like
ax*i? %.5ax.x.y.y.y.
example
polynomial:
factored
one
no
followingis
The
or
has
which
number
is
multiplied
may see by
are
the factors of
are
when
Thus,
number.
number
factor a
which
numbers
more
or
To
number
multiplications
it is of
considerable
characteristics of these
the
memorize
that
so,
as
of
bers
num
by inspectionand thus be
and divisions autoable to perform the multiplications
matically.
In this text we
shall study two generaltypes
of factoring.
that
248.
factor.
A
we
factor them
may
FactoringType
I.
Typeform
bx +
number
ax
of this
monomial
type
Taking
we
ex
out
(a
b +
shall call
factor. The
common
monomial
e).
number
containing
common
most
convenient
form.
AND
POSITIVE
of
method
The
199
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
consists
factoringthis type
of
the
followingsteps:
1.
Inspectthe
2. Divide
3. In
result
factor.
to
In all
NOTE.
factor. The
monomial
common
order
the student
see
the
by
is the other
obtained
is
to
common
factor which
the
discover
and
terms
the student
factoringproblems
if the number
contains
should
monomial
common
first look
to
factor.
EXERCISES
the
check
followingby inspectionand
:
by multiplication
Factor
bx
5 b
"
The
be.
"
Each
Solution.
quotient
is
has
term
x
"
Check.
Therefore
5a5b.
3.
4cc +
4.
5xalQxb.
the
expressionby
b.
c.
"
(x
the factors
2.
work
your
"
c)
"
of bx
"
5 6
bx
5 b
"
be
"
4?/.
be.
"
b and
are
8.
x*
9.
25 x2
"
c.
"
x3.
5 x8.
10.
2 x2 +
4 xy
11.
d2b +
ab'2+
f.
'
5.
5 ax2
6.
2rx88?y.
12.
4a;28^
7.
3 x2
13
a*a?
10
axif.
x.
14.
249.
Factoring Type
3 a2 15
II.
The
"
a8.
47/2.
aVy2
aary
+ 18.
cut
and
try
"
method
of
factoring.Typeform acxz+(bc+ad')x+bd=:(az+b')(cz+d'~
The
be
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
200
products is
such
the
2 y? +
Factor
There
Solution.
+
./"
of
the
the factors
to
last
called
are
obtained
has
he
remember
that
factorable, because
For
example, a^+16
See
if you
has
and
been
factoringproblems
three things; namely:
2. Find
3. Check
to
discover
the
.5
since the
one,
the
are
slow
the factors
always
2^ +
said
it is
the
+12
are
common
student
monomial
by multiplyingthe
factors
numbers.
factorable.
not
important
are
factorable.
not
are
tant
impor
that
already prime
a;
sure
Such
is
numbers
at
can
be
to
prime numbers.
some
are
correct
seem
may
skill that
are
any
process
can
what
Try
there
they
all
1.
at
not
From
It is very
factors
2x +
be found
pair of factors may
and try" method, and while the
first,practicesoon
develops such
easilybe found.
that
2r+
10
below
shown
possiblepairs of factors, as
four
are
It is clear that
sum
10.
10
x+
is
method
The
together.
example :
result
verifyingthe
then
and
method
factors
pair of
correct
the "cut
as
The
method.
error"
known
will
see
hold
to
that
in
in
mind
factor.
and
try"
together.
method.
250.
a?
"
x*
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
202
2a6 + "2
")2. Numbers
"
y2,which
2 xy +
"
obtained
are
Type form
squares.
+ 16
or
mial
bino
by multiplyinga
Art. 127.
formulate
method
short
of
squares.
EXERCISES
method
2ab
2.
m22mn
3.
9z2 +
4.
16 a2
251.
called the
in
the
This
is
b2.
n2.
12av/ + 4?/2.
What
6.
64 a2 32ab
7.
x2tf
12 xy"
8.
aty4+
30
"
on
page
is the
194
short
9 z*.
afyV
25 "4.
Type form
squares.
The
if.
"tf.
of the form
a2
b2
"
are
productsobtained
of this
numbers
are
in Art.
type.
249.
What
then
are
9 ?
"
:
following
4.
(a) x2
(b) c225.
(c) r2
(d) 25"
by
49
EXERCISES
3. Show
42 xy
specialcase
the factors of x2
2.
9 x2 +
ORAL
1.
5.
difference of two
the
exercises
a
25 b2.
40 ab +
Factoring
"=(a
"
by
squares
1. a2 +
ai
followingperfecttrinomial
the
Factor
of
means
a2
Fig.170
b2
on
(a + ft)
(a
the

4 s2.
a*
followingpage
b).
that
POSITIVE
The
AND
a2
equation
factored
readily
the
the square
roots
b)(a + ")
"
208
NUMBERS
difference
of two
that
asserts
be
may
squares
of
sum
of the
(a
follows
as
factor is
One
b2
"
is the
which
binomial
NEGATIVE
terms
Thus,
to factor 49
#262
"
FIG.
each term
"one
factors may
be
170
of
root
ab.
the other
given hi
reverse
ab.
"
Obviously,the
Why ?
order.
EXERCISES
the
Factor
when
you
absolutelycertain
not
are
1. a216.
,.1
3.
//I.
4.
I./4.
,2
6.
,2
/.
a6
81rt216s2.
14.
289m2
25 a;636s4.
15.
8.
9.
49
11.
1
12.
225
20.
x4y4.
21.
2o?iV
22.
a8
23.
625
24.
64 a;69.
25.
Ca +
6*.
36 a6.
81
17.
196
100
18.
361
r2^2
(a + xf
26.
27.
(x3

6V.

16.
?/)2 x6.

81m4.
28.
"
y8.
"2i4
256
i)a9.
a\
?r.
16.
a2.
wV7tM.
result is correct.
the
100"4a;236.
16 a* 25
10.
19.
by multiplication
13.
7.
(,i
Check
following binomials.
29.
0.25"a0.64Ja.
30.
0.25
r/2^lo
196.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
204
of
Knowledge
the
above
with
multiplycertain arithmetic numbers
be
Thus
the product of 32 by 28 may
great rapidity.
written (30 + 2)(30
2) (30)2 (2)" 896.
enables
to
us
EXERCISES
1.
Give
(a)
(b)1723.
(c) 26 34.
(d)2931.
of the
following:
(a) 712192.
(b) 1462462.
(c) 1462542.
(e) 12152
(d) 31222882.
(f) 21462102.
252.
of
Different ways
precedingproblems show
(a J)(a + J) providesus
that
with
"
calculations
linked
by
easier.
the
the
carrying out
The
=
the value
Find
2.
(in)7585.
(n) 79 81.
(o) 42 38.
(p) 95 75.
(i) 6773.
(j)6674.
(k) 68 72.
(1)7565.
(e) 3227.
(f)3743.
(g) 38 42.
(h) 47 '53.
1822.
In
a2
in
far the
253.
such
of
two
on
Distinction between
ft2
making
are
")(a + ")
carryingout the
the right is by
(a
"
as
a2
b2
"
statement
(a
identityand equation.
5)(a + /")is
of making the
"
ways
is true
for
all values
"
"
easier.
It represents two
The
b2
"
different ways
the one
calculations,of which
same
of
method
a2
formula
equality sign
simply represent
calculations.
same
the
152.
of x, but
y?
6 or
only when x
of equalityin some
=
"
"
32
is
called
an
equality
identity.
calculation.
same
of
An
and
The
I.
of
identitywith
2) (x + 2) is true
statement
"
6 ; that
an
is, it is
specialsituation
that is
a
ment
state
it may
be
translation of
the
an
area
alloyproblem,etc.,but
x2
situation,whereas
it
4
"
and
for calculation
formula
205
NUMBEKS
NEGATIVE
AND
POSITIVE
of
is true
x.
EXERCISES
1. Tell which
identities
(a) 4
of the
which
are
x*
16
(c) 9z2
(d) 4
20.
12*
(3z
x29
2V.
2.
(a) ax
bx
+
f/
da
+
10
"""'"
"
r(d""__s
2
,o
^
,
3"3"r4x4
The
followingexercises furnish
precedingwork of this chapter.
Calculatingareas.
of
applications
4 b*x
"
20
_.
1
/6N
1 ;
2x2
254.
a2x
(c) 5
be.
ac
ca
(b)c
equationsand
followingare
the
EXERCISES
1.
that
Show
the
shaded
follows:
as
of
the
=(S
and
large square
area
"
s)(S +
side
of
in
Fig. 171
s), where
may
5
is
be
a
pressed
ex
side
the
small square.
2. A
room
carpet 20
ft. square
25 ft. square.
The
is
placed in
uncovered
border
at 80
formula
of
to
cents
per
be used
yard. Write a
in calculating
the cost
stripsat c cents per
square
painting similar
yard,the carpet to be
feet square
and
the
room
feet square.
plateis cut
metal
3.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
206
of the
what
In
is the
two
and
ways
may
pieceis  in.
if the
of metal
volume
If 'a =10
Fig. 172.
plate?
What
in
shown
as
weight if a cubic
inch of the metal weighs 20 grams ?
for a plate
Write
a generalformula
t inches
cut in the form of the figure,
thick and
weighing g grams
per
is the
thick ? What
FIG.
...
4. A
design pattern
in
Fig. 173.
this
problem illustrating
verbal
make
172
cut
is
in
shown
form
the
easilycalculated.
is
which
form
in
the result
Write
inch.
square
Calculate
the
Make
area.
formula.
applicationof our
lated
knowledge of factoringin problems reto circles,
as will be seen
by solving
the following:
We
5.
can
(a) The
is
an
of
area
is Trr2. What
circle whose
is the
radius
of
area
circle
FIG.
radius
whose
(b) How
can
the monomial
track
the
the
ring in Fig.174
if R
3.75
and
the
ring
shaded
in
(b)by
ing
remov
factor.
(e) Calculate
if R
of
area
area.
result of
is the
in which
the
find
you
Indicate
Fig. 174?
(c) Simplifythe
(d) What
173
is R?
of
area
100
and
area
of
running
a
r
the
90 ?
shaded
r
5 ;
0.25.
174
FIG.
6.
the
HINT.
Find
rule
or
formula
12 in. and
of
"
11 in.
cylinder.
POSITIVE
the
Find
7.
in
shown
form
Allow
HINT.
255.
500
of
207
NUMBERS
iron
weight of an
Fig. 175 if a
Division
illustrated
NEGATIVE
AND
rod
in.,b
\ iny and
"
in
the
\ in.
foot.
polynomials
by arithmetical
bers.
num3C
The
of
process
dividing
r
In
multiplicationit
system the
or
"
If
9 in
102 units.
we
67,942 does
dividend
the division
may
and
7000,
means
7000
900
60000
4000
400
3000
500
40
3000
200
20
300
20
300
20
40 +
student should
300
+ 20 +
200
10
in
carefully
we
two
shall
now
the division of
discuss.
decimal
our
for 900
units
103,etc.
of
polynomials,
:
10
precedingexamples
of these with
which
study the
"
form
3102
The
of
following forms
of the
60000
or
the
in
divisor
either
in
appear
because
stand
not
Similarly,the
arrange
that
pointed out
was
larity
the simi
algebraicpolynomials
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
208
of
Division
256.
algebraicpolynomials. The
division of
.y4+
y3 +
4 y~
y3 +
y2 +
"rl
exercises
we
proceedas
we
ab*
aft2+ bs
ab* + b*
in division.
see
a?ab
a2/;
a*b
Process
as +
257.
3 y
that in
From
dividingone
follows:
The
student
furnishes
soon
as
observe
excellent
review
inasmuch
they are
problem. They should
possible.
processes,
division
an
should
as
therefore
in almost
be
every
mastered
as
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
210
EXERCISES
(x2
llx
2.
(//
"f
3.
+
(fts
7 "" +
4.
(99x
30)=(x 5).
4y + 4)"y
18
r
2).
+
2
(a1+
40)
3y
8).
8x24x8)i(32.r).
5.
54x2//+ 36xy2
6.
(27x8
7.
(27x8
8.
xy* +
36
afy +
54
y8) '(3x

y).
x8x7/.
9.
10.
8
32 m2 +
32 ms
m4) (3 +
15
11.
(1" +
12.
(x8+ 2xy
13.
(14x +
14.
(r8+
15.
(25 a
16.
(8x
17.
(9x2//2
18.
(25x4
19.
(4x4
20.
21.
(a57/5)(a7/);(a*,ft + (ay).
22.
(25m449/i4)^(5m2+ 7w2).
23.
(25m4
24.
(0.027aW
25.
(8 a8
2x4 +
65
15 r2
20 a2 +
12
ay
49
36
9
w2).
aft + c).
h (0.2
c8)
Z"8) (4a2

=
?/)H (2x2

2 a2 +
3 xy +
y4) (5x2
w4) (5m2
^
?/4)
(x2
2 ab +
m2).
").
y +
+ 2x3
Ilx2)r(4x2
(

8x8
x2/ +
60
12)
4).
7).
24)(2x2+'3x
63)s (r
x8?/+ x4
5x8
6 a8
6x4 +
4 +
llx2
=
if)+ (x +
yz +
xz
62).
y2).
y2).
3).

2).
AND
POSITIVE
260.
etc.
have
by
243).
The
zero.
meaning,
no
give1,2,
cannot
Art.
Division
NEGATIVE
The
3, x,
"
quotients
"
"
"
x
"
"
,
"",
in
number
undetermined, as
is
quotient
"
multipliedby
for
etc.
211
NUMBERS
multipliedby 0 equals0.
that in all quotientshereafter
equal to zero.
Therefore
shall
we
the divisor
ber
num
every
is not
assume
zero
nor
EXERCISES
1.
The
following solution
given to show that 1
is
2.
numbers
Two
are
given equal,as
Then
and
Give
sides
similar
by
"
Dividing both
Find
(a; y)
Then
2.
y,
argument
of
one
y
1
several
the
that
are
times
some
fallacy.
y.
"
0,
Why
0.
Why
Why
2.
(x
which
seems
y).
show
to
that
equals5.
SUMMARY
ing
chapterhas taughtthe meaning of the followwords and phrases: turningtendency,force,lever arm,
division,factoring,
factors,prime number,
multiplication,
factor.
number
containinga monomial
261.
This
illustrated
was
signsin multiplication
with line segments and (2) by means
(1) geometrically
262.
The
law
of the balanced
263.
1. A
upward
The
of
beam.
followingagreements
weight pullingdownward
were
used
is
negative;one
bar
clockwise is
pulling
is
positive.
2. A force tending to rotate
counterclockwise,
positive.
;
negative
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
212
lever
the
to
arm
The product of
signs in multiplication:
two numbers
; the productof two
having like signsis positive
numbers
having unlike signsis negative.
264.
Law
265.
The
the
2. The
3. The
order of factors
The
of
value
changed without
changing
product is
zero
if
one
of the
factors
zero.
of division
Law
266.
The
; the
signsis positive
signsis negative.
like
unlike
Arithmetical
numbers
may
polynomialsaccordingto
The
the
be
may
product.
The
is
trated
chapter has taught and geometricallyillusfollowingprocesses of multiplication:
of several monomials.
multiplication
of a monomial
by a polynomial.
multiplication
of polynomialsby polynomials.
multiplication
1. The
the
of
ing
of two numbers havquotient
of two numbers having
quotient
be
powers
arranged in
the form
of
of 10.
of
In all
267.
The
process
same
division
the
followingforms
1. The
division of
2. The
division of
3. The
reduction
4. The
division of
of
a
monomial
by a
polynomialby
a
monomial.
a
monomial.
fraction to lowest
polynomialby
terms.
polynomial.
of
POSITIVE
268.
methods
269.
Type
has
Division
for
checking
The
I.
The
II.
acx2
(be
"
cut
bx
geometrically.
taught.
were
of
types
out
ax
Type
division
following
Taking
illustrated
been
factoring
and
ad~) x+bd
ex
taught:
were
monomial
common
f
213
NUMBERS
NEGATIVE
AND
"
try
(a
factor,
c).
method,
(ax
6) (ex
d).
Two
CHAPTER
OF
GRAPH
270.
OF
REPRESENTATION
GRAPHICAL
Facts
presented in
THE
EQUATION
LINEAR
the
STATISTICS;
of
form
table.
The
follow,
OF
INTERESTS
RECREATIONAL
EXERCISE
Study
the
of the
271.
understand
you
figuresare
but
precedingtable until
columns
of figures.
common
in newspapers,
precedingis
214
up
the
of columns
magazines,and
not
ing
mean
of
books,
for
OF
REPRESENTATION
expressingthe meaning
mind
cannot
of
an
215
STATISTICS
array
of facts. The
ordinary
see
it often
EXERCISES
of the
By means
questions:
1. What
the
per
Cleveland
pictogramsin Fig.176
cent
of the
girls?
With
Cleveland
which
the
answer
tennis ? of
boys play
group
following
is tennis
the
more
popular?
2.
Assuming
wrestle,does
per cents
3. Are
Fire
Girls
than
a
the
Cleveland
largerper
than
is the
boy
or
should
learn
showing
worse
to
in
boys ?
cent
of the
girlsof
case
in the
Cleveland
your
class
high
Camp
schools ?
HighSchool Girls
Do
not
play Tennis
Do
not
play Tennis
HighSchool Boys
HighSchool Girls
We
Never
Do
HighSchool Boys
Do.
Never
We
HighSchool Girls
We
o^o
Belong
to
Do
I Never
play Baseball
We
Do
Never
HighSchool Girls
^^^^^^U^AA,
Do
Camp Fire
not
belong
to
Camp
Fire
HighSchool Boys
Do
Wrestle
Elementary
Attend
and
not
Wrestle
HighSchool Boys
Do
Movies
not
attend
Movies
Daily Nonattendance
HighSchoolBoys
\j
Help!
HighSchoolGirls
laU_^W^_
.,
S. 0. S, Board
FIG.
176.
SHOWING
(Adapted
from
HOW
PICTOGRAMS
Johnson's
"Education
216
ARE
CSED
through
TO
of Education
FACTS
EXPRESS
Recreation
")
MATHEMATICS
(iKXERAL
218
EXERCISES
Fig. 177
1. In
Do
for Portland
long run
definite
HINT.
to
answer
been
cash for
to pay
will it cost
What
have
this
?
protection
in the
profitable
all publicimprovements ?
problem
be
may
3 and
build
cityto
fire
pare
com
more
several members
*3.
it would
interest
paid as
amount
think
you
the
does
the amount
with
2.
how
obtained
if
$100,000 highschool
The
showing
*4.
that
The
be interpretedas an
not
problem must
argument
is
bonding (borrowing) never
justifiable.
discussion
favored
group
of
large amount
bonds, while
the
5.
into
sectors
TABLE
the
other
money
followingfacts by
paying
the expenses
of
the issuance
borrowing by
advocated
by
means
payasyougo
taxation. Debate
the
of
circle divided
SHOWING
THE
of
War
European
One
method
States
of the United
the
of the
DISPOSITION
BELL
TELEPHONE
OF
SYSTEM
THE
FOR
GROSS
THE
ITEMS
Salaries,
wages,
REVENUE
YEAR
PER
and
incidentals
OF
1917
CENT
50
Taxes
7
.
Surplus
Materials,rent, and travelingexpenses
Interest
Dividends
4
....
20
7
12
is
of
OF
REPKESENTATION
In
numbers.
method
are
fact,the objections
of construction
against false
of
use
The
conclusions.
circle.
one
It
serious
so
that
was
when
219
STATISTICS
method
constitute
is not
unit
student
inaccurate
shown
are
the
by
the
frequently
parison
happens,however, that the comis made
ing
by circles differ
in size.
the eye
In such
case,
since
the
parison
com
tends to make
on
P.I
basis,the ratio
area
an
of the two
1111
should
be
numbers
FlGAN
CIRCLES
178
BASIS
AREA
ex
pressedby
of the two
ON
THE
DEPOSITORS
BANK
op
BB
DRAWN
SHOWING
areas
so
recommend.
to
underestimate
Fig. 179
on
hand
thus
the
diameter
the
circles
basis.
ratio.
In
drawn
are
The
right
causingthe
reader to
estimate
over
FIG.
179.
A
the ratio.
This
CIRCLES
DIAMETER
DRAWN
ON
BASIS
feature
is
dishonest use
frequentlyutilized by those who make
of circle diagrams. The
conclusion is that a comparison
in size should
between
circles differing
be avoided
gether.
altowill be taught. Space is
Better graphicmethods
given here to circle pictogramsbecause of their extensive
in many
use
fields.
EXERCISE
Test
in
the accuracy
magazine
with
your
of circle
articles and
classmates.
find
you may
Discuss their value
pictogramswhich
advertisements.
273.
the basis of
1911
The
greater
area,
than
more
The
times
should
men
14,591,000 One
on
This
180.
FIG.
should
too
avoided
ONE
PICTOGRAM,
to
ordinaryreader.
the
deceive
mmmmM
32.837000
1911
OF
AVOIDED
BE
be
it tends
because
TYPE
POPULAR
TO
type
Mile
the
area.1
of
basis
far
the 1899
compared
be
1899
looks
2^
largeas
man.
on
his
of
compared
are
men
to
traffic of
passenger
two
1911
height.
man,
account
as
in the
The
railroads.
the
is intended
given here
the increase
show
the
pictureof
pictograms. The
Area
travelingmen
two
on
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
220
MILE
14.59I.OOO
ONE
MILE
1899
FIG.
181.
MORE
ACCURATE
METHOD
OF
PORTRAYING
FACTS
EXERCISES
1.
basis
2.
a
would
Why
of
area?
Do
you
drawing
274.
it be
know
made
Volume
on
or
any
difficult to
method
the basis
block
and
which
of
area
Brinton,in
his excellent
could
?
drawing
be used
on
the
to check
make
comparing relative
bales of hay or cotton
in
'
Presenting Facts,'
from
the same
facts as that in Fig. 180.
presents a chart (Fig.181)drawn
Note that the facts are portrayed much
more
clearlyand accurately.
for
REPRESENTATION
used
are
articles.
often
volume, but
what
on
there is
or
made
of
Limitations
student
will
need
the
directlyas
of the
to
tell
figures.Thus,
size
relative
heightsof
within
checkingis
the
by
squaredpaper
of square
means
pictograms. The
that in
in the
but
men
units
within
the
determined
be
by
Hence
the number
by
in the
the
of square
rough method
of the traveling
the pictures
men
of tracingpaper and compare
millimeters
lines
out
comparison of passenger
not
outlines.
to transfer
case.
volume
square
should
the
structed
correctlyconquantities
representedshould vary
of
number
relative
and
remember
to
service
number
basis of
on
way
in such
area
graph the
area
units
made
constructed, whether by
drawing was
volume.
Certainlyit would be difficult to
the statement
275.
no
be
producing these
basis the
height,area,
check
comparison should
The
221
STATISTICS
show
to
OF
of
area
of each
with
to
the
the
in accurate
correspondingfacts of the table. Similarly,
volume
block graphs the quantitiesshould vary as the
or
number
of cubic
units.
this form
of
statistical
interpretation
observe these principles,
and the difficulty
of a check makes
of graph a convenient
this form
would
device for those who
dishonestly
misrepresentthe
facts. The generalpublicis not always able to interpret
if theyhave been properly
drawn.
the graphscorrectly
even
Because
of these
current
it is somewhat
limitations
graph is
magazines.
so
unfortunate
used
extensively
in bulletins
EXERCISE
the
or
class
volume
an
advertisement
pictogram.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
222
bar
the
interpreting
in
Practice
276.
diagram.
Fig.182
shows
of the
one
Tons
Year
1900
270.588
1914
555,031
(b)
(a)
182.
FIG
DIAGRAMS
BAR
FACTS
SHOW
VOLUME
BETTER
AREA
THAN
AND
PICTOGRAMS
to
objections
EXERCISES
2.
bars
Would
in
extent
the two
the
Fig. 183
be sufficient without
the
tions
illustrathe
at
of the
1HI"
Wheat, $561,051,000
left
^IG'
numbers
^'
FAIR
DIAGRAM.
(AFTER
BRINTON)
With
are
written to the
right
^^^^^^^^^^
"^
1912
28 soo 139
"
think
OF
^e
bars.
Can
you
^^^^m
SHOWJNG
AUTOMOBILES.
1
See
.N
(AFTER
Ex
BRINTON)
paragraph 7 under
of
serious
ob.lec
277
OF
REPRESENTATION
is there
Why
4.
1911
in
Fig.184
left between
space
? Do
STATISTICS
see
you
the bars
other
any
223
for 1906
improve
to
way
and
the
5.
adding
1917.
year
(The
figure similar
Fig. 184,
to
the
sum
is about
this year
for
for
bar
blackboard
the
on
900,000,000.)
6.
Explain Fig.185.
FIG.
185.
the
KATE
FROM
that
7. Show
DIAGRAM
TYPHOID
IN
THOUSAND
bars
Fig.186 reveal
clearlythan the followingtable
States
in
respect to
United
wealth.
These
the
rank
DRED
HUN
PER
of the
United
estimates.
the 1914
are
$150,000,000,000
States
Britain
Great
and
Ireland
85,000,000,000
Germany
80,000,000,000
France
50,000,000,000
Russia
40,000,000,000
AustriaHungary
Italy
that it would
Show
to
draw
FIG.
9.
1912
POPULATION
of
more
8.
DEATH
SHOWING
The
186.
the
20,000,000,000
have
the
been
accurate
as
precedingdiagrams
COMPARATIVE
WEALTH
prepared at
25,000,000,000
beginningof
the
75
100
OF
NATIONS
European
more
venient
con
squared paper.
on
of nations
and
125
150
IN
1914
contains
War
estimates
(19141918).
2'24
estimates
These
attempt
and
construct
from
diagram which
will
to make
him
will enable
date and
The
facts.
from
latest estimates
bar
far
now
are
get the
to
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
an
similar
the
"
student
World
should
Almanac
"
to
interesting
comparison.
those
given on pages
find in Popular Mechanics
which you may
222223
Magazine,
Motor, Popular Science Monthly, and Industrial Management.
to the simplerdiagrams.
For the time being limit yourself
diagrams
bar
Discuss
10.
to
An
understanding
bar diagrams and how
of how
to interpret
to construct
those he may
find in newspapers
and magazines should
be a part of the education of every generalreader,justas
it is of every engineer,
and biologist.1
statistician,
physician,
As civilization advances
there is beingbrought to the attention
of the readingpublica constantly
amount
increasing
of comparative figures
of a scientific,
tical
technical,and statisA pictureor
nature.
a diagram which
presents such
data in a way
time and also to gain clearness is
to save
of conbar diagram is a widelyused method
a graph. The
veying
statistical information graphically.
The solution of
the introductory
exercises alongwith the discussion of such
for the
supplementarygraphsas may have seemed profitable
class to discuss will helpthe pupilto understand
the following
outline of the method
of constructing
a bar diagram :
277.
How
1. The
a
to construct
bars should
convenient
and
1
the
unit
be constructed
first
number
largest
Neither
pupils nor
of this work.
inspectthe
and
teachers
The
diagram.
bar
scale.
size
of
then choose
should
details
to
are
To
the
obtain
smallest
line segment to
misled
plicity
by the apparent simof the greatest importance. It will
be
be
Standards
for
helpful to obtain the reports of the Joint Committee
on
of seventeen, which
Graphic Presentation. This is a competent committee
has expended considerable
effort on
these elementary phases. The
liminary
pre
report may
Engineers,29
W.
be had
39th
from
St.,New
the
York
American
;
price, 10
Society of Mechanical
cents.
MATHEMATICS
GE;NEKAL
AMERICA'S
BEST
TWENTY
of
CUSTOMERS
Foreign and
Domestic
Commerce)
*2.
"
3.
bar
Present
diagram showingthe
scale 1
cm.
of a
followingtable by means
comparativelengthof rivers. (Use the
are
in
miles.)
REPRESENTATION
227
STATISTICS
OF
REPORT
OF
UNITED
THE
FOR
AGRICULTURE
278.
shall
Bar
diagrams
now
several
how
see
used
bar
Fig.187,
on
page
presents two
? Note
the
used
to
show
factors.
in that it
from
be
We
factors.
several
diagrams may
INTRODUCTORY
1.
1917
show
to
OF
DEPARTMENT
STATES
that
EXERCISES
228,
differs from
factors. What
those
in
Art. 277
gram
dia
the bars
representingnew
buildingsextend
Try to account for
1904
Why
short
the
for
millions
buildingsin
new
of
2.
Give
1908
dollars.)Criticize
of
principles
and
?
this
1906.
is the bar
so
Art. 277.
the
eighteenthyear.
facts of
Fig.
187
for the
twelfth
year;
the
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
228
JNew Building
1902
1901
FIG.
187.
BUILDINGS
Fire Losses
1903
DIAGRAM
LOST
1904
OF
BY
1905
YEARLY
FIRE
IN
1906
VALUES
THE
Fig.188
shows
OF
UNITED
(Courtesyof
3.
1907
W.
C.
1908
1909
1910
1911
ALL
OF
BUILDINGS, AND
INCLUSIVE
19011911,
STATES,
NEW
Brinton)
when
city
buy some
present need or luxury. The parts
the following:(a) the
of a singlebar (say the tenth)show
interest paid to date (the black portion)
amount
; (b) the
of the $75,000 still outstanding (the plain portion)
; (c)the
part of the debt that has been paid (thecrosshatched portion).
that a publicbond issue is not only a debt but that
Show
it conies
dangerouslynear to a perpetualtax,"
bonds
"
itself to
REPRESENTATION
OF
229
STATISTICS
19
20
100.000
90.000
80,000
70,000
60.000
50.000
40,000
30.000
20,000
10.000
"
FIG.
188.
DIAGRAM
BAR
INVOLVED
IN
(Adapted
The
USED
from
$75,000SCHOOL
A
"
Ayres's
BUILDING
SpringfieldSurvey ")
show
precedingexercises
TRANSACTIONS
MONEY
SHOW
TO
FOR
PAVING
how
bar
diagram may
of some
be used
to
several factors
problem
compare
which are more
less related. If the pupil is especially
or
interested in this side of the subject,he may
do the
followingexercises. The topicis not particularly
tant,
imporhowever, because
presentlystftdyis
another
much
method
which
we
shall
efficient.
more
EXERCISES
*1.
find
Go
out
to the
how
being paid
(b)how
(c) how
authorities and
township,county, or cityhall
of your
or
more
one
public improvements is
for ; that
is, find
many
dollars' worth
much
interest must
out
are
be
issued
(a) if bonds were
retired (paidfor)each year
paid
each
year.
Construct
;
a
MATHEMATICS
GEXEKAL
230
diagram similar
bar
reprintedfrom
one
ultimatelycost
certain
county
bonds.
of
Ten
built it
bar
called
from
with
in his
Census
the
be
retired
ized
macadamnontaxable
cent
per
it
of
each
year.
By
cost
ultimately
this
it ?
referred
Did
Give
this
of
the
Various
in Ex.
which
He
will
should
show
ties
quanti
United
colors
doubtless
also
to
answer.
geographic regionsare
student
was
lend
township
for your
reasons
Statistical maps
different
to
examine
times
some
find
the
States," published by
and
shades
are
used
meaning.
When
the same
the cost of color printingis prohibitive
be attained by Crosshatch
The
student
ends may
work.
rainfall maps
should
examine
containing cartograms and
which
often printed in newspapers.
are
of cartogram is the dotted
A specialform
If \ve
map.
wish to show
the densityof population of a city,we
may
take a map
ofthe city and place a dot within a square
for every
The
scale
fiftypeople living in the square.
should
be so chosen
that the dots
will be fairlyclose
togetherin the sections whose
population is of greatest
this type,
density.Space is not given here to illustrating
but the pupil will have
with the exercises
no
difficulty
to
help
much
out.
geography.
Bureau.
of
turnpike
cartograms. The
Statistical Atlas
the
the
after
borrow
mi.
turnpike.
Cartograms.
examples
how
show
practicallyworn
was
that vary
"
its
years
or
posterity
279.
diagram
to build
township
*3.
Ayres report,
community to pay
built 20
in Indiana
road
means
your
the
project.
for the
*2.
it will
what
showing
to the
that
express
follow.
OF
REPKESENTATION
231
STATISTICS
EXERCISES
1. Obtain
at
least
cartograms
from
government
bulletins.
of
pictograms and
magazines, trade journals,or
newspapers,
what
Explain very briefly
intends
each
to show.
2.
the merits
Discuss
or
of the
defects
graphs of
Interpreting(orreading)graphic curves.
280.
Ex.
The
1.
ductory
intro
exercises
some
1915
1916
with
1917
\7_
FIG.
189.
THE
AVERAGE
SHOWING
RAILWAYSTOCK
PRICE
THE
FLUCTUATIONS,
TWENTYFIVE
OF
YORK
NEW
(Adapted
from
STOCK
the New
INTRODUCTORY
1.
Explain
the lowest
cause
the
the
in
curve
the
price,
cause
of the downward
sharp break
upward
OF
THE
BY
MONTHS,
LEADING
STOCKS
IN
ON
EXCHANGE
York
Times)
EXERCISES
movement
in the
in 1917, and
closingdays
of
the
1917.
cause
of
232
Explain
2.
the
the
in
curve
the
graph
Give
early years.
results
for such
reason
may
MATHEMATICS
Check
Fig. 190.
for
GENERAL
as
you
find.
Fig.191
3.
chart of
of
a case
(a) Explain
of the
is
temperature
typhoidfever,
rise
the
(b)What
curve,
is the
of the dots ? Do
meaning
fall
and
("40
these
physicianmake
he
when
nects
con
these
(d)Note
paintsby a curve ?
that this diagram does
not have
it omitted?
be
scale ;
zero
The
FIG.
was
190.
NUMBER
OF
DIFFERENT
chart would
improvedif it had
sized
why
4.3
(Adapted
from
Motor)
an
/7
? Construct
line.
normaltemperature
V"
/jajt"t
II IS It/7
107*
106'
YU590
bl
"S"
105
104*
103"
102*
101"
100'
?"
"Itf
Si/eitrva
FIG.
191.
OF
TYPES
emphaline representing
normal temperature (98.4").
Why
a
CARS
"TEMPERATrRE
CHART
OF
CASE
OF
TYPHOID
FEVER
234
GENERAL
small
two
million.
1790
on
(2)
spaces.
populationin
millions.
Therefore
line,and
the 1800
MATHEMATICS
The
Two
bar about
second
bar
vertical
scale
small
spaces
1.6
mm.
littleover
represents the
represent
ten
line.
Similarly,bars
were
placed on
the
other
lines.
(3)Theupper
pointsof the
end
tical
ver
segments
(bars)are joined
In
by a curve.
so
far
bars
as
are
the
does
the
cerned
con
ure
fignot
FIG.
differ
from
193.
THE
GRAPHIC
CURVE
an
crease
ordinarybar diagram. We may assume, however, that inin population
between any two periodswas
gradual;
for example,we
tion
may estimate that in 1795 the populanumber
was
some
reasonablynear
halfway between
larly,
3,900,000 and 5,300,000; that is,about 4,600,000. Simiestimate the populationin the year 1793.
we
may
OF
REPRESENTATION
assumption leads
This
enables
the
estimate
to
us
draw
to
us
the smooth
populationwithout
of the
bars. By means
length of the
the populationwill be in
of your prediction
be
accuracy
will the
which
curve
in
change
235
STATISTICS
1920.
In what
affected
by
the
European War?
EXERCISES
1.
The
followingtable shows
through a period of
bookstore
Draw
Draw
graphic paper.
ink
else
or
use
the other.
2.
On
"
age
5",0",
3",
3.
Explain the
hour
every
"
the
dotted
winter
afterward
2",
7". Draw
Using
day
8",
two
year
on
the
with
and
one
of
an
sheet of
same
differentcolored
unbroken
line for
curves.
the thermometer
until
10",
P.
scale
10",
average
and
was
The
ai.
the temperature
these
monthly sales
years.
curves
line for
Convenient
lines,
graph
two
for each
graphic curve
the total
read
at 9A.M.
and
hourly readingswere
5",0",
5",
4",
2",
graph.
callingthe
heights of boys
vertical lines
and
girls:
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
what
the
standings of
The
4.
do
do
age
here
inclusive,are
champion
from
batters
19001907,
the
National
0.355
0.349
0.377
0.339
0.350
0.355
0.381
0.329
0.358
0.350
given
for
the
and
American
leagues.
The
National
0.382
0.384
The
the
5.
the
for each
sheet.
a
league to
below
convenient
scale,both
Tell what
temperature chart
given
are
0.376
data
same
Draw
which
0.367
0.422
Graph
League
American
0.387
on
League
of
patient,the
data
(see Fig.191).
If
such
get a copy of a temperature curve
possible,
and explainthe graph to the
commonly keptin hospitals
The
class will profitmore
by your discussion if the
presents the data for a long period.
6.
7. Be
the lookout
on
of
you
which
graphic curves
to your
class. In
Glance
of the United
United
for
generalinterest
advantage.
for
through
occasionally
States
"
or
the
"
convey
as
is
class.
curve
mation
infor
paper
nearlyevery newsto
be plotted
may
the
"Statistical Abstract
Statistical Atlas
States"
of the
of Foreign and
(publishedby the Bureau
Domestic
Commerce), Popular Mechanics
Magazine, Popular
Science Monthly,Scientific
American, and so on, with the purpose
of findinginteresting
graphs. If a lack of time prevents
class
discussion,
post these graphs on
bulletin boards.
REPRESENTATION
282.
a
OF
and
Continuous
We
discrete series.
change in wealth, in
continuous
STATISTICS
237
may
in
population,
represent
the
growth
of
etc. by a smooth
curve.
Thus, if we read
boys and girls,
four reports of deposits
made in a country bank as $20,000
on
January 1, $25,000 on April 1, $18,000 on June 1,
and
that there was
$19,000 on September 1, we assume
from January 1 to April 1,
a gradual increase of deposits
withdrawal
from April1 to June 1, and a
rather rigorous
a
slow rallyfrom June
1 to September 1. This is precisely
the way
a
physiciantreats the temperature of a patient,
even
though he may take the temperature but twice per day.
However,
the
continuous
by
If
we
the
followingtable
were
on
that
draw
to
the third
continuous
or
be
discrete,
or
the
fifth
would
Such
broken,
not
of
July accidents
curve,
it would
not
few Fourth
on
curve
continuous
Though
of Fourth
of
collection of items
is said to
of wages paid in
discrete series,for the wages
are
series.
record
factoryis likelyto be a
of dollars
usually (except in piecework)a certain number
being seldom less than 10 "".
per week, the fractional parts*
We should find very few men
gettingodd sums, say, $18.02
a
per week.
Hence
there would
be
many
gaps
in the
series.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
238
283.
Statistics
far
as
We
science defined.
enough for,the
student
have
now
to understand
gressed
pro
that the
"
of facts,or data,
largemass
human
which
bear upon
some
problem. One of the chief
of statistics as a science is to render the meaning of
uses
of figuresclear and
masses
comprehensibleat a glance.
of a situation involvview
ing
Statistics givesus a bird'seye
of numerous
instances in such a way
a complex array
attention
that we
on
a
get a picturewhich centers our
relations. Such a view shows how one factor
few significant
social or economic
in a complicated
problem influences
"
term
another
between
284.
statistics refers to
in
short,it enables
variable
The
us
to understand
the relation
(changing)quantities.
of statistics.
uses
Statistical studies
do
not
idle curiosity.
satisfy
They are necessary
in the solution of the most weightysocial,
governmental,and
economic
problems. Do certain social conditions make for
increase in crime and poverty ? The
determines
sociologist
the relations bearingon the question.Are certain
statistically
criminal acts due to heredity
? The biologist
presents
statisticaldata. Is tuberculosis increasing
or
decreasing?
exist
merely
Under
what
to
presentedby the
policies.Further
medical
Reliable
statistics
world
as
accurate
as
the formula
for the
area
of
square.
REPRESENTATION
The
business
world
giganticstrikes
of
the demands
OF
that would
of the
and
dividends ?
know
will not
under
paralyzeall
?
unreasonable
men
earning undue
know
trembles
at times
until
239
STATISTICS
The
the threat
business.
Are
the tions
corporapublic does not
Are
scientific group
of citizens
is
in
now
existence
which
in
Washington
nonpar
appointed
collects statistics and
the
president,which
makes
time to time.
recommendations
to Congress from
It is now
tend to do
thought that this commission
may
with the. old haphazard methods
of handlingtariff
away
questions.
How
rapidlyand with what degree of accuracy should
of
a
fourthgrade
pupil be able to add a certain column
? The educator is able to present an answer
based
figures
than 100,000 fourthgrade
children for
tests of more
on
that particular
problem.
by
Because
of the
numerous
trained
enumerators
which
methods.
285.
the
us
to
length of
measures
grasp
220
interval.
In
tabulated
be
enable
ear
table
of
investigation
data
the
Frequency
ears
between
of
corn.
5 in. and
Let
us
6 in.,the
say
the smallest
longestbetween
throwing them
somewhat
The
classes.
be
There
have
corn
into
should
LENGTH
arrangement of data
of
ears
vided
SHOWING
TABLE
an
read
two
are
somewhere
by inches,
the results
follows:
as
FREQUENCY
Such
could
13 in. We
12 in. and
rt
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
240
been
The
is called
di
EARS
OF
CORN
frequencytable.
niiiimiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiimiimni
table
follows
as
OF
70
measuring
ears
between
5 in. and
between
6 in. and
CO
in., four
Tin.,"etc. The
known
are
the
limits,and
class
as
distance
boundary lines
between
the
two
interval in the
is 1 in. Class
precedingcase
intervals should
always be equal.
The
so
facts of
the
20
"
table
are
shown
case
the bars
10
FIG.
194.
10
DISTRIBUTION
POLYGON
cover
OF
OF
CORN
11
OF
220
12
13
QUENCY
FREEARS
( i KNERAL
The
1000
totaling
The
4956
54
boys in
from
49
up
means
last number
of
class is the
Construct
year
1000
boys of
pounds.
140
this group weighed over
to but not including56'. Wherever
same
as
point,but
up to that
does not
the
of the next
class,
that
point.
include
each
of
the
groups
7.
the
AND
BOYS
TWELVE
BOYS,
FOURTEENYEAROLD
NOTE.
1000
THIRTEENYEAROLD
1000
BOYS,
YEAROLD
SHOWING
WEIGHTS
OF
TABLE
FREQUENCY
ATHEMATICS
The
mental
followingtest on the abilityto use the four fundalaws in solvingsimple equations
was
given to 115 firsthighschoolstudents,the time given for the test being
fifteen minutes.
DIRECTIONS
Find
the value
equations.
if
on
Do
not
TO
of the unknown
check
PUPIL
numbers
results.
Work
in each
the
of the
following
problems in order
your
If
find
too difficult,
do not waste
time
possible. you
too much
one
it,but pass on to the next. Be sure that it is too difficult,
however,
before you
pass
on.
Do
not
omit
any
problem
which
you
can
solve.
243
THE
1.
2. 2
#=4.
3. 2 fc +
4.
13. 16 y + 2 y
7.
TEST
14. 7x
=
18 y +
3z
22.
10.
17.
3.
ij
5. 2
"."
7
6.
3.c +
17.
5.3 y +
4
=9.
0.34
18. 0.5x3
15
5 y
10.
2.99.
1.5.
19.
20.
7 y +
9^
20
17.5
3 y
60
4 y +
40
8 //.
21.
66
+ 1
11.
18
6.
of
12.
4=10.
The
results of
frequency. The
25
24.
the
test
student
a;
are
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
244
"
read,
the
Of
but
tried
hundred
one
attempted 12,
examples, one
attempted 14,"
sixth
fourth, and
The
etc.
second
and
columns
one
be read,
should
of
the
Of
the
consists
part
the
first
should
be
fifteen students
and
which
fifth columns,
is the
part
parts,of which
of two
table consists
Explanation.The
"
first,third,
one
hundred
rectly,
taking the test one solved only 1 problem corthree solved 6 correctly,
four
solved only 2 correctly,
one
7 correctly,"
etc.
fifteen students
and
solved
Construct
8.
on
243
page
the
Under
9.
in Ex.
the
facts
of students
directions of your
of the table
given
attempting.
instructor
take the
test
7.
Ask
10.
your
class and
in
compares
and
hundred
286.
instructor to
of
the number
your
graph showing
give you
attempts and
how
determine
frequencytable
successes
the
done
work
by
with
that done
accuracy
fifteen students in the test described
speed
Measure
A
and
of
central
frequencytable
ing
show
tendencies
and
by
the
in Ex.
the
your
by
class
one
7.
arithmetic
frequencygraph help
to understand
of facts because they show us the
us
a mass
distribution of the items, so that we
where the largest
see
and the smallest
groups
groups fall. The graph shows us
the general trend of the facts. The
largegroups assume
ency.
importance.We need terms to describe the central tendaverage.
Often
need.
Such
clear.
Thus,
much
about
the
get
some
average
give
the word
a
a
a
"
"
average
is
term
is used
helpfulin making
to
meet
mass
this
of facts
length of
every
idea of what
lengthof
an
fair estimate
ear
of
ear
in
field. But
they would
REPRESENTATION
them
that
grew
620
OF
tha average a
shall
stalks. We
on
245
STATISTICS
in
row
40acre
square
presentlylearn
field
"
"
we
need
by
the
to
add
the marks
number
students
of all the
of students
the
obtain
in the
students
class.
and
If two
divide
or
more
mark
midpointof
should
try
same
to
therein.
find the
To
to
represent
illustrate,suppose
number
average
of
that
problems
shall suppose
We
test.
simpleequation
that three students report that they attempted6 problems.
This does not really
that all three exactlycompleted
mean
6 problems when
called. In all probability
time was
one
about
had made a slight
start on number
7, the second was
attempted in
in
the
the
middle
completed 7.
small
to make
of
Of
7, and
number
course
the
this certain,but
the
number
if
third
had
almost
of students
should
take
is too
larger
in air probability
there
of students (say thirteen),
number
who were
than half through with
would
be as many
more
be students less than
the seventh problem as there would
half through. Hence, to find the average
we
say that the
thirteen students attempted6i and not 6, as theyreported.
To
illustrate:
Find
on
we
the
the average
number
test
simpleequation
of
if
equationsattempted by a class
students
two
report 5 problems
MATHEMATK
GENERAL
24G
two
report 9.
4
6"
class
the
average
26
37.:.
:5
8i
2').,
19
16
119
110
=16 =7.4.
number
problems attempted by
of
the
pointis
discrete series,as
but
is 7.4.
The
a
11
2x9*
Therefore
2x5"
Solution.
continuous
at firstbe inclined to
would
one
think,
series.
EXERCISES
*1.
class in the
your
number
of
test
simpleequation
equationsattempted by
(Art.285).
Find
3.
the
average
of
length
the
113
leaves
in
Ex.
4,
Art. 285.
Find
4.
the
length of
average
the
220
ears
of
corn
of the
5.
the
7.
the ten
"
5,
"
of
the
of
accidents
July
champion
batters
for the
Fourth
the averages
Compare
6.
of
number
average
"
9,
"
8, "2,0,
temperature readingfor
the
"
6.
period.
Find
the average
"
A.M.
REPRESENTATION
Find
8.
6";
5
P.
M.,
9.
5";
5"
Find
; 6
P.
M.,
P.
3 P.M.,
M.,
church
the average
247
11 A.M.,
2";
6";
2" ; 7
STATISTICS
followingtemperatures:
10A.M.,
2 P.M.,
IP.M., 4";
2";
of the
the average
A.M.,
OF
7";
8 A.M.,
1";
12 M.,
4 P.M.,
7";
1".
contributions
according to
the
Some
of
followingfrequency table.
OF
TABLE
CHURCH
Disadvantages of
287.
CONTRIBUTIONS
the
arithmetic
average.
there
the
little to
means
in
Ex.
9, Art.
say
286,
"
is 62
cents.
are
For
certain
example,
church
it
contribution
use
People ordinarily
"
the most
usual
thinking it means
occurrence
thing.As a matter of fact
; that is,the common
nobody gave 62 cents, and only one person gave as much
that. The objection
to the arithmetic average is that it
as
givestoo much emphasisto the extreme items. To illustrate
more
fully:A boy who has just finished an elementary
learns that the average weekly wage of a
surveyingcourse
is $23. This is very encduraging
railwaysurveying
group
until an analysisshows him that the chief engineer
gets $55
30 ; and all others but $15. To say
a week
; his assistant,
the
word
average
may
salaryis
be
much
man,
$5000ayear
lower
than
$30
working in an
for one
misleading,
men
in which
per week.
case
Other
the usual
objections
248
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
determined
when
the
accurately
items are
extreme
missing;(c) it is likelyto fall where
item
exists (for example, a sociologist
discover
no
may
that the averagesize
familyin a givencommunity has 4.39
is evidentlyimpossible).
members, though such a number
these
For
be
it cannot
graph; (b)
it is desirable
reasons
tendency of
of tht central
measure
288.
Central
tendency
place where
drawn.
the
The
the
be
other
some
of the most
denned
ful
use
the scale
as
term
have
group.
One
mode.
It may
is the mode.
measures
is the
; the
to
usual
occurrence,
"
it
is
or
"
common
"
amount
common
It is obvious
Though
that
such
no
highschool
boy
boy
word
"
means
coin.
The
in others.
gave
"
mode,"
in
the
is five cents.
nickel than
any
other
mode
was
type
time
of these attributes he is
"
More
when
can
age, etc.
be found.
used for
is thus incorrectly
average
the common
the mode
type. Thus
churchcontribution table
equation test
examples. In
common
in the
for the
not
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
250
modal
manufacturer
The
number
of
the average
charityfund is far more
not
man,
"
the
hence
strap hanger."
evident
than
in the
average.
290.
Central
tendency ;
measured
are
the
median.
with reference to
some
If
number
of objects
trait,or attribute,
accordingly,
they are said to be arrayed.
which
Suppose that your instructor gives an examination
and that after the results
ability,
reallytests mathematical
stand
in line, taking the
announced
the students
are
the examination
to their marks
on
positioncorresponding
;
that is,the student with
least mathematical
at the
ability
in ability
foot of the class,the one
next
next
to the foot,
The class is then arrayed.If any group of objects
is
etc.
the median
item. If
as
arrayed,the middle one is known
class had twentythree
your
pupilsstandingin the order
of their ability,
the twelfth pupil from the foot or the head
and
ranked
then
There
are
median
justas
is another
many
whose
below
measure
as
mark
above
of the
is the median
him
central
mark.
in
The
ability.
tendency of a
If there is an even
number
of items, the median
group.
is said to exist halfway between
the two
middle
items.
Thus,
if your
between
student
The
on
from
meaning
pages
251
class had
twentytwo pupils,the
would
and
252.
by
way
half
be called,
the median
is further illustrated
and
mark
the exercises
mark.
given
KEPKESENTATION
Find
1.
weekly
the
of
wage
the
table above
The
are
able
to
asked
We
that is,we
workers
in
half
one
want
the first
In
in
shows
and
sum
wage
to find
say that
this
than
median
the
a
of
the wages
weekly wage
the girlsin
half receive
one
place,the
hundred
one
so
this
that
girls.
shall be
we
shop receive
than
more
of the group.
student
should
measure
251
STATISTICS
OF
less
this sum;
notice
that
the
arithmetic
sums.
The
$15
wage
to
$16
girlsworking
more
arithmetic
the
so
proceed to
we
There
are
one
for about
the mode
nor
average
be
to
seems
has very
much
ing,
mean
hundred
girlsin
the
shop ;
hence
we
must
We
need
1
For
wage
to
actual
Survey,"
the
exercise.
count
facts
page
see
63.
four
of the next
more
"Dressmaking
The
table
was
and
seven,
who
are
land
CleveMillinery," in "The
of
the purposes
adapted to meet
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
252
$9. The
#8 and
gettingbetween
table
that the
assumes
series is continuous
earns
be
to
the wage
at the midpointof this
and
$8f
assume
we
8^.
interval,or
the
ner
ninth
$8 and
between
sum
of
wage
girlis
In like
the
the
$8T5",
man
forty
195
fiftieth
Find
the median
fifteen students
Solution.
the
We
in the
must
student
fiftyeighth
student
of the
one
for the
attempts of the
test
simpleequation
find the
from
hundred
number
either
and
of
end,
fifteen.
one
hundred
in Ex.
and
7, Art.
285.
equations attempted by
for he
will be the
Counting
from
the
middle
top of
REPRESENTATION
the
table
(p. 243), we
equations.
We
There
twentytwo
are
equation when
that
modes,
the
?\
of
need
time
the
STATISTICS
count
who
more
called.
to
more
If
we
are
the
did
we
equal
at
twentieth
an
in
as
assume,
twentytwo students
19
somewhere
were
253
hive finished
get fiftyfive
pupils who
to
was
OF
is 19
twentieth
in
finding
out
spaces throughequations plus
EXERCISES
1. State
the two
2.
the
rule for
as
developed in
precedingexercises.
In
Ex.
5, Art. 285,
twelveyearoldboys;
fourteenyearold
boys.
3.
findingthe median,
In Ex.
in the array
4. Find
291.
find
1000
the median
Limitations
the
median
weight for
thirteenyeareld
boys;
the
median
leaf and
its
1000
1000
measure
leaves.
for the 220
ears
of
of statistics. There
nonscientific peoplethat
corn
is
(Art.285).
common
saying
proved by
anythingcan be
to the
of statistics. Experience lends conviction
means
do not lie,but liars will figure."
homely saying Figures'
have deceived the
This belief is due to the fact that figures
manipulatedor by being
publiceither by beingdishonestly
A table dishonestly
handled
manipulated
unscientifically.
based on unreliable data appears at first glanceas convincing
or
the work of a trained scientist. The publicdoes
as
to a
to submit every pieceof evidence
not find it possible
critical study and resents such deceptions
as those referred
among
"
to above.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
254
of trained
judgment
of
Law
of
value
experts; (4)
to what
the critical
similar
extent
similar results.
studies show
292.
exposed to
been
have
statisticalstudies
the
the
the
regularity. In calculating
statistical
farm
lands
Indiana
in
it is
by
no
means
in the state.
to evaluate and tabulate every acre
necessary
size of a twentyfiveyearold
To find out the average
man
and tabulate
it is not necessary .to measure
York
in New
"
in the
of the
Statistical Abstract
city. The
United States" (published
by the Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic
Commerce) states the value in dollars of hogs,
sheep,and cattleproduced in 1918, but this does not mean
that this total is obtained by tabulating
every individual
man
every
find out
To
animal.
how
yearoldChicagoboy can
hold
to
class in each
in each
us
an
stop watch
from
law
same
at random"
somewhat
an
be
identical with
vague.
illustrates the law
chosen
King,in
"
random
at
need
average
matical
mathe
number"
"Elements
follows
"
from
ber
num
among
almost sure,
"reasonable
as
an
This is due to a
group.
which states that if a reasonable
characteristicsas
and
not
the whole
of nature
twelve
every
school
"
on
average
100 yards we
would
run
that would
average
obtained
on
fast
"If two
on
make
blindfolded,
to
REPRESENTATION
OF
'255
STATISTICS
small margin
a
on
continuouslyand profitably
their favor. This principleis the basis of all insurance
their craft
in
thus
'"
at
it is
random."
Thus,
group.
four hundred
It
same
if
asserted
is not
results
that
any
measurement
measured
we
men
as
that
group
of the whole
height of
the
passed us
small
as
we
the
stood
at
first
the
corner
*293.
The
law
of inertia
of
large
This
numbers.
law
regularity.It asserts
that when
to show
a
a
so
as
part of a largegroup differs
is that an
tendency in one direction,the probability
equal
part of the same
group has a tendencyto vary in the opposite
direction;hence the total change is slight.
follows
294.
from
the
law
Compensating
laws
are
also
of statistical
and
involved
cumulative
in
errors.
discussion
The
of
ing
preced
errors.
If
256
GENERAL
pupilsin
lengthof your
your
the
MATHEMATICS
school
to
were
the
carefully
measure
would
be that
would
give results too largeas too short.
many
observers of crop conditions
The estimates of a thousand
summarized
which
or
are
graphed in a volume such as
as
"
by the Department of
(published
Commerce) tend to approximateactual conditions. These
In the long run
illustrations of compensatingerrors.
are
they tend to make the result lower as much as higher."
need not concern
This type of error
us
provided
greatly,
"
the
Statistical Atlas
"
we
have
However,
or
need
we
cumulative
short,we
too
of
sufficient number
be
to
cannot
on
If
error.
cases.
eliminate
guard againsta
our
we
use
the
error
stant
con
stick that is
meter
by measuring a
be
not eventually
very
EXERCISE
*Draw
segment
as
possibleon
accurately
as
a
certain
of inches
number
in
the blackboard
length.
Ask
as
many
to stand
on
fortyto fiftyschoolmates,if possible,
spot and estimate the length of the line. Find how
estimated the line too long ; how many
estimated
it too
as
from
HINT.
The
work
must
be
done
carefully.Have
each
short.
student
it too
many
short ?
estimated
Report
the
line too
long ?
How
class.
tain
cer
many
estimate
request. How
line
many
Reject
your
mated
esti
The
same
Thus, if
we
tendency
is observed
measured
the
income
should
community, we
onlya few whose
persons
income
with
an
in
economic
of the
find
income
ordinaryagricultura
of
out
is less than
over
affairs.
thousand
limits.
these
the
When
and
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
258
rise
fall is lar
regu(that is, the
curve
on
falls larly
reguboth sides
the
from
mode),
the distribution is
mate
likelyto approxiwhat
a
tion,
distribu
normal
and the
is called
curve
normal
distribution
A
call
we
curve.
normal
tribution
dis
is illustrated
FIG.
197.
the
by
table and diagram
(Fig.197) given here, which
actual
of
measurement
publicschoolboys
of
PHYSICAL
NORMAL
PHENOMENA
ILLUSTRATE
DISTRIBUTION
four
hundred
from
and
eleven
to
thirtyEnglish
twelve
years
age.1
It will
uniform
be
rule:
at 53 in. and
1
From
seen
that
the most
54
the numbers
numerous
groups
Roberts's
"Manual
conform
of
are
to
in the
at 51 in. and
Anthropometry,"
p. 18.
very
middle,
56 in.
REPRESENTATION
less in
are
and
OF
number, those
50 in. and
at
259
STATISTICS
57 in.
are
still fewer,
until the
on
numerous
he forms
group,
The
the standard.
would
Of
it is not
course
merely a tendency in
make
*296.
like the
of Art. 295, is
than
we
graph
in inches.
men
ular
reg
probably
inch.
adult
Fig.198
in
studied.
have
interval
fourth
The
curve.
presentlysee.
curves
if
smoother
class
shall
which
causes
many
and
chance
one
more
most
would
much
are
curve,
which
of
Symmetry
the
shows
It
is
distribution is
that every
to
nature
This
asserted
were
If
we
be
the
one
draw
FIG.
HEIGHT
198.
"
THORNDIKE,
OF
MENTAL
MEASUREMENTS,"
from
AK
perpendicular
the highestpointof the
MEN.
(AFTER
SOCIAL
AND
p.
98)
axis
around
to the
the
which
rightof
left. In
the
curve,
we
may
rectanglesare
this
think
respect
we
say
much
the
of this
built. The
as
an
curve
is almost
symmetrical.
Symmetry of figuresmay be illustrated by the human
with respectto a planemidway
head, which is symmetrical
to the face ; thus the
the eyes and perpendicular
between
left eye and the left ear have corresponding
parts to the
260
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
Note
right of
arrayedin
reverse
familiar
Other
that
the
parts
are
order.
illustrations of
symmetry
(1)
are
the
and
hand
*297.
Skewness
of
curve.
The
term
"skewness"
than
mode
To
sense
of symmetry
would
notes
de
that the
items
is not
of the
or
have
below
us
the
expect.
illustrate:
livingin
The
graph (Fig.199)
table
is not
symmetrical,
but is skewed
toward
the lower side. The meaning of
skewness
is clearlyshown
by the graph. The graph no
form ;
longerpresents the normal, symmetrical,
bellshaped
the base is drawn
than
on
the
other.
out
to
of
this
greater extent
on
the
one
side
factors
the
of
wages
high wages,
between
unions
the
in
90^
which
laws
by
turbing
dis
are
Thus, in investigating
situation.
should
carpenters we
say
expect
few
very
few
to
get
grouped,accordingto ability,
these limits. However,
by agreement between
and contractors, carpenters'
wages are fixed in most
hour, and
per
affected
is often
Distribution
261
STATISTICS
OF
REPRESENTATION
FIG.
cities at
we
should
for
the rest to be
190.
GRAPH
SKE\VNESS
SHOWING
between
pricesomewhere
but
have
interval
one
OF
60^
in
and
CURVE
85"".Hence
distribution
city,say Minneapolis,showing
particular
table,
that
all
hour.
298.
The
constructed
from
Teachers
science
Fahrenheit
graph of
and
used
"
this
formula.
point;
for
However,
for
in
relations.1
readyreckoners
as
to take
up
example,
the
find it desirable
may
at
cost
constant
the
the
the
next
authors
sake
of
"
Graphs may be
for determining
graphing of formulas
graph of the centigradea
simpler
prefer to use
the
method
chapter.
and
to
take
up
262
of goods without
quantities
by the followingexample:
costs
of different
This
is shown
sell at 30
If oranges
of dozens
c
30
per
c/,where
for
is the
draw
small
to
in
two
between
dozens
the
the
and
ber
num
equation
the
cost
d, corresponding values
the
axes,
following table
and
OX
OF,
at
right
unit
small
computation.
expressedby
of
given
given
as
be
may
number
are
c,
squared paper
angles. On OY let
a
cost
On
let
If values
found
be
the
and
dozen.
may
OX
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
on
the 30 ""line
on
10
X
50
FIG.
mark
a
200.
100
THE
200
150
GRAPH
OF
1 doz.
point representing
3 doz. Draw
pointrepresenting
a
thus marked.
is
It is
seen
that this
line.
straight
By lookingat this pricecurve
300
250
COST
FORMULA
the
any
number
example,to
of dozens, even
find the cost
of
we
a
can
get the
fractional
of 6 doz. observe
number.
the
cost
of
For
pointwhere
263
the
horizontal
curve
line
observe
axis OX',
small
six
the
units
point directlybeneath
this is
eighteensmall
the
represents $1.80. Similarly,
cost
this
from
units
the
meets
up
of
price
and
8" doz.
the
on
hence
is
seen
$2.55.
to be
EXERCISES
1.
of
5 doz.
3^ doz.
sell at 45$
2. If eggs
3.
On
the
doz.; 10
4.
Draw
5.
On
dozen, draw
pricegraph drawn
doz. ;
a
the
for Ex.
3^doz.;5^ doz.
pricegraph
graph
for
pricegraph.
4^ doz.
for sugar
drawn
the
costing10$
Ex.
find
the
pound.
cost
of
11
lb.;
10 lb.
31 lb.; 6lb.;
6.
Construct
graph
which
Use
2 bu. 3
8.
the
Since
of
the
order
to
draw
far
graphs in
points would
Exs.
1~7
have
to
apart, in
line ? Should
order
299.
to
in
used
pk.
the
be
the
calculating
bushel.
; 5 bu. 3
nearly accurate
more
of Ex.
the
many
or
graph
may
are
be
these
of 3
bu.; 4bu.;
straight lines,how
located
be taken
in each
case
in
close together
Why
locus
; coordinates.
As
in the
have
of
studied
an
to
date.
equationbe
the
Let
is
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
264
translation
the
of
graph
The
3, which
which
sentence
some
shall suppose
we
states
some
of
sending a
equalstwo cents
to draw
a
graph
cost
EXERCISES
1.
x
is the value
What
? when
equals0
3 ? when
2.
We
are
now
work
following table
+
The
in
equationy
2x
3 when
equals 2 ? when
3 ?
equals
x
equals
"
of values
of
and
y for the
3.
ready
squared paper.
from
when
2 ? when
"
Fill in the
equationy
equals1 ?
equals
of y in the
to
transfer
process
does
the
not
data
of
Ex.
differ very
to
much
260
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
pointof
Select any
4.
values
of
and
How
5.
the
satisfythe
pointscould
many
coordinates
(a) The
of
every
facts
two
be
can
followingfacts :
the line
pointon
equation.
(b) The coordinates of every pointnot
the equation.
satisfy
These
the
the line ?
on
illustrate the
precedingexercises
The
find
one
whether
satisfythe
the line do
on
proved rigidlyin
not
advanced
This
fact is
evident,also,because
the unknowns
we
find
can
for every
of
value
value
corresponding
one
of
for the
other unknown.
ORAL
1.
which
What
of
x
10
at
are
plane?
2.
is the
at
What
location
distance
distance of
is the
ft. from
yards from
a
a
EXERCISES
(locus)of
of 5 ft. from
7% ft. fromP?
locus of all
given point?
given point?
points in a
given point P
all
a
at
points in
1
cm.
distance
space
from
at
of
a
plane
in the
x
feet,?
distance
given point?
REPRESENTATION
3. What
givenstraightline
What
4.
is the
7. What
each of two
your
from
*10.
from
is the locus
distance
pointsin
of
equallydistant
space
the
plane6
plane which
points3
10 in.
are
ft. from
the
is the
line
segment
used
Terms
used
at
apart ?
ceilingof
What
a
space
of all
pointsin a plane 5
long in the plane?
300.
terms
given pointsin
What
a
? y inches distant ?
? y feet ?
cm.
classroom
*9.
of all
What
8.
locus
lines
given parallel
two
tant
points in a plane equallydislines in the plane ?
given parallel
two
What
from
pointsin
given straightline ?
5. What
*6.
of all
plane3
5 in. distant
plane ?
is the locus
4 in. from
from
in the
267
STATISTICS
OF
in
locus
of all
10 ft.
long ?
in graphing
mathematics
points in
space
in. distant
5 in. distant
,in connection
with
graphical
will now
representation
be given and
illustrated
lines
by Fig. 202. The
XX'
and
drawn
YY',
at
called
right angles, are
axes
(XX1 the horizontal
axis
YY'
and
the
cal
verti
"2
x
drawn
to
the
axes:
the
called
the
FlG
202'
USED
distance
PM
ordinate
of P, and
is
the distance PN
I""MRATISG
IN
PLOTTING
"K
A
TERMS
POINT
coordinate
called
and
is
Finding a point on
to a given pair of
point.
of P
are
the
on
the
is 2 and
first and
the
the
ordinate
which
is called
coordinates
on
graphic sheet
axes
positive
; those
are
is written
abscissa
the
second.
the
0 Y
that
Notice
and
OX
on
The
is indicated
used
scale
OY'
on
ordinate
The
axes.
distances
The
axes.
of P.
togetherthey are
OX'
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
2b'8
sponds
corre
plotting
EXERCISES
1.
What
2.
What
of
is the abscissa
point A
ordinate
is the
of
the
? B ? C ? D
point
A?
(Fig.202).
? E
B?
C?
D?
:'
(Fig.202.)
3.
Give
4.
On
of
the coordinates
of
sheet
Compare
of houses
6.
On
in
a
of
the process
and
sheet
of
graphic
of the
locate
paper
method
equation. With
illustrate and
the
numbering
city.
Summary
linear
2),( 2J,3J).
plottingpointswith
the
kind
D(5,.8). What
think is formed
when
the pointsA, B, C, and
the diagonals of the figure,
Draw
and
find
the point where
the diagonals intersect.
axes
301.
(Fig.202).
set of coordinate
2),( 3, 4),( 3,
of the paper,
center
points: (2,4),(5,2),(4,
5
draw
graphic paper
the
near
intersecting
pointsA, B, C, D,
for the
300
Art.
in
the process
summarize
of
figure do
coordinates
process
mind
of
connected?
7)are
the
you
of
of graphing
we
shall
graphing
now
linear
equation.
Draw
(a)
the
Solve
graph
the
of 4
"
3 y
equationfor either
6.
unknown
in terms
of the
other:
thus,
REPRESENTATION
the
throws
This
pairs
of
into
equation
values
are
the
which
from
form
easily
more
269
STATISTICS
OF
sponding
corre
obtained.
Let
(b)
Then
let
And
Then
That
is, build
least
at
get
Plot
the
of corresponding
of
integral
values
numbers.
follows
as
(Try
to
Why?)
points
to
pairs
etc.
3 77
corresponding
"
table
pairs
two
6 +
"(c)
3,
"
the
FIG.
f.j,
oj numbers
203.
GRAPH
oj the
OP
LINEAR
THE
EQUATION
"
_
table
(d)
whether
To
check, choose
its
coordinates
pair of numbers
the line
(e)
in
the
point
satisfy
table.
the
on
the
This
line
drawn
given equation
third
point
and
or
determine
plot
also
should
each
other.
third
fall
on
drawn.
The
two
not
be
too
near
Why
270
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
"
EXERCISES
of
sheet
1.
2.2x
3.
3x
4.
3x
7.
".
2y
l2.
2y=6.
followingequations,each
squaredpaper
"
the
graphs of
the
Draw
20.
9.
l5.
10.
5x2y
W.
11.
2x
6x4y
3.
12.
3y
5.
5x
6.
3x
7.
8.
4y
which
5y
be
arate
sep
Statistics has
NOTE.
HISTORICAL
on
levied.
Its
a
attained
growth
its wealth
3.
5 y
8ar.
"
dignityof
in hand
organizationthe
to determine
12.
"
"
34"/.
hand
goes
earliest
Our
the
tribal
crude
5x2y
ence
sci
with
ruler
the taxes
or
statistical
compilations
3000 B.C.)presented the population and wealth
(some time
for the construction
of the pyramids.
of Egypt in order to arrange
II took
a
census
Many centuries later (about 1400 B.C.)Rameges
of all the lands of Egypt to reapportionhis subjects.
In the
Bible
of the
and
Ages
made
how
of the
marked
Greeks
The
read
we
census
which
year
may
before
the
and
Moses
Roman
birth
tribes
of Israel
the
of Christ.
the
feudal
for
enumerations
many
the
Augustus Caesar, in
emperor,
and
Romans
numbered
the
barons
purposes
of the
Middle
of
apportioning
determining the
some
militarystrength. In all cases
except that of the Romans
the
existed
for
data.
The
Romans
lected
colspecialreason
collecting
such data at regular intervals.
During the Mercantile
Europe the feelinggrew
Age of western
that it
was
aimed
to
the function
secure
concerning
the needs
of
balance
to
government
of
In
trade.
encourage
order
to
of commercial
the
decide
measures
correctly
detailed
mation
informore
legislation,
than had hitherto been gathered. The growth
was
necessary
in a centralized monarchy further stimulated
statistical study. That
monarch
most
successful who
could in advance
was
most
accurately
his resources
with
his rivals'.
compare
In 1575 PhilipII of Spain made
extensive
the conditions
of the
country
In
1696
from
inquiriesfrom
Louis
each
XIV
of the
the
ates
prel
requiredreports
generalintendants.
REPRESENTATION
began
Prussia
collections
modern
in
times
In
of statistical data.
OF
STATISTICS
the
1719
requiring semiannual
Frederick
271
William
began
population,occupations, realreports as
lected
colholdings,taxes, city finance,etc. Later these data were
estate
three
every
to
Frederick
years.
of statistics.
of the value
the
Great
also
was
vigorous
He
tics
enlarged the scope of statisin generalby includingnationality,
age, deaths and their causes,
conditions
of agriculture,
trade, manufactures, shipping, in fact,
anything that might possiblycontribute to national efficiency.
constitution
A provisionin our
of 1790
initiated the decennial
One country after another has adopted some
form of regular
census.
exponent
enumeration,
In
the
whose
United
function
collected
data
also
nations
of
and
have
nation
by
the
Survey
established
extremely elaborate.
grown
Census
permanent
Bureau
is
collect and
public as
to
reports. An
Committee
National
to
Bureau
meet
the
of
Statistics.
needs
of
the
has
movement
to
our
bureaus
established
of elaborate
means
have
censuses
States
the
instruct
to
took
it is to
example of such
Many states have
state.
Recently a
municipal bureaus
and
the
times
recent
In 1900
to establish
gained momentum
study the data of the community
the significant
results obtained
by
example of this idea is illustrated
of the Cleveland
Foundation.
SUMMARY
arithmetic
average,
mode,
median,
normal
bution,
distri
axes,
dinates,
horizontal axis, vertical axis, ordinate,abscissa,coor
coordinate
axes,
plottinga point.
MATHEMATICS
GKNKKAL
L'7_'
303.
The
between
showing
304.
how
be used
the relato show
tion
graphic curve
may
two
quantities.Specificdirections were
given
is drawn.
a
graphic curve
and
Continuous
series
discrete
illustrated and
were
explained.
305.
Statistical studies
are
to solve
necessary
problems. The
governmental, and economic
will profitby a knowledge of the
reader
social,
our
intelligent
of
elements
statistical methods.
306.
form
the
307.
arithmetic
the
"
word
The
arithmetic
tendency
of
get
generallyused
as
or
to
median.
All
of
mass
the
the
on
grasp
mean
may
of
measures
are
statistical
is found
average
and
by inspection,
the mode
by figuring,
median
by counting.
data.
The
is found
308.
The
law
of statistical
regularitywas
illustrated.
309.
The
law
of inertia of
numbers
large,
was
310.
The
graph
may
be used
311.
The
squared
312.
The
of
"
as
goods purchased
ready reckoner."
chapter
has
taught
graph
coordinates
of
linear
constant
at
to
plot points
cost
on
of every
equation is a straightline,
the equapointon the line satisfy
tion,
linear
the coordinates
satisfythe equation.
313.
how
stated.
paper.
The
and
not
mode,
average,
central
"
average
in
problem
The
of every
This
point not
illustrates
the method
the line do
on
the
locus
of
idea.
graphing a
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
274
EXERCISES
1.
Find
the interest
on
$425
at
4%
2.
Find
the interest
on
$640
at
4"%
the interest
3. Find
HINT.
Reduce
substitute
and
316.
2 yr. 3
for
for
Syr.
or
"
"
$820
on
for
4%
at
Why
for
2yr.
days, divide
5 da. to
mo.
r.
5 da.
mo.
this result
by 360,
Why?
/.
Other
by specialforms
types
^"
"
2" yr.
4.5
Substitute
HINT.
for
The
of I=Prt.
of interest
problems is
method
illustrated
of
solvingother
by the following
problem:
How
much
must
money
interest ?
yield$180
NOTE.
be invested
at
5%
for 2 yr.
so
to
as
This
for P
found
in /
on
trial to be far
more
convenient
if
first solve
we
Prt.
Dividing both
Solution.
members
of the
equation by
rt,
This
To
may
find the
and
be
translated
principaldivide
the
rate.
constitutes
complete
other
factors
three
In the
Thus
"
into
the
is
the
following rule of
interest
by the product
"
P.
only
directions
for
specialform
arithmetic
of the
of I
are
is $1800.
principal
cipal
prin
Prt, but
given.
proposed problem we obtain, by substituting,
the
"
rt
"
the
CONTROL
OF
THE
275
FORMULA
EXERCISES
What
1.
principalmust
be
invested
at
principalif
the rate
is
4% for
2 yr
to
yield$81?
What
2.
is the rate
What
the time
4yr.
if the
principalis $500,the
time 3 yr.,
and
Here
Prt
6%,
da.,and
3.
is the
P, t, and
for
given ;
are
is the
unknown.
Hence
solve
we
r.
Dividing both
members
by
and
then
by
by (Pf),
or
J_
Pt~
I
Substitutingthe
known
facts in
"
Pt
""\
1)0
"
=
500
4. Translate
the
into
"
rule
6%.
100
"
of
for
procedure
finding
rate.
is the
5. What
and
lyr.,
the
What
is
6.
formula
$85.50,the
time
principal$950?
fourth
of
type
convenient
most
interest is
if the
rate
for
interest
the
Find
problem ?
solution
of
such
from
the form
type
problems.
7.
Show
how
8.
Translate
to obtain
into
this formula
Prt.
rule of arithmetic.
,
9.
Into
income
of
at
at
what
at
one
4%
10.
How
4%
shall be the
11.
2 yr.
as
can
certain
$4000
parts
two
6%
gave
same
as
can
equal
the
1^ yr.
at
divided
income
that
of
the
other
of
part
5,% ?
that the
so
the income
of the rest at
that
invested at
in
be
$1800 so
divide
man
sum
shall
1500
interest in
the
sum
276
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
317.
The
formula.
Solving a
process
of
derivingt
"
LV
from
Prt
form
derivingthe
is called
"
"
Similarly,
solving the
formula
for P.
318.
relation
between
of
two
any
interest formula
an
of
Graphical illustration
be
may
interest
the
The
problems.
factors
that
in
appear
representedgraphically.
EXERCISE
"
does
How
5%
at
yearly interest
the
Note
this
that
table below
graph
in
for r, and
is
method
was
1 for t,
linear
and
involving
plottedby the
The
invested
principals
SubstitutingT"5
then /=
T"(jP.
be
on
vary
used
tion
equa
which
may
of Art. 301.
to make
the
Fig. 204.
/
10
Let
small
one
lines represent
large unit
sent
$50
on
of
unit
$1
the
of
on
the horizontal
interest,and
vertical
one
G.
.
lines repre
principalinvested.
15
25
20
Interest
1N
0n/"
204.
n
.
CALCULATING
PRINCIPALS
GRAPH
TO
BE
USED
INTEREST
INVESTED
AT
ON
5%
CONTROL
'
OX
Use
the
OF
THE
277
FORMULA
line for
EXERCISES
\. Look
interest
on
Determine
by
would
How
of
means
4.
Check
interest
5.
by
obtaining
the
7. If
of
graph
on
$2000
the
answers
6t.
and
Graph
on
$100
possible,
report
"
short
5%
at
Formulas
$300;
on
Fig. 204
to
collect
how
$18
much
interest
interest.
interest
$12.50
on
given by calculatingthe
"
T^p
at 6%.
Tf7
at
and
the
6 1 and
6%
use
the
formula
graph
the
graph
2 yr. ;
use
to calculate
Prt, thus
to
mine
deter
for 3 yr. ;
mo.
in
to calculate
cuts
lent
sums
$100
1 yr.
in
finding the
on
equation /
interest
detail the
interest.
On
methods
what
used
by
your
principlesdo
the
rest ?
involving the
amount.
In
the exercises
cult
diffiformulas a little more
study some
if the fundabe understood
mental
solve, but they can
laws
in solving equations are
carefullyapplied.
that follow
to
for
5%
what
method.
usual
the
family banker
*319.
the
about
various
tell offhand
on
to invest
go
graph
the
Graph
Let
you
some
interest
6.
by looking at
need
and
in 1 yr.;
3.
$60
on
Fig. 204
to collect at
expect
would
you
money
in
graph
$400
on
the
would
you
$350
2.
at
we
shall
278
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISES
$400
1. If
is invested
what
is the
what
is the amount
amount
at
the
end
If
2.
$1200
is invested
3%,
at
at the
of 2 yr. ?
end
What
3.
rate,and time
Using
4.
into
form
HINT.
the
the amount
Find
both
the
Find
the
"
equation by
in the
the
coefficient
rule of arithmetic
if
principal
the formula
obtained
the rate is
6%,
the time
3 yr., and
the
5%,
the time
3yr.,and
equation .4
Solve the
Find
$1740,and
the
time
formulas.
is
7* +
Prt
for
t.
Translate
the
if the
principalis $2500,
the amount
3%.
equationA
Prt
for
and
translate the
into words.
rate
the time
Summarize
rate
into words.
the rate
resultingformula
14.
into
of the
obtain
principalif
$1150.
Solve
$2725,and
13.
also be written
may
P.
members
the
resultingformula
12.
translate
interest,
$472.
the amount
11.
for the
Prt
6.
8. Find
10.
principal,
formula.
(1 + rt) for
Dividing
7. Translate
9.
and
namely, (1 + rf),we
in Ex.
when
amount
Prove.
(1 + rt~).
Solve A
6.
of P,
formula
The
5.
findingthe
given ?
are
precedingrule
the
by
4%,
at
the
if the
amount
4 yr.
CONTROL
320.
OF
Evaluating
arithmetical
show
exercises
The
process of findingthe
literal number
called for in a
that
the process
the known
numbers
Substituting
2. Reducing the arithmetical number
form.
A
321
and
drill list
Summary
involvingthese
of the discussion of
gainingcontrol
1.
rule
2.
3.
of
formula
in the
formula.
obtained
is
processes
foregoing
of
consists
1.
NOTE.
279
FORMULA
formula.
of the
value
is called
formula
THE
to
the
in Art. 329.
given
formula.
simplest
Cultivating
means
'to
the
see
all the
of
others.
4.
Evaluatingthe formula.
steps will
These
illustrated in the
be
now
problems. We
shall
should
motion
322.
the
formula
The
then
proceed to
developpower in
applied to motion
followingproblemstry to
observe
solution
solve
of
short
these steps.
problems. In solving
the
steps summarized
in Art. 321.
EXERCISES
ORAL
1.
what
2.
If
is he
rate
If
man
220yarddash
an
3.
per hour
makes
the
distance
yd. in
5 sec., at
how
2hr.,
75 mi. in
fast is it
Express
average
the last 50
?
finishing
automobile
being driven
runs
covered
hour;
f 3 mi. per
hour.
of
by
12^ mi.
train in 8hr.
per
hour;
of
at
x
an
miles
4.
of
rate
it takes
time
; of
How
6.
rate
of
station
1
d miles
How
far
is
away
it at
traveled
and
hour
the number
of hours
The
is called
is concerned
the
passed over
distance, and
unit
the
The
is
familiar
multipliedby
the time
Show
how
to obtain
experiencesthat
; that is,that d
Translate
4.
Show
how
5. Translate
"
into
to obtain
into
of units
(or speed)
expressed in
distance
from
"
3.
is
d.
EXERCISES
ORAL
by
time, t,
by
number
represented by
representedby r.
minutes, hours, days, etc.
2.
be
may
show
with distance,
in each
the rate
precedingexercises
of uniform
rate
at
3.15A.M.;
d when
The
Illustrate
the
is six.
of linear units
number
The
time.
by d, find
traversed
1.
at the
at 3 A.M.;
2A.M.;
of distance
and
day.
If it leaves
of units
traversed
hour;
+ 4 mi. per
hour.
an
is it at
far away
the distance
moving body
rate
mi. at the
20 mi. per
tripof
is 30 mi.
problem involvingmotion
rate, and
; of
day ; of
to make
323.
that
an
to go 150
6.45A.M.?
at
Denoting
is 45 mi.
at the
etc.?
5A.M.;
at
8.
how
automobile
an
miles per
train
1 A.M.,
4.30A.M.;
at
of
rate
at
A.M.:
train in t hours
it take
The
7.
; of 2
does
long
by
/"
Express the
5.
of
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
280
rt.
rt.
"
rule for
equals the
from
rule for
findingthe
d
time.
rt.
findingthe
rate.
automobile
An
5.
6.
at the
returns
can
he go and
7.
the
Cincinnati
train
from
starts
rate
of 30 mi. per
How
hour.
how
of 35 mi.
hour
an
and
19^ft. per
A
(Sound
A
rest
within
the
same
250
mi.
apart. Suppose
other,one at the
the
the
at
time.
they meet
first and
the
race.
has
at the
B ?
1500
of 35 mi. per
rate
hour.
an
In
travels
road
at
at the
rate
will win
ft. per
second
149
One
mi.
goes
in 2 hr.
the
1080
speed of
ft. per
20
an
how
many
race
is heard
far away
How
second, and
In
yd.
Which
at 10 mi.
in the
were
of 32
85 mi. in 5 hr.
a
citylimits
20 ft. per
runs
start
of about
rate
rode
cyclist
boats
what
after it is fired.
of his ride
Two
mile
going
country
At
disposal?
train overtake
second
overtake
sec.
motor
on
12.
the other
they meet
second.
travels
was
hours
far downstream
?
run
bullet
target 3
11.
will A
seconds
10.
at his
citytoward
starts
*9.
and
will
hours
many
second
How
8.
hour.
about
are
each
hour
will
soon
an
hour
an
flow ?
Chicago and
and
a
run
Find
of 8 mi.
rate
5 hr.
if he has
return
that
the
longer to
60 mi.
run
the
at
of 5 mi.
rate
the stream
does
rate
the
than
faster
2 hr.
cycle to
downstream
rows
man
and
train.
express
of each.
rate
hour
an
automobile
the
mi. than
150
10 mi.
runs
it takes
cycle,and
motor
 that
of each.
the rate
Find
is
rate
train takes
express
an
freighttrain whose
hr. longer than the
3
mi.
running 280
In
4.
of
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
282
to
is the
strike
target ?
second.)
hour.
an
hour
Find
and
how
the
many
country.
What
is the rate
faster than
of each ?
the other,
CONTROL
324.
OF
Graphical illustration
283
FORMULA
THE
of
motion
Many
problems can be convenientlyillustrated graphically,
the student will discover if he solves the following
motion
as
problem.
exercises.
EXERCISES
1.
the
In
De
Indianapolisraces
Palma
drove
Substituting90
in d
his
at
car
Draw
graph
30
tr,
45
d
that
Note
be
may
units
"
90
9Qt.
is
on
the
horizontal
vertical
linear
axis
Fig.205). Ten
and
60
equation which
represent
30
mi.;
small
small
ten
units
on
the
represent ^ hr.
axis
"
2.
Determine
De
Palma
in
4
3.
in
min.;
2 hr.
Determine
Fig. 205
De
Palma
the
graph
in 2 hr. ; in
drove
in
GO
from
how
12
in
Fig. 205
1^ hr. ; in
how
many
miles
min.
by the graph
long it took
to go 50 mi. ; 40 mi. ;
10 mi.
Obviously
suits
could
the
be
by arithmetic
preceding
calculated
re
either
by the formula.
tage
However, the graph has the advanof revealingall the results
in
vivid
or
i
Time
fashion.
FIG.
4. Draw
the distances
Find
205. THE
graph showing
traversed
by a passenger
*5.
1J
in Hours
hour
for the
what
out, if possible,
use
PROBLEM
GRAPH
OF
MOTION
FORMULA
train
running uniformly
first ten hours of its trip.
railroad officialsmake
of
284
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
325.
familiar
in mechanics.
occurrence
of
of the hands
in the movement
is of
motion
Circular
motion.
Circular
frequent
illustration is found
clock.
EXERCISES
1. At
a
what
clock
Let
number
together;
are
the number
of minute
the
hand
minute
of
of minutes
hands
hands
the
are
together?
Solution.
the
4 o'clock
3 and
between
time
that is,x
until it overtakes
3 o'clock
from
hour
the
which
over
spaces
passes
equals
hand.
Then
"
of minute
FIG.
passed
spaces
by
over
the
hour
CLOCK
ILLUSTRATE
Why?
the
number
of minute
12 to 3 is 15, and
the
since
spaces
whole
is
equal
PROBLEMS
TYPE
ClR.
OF
MOTION
CULAK
Since
from
206.
hand.
to
the
of its
sum
Whence
Therefore
2.
a
At
clock
the
what
hands
time
are
^4Tmin.
16
together at 16^
between
4 and
after 3 o'clock.
min.
5 o'clock
are
the hands
of
together?
HINT.
Draw
Notice
figuresimilar
that
the
formula
the
to
for
one
clock
for Ex.
1.
problem
is
"
m,
\."t
where
gain in order
3.
a
At
what
clock 15 min.
HINT.
to
to
see
how
Draw
the
reach
time
of minute
the desired
between
spaces
the minute
hand
must
position.
2 and
3 o'clock
are
the hands
of
apart ?
a
figure,think
formula
in
the
Ex. 2
then
try
CONTROL
At
4.
a
time
clock 30 minute
What
5.
At
*6.
a
what
between
time
clock 20 min.
FORMULA
2 and
3 o'clock
formed
apart ?
How
from
the hands
by
between
results be obtained
Work
THE
285
the hands
are
of
apart ?
spaces
angle is
what
326.
OF
6 o'clock
,and
the formula
The
of Ex.
work
clock at 2.30?
the hands
are
answers
many
problems.
of
How
of
these
may
2 ?
is another
problem
formula.
by
EXERCISES
pipe will
1. One
fill it in 4 hr.
left
pipesare
Let
Then
How
long
running ?
the number
fill a tank
in 3 hr. and
will it take
of hours
to
filled in 1
the
filled
the
part
second
pipe
"
pipesto
can
if both
fillthe tank.
hr.,
and
of the
+'
Multiplyingby
12 n,
or
long
One
second
boy
boy
can
to meet
would
be
be
make
if each
used
just as
obtained, as
Why?
12,
12.
If
hr.
can
in 5 da. and
drive
can
pipe.
do
it in 7 da.
How
working together?
his
started at
is shown
5 hr.
an
How
end
trip
are
by
used
Ex. 4.
in
in
8 hr. and
long would
Ex. 1.
that
numbers
any
Hence
it take
foregoingproblems
the
3 and
over
car
tripin
the
It is clear from
NOTE.
may
drain
3.
them
lay a
can
second
hr.,
"
Whence
2.
filled by the
tank
Hence
by
formula
286
4.
piece of work in
long will it take them
do
can
How
days.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
Let
to do
the
do
can
it in
together?
days
together.
in
of
the amount
it
number
them
Then
and
days
of work
it will take
they can
do
da.,
the
amount
can
do
in 1
the amount
can
do
in 1 da.
da.,
and
b
1
1,1
Hence
"
Multiplyingby aim,
_.
l"n +
an
ah,
(J"+ a)n
ah,
"
ab
NOTE.
solved
of the
Any problem
type of Ex. 1
as
1 let
5. One
can
3,
boy
make
"
Then
4.
can
make
on
page
formula.
285
Thus,
be
may
to
solve
Ex.
I"
"
"
"
hr.
1^
the route
10 min.
form
*8.
sweep
How
does
4.5 da.
Solve
can
pipe is an
page 285 the second
will it take to fill the tank if both
on
form
walk
long will
the formula
could
How
in
does
7
the formula
min., B
in
take ?
min., and
it take them
for
work
lay a sidewalk
long does it take
in
by substituting
working together?
problem take ?
in 3
da., B
them
when
the formula
in
for Ex.
da., and
in
What
in
working together?
7.
CONTROL
327.
Translating rules
of the
each
times
the
2. The
form
the
of
triangleequals
287
FORMULA
the
formula
product
of
Write
half the
altitude.
area
of
of
base
altitude.
and
The
3.
base
area
The
of
trapezoidequals one
multipliedby the altitude.
area
bases
parallel
The
5.
times
of
half the
third
of the
sum
the
base
altitude.
The
length of
circle is
circumference
The
approximatelyequal to twenty
of the diameter.
sevenths
7.
volume
the
6.
its
altitude.
and
4.
two
of
area
THE
followingin
The
1.
base
OF
of
circle is
equal
to
TT
times
the
diameter.
8.
The
area
9.
The
productequalsthe multiplicandtimes
10.
The
11.
The
of
circle is
times
TT
the square
of the radius.
the
multiplier.
by
12.
quotientof
the inverted
The
the numerator
13.
The
divided
14.
you
by
the cost of
The
of
the square
rule for
The
know
15.
divided
square
that
m
equalsthe
dividend
plied
multi
divisor.
root
square
fractions
two
fraction
of
by
the
square
fraction
equals the
root
square
root
of
of the denominator.
is the square
of the numerator
of the denominator.
calculatingthe
certain number
cost
of them
of
article when
one
cost
so
much
; write
articles.
rule for
expressing
years, mouths,
and
days as
years.
288
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
the
lengthsbut
of different
rule
The
17.
calculatingthe
rule for
The
16.
of three
area
width.
same
calculatingthe
for
adjacentrooms
of
area
floor of
the
room.
square
rule for
The
18.
findingthe
cost of
telegram.
rule for
The
rule for
The
20.
in
person
time,
in
the
number
The
rule for
of two
cars
finding the
which
oppositedirections
The
24.
apart
at
same
as
same
26.
The
23
in Ex.
pointand
same
given
travel
speeds.
23
different
reading on
greater than
cars
are
miles
of the
except that
the
cars
go
in the
speeds.
Fahrenheit
reading on
thermometer
is
always 32"
centigradethermometer.
The
27.
32, and
328.
be calculated
reading of a centigradethermometer
may
by noting the reading on the Fahrenheit,subtracting
taking of this result.
readings on
last two
that
the
at different
in Ex.
as
direction with
same
from
start
apart, after
distance
starting.
The
25.
empty beaker.
certain number
23.
beaker
rule for
The
average
The
22.
and
in the class.
the number
21.
each
are
centigradeand
exercises
used
to
deal
measure
Fahrenheit
with
two
between
thermometers.
the
The
types of thermometers
temperature. Fig.207
shows
that
290
MATHEMATICS
CKNKRAL
EXERCISES
Determine
1.
for
readings
5",
30",
2.
Determine
by
the
to
60",30",20",10",
3.
the
graph
in each
f32" substitute
case
you think
are
corresponding readings.
The
numbers
the two
should
error
be
4. Normal
is
small.
very
ture
tempera
room
68" F.
the
responding
centigrade readings corfollowing Fahrenheit
readings: 80", 70",
5", 10".
formula
the
In
is
What
it
centigrade?
5.
The
normal
temperature
body is 98.4"
it centigrade?
of the human
What
6.
is
What
F.
grade
temperature centi0" F.?
correspondsto
7. Could
you
go
skatingat
FlG
15" C. ?
In
course
9.
called
When
student
T0
BE
JN
READINGS
CENTIGRADE
FAHRENHEIT
rSK1)
AND
VICE
VERSA
are
told
that
mercury
freezes
at
40" F.
"
What
centigrade?
Would
329.
GRAPH
generalscience
your
you
is this
CHANGING
TO
8.
20g
your
classroom
Evaluating
for in
each
be comfortable
formula.
of
the
Find
exercises
explanation is given, it
recognizesthe formula.
no
at 25" C. ?
of the letter
the value
given
on
is assumed
page
that
291.
the
CONTROL
OF
FORMULA
THE
291
EXERCISES
1. Given
212";
100".
2.
Given
3. Given
4.
 (F
C.+
Find
32).
32.
Given
Find
rt.
10^ ft.
12 hr. ; if
Find
if
C.
if
F.
F.
C.
0"; 32";
0";
100";
60".
20";
if
if d
/"
87.5 mi.
second
per
Find
"
and
1 mi. and
10
"
hour
per
sec.
4 min. 16
and
sec.
{/
if d
^ mi.
5.
Given
2
*=lyr.
if P
6.
mo.
Given
if I =12.2
2.07
da.; if
6%,
Find
5.6
in.,and
6.4
iv
2.4
ft.,and
2.1 cm.,
1 in.
Tiff =63
and
8. Given
1.4
^ d.
ft.;if
1.6
2yr. 3 da.;
ft.;
ft.,
"
"
(seeFig.209)
Find
and
4}%,and
20 yr.
ft.,and
7.
$240, r
$128, r=6%,
and
if P
8.3
Find
V=lwh.
in.,iv
sec.
Prt.
ft.,w
9.3
A=P+
$511,r
if "
and
3 cm.,
"
FIG.
209.
RECTAX
PARALLELE
GULAR
PIPED
cm.
Find
if d
51 in.
9.
10
Given
yd.;
10.
m.
8.5
the
12
and
"
2 ft.
11.
The
126
times
in.
the
and
of its base
product
if B
V
B
212.44
lin.; 5ft.;
11
h.
of
Find
in.;
if
and
sq. in.
perimeter of
altitude
246.12
lateral surface
the
if
prism(Fig.210)
F of any
in.;if
prism equals
.4
cm.
Find
its altitude h.
Find
2T2).
Trr2 (TT=
The volume
equal to
is
right
the
base
if P
21.6
in.
FlG
and
2io. PRISM
h
0.35
in.
cm.
if
of the
circumference
usuallygiven is S
and
the
Find
12 in.
"
The
the
formula
S if C
*f^
in.
rightcylinder
circumference
sum
A =10
Ch.
cm.
rightcylinder
entire surface T of
The
equalsthe
times
base.
Vii r=10.2
10 in.
14.
Find
altitude and
the
=
base.
6 in. and
lateral surface of
The
13.
and
its base
product of
where
of
volume
The
12.
the
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
292
is,T
r
15. The
volume
is
equal to
one
and
irr(r+ h).
in.;if A
Find
2ft. and
if
r=l
Fj(.
2n
CYLINDER
ft.
V of any
pyramid (Fig.212)
product of its base
the
third
is,V
Find
"
"
if "
The
16.
is
2 ft.
FIG.
212.
PYRAMID
S of a
lateral area
one
half the
its slant
height";
equalto
in.; if
A =12
regularpyramid
product of the perimeterP
of its base
Pi
and
that
is,S
Find
"
"
if P
10. 6 in.
"t
and
8.2 in. ; if P
I=
17.
The
lateral
of its slant
C
and
cm.
of
area
if 1=
S if
and
a
one
I and
Write
15
31.416
half the
uct
prod
ence
the circumfer
for
10in.
; if
FIG.
213.
ClRCULAR
a
RIGHT
CONE
rightcircular cone
S,
ft.
S of
10 in. and
cm.
right circular
the formula
lateral area
Trrh,where
Find
height
of its base.
find
is
4.3
(Fig.213) is equal to
cone
10 in. ; if
h is the slant
10 in. and
height.
26.2 in.
CONTROL
19.
lateral
The
entire surface
area
plus the
or
and
An
equal
number
of
if t
An
21.
the
to
; 2
sec.
it has
; 3
sec.
the
it is thrown
is S
second;
if t
The
23.
the
The
of
if
force
of
of
travels in
of seconds
if t
two
pulleysof
the
In
given by
of the
be the cost
of
16t2.
the
Find
given time
tance
dis
it is
falling.The
and
V=
13 ft. per
second.
12ft.
is
of
equal
the
the formula
inches
ft. of
for the
the
wind,
=
whose
=
centers
214.
THF,
in
pounds per
F2,where V is
would
What
radii
wall
per
a
are
be the
25 ft.
hour ?
belt
passing
each
feet,
is 1= 2 7rr+ 2 d.
is d feet,
4.
cost of
C
0.005
length I of
size whose
same
FIG.
to
6j ft.
equationP
formula
pricelist the
of 20
of
square
wind
l" and
pipe in
sec.
per
sphere
pressure
long
around
the
sec.
10 in. ; 12 ft. ;
this
that the
is
of
Show
I when
and
time
given
*25.
26.
12.6 in.
the wind
80 ft.
16
F=100ft.
foot,is given by
and
Find
Find
and
surface
total pressure
and
; 4
velocitypf
high
Trr2,
trrl +
5 in. ; if I
sec.
Vt.
sec.
volume
The
square
of
the number
16 1* +
4 7H2. Find
*24.
is,T
falls in
rest
downward
and
equals the
cone
it has
formula
if
10 in. and
product
objectthrown
of seconds
22.
293
if I
seconds
equal to
which
FORMULA
right circular
objectfallingfrom
distance
of
area
THE
6 in.
20.
OF
sewer
0.4 d2 +
and
pipe
the
pipe per
14, where
cost
foot of length
eter
d is the diam
in cents.
2 in. in diameter
What
will
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
294
330.
in
Practice
formula
for
It is often desirable
letter.
letter in that
particular
Too often the student will recognizea formula
formula.
provided it stands in the form in which it is commonly
written, but will not appreciateits meaning if it is written
different way.
For example, how
students
in a
many
solve
to
some
would
recognizethe
V=abc?
formula
is in
formula
It is the
same
the
as
"
wellknown
formula
except that it
realizes this,it helps
If the student
different form.
The
cises
followingexergain control of the formula.
will furnish practice
in solvingfor particular
letters.
him
to
EXERCISES
Solve each
indicated
of the
followingformulas
ab
1. .I
2.
3.
"?
Bh
for
"
; for
/".
aJcforc; fora;
for h.
11.
12.
.1
13.
14.
15
Sss9*fmi,.lory.
i6.
17.
.1
forb.
"
Pi.
^
5.
6
for t.
rtforr;
7.
Yfor,/;for/".
WA*WJJ*to**Wt
V
for A.
8.
41
9.
Bh
10.
for w;
"
V=*"i*h
,.
for
for /.
"
4.
letters
or
for A.
for t.
Prt
'2
for
"
18.
; for
_A_
=
for
r.
F.
2 ir"* for h.
2 irrh +
r.
for B.
for // ;
6a.
for E
for ;,
CONTROL
OF
THE
FORMULA
295
SUMMARY
331.
This
332.
is
rule
practical
some
333.
1. An
arrive
2.
3.
clear
of
Translatingthe
The
abilityto
formula
arithmetical
some
rule of
some
convenientlyabbreviated form
procedure.
of
understanding
analysisof
at
of
implies:
situation
so
as
to
procedure.
rule into
formula.
for any
solve
letter in terms
of the
problem
abilityto apply
and
334.
The
335.
The
to
evaluate
the
the
formula
to
particular
formula.
illustrated in detail by
precedingsteps were
to interest problems,to problems involving
applications
motion, to work problems,to thermometer
problems,and
to geometricproblems.
of
methods
1.
1
suggestedeconomical
graphicalinterpretations
manipulatinga formula. For example :
solved
problemswere
Simpleinterest
and
Prt
P +
by
the formulas
Prt.
power
While
336.
of
was
order to have
formulas
and
the
him
realize from
HISTORICAL
a
very
much
be
can
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
296
The
NOTE.
expressedby
than
"
to
find
the
area
of
particular
lot whose
Hence,
used
it
base
was
is two
very
hundred
late in the
feet and
race's
whose
altitude
development
that
is
fiftyfeet.
letters
were
in expressingrules.
representedthe unknown
by some 'word
earlymathematicians
like res (meaning the thing "). Later, calculators used a singleletter
but the problems still dealt with particular
for the unknown,
cases.
problems
Diophantus,representingGreek mathematics, stated some
in general terms, but usuallysolved the problems by taking special
Vieta
used capitalletters (consonantsand vowels)to represent
cases.
numbers
is said to be
known
and unknown
respectively.Newton
the first to let a letter stand for negative as well as positivenumbers,
of formulas
which
greatlydecreases the number
necessary.
has had a difficult time
the race
standing
While
discoveringand underto use
a
formulas, it takes comparatively little intelligence
do their work
in the industrial world
formula.
Many men
efficiently
whose
of
formula
derivation
and
a
by the means
meaning they do
It is said that even
not understand.
collegetrained
engineers
among
than
follow formulas
do more
or
only a few out of every hundred
other directions blindly.Thus, it appears that for the great majority
be
can
However, we
only the immediately practicalis valuable.
reasonablysure that no one can rise to be a leader in any field by
his own
abilitywithout understanding the theoretical as well as
the practical.
The
formula
is very important in the present complex industrial
A considerable
is done
by
portion of the necessary calculation
age.
formula.
this
Therefore
to meet
following the directions of some
need
the study of the formula
should be emphasized. In discussing
the kind
of mathematics
be required Professor
A. R.
that should
Crathorne
(School and Society,July 7, 1917, p. 14) says: "Great
emphasis would be placed on the formula, and all sorts of formulas
could
be brought in. The
popular science magazines, the trade
about
the
which
journalsand catalogues,are mines of information
modern
The
boy or girl understands.
pupil should think of the
formula
be translated
that can
an
as
algebraicdeclarative sentence
The
"
298
into
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
The
English.
of the
to
up
the
abilityin
Mechanical
formula.
leads
evaluation
of
encouraged through inversion
Englishman calls 'changing the subject of
here also the beginning of the equation when
is changed to the interrogative."
should
be
Archimedes
in
the
so
much
that
held
But
practicaluse.
had
to
a
difficulty
He
him.
the
so
be
introduced
tabular
the
formula,
presentation
manipulation of symbols
the
formula.'
our
declarative
mathematician
what
or
We
the
have
sentence
who
studied
Sicily,loved science
it undesirable
to apply his information
to
his mechanical
abilitythat when
great was
and
Alexandria
university at
the
lived
the
overcome
often
government
inventions
many
iu
the
into
called
everyday
on
lives
of
people.
Read
the stones
of his detection
exceedingly interesting1.
of the dishonest
of burningglassesto
goldsmith ; of the use
destroy the ships of the attacking Roman
squadron ; of his clever
built a ship
of a lever device
for helping out Hiero, who
had
use
it off the slips
for
so
large that he could not launch
; of his screw
pumping water out of ships and for irrigatingthe Nile valley. He
devised the catapultswhich
held the Roman
attack for three years.
These
constructed
that the range was
either long or short
were
so
and
that they could
be discharged through a small
so
loophole
without
the
the
of
the
fire
to
men
exposing
enemy.
When
the Romans
Archimedes
the
was
killed,
finallycaptured
city
the
in
orders of Marcellus, the general
though contrary to
charge of
the siege.It is said that soldiers entered
Archimedes'
study while he
in sand
he had
drawn
was
on
studying a geometrical figure which
the floor. Archimedes
told a soldier to get off the diagram and
not
His
to
life is
The
spoil it.
him
and
The
not
soldier,being
the
knowing
Romans
old
insulted
man,
at
killed
having
orders
given
to
him.
an
erected
interestingaccount
find
Archimedes'
read
Ball's
"
tomb.
Short
by
Cicero
It will be
of
his
successful
profitableif
History of Mathematics,"
pp.
the
efforts
student
6577.
to
will
CHAPTER
FUNCTION
; LINEAR
FUNCTION,
XII
FUNCTIONS
EQUATION,
; THE
AND
FORMULA
GRAPHICALLY;
337.
Function
the
One
of the most
another.
RELATED
IDEAS
OF
INTERPRETED
VARIATION
dependence of
quantity
one
notions
common
in
upon
lives is
our
of the
EXERCISES
Upon
2.
If Resta
3.
does
4.
year
does the
much
How
at
an
of
length(distance)
would
interest
the
race
hours.
expect
you
rate
average
depend?
depend ?
what
Upon
to
collect
in
$200?
on
man
much
7.
car
of cloth
Upon
depend ?
How
his
10yd.
5.
6.
the cost of
does
drives
what
hour,upon
what
the
does
wishes
number
he
buy
circular
tickets
theater
inclose
of the
running track
square
lot.
each
quantities
what
amount
length of
to
fencing must
State upon
(a) The
(b) The
a
what
1.
can
be
that
followingdepends :
bought
can
be
for
dollar.
bought
for
dollar.
(c)The height of
maple
growth
of
300
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
(d) The
solve
you
it takes you
time
problem
one
to
mathematics
get your
lesson if
three minutes.
every
The
diameter
because
dollar is
expression4
changes with
familiar
338.
"
circle is
of the
change
of
because
in the value
idea
of
of wheat
339.
C
In
take
its value
or
that may
d is said to be the
equal to
of C is
of d is determined.
dependentvariable.
variable.
the
variables.
In the formula
of circles
we
please. On
fixed once
automatically
number
Because
price
independentvariable.
construction
any
ten
change,assuming a
independent variables.
in the
by
above.
discussion
the
its value
"
and
bought
; and
"
Dependent
for
x.
be
of function
series of values
It is not
can
priceper pound
function
function
the diameter
depends upon
illustrate the
can
Variable.
of
area
is
every
if you
See
it
function
the
Thus
we
may
the
the
FUNCTION
INTERPRETED
301
GRAPHICALLY
EXERCISES
1. What
if d
if d
5?
is the value of C
the
ideas of
with
The
Constant.
differs from
and
has
number
A
appearingin
and the ""and
"
"
2?
of circles.
we
formula
the 32
formula
is
Trd
never
number
like this,which
arithmetical
Obviously any
constant.
own
your
changes at any
is approxiThis number
mately
are
dealingwith small or
as
therefore call
We
it
from
or
in the
TT
whether
fixed value, a
ird if d
"
ables
independent vari
and
the text
d inasmuch
3.1416,
or
2y2,
largecircles.
from
number
in the discussion
time
dependent
chosen
examples
experience.
340.
equationC
W?
Illustrate
2.
in the
in .7^=
constant
^ "7+ 32
thus the 2 in
are
constants.
2
EXERCISE
Turn
that
to
Chapter XI,
illustrate the
idea
the
on
of
formula, and
constant.
Graph of
function.
"
302
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
we
"
that
line shows
as
increases,the value of 4
4 increases
"
accordingly.
EXERCISES
in
Tell
1.
that
shows
the
2. Determine
the
lengths
9 in.; 10.5
in.;,
Determine
3.
the
whose
30
words
function
of
25
the
increases
"
graph
follows
as
are
how
in
graph
as
Fig. 216
increases.
4x4
rectangles
in. ; 11 in.
from
length of the
perimetersare
in.;
the
from
perimeters
whose
8
own
your
in.; 20
the
graph
rectangles
as
follows
in. ;
18
20
in.;
5. How
you
Relyingon
could
"whose
your
FIG.
THE
216.
GRAPH
PERIMETER
IN
FIG.
OF
OF
215
THE
tell how
past experience,
construct
in the
length shall
exceed
shop
or
construct
their width
by
GLE
RECTAN
THE
is
FUNCTION
LENGTH
many
in your
two
THAT
SHOWING
rectangles
notebook
units ".
INTEEPBETED
FUNCTION
342.
4
Linear
4 is
"
If
Since the
function.
line,the
straight
graph
function
of the
is called
we
expression
linear
function.
function,
of the linear
we
303
(GRAPHICALLY
"
jc
4.
"
EXERCISE
Give
five
343.
Solving
of linear functions.
examples
of
family
equations by
solve
to
example,
then
if in
the
equation 4
the
equation y
#
"
question,What
the
16
be
may
is 4
the
used
r
"
For
constant.
or
"
be
may
members
4x
"
number
arithmetical
some
of whose
equations one
the other
and
of
means
we
as
interpreted
ing
rais
is the value
questionwe find
16 on
the ?/axis(the vertical axis),pass horizontally
to
the graph of 4 x
4, and read the correspondingvalue
value of x is seen
of x. The corresponding
to be 5. Hence
4. r
"
4=16?
order
In
to
this
answer
"
"
16
when
5.
be
problem the equation4 a*" 4=16
may
What
sentence:
translated into the followinginterrogative
shall be the length of the rectanglein order that it may
have a perimeterof 16 ? A glanceat the graph is sufficient
the answer
to determine
; namely, 5.
As
verbal
EXERCISES
Solve
by graph, and
1. 4z4
0
2.
20.
Z4.
check
the
followingequations:
4z8
5.
Add
HINT.
4ic
"
2.
both
to
mem
bers
3.
4.r
4.
4"
4
4
12.
6.
4z4
6.
so
to obtain
as
=
the
6.
4x5
13.
equation
MATHEMATICS
";KM:KAL
304
7. 4.r9
4.r +
8.
members
result 4
344.
for two
19.
J.
_i_
"
""
"""i
is
./"
function
the
0.
equal
set
to
case
interesting
special
an
ing
givesus an easy method of find4
in the equation4^
0. We
need
x
graph and observe where the line crosses
It
(1)
of
"
line is seen
The
12.
to the
checks
4a: +
the
16.
value
the o"axis.
x
obtain
to
graphical solution of
only refer
of
both
from
10
reasons:
the
10.
26.
Problem
zero.
12.
The
9.
as
so
10.
Subtract
HIM.
4ir+
to
41"4
because
where
cross
0.
1. This value
Hence
1 is
tion
solu
4
0. (2) It furnishes us
a
equation 4 x
for solving all linear equationsin one
graphic method
unknown
because
unknown
be
can
every equation in one
of the
thrown
into
be
may
"
form
done
similar
with
the
to
"
equation 3:r
Show
0.
:r
how
this
+ 12.
EXERCISES
1.
HINT.
The
equationmay
be written
Graph
the
function
See
where
Check
x
+ 7
2.
check
the
value
correct
graphicallythe equation3x
Solve
of
graph
just as
of 2
the
the
(c)5a;+
x
graphed
the
crosses
12.
5
"
4#
"
xaxis.
value
of
in
the
Why ?
(Fig.216).
0.
This
is the
originalequation
followinglinear equationsby
results
+
(b) 6x
"
in the form
we
+ 12.
(a) ox
x.
by substitutingthis
Solve
(d) 11
2x"
2x
S.
(e) 2.ox
4x
2.
(f)
graph, and
_ 7
+
=
3x
5.
8x4.
x
the
14*
7.
')
=2~7'
7.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
306
is said to
the other
as
directly
vary
Thus
the other.
to
the
be
to
or
number
rtiwtlyproportional
is said to vary
y if the ratio
as
directly
remains
constant,
as
and
y both
changeor
The
vary.
equation
k expresses
algebraically,
i7
and
the statement
equivalentto,
is
that
JT
varies
directly
as
The
y.
equation
written
jc
Show
ky.
this is correct.
why
k is often
EXERCISES
the
Translate
form
into
following statements
equations of
the
/.":
y
The
1.
cost
the
to
of
yd. of dress
price per yard.
10
for the
I 'sing c
Solution.
total cost
and
10,
10,,.
or
is
goods
directlyproportional
This
illustrates
direct
The
2.
mile.
Write
the
to
proportional
The
3.
fare within
railroad
certain
equation,showing
the
weight
is 3 cents
state
is
per
directly
mileage.
of
of
mass
iron
varies
directly as
the
volume.
If
4.
body
directlyas
The
5.
uniform
varies
the time.
of
length (circumference)
circle varies
directlyas
diameter.
the
6.
The
varies
A
at
moves
distance
the
as
directly
body is observed
constant
through
square
to
ratio of d to t2 ?
which
of the
fall 400
How
body
time
ft. in
far does
t in which
5
a
falls from
sec.
body
What
rest
it falls.
is the
fall in 2
sec.
FUNCTION
INTERPRETED
The
Solution.
equation for
GRAPHICALLY
d and
t is
k.
j2
In this
problem
*gg
hence
Substitutingk
16 and
t'2=
This
value
of t and
this
Thus,
7.
How
8.
If
when
10.
did
The
Write
of
fallingfrom
varies
directlyas
fell from
it reach
the
rest
at
moves
?.
directlyas
second.
one
time
/,.A
The
the time.
what
a, and
when
w
24
when
Find
varies
V
type.
sec.
8, find
2, find
the
the
how1 many
length of
the,time
of
the
body
second
of
length
long makes
a
the time.
t.
ft. per
oscillation
root
39.2 in.
and
6.)
five
fall. What
square
of Ex.
directlyas
of 180
the rate
(in seconds) of
pendulum
oscillation in two
13.
40
seconds
in 5
one
mined,
deter
of this
rest in 3 sec.
x
as
Once
problems
(approx.).
16
soon
all
in
as
is known.
in nine
v/
used
of d
11.
beginsto
The
determined
15.
after it
"
be
seconds
varies
64.
" may
be
may
k,
when
speed of a fallingbody
equation for the speed
the
12.
16.
Why.'
corresponding value
varies
stone
seconds
11.
the
that
far does
ic
fallingbody
problems
a:
If
shows
value
the value of
9.
f/ =
solution
in all
22 in
Solving,
307
pendulum
one
pendulum
I ; that
is,
oscillation in
which
makes
an
seconds.
simple interest
If the interest
on
an
investment
for 5 yr.
on
a
mo.
sum
directlyas
is $150,
money
varies
of
308
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
sphereof
of
346.
two
weight of
The
14.
be representedgraphically
by means
quantities
may
back to ChapterXI, on the formuline. Turn
las,
straight
direct variation.
and find three graphs illustrating
20
FIG.
An
217.
GRAPH
OF
ird
interesting
example
SHOWING
DIRECT
is furnished
VARIATION
by graphing the
equation
"
TT
(where TT
the circumference
Complete
as
to
obtain
the
the
of
circle varies
that
as its diameter.
directly
table, and graph the results so
following
graph in Fig. 217. Interpretthe graph.
a
FUNCTION
INTERPRETED
309
GRAPHICALLY
EXERCISES
Graph
the
16 1.
2.
5 /.
lever
the
3.
varies
equals16
(Velocity
3b.
(The
Inverse
of
area
the
of
seconds.)
of 5 times
shall
We
variation.
seed
to
rectangle whose
altitude
is 3
base.)
interestingkind
of
consider
now
new
variation.
64 sq. ft. of
Suppose a gardener
garden in lettuce. If he
his
makes
directlyas
wishes
of direct variation
arm.)
347.
and
following examples
be 4 ft.
(Why?) If he
it 32 ft. long,the width need
makes
be only 2 ft. (Why ?)
How
possibleshapes do you think the gardener
many
might choose for his lettuce bed ? The following table
will help you
remember
this question if you
to answer
that
it has
been
The
table
shows
the
area
constant,
must
the
decided
that
that the
length must
and
that
shall
area
so
vary
of
because
as
this
width.
64
sq. ft.
to
fact
leave
the
The
length is
the width
thus said to vary
to be inversely
or
as
inversely
to the width.
speaking,a number
Algebraically
proportional
varies inverselyas y if the product xy remains
constant
x
greater the length,the
as
both
and
y vary
the
be
smaller
that
is,if xy
k.
Jc
also
find
this
equation written
student
The
or
"
may
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
310
EXERCISES
1.
each
Express
tin
of
following statements
by
of
means
equations:
needed
time
(a) The
to go
certain
distance
inversely
varies
as
the
(c) Tke
varies
stove
at which
rate
the
inverselyas
square
of
it.
from
distance
varies
of
heat
(b) The
the
to
goes
it takes
time
the
inverselyas
boy
drug
corner
store
him.
18
If
2.
.u
show
"
that
with
inversely
varies
z.
ir
If y varies
3.
the
of y
value
By
Solution.
when
of inverse
1'J
Therefore
12,
4.
k,
48.
2.
24.
"
Therefore
Then
the value
5.
of
When
gas
the
us
6.
as
how
The
the
If the
number
If 10
days
can
men
12
the
that
volume
men
12 when
of
13, find
can
men
do
do
gas
is 14
a
the
pressure,
cc.
ume
vol
The
varies
volume
under
volume
doing
under
is increased.
pressure
is the
of
cylinderis put
the
as
lb.,what
time.
many
?/, and
2.
by experiment
pressure.
is 9
in
is reduced
shows
"
inverselyas
when
4, find
variation,
case,
varies
k.
or
when
and
If
12
xy
4.
2.
definition
In the second
x, and
inverselyas
physicist
inverselyas
when
pressure
the
of
sure
pres
16 Ib. ?
FUNCTION
348.
to
INTERPRETED
how
show
inverse
Two
various
find
take
train
which
moves
uniformly
the
two
cities.
the
at
24
mi.
per
make
to
traffic between
how
it will
hour
mi.
now
attempt
out
of
the
carry
long
rate
48
are
shall
We
proceed
be representedgraphically.
may
running at
apart. Trains
variation.
variation
cities
rates
Suppose we
to
inverse
Graphing
311
GRAPHICALLY
the
40
6 mi.
trip,then
per
The
following
table contains
of
means
some
values
by
of which
the
the
""30
20
Rate
equation representing
is
the situation
48
rt.
FIG.
the
When
GRAPH
218.
INVERSE
SHOWING
VARIATION
of the .table
points
are
plotted,it
line, as
was
is clear
the
case
one
of
two
that
in
they
direct
is the
branches
not
variation
curved
of
do
line
curve
lie
;
on
but
if
straight
they
are
312
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISES
from
1. Determine
a
the
graph
the time
Fig.218
train whose
in
it takes
hour
; 25 mi.
per hour.
from
Determine
2.
makes
which
runs
the
the
See
mathematical
curve.
hyperbolais an interesting
it by consulting
about
help your class learn more
The
4.
if you
144
can
books.
other
349.
In
Joint variation.
depends for
its value
the
interest formula
r, and
/=
Prt,
change in any
of these letters causes
a
one
correspondingchange in the
this by saying that the interest
value of /. We
express
the principal,
varies jointly
as
rate, and time. The algebraic
kyz.
equation which defines jointvariation is x
I
P,
on
EXERCISES
Turn
1.
and
*3.
of
varies
2, find
horizontal
length I
*4.
1920
Ib.
material
and
between
at
when
the
formula,and
trations
find five illus
10 ft.
y, and
^ and
if
"
60 when
^.
the supports.
both
What
and
beam
supported
as
jointly
the
Write
the width
on
jointvariation.
of
2. If
Chapter XI,
to
long, 4
ends
would
long,3
can
be the
in.
wide, and
maximum
safelya
safe load
for
8 in.
beam
6 in. thick ?
deep
when
load
of the
same
of
CHAPTER
XIII
CONSTRUCTION
SIMILARITY;
OF
SIMILAR
TRIANGLES;
PROPORTION
Construction
356.
of
first
method
introductoryexercises.
form
similar, triangles;
should
EXERCISES
On
1.
length.
of 32".
At
2.
drawn
3.
else
the
Compare
with
the
class
What
done
was
venient
con
the
triangle.Call
might
the
of those
in Ex.
you
have
that
ought
to
the
two
drawn
1 to
protractormeasure
be
by
any
vertex
insure
your
that
have
you
classmates.
all members
of
shape ?
same
your
figure.How
its size ?
angle C
in your
figurewith angle C
classmates.
your
angle
equal to
by
angle (.'in
determined
size of
that
triangleABC
Show
any
of the
the
With
7. Are
Are
form
to
shape
shape
Compare the
the figures
drawn
6.
of any
AB
an
angle
protractor,
angle of 63" and produce the sides
an
as
segment
C.
5.
in
line
construct,with
.1
angles so
At
construct
of the two
angle
lay off
squared paper
drawn
other
any
drawn
triangles
of
necessarily
by
the
314
by any
angle C
member
size '.'
the
drawn.
of
same
size ?
CONSTRUCTION
357.
Similar
OF
SIMILAR
315
TRIANGLES
triangles.Triangles
havingthe
shape
same
called similar
Similar triangles
not
are
sarily
necestriangles.
of the same
size. They may be constructed
by making
two anglesof one
equalto two anglesof the other,as was
done
in Ex. 1, Art. 356.
If two angles6f one
are
equal
to two anglesof the other,it follows that the third angles
is
Thus
are
equal.(Why ?) The symbolfor similarity
AABC^AA'B'C"
is read "triangleABC
is similar to
A'B'C'"
The results of Art. 356 may
be summed
triangle
geometrictheorem : If two angles of
up in the following
to two
are
one
anglesof another
triangle
equalrespectively
the triangles
similar.
are
triangle,
are
~".
358.
student
of parts in similar
Second
relation
should
be able to discover
similar
if
triangles
he
triangles. The
second method
studies and
of
structing
con
understands
followingexercises.
the
INTRODUCTORY
EXERCISES
small
2.
to
3.
Compare
the other
by
make
the
Measure
to two
a
letter a.
with
359.
your
members
reference
Construction
class.
What
of similar
in Ex.
1" to c, of
do
you
sides '.'
triangles;
second
method.
be summarized
as
results of Exs. 13, Art. 358, may
sides
the ratios of corresponding
follows : In similar triangles
The
are
for
second
method
3 It)
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISES
second
a
triangle.Draw
trianglewhose
are
respectivelytwice as long as the sides of the
triangle.
Draw
1.
they similar
Are
Draw
3.
Give
Find
triangle with
correspondingsides
for
reasons
of
Call the
three
as
shape.
to
as
long as the
they similar?
as
Are
do
the
ratios
of
the
compare
times
How
first
correspondingsides.
triangle.
answer.
ABC.
triangle
halves x',y\ and z'.
4. Draw
as
sides
another
your
corresponding sides
the
in Ex.
2.
sides
EC.
second
triangle,
using
Compare the two triangles
sides.
similar
and
What
are
the
ratios of the
360.
We
of
Construction
shall
study
which
triangles
third
is
similar
third
triangles;
method
suggestedby
of
the
method.
constructingsimilar
followingexercises :
EXERCISES
1.
and
Construct
with
a
and
What
the
protractor make
second
the included
is the
trianglewith
two
sides 4.6cm.
the
included
and
angle
ratio
of
the
correspondingangles.
correspondingsides
6.2cm.,
70".
12.4
to
Measure
struct
Concm.
shape.
the
CONSTRUCTION
2.
OF
If convenient
SIMILAR
317
TRIANGLES
itself into
sections,
first section
"
361.
Summary
are
triangles
of constructions
for similar
triangles.Two
similar
constructed equalrespecare
tively
If two anglesof one triangle
to two anglesof the second triangle.
constructed so that the
2. If the sides of the triangles
are
sides are
ratios of their corresponding
equal.
constructed so that the ratio of two
3. If the triangles
are
is equalto the ratio of two sides of the other and
sides of one
the anglesincluded between
these sides are equal.
1.
362.
Similar
We
right
shall
angles.
tri
now
orem:
followingtheD
The perpendicular
FIG. 219
to the hypotenuse
from the
into
divides the triangle
vertex of a right
triangle
that are similar to each other (see Fig. 219).
prove
the
Proof.
..
"x
Z.V
"\ADC
two
triangles
/.x'.
Why?
Z/.
Why?
AEDC.
Why?
318
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
that A.I
IK'
"
2.
Show
3.
Translate
the
results
to
Fig. 219)
ABC.
^
A.lLv
of Exs.
'.
1 and
into
geometric
theorem.
4.
State
363.
theorem
Similar
learn
that
expressing the
polygons. In
similar
later
work
polygons also
in
mathematics
have
corresponding
sides
anglesequal and that the ratios of the corresponding
are
equal. This rests on the fact that two similar polygons
into sets of similar triangles
be divided
by drawing
may
correspondingdiagonalsus
in Fig.220.
of
Similar
figures are
The
frequent occurrence.
plansof construction work,
FJG
22Q
POLYGOXS
SIMILAK
in
veyor's
shop, a surdrawings
blue prints,
a photograph,
copy of a field triangle,
all examples. The relation
are
enlargedand reduced pictures,
of the different parts in all the foregoingis shown
by
magnifyingor reducingall parts to a definite scale. Thus,
be able to determine
by lookingat a photograph
you may
of a man
that he has large ears, although in the picture
we
the actual
than
of
house
centimeter.
reduced
One
whether
the relation
are
of either of his
measurement
to
tell
the windows
is
the
corresponding
parts
can
brought out
same
are
scale ;
equal.See
ears
may
be less
CONSTRUCTION
OF
SIMILAR
TKI
319
ANGLES
Similar
Algebraic problems
similar
on
figures. The
fact
gons
correspondingsides of similar polyequal furnishes us with an algebraicmethod of
findingdistances.
EXERCISES
and
a'
in.,how
and
8 mm.,
triangles of
similar
the
In
2.
of Fig. 221, if a
triangles
long is // ?
the similar
1. In
how
8 mm.,
in.,a'
if
Fig. 222,
in.,
6 mm.,
long
is b1?
if
.a'=10.5
sides
The
2.7 cm.,
and
sides of
6.
casts
of
side
stick'at
the
same
221
FK,
223
sides.
triangleare
and
are
board
desired.
long,
How
wide
"/ \
be?
day
long.
time?
y.
6 in.
and
long.
IS^in.
10 in.
Flo
similar
other
the
certain time of
shadow
16, 20,
triangleare
4 in. wide
second
//
"
a/\h
the values* of
be
the
At
cm.
is to be
the other
7.
and
mm.,
rectangularboards
Two
should
of
similar
is to
One
Find
12cm.
Find
triangleis 22.
5.
of
is
shortest
The
26.
and
long
sides
The
b =12
mm.,
how
15 mm.,
4.
trianglesof Fig.223,
the similar
In
3.
Draw
How
a
foot rule
long
is the shadow
of
yard
820
8.
the
The
A I. MATHEMATICS
; K.\ KK
the
long. At
is
high
time
same
of
the shadow
ft. long.
7
to be
vertical stick
determine
the
7.5'
60'
trianglesimilar
If
stick? the
the
to
let h denote
we
FIG.
22 1
The
Solution.
shadow,
the
is the
10.
paper
chimney
Draw
as
in
draw
AC
of
the shadow
time
ments
of
shadow
6"
2.5
7.5
EB
paper,
making
in
it DE
Fig. 227.
as
in
the
ratios
high
decimal
Howdo
EB
? What
coincide
Choose
Fig. 227.
squared
triangleon
base
z
A'
seg
with
one
compare?
FIG.
the triangles
any
line
Find
the
to
parallel
the
ratios
and
"
"
DA
these
same
Cf
and
scalene
the
squared
pointD on
to two
DA
the
on
Measure
IIAB.
CD
Draw
At
11.
long.
man
CE, and
Why?
is 85.2 ft.
chimney
triangleABC
Fig.226. Through
form
rays
20.
DA
sun's
line DE
CD,
the
The
and
225
first
Then
9.
we
may
without
FIG.
How
2^ ft.
State
your
conclusion
base
"
and
7A B
as
227
How
letter
do
theorem.
322
GENEKAL
EA
Show
19.
the
in
is drawn.
to be 80
distance
the swamp
365.
found
are
Find
respectively.
the line AD
and
to CB,
perpendicular
MATHEMATICS
The
lengths
ft.,90 ft.,and
250 ft
AB.
across
uring
by meas
Fig. 232.
The
preceding
with similar triangles
exercises dealing
solved by means
of a special
were
type of equationexpressingthe fact that two ratios in the
geometricfigurewere
equal. Thus in Fig.233 the line AB
is divided into two
parts whose ratio is  (see the method
of Ex. 16, Art. 364). In this construction it turns out that
Proportion.
4F
3
Wh.v''
f.
A.
,B
''
~2*"
?.
DE
AF
AD
and
"="
Such
''
Vs/
Why?
Why?
Fio.
233
of two ratios,
which expresses equality
equation,
is called a proportion.
The line segments AF, FB, AD, and
said to be proportional,
in proportion.This
DE
or
are
that AF
divided
means
by FB will always equal AD
divided by DE.
A proportionmay
thus be defined as an equationwhich
of two fractions ; as, T8:rf. Another
expresses the equality
an
ct
example
"
a
c
of
divided
is to
written
by
"
rf,"or
a
proportionis
a
=
c :
c
=
"

This
may
"
be
is to
a
equals c divided by "?,"or
b equals c over
d." Sometimes
over
is not
desirable.
read
b
as
it is
CONSTRUCTION
OF
SIMILAR
TRIANGLES
323
EXERCISE
Is
the
366.
a
Means
and
proportion are
third terms
Is
answer.
your
statement
the
first and
last terms
the
extremes
and
second
Thus,
in the
called
means.
the extremes
are
The
extremes.
and
b and
the
the
proportion

"
"
in
and
and
means.
EXERCISES
1.
What
statement
2. Make
the
can
with
Theorem
of
extremes
product
the relation
on
proportion. Exs.
law
wellknown
proportions and
the
productof
theorem
or
the
The
theorem
ft
a
Let
means
.
may
be
represent
bd
we
between
"
extremes.
the
and
the
a
follows
get
fraction
proportion.Multiplyingboth
any
cbd
_
each
means
proved as
abd
Reducing
product
be.
by
the
the
c
=
f*
c
=
members
ad
of
compare
is
givenproportion
stated thus
product of
a.
If the
the
make
you
several
up
means
367.
the
with
product of the means
the following proportions
:
in
the extremes
of
the
Compare
lowest
to
ad
"
be.
terms,
324
"
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
16
4
of
findingthe
in the
L.C.D.
equation
in that way,
The
law
is also
it is
since
48.
16.
convenient
reduce
say
of
test
find
usuallysimpler to
solving
precedinglaw, and
the
simply use
we
and
"
"
the
proportionality
productsthan to
terms.
EXERCISES
Test
1.
following
the
statements
to
if
see
they
are
proportions:
'
l5 J 12/
15
.
'
'
'
35
77'
"
11
"
Find
2.
the values
check
.=
1.4
t .o
in the
the
Solution.
o~o
Z.Z
"
"
originalequations :
"/ +
20
yz
11 +
"d"n"iT5'
3^
3+1
,
"
'y2"".
3
Check
11 3
irT3=irri
i"
8
_
14
followingproportions,
} 10"5'
y~12
7.7
_
o.o
unknowns
in
by substituting
"
'
2.5
11.5
(*")
"
^~K
"66_l
ff\\
_
"
of the
^

_^21
~~
5a
ox
and
(b)
2^5
2
v*)
\~J
42
'
~~
14"
7'
9.
!(3F SIMILAR
CONSTRUCTION,
13
IL
"
.^
If 5 and
3.
1. and
each
are
obtained
in
are
Show
4.
whose
What
The
anglesand
formed
is
If
8.
League
11.
If
making
make
the
other
The
of
Boston
won
long into
parts
68, lost
Chicago
have
lime
and
ft. of
of two
2 is to 5
as
32 ;
complementary
two anglesthus
cm.
4^ in. wide;
is
wide
in
teams
other
have
ft. of
much
as
the
ten
American
more
of each
are
36.
gauits.
tied
been,
sand
it ?
64, lost
Chicago won
to
won
mortar, how
ft. of mortar
with
used
is needed
in
to
Proportion involved
in variation.
Many
physics,chemistry,generalscience, domestic
astronomy, and
play each
must
cu.
?
is
shape. One
in. long ; how
leading
two
to
2.4
ratio
long
cm.
in.?
is 18
scheduled
or
two
10
segment
ratio of the
map
same
were
ft. of
line
one
other,the
railroad
have
cu.
variation
thus
number.
54 in.
from
representedby 2
records
cu.
numbers
angles.
96
368.
subtracted
books
many
Boston
in
be
on
were
the
four
righttriangleare
the angles.
.Find
the
If the teams
how
angles of
^. Find
1 in.
The
10.
it,the
board
a.
parts whose
two
ratio is
in. long.
7g^
and
to
parts of
two
to the
Two
9.
divide
added
is
distance
from
into
acute
10"
If
7.
subtracted
the
are
is,their
added
K'
y^.
if it is divided
6.
each
are
to
J
O
_
proportion.Find
how
ratio is
5.
326
~3
U/
_1_
"
/i\
.
~~
_I
/T
~T~
x
'
"
'
that
14:
TRIANGLES
mathematics
proportion.In
may
be
fact, the
solved
whole
problems
science,
by either
theory of
826
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
involved
proportionis
this fact is not
in
discussion
our
obvious
always so
to
of variation,but
beginner.The
fact
that
in
to
list of exercises.
EXERCISES
Solve
by
1. If 11
either variation
men
will it take 15
(a)
Solution
build
can
walk
cement
in 82
variation
problem
mt
k.
(The
time
it
walk
Then
11
"
82
Hence
k
this value
Whence
in
the
same
inverse
This
group
takes
902.
as
the
902 ;
15.
15 t
902,
*TV
time
build
inverselyas
of men.)
60T2Sda.
The
to
necessary
number
build
of
the
men
is not
walk, but
in
proportion means
of
men
as
the time
"
the
is to the second
first group
of men
it takes the second
group is to the time it
the
Substituting
three
known
facts,
II !i
15
Whence
and
to
case,
proportionproblem.
ratio
mt
and
as
k.
of k in the second
but
Solution
takes
varies
the number
(b)
long
the
Using
da., how
to build it ?
men
as
proportion:
or
15
7 82'
d,
c/
902,
T*
60
da.
CONSTRUCTION
If 200
2.
ft. of the
of 125
The
3.
Two
4.
same
farmer
the
has
other
must
doubletree
as
so
horses
369.
forms
to
is the
weight
certain
12
rods
work
varies
the
to
work
that it takes
the
as
$12.80,how
cost
proportion
same
kind
much
they
do.
16 da. to do.
of which
team
lb.
If"
horse
one
the farmer
place the
distribute
the
load
clevis
on
according
lb.
1200
weighs
their
to
fourfoot
the
to
size
Different
will
1500
weight, where
of the
60 lb.,what
327
their wages.
Compare
5.
in
paid
are
men
TRIANGLES
of wire ?
fencing of
do in 24 da. the
can
and
weighs
yards bought. If
bought for $44.80?
be
wire
kind
of wire
cost
SIMILAR
of
number
can
ft. of copper
OF
be
of
arrangements
interested
proportion may
by solving the exercises
a
in
be
proportion. The
seeing in how
arranged. This
that
different
many
he
dent
stu
may
learn
follow.
EXERCISES
Arrange
1.
Can
the
you
How
3.
write
the
two
2, 5, 8, and
numbers
do
you
3, 6, 7, and
numbers
possible.Do
as
2.
the
decide
for the
same
20
as
many
tions
propor
2, 5, 8, and
be
not
of these
terms
which
as
numbers
will
ratios that
in
14
arrangement
20.
equal, using
ratios ?
constitutes
proportion?
The
as
precedingexercises suggest

may
take
four
forms,
(a) The
given proportion
as
that
follows
proportionsuch
328
GENERAL
(b)
The
form
MATHEMATICS
obtained
the
by alternating
means
in
(a):
in
(a):
a
=
~c d'
(d)
and
obtained
form
(c) The
The
form
in
extremes
the
by alternating
obtained
both
by alternating
last form
the
means
(a) :
b
The
extremes
be obtained
can
simply by invertingthe
ratiosin (a).
know
We
that the
applyingthe
of the
means
Furthermore,
case.
obtained
both
number.
members
of the
of
one
any
by dividingthe
the proper
by
proportions
givenabove are true, for by
that the product
test of proportionality
we
see
in each
equals the product of the extremes
them
of the
members
Thus,
could
to
get
equationad
"
be
have
been
equation ad
we
by
ab.
must
be
divide
Why ?
l"
ad
".
Then
ab
from
which
"=
"
ab
or
form
(c).
Theorem.
The
330
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
is
What
1.
between
proportional
mean
Let
HINT.
*

X
=
.
From
which
Then
Show
2.
9 ?
the number.
TU
Ineii
4 and
x
36.
6.
"
proportion
the
by
root
of
equationb
372.
is a
2 and
equals f or
"
the square
2 and
18 ? between
800 ?
between
proportional
mean
a? and
i2; between
y3.
How
pick
to
triangles. The
that in certain
cases
AC
corresponding sides
of Fig. 236
triangles
line is
is
are
of
similar
placedso
similar
and also of
side of A ADC
the similar
out
similar
Thus,
triangles.
This
"
between
proportional
mean
40 ? between
4. Find
3? and
(read
given
ac"~).
3. "What
10 and
"
" Vac
is
ABC.
triangle
suggests that
twice
line may
occur
of the
the proportion
respondingsides.
it is seen
way
line becomes
a
the
in
cor
In this
that
FlG
236
the
between
the other two.
proportional
This analysiscan
be checked
only by actuallywriting
the proportionof pairsof correspondingsides of similar
the student must
triangles.In order to do this correctly
sides of similar triangles
remember
that "he ("nrrexpondinri
mean
CONSTRUCTION
OF
are
lie
SIMILAR
TRIANGLES
381
""
we
write the
may
from
following
proportion:
(oppositeZ
AD
in A
^4 C
ADC)
(oppositeZ
2:
in A
ADC)
(oppositeZ
A C
z' in A AB
^(opposite
(7)
AD
Z.C
in
AACB)
AC
",
1 hat
is,
AC
is thus
AC
and
be
to
seen
the
proportionalbetween
mean
AD
AB.
Show
in
similar
the
between
that
way
is, show
that
"
BC
=
BC
"
is
BC
and
hypotenuse AB
BD
that
AB
the
proportional
mean
adjacent segment
BD
"
AB
cussion
preceding exercises and disIn
a
right triangleeither side
by the theorem:
between
the
proportional
including the rightangle is a mean
hypotenuseand the adjacent segment of the hypotenusemade
by a perpendicularfrom the vertex of the rightangle to the
We
may
the
summarize
hypotenuse.
righttrianglea perpendicularis
drawn
from the vertex of the rightangle on the hypotenuse,
the perpendicularis a mean
proportional
the segments of the hypotenuse.
between
will
The truth of the precedingtheorem
A
D
from
the following:
be seen
Fio. 237
In AABC
(Fig. 237) Z C is a right
373.
angle,and
and
the
If
Theorem.
CD
"
AB.
in
f ff
because
correspondingsides
are
therefore
ADC
in
CDS,
proportion.
332
MATHEMATICS,
..GENERAL
:....
...;_
EXERCISES
1. Write
drawn
altitude
the
Find
2.
the
out
the
to
the
precedingtheorem.
hypotenuse
of
right
*3.
right triangleABC
from
is drawn
length of
the
Find
374.
on
line
two
In
of
ments
and
mean
If
AB.
CD
furnishes
with
us
as
will
the
On
equation
construct
B
b from
and
mean
Proof.
is
and b.
A K
in
lay off
Fig. 239, we
AC
as
diameter
we
~~~
^
/'
at D.
the
required
proportional.
BD
'
With
C:
to
perpendicular
intersectingthe circle
Then
At
semicircle.
erect
we
CC
=
working line, as
structing
con
Construction.
to
of
be shown.
now
situation,
theorem
4.
any
CL
from
then
dicular
perpenA I)
method
are
we
know
We
8,
proportional. The
mean
between
proportional
segments,
331
page
mean
Fig.238
to
AB.
Construction
of Art. ^73
at C)
(rightangled
Connect
with
/'
'
I /'
[^_
rJL
and
C with
the
required
tional
vided
D.
between
we
can
BD
Then
propor
mean
a
show
is
and
b pro
OK
FIG.
239.
MEAN
PROPORTIONAL
CONSTRUCTION
that ZD
is a
right angle. (Why?) We shall proceed to show that ZD
right angle by proving that if any point on a circle is connected with
the ends of a diameter, the angleformed at that pointis a rightangle.
is
CONSTRUCTION
In
AC
Fig.240
and
show
that
ZZ)
Connect
Z
two
equal
Z y
for the
+ Z
same
with
.s',
the
ends
the
on
of
AC.
FIG.
240
diameter
We
must
(1)
angle of
the
to
circle constructed
333
right angle.
.s
nonadjacent
and
given
TRIANGLES
0.
SIMILAR
connected
exterior
an
is
is
and
Then
because
have
we
point
OF
of
sum
angle
tri
the
interior
angles;
Z t + Z I'
(2)
reason.
(2),
Since
+ Z y
+ Z y
Z / + Z t + Z ('.
,s+
180",
Why?
Why
But
and
Z "'.
Why?
2 Z"
180".
..Why?
Z"
90".
Why?
Why?
Z "
Therefore
2 Z.v +
Zs
Then
ZZ)90".
Then,
if in
Fig. 239
Z D
"
BD
and
BD
is
proportionalbetween
mean
Give
and
is true,
b
reasons.
EXERCISES
1.
Explain
line segments
2.
25, 25
3.
is
In
be
16, 4
and
9, 16
A
and
given
constructed.
36.
triangleABC,
lengths of
two
between
proportional
mean
16, 4 and
and
proportionalbetween
mean
may
Construct
9 and
and
how
CB.
AD
2, and
DB
6.
Find
the
334
GENERAL
4. Find
and
the
in
proportionalbetween
mean
Fig.242.
Measure
5.
MATHEMATICS
and
in
in Ex.
in
the
and
proportional
mean
4.
n
Fir.. 242
*6.
Construct
equal in
square
given rectangle;
to
to
area
given parallelogram
; to
given triangle.
a
375.
Fourth
called
the
to
fourth proportional
methods
two
of
given numbers
findingthe
5, and
a,
Let
method.
Algebraic
",
fourth
6, and
d is
^'
\Jv
There
c.
are
three
to
proportional
c.
represent
the
value
the
of
fourth
proportional.
a
TI,
Then
c
=
ft
(bydefinition
of
Solvingfor
fourth
ax
x,
proportional).
be.
be
x_
a
FIG.
Geometric
lines,as
draw
b, and
a,
See
Then
shown.
as
if you
given
Fig. 243,
angle, as
line A Clay
On the other
IIDF
three
in
convenient
any
DEl.
EG
Take
method.
FG
show
can
How
FOURTH
CONSTRUCT
TO
PROPORTIONAL
and
Z.BAC.
On
oSAF=c.
is the
why
243.
AB
lay
off AD
Draw
DF.
Then
required fourth
the construction
a,
draw
proportional.
is correct.
EXERCISES
1.
Check
construction
the
to
if
see
"
2.
Construct
2 cm.,
the
four
and
"
fourth
3 cm.,
by measuring
segments
above
cm.
three
given
long respectively.
to
proportional
line segments
CONSTRUCTION
Show
3.
1\ cm.
4. Construct
6 cm., and
fourth
obtained
segment
33o
in Ex.
'1
three
proportionalto
segments
5 cm.,
long respectively.
work
your
find the
To
376.
the
TKIA^ULES
long.
cm.
5. Check
*
SIMILAR
that
algebraically
be
should
OF
22
by
quotientof
To
specialmethod.
in Ex. 4
find
 in
method.
algebraic
an
arithmetical
two
per cent
numbers
by
we
equation ^
w
(Why?) This proportion
lar
suggestssimiIf we
triangles.
=
take
horizontal line
(Fig. 244)
OM
line
dividend
as
on
then
OM
and
divisor
as
lay off OA on
equalto 22 units,
at A
erect
and
units,
we
pendicular
permark
Di
equal to
off AB
our
line,
we
de nd
70
solve
can
M
Li
FIG.
244
problemprovided
draw
to it.
another
Call DR
Stretch
line DR
NOTE.
Therefore
proofis
22
is
at
so
and
that it passes
C.
or
The
at
quotientline
Then
OM
parallel
quotientline.
the
stringfastened
J5,meeting the
units above
100
31%
approximately
of 70.
through
330
( J KN
K1J A L
M ATH.EMATK
'S
EXERCISES
Point
*1.
the similar
out
in
"used
quotients
proportional.
of
Fig. 244.
the device
Read
the
for expressing
sides which
are
*2.
13
trianglesin
garden
377.
in per
cents.
Verbal
solved
problems
by
proportion. We
have
shop,and engineering
shall proceed to
problems by using our
of these
study how to solve some
knowledge of proportion.
Art. 233, we recognized
In the studyof turningtendency,
familiar principle
of the balanced
beam : The
the following
leftweighttimes the leftlever arm equalsthe rightweighttimes
As
the rightlever arm.
a
formula
"
I~
777
tins
may
This
to
all
seesaw.
that
be
written
wlll
u'2lz.
is alreadyfamiliar
principle
who
have
played with a
They discovered long ago
board
teeter
will
100
60
Ib.
Ib.
FiG
245
balance
obtained
by multiplyingthe
equal products are
weight of each person by his distance from the point of
support (fulcrum).
crum
If, in Fig.245, B weighs 60 Ib. and is 5 ft. from the fulF, then A, who
weighs 100 Ib.,must be 3 ft. from
5
100
3 is a specialcase
of
the fulcrum.
Thus, 60
generallaw wll1 w%lz.
If we
divide both members
of the equationiv^^ W212by
when"
"
"
w^ly we
get
nn
"
'2
wi
which
is in the form
of
proportion.
MATHEMATK
GESEKAL
In
7.
with
force is exerted
What
the axle
on
Find
62
if
as
ward
up
18
51 Ib.
19
Jaif ^
40
ft.,
in.,
MIXTURE
much
1. How
FIG.
Ib.
Ib.,and ^=38
=26
"/2
added
make
to
it test
gal. of milk,
10
fat?
butter
4%
the
number
of
gallonsof
water
10
the number
of
gallonsof
diluted
10
the amount
of butter
10)
the amount
of butter
248
PROBLEMS
be
must
water
Let
Solution.
ALLOY
AND
butter fat,to
testing"\"fo
Then
result
Ib.,and w1
Find
9.
lifts
man
?
lifting
of the man's
8.
(Fig.248)a
is 2" ft.
the axle to F
"/2
automobile
an
from
raise
attemptingto
"
added.
milk,
51
and
"
$ff(x
Since
"
"
of butter
the amount
$1
10=
fat remains
milk.
milk.
constant,
(x
Why
'i
Whv
'{
100
110
a:
200
4
2.
much
25
40
fjo.
1,the
physicianhas
water
Solution.
100
10
25%
he add
must
Consider
number
of
gallonsof
mixture
to be added.
of listerine in water.
to it to make
it
arbitraryquantity
an
water
How
mixture
15
of
the
mixture,
say
oz.
Let
the
number
100
Then
100
oz.
the number
of
ounces
of water
added
to
of the mixture.
of
ounces
in the
new
mixture.
every
CONSTRUCTION
OF
SIMILAR
originalmixture
is
TRIANGLES
339
listerine,
25
"
"
mixture.
new
And
since
15% of the
mixture
new
25
of listerine in the
is to be
listerine,
=JL5_
'
100
1500
+15
15
Hence
66$
oz.
of water
must
water
should
100
a:
2500.
1000.
be added
to
100
every
of the
oz.
originalmixture.
much
How
3.
of the
4oz.
mixture
patent medicine
of other
How
quarts
many
5% solution
is salt)
to make
7.
Two
worth
28$
15%
added
of water
qt. of
it
that
so
alcohol ?
be
must
mixture
12
to
much
70
mixed
with
pure
30
qt.
In
are
in order
gold ?
pound.
per
used
be
that
so
How
in the
dealer
costing a
pounds
many
mixture
oz.
that
in
case
weighing
30$ per
mixture
will be
of
kind
each
of
and
25$
50 Ib. of the
which
of
mass
30
of coffee
mixed
be
to
coffee must
of
it
of
cent
grades
are
there
2 to make
pound
8.
bottle containing
30% alcohol,how
only 20%
pure to make
"\Yhat per
solution
be
shall contain
of alcohol 82
6.
to
in Ex.
contains
ingredientsmust
mixture
5.
originalmixture
added
4. If
the
be
copper
oz.
there
contains
must
shall
be
be
80
oz.
added
}""/.
340
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
Let
Solution.
Then
80
4
the number
of
ounces
of copper
the number
of
ounces
in the
the
30
and
y
between
ratio
the
the ratio
80
Then
Hence
40
In
of
of
10
oz.
of the
Gun
10.
Ib. of gun
2050
How
copper.
gun
metal
metal
*378.
weighs
may
should
is
silver
of
of tin and
certain
861
be
added
as
much
as
of
the
are
that
gold ?
An
contains
alloyof
1722
that 1050
so
Ib. of copper
in order
copper.
grade
there
oz.
be added
only ^ oz.
contain
tin must
contain
weighing 80
silver should
composed
metal
times
alloyto
new
be added.
Specificgravityproblems.
2.89
the
Why?
much
much
alloy
Why?
alloyshall
new
sample of
sample.
120.
How
gold.
the
an
oz.
of
mass
_..
of copper
oz.
10
whole
"_
80
9.
alloy.
new
gold.
gold in
ri,1
the
to be added.
Ib. of
Ib. of the
cubic
cubic
foot
foot of
of
glass
water
(a
foot of water
2.89 is
weighs 62.4 Ib.).The number
called the specific
gravityof glass.In general,the specific
gravityof a substance is defined as the ratio of the weight
of a givenvolume of the substance to the weightof an equal
it mean,
would
volume
of water at 4" centigrade.What
therefore,to say that the specific
gravityof 14karat gold
cubic
is 14.88 ?
cubic centimeter
of distilled water
at 4"
tigrade
cen
CONSTRUCTION
OF
SIMILAR
TRIANGLES
341
EXERCISES
1. How
cubic
many
centimeters
of distilled water
(specific
with
400 cc. of alcohol
gravity equal to 1) must be mixed
gravityequal to 0.79)so that the specific
(specific
gravityof
mixture
the
Find
HINT.
the
to
shall be 0.9?
the
of the
weight
2. Would
How
cubic
many
with
be used
4. What
1
379.
to
be
should
of copper and
and
set
the
equal
sum
zinc.
gold on the
Explain your answer.
dition
con
specific
gravityis 8.5.
centimeters
of copper (specific
gravity8.9)must
cc. of zinc (specific
gravity7.15)to make brass ?
is the
and
cm.
100
parts
cubic foot of
is made
Brass
3.
two
mixture.
accept half
you
that you
of the
weight
specific
gravityof
weight 32.7
steel
sphere of
radius
gm.
geometricexercises
article are
important. The student
them, and
try to
carefully,
prove
Proportionalityof
given in this
study them
Its
The
areas.
each.
illustrate
EXERCISES
1. Prove
as
the
that
the
areas
their
products of
of two
rectanglesare
ing
correspond
to each
other
dimensions.
by #j
and
the
Denote
Proof.
their
and
is
tangles
rec
'
shown.
Rl
albl.
Why?
Rz
a2b2.
Why?
2LI.
a A
Why?
5l
R2
It
as
the
Fig. 249,
in
7?2,as
dimensions
Therefore
of
areas
important to
dividingthe members
note
FIG.
that
of the
the
first
249
proportion is obtained by
equation by those of the second.
last
842
GENERAL
2. If two
to each
rectangles(Fig.250)
other
3. If
their altitudes.
as
to each
they are
of
other
as
have
(Followthe
rectangleshave
two
The
MATHEMATICS
method
of Ex.
1.)
tudes,
equal altitheir bases.
area
that the
5. .Prove
are
to each
The
6.
each
other
of
the
as
7. The
as
The
each other
their
trianglesare
products of their
altitudes.
are
to each
other
as
their bases.
two
other
as
their bases.
and
tudes
equal alti
angle,
of Ex. 9: a righttrifollowingby means
isosceles triangle,
each equal
an
an
obtuseangledtriangle,
given triangle.
*10.
and
equal.
are
to
bases
to each
are
that
Prove
to
their
equal altitudes
9.
of
areas
as
products of
two
the
of two
areas
to each other
as
grams
parallelo
altitudes.
areas
other
of two
areas
Construct
the
SUMMARY
lowing
chapter has taught the meaning of the folsimilar
and
words
phrases: similar triangles,
extremes, fulcrum, mean
polygons, proportion,means,
fourth proportional,
alloy,specific
gravity.
proportional,
380.
This
381.
Polygons that
382.
In
equal and
the
same
shape are
similar.
similar
the
have
CONSTRUCTION
383.
1.
Two
OF
similar
Making
SIMILAR
triangles
may
angles of
two
TRIANGLES
be constructed
equal
one
343
to
two.
by
angles of
the other.
2.
3.
Making
Making
ratio
the ratios of
correspondingsides equal.
the ratio of two
sides of one
equal to the
sides of the other, and the angles included
two
these sides equal.
of
between
384.
proportionexpresses
385.
convenient
386.
ad
be,
equalityof
ratios.
two
test of
product of
the
we
is the theorem
proportionality
the means
equals the product of
the
write
may
following four
:
proportions
a
387.
similar
method
388.
The
fact that
...
the ratios of
correspondingsides of
equal furnishes us with an algebraic
polygons are
of findingdistances.
Inaccessible
determined
by
distances
means
of
out
of
doors
often
may
be
proportion.
problems and mixture, alloy,and specificgravityproblems may be solved by equations which take
the form of proportions.
389.
Beam
the base of
triangle,
and the
the triangle
cut off is similar to the given triangle,
correspondingsides are in proportion.
390.
If
391.
followingimportant theorems
have been proved:
parallelograms
of two
the
line is drawn
to
parallel
The
1. The
as
areas
of two
product of
about
are
parallelograms
altitudes.
to
the
each
area
other
344
GENERAL
2.
The
other
each
to
are
of
areas
their
as
altitudes,
having
and
altitudes
equal
the
of
areas
each
to
are
bases
equal
two
other
as
bases.
Three
392.
for
proved
If
393.
of
vertex
1.
3.
similar
of
areas
right
triangle
each
also
similar
of
side
Either
between
the
about
the
is
the
to
the
hypotenuse,
similar
given
triangles
triangle.
proportional
mean
were
from
drawn
two
the
to
is
perpendicular
segments
into
391
Art.
triangles.
perpendicular
divided
is
and
line
in
those
to
rectangles
right angle
triangle
The
two
the
the
are
2.
theorems
in
The
which
the
parallelograms
two
having
parallelograms
their
MATHEMATICS
between
hypotenuse.
the
right angle
whole
hypotenuse
is
mean
and
tional
propor
the
adjacent
segment.
The
394.
1.
How
2.
How
following
to
to
constructions
construct
construct
parallelogram,
3.
How
to
triangle equal
4.
How
to
construct
5.
How
to
divide
have
given
ratio.
given
a
taught:
equal
square
to
given
tangle,
rec
triangle.
or
construct
to
been
proportional.
mean
have
line
right
triangle
scalene
fourth
or
an
isosceles
triangle.
proportional.
segment
into
two
parts
which
34l"
In
GEXE11AL
form
another
MATHEMATICS
of
many
shall want
we
to
distances
measure
that
not
can
other obstructions.
We
can
usuallydetermine
set forth in the
the method
1. Measure
objectso
that
enough
a
scale
such
distances
by following
followingoutline:
angles in the real
objectcan be made.
drawing of
the
TRIGONOMETRY
2. Draw
347
the
on
figureto scale,preferably
squared paper.
3. Measure
carefullywith the compasses and squared
ible
paper the lines in the figurewhich represent the inaccesslines of the actual objectthat is being considered.
FIG.
252.
THE
(Courtesyof
the
4. Translate
used
units
in
LIBRARY
FINISHED
Industrial
Arts
Magazine)
obtained
measurements
measuring the
TABLE
lines of the
EXERCISES
1. A
He
from
starts
east, then
home
walks
man
his home
around
his home
from
at
0.95 mi.
A, walks
How
far
from
swamp
(Fig.253).
north,then
B
1.2 mi.
i2ml
is he ?
Solution.
drawing
shown
Let 2
cm.
represent1
mi.
Make
on
in
side of every
(Why ?) The
small square
represents0.1
mi.
of miles
is 13.9
small
units
long. Hence
AD
Why?
348
2.
Show
how
followed
are
3.
to
4.
132
in the
startingat
man
yd.
walks
man
north.
Two
6.
8.
from
far
of
a
"
plate
"
Find
it would
of the
from
the
is
desk
your
top
the scale 1
cm.
whose
square
find
and
=
side
the length of
the
ft.)
is 90 ft.
throw
from
ABC
try
coun
onally
diagA
3'3
to
mi"
FlG
road.
is said to have
520
south, then
they ?
are
roadbed
12 mi.
15 mi.
much
be to walk
roadbed
road
to scale
how
it is to follow
than
9.
out
walks
walks
base."
line
country
across
point. One
other
the
drawing,find
second
broken
The
road.
diamond
scale
to
154
the
same
(Fig.254) represents
nearer
from
the
apart
scale
baseball
means
yd.)
yd.)
start
to
10
plan of
diagonallyacross.
(Use
7. A
home
cm.
395
48
from
distance
far is he
How
Draw
walks
pointS
9 mi. north
east.
distance
By
12
men
west, then
16 mi.
92
How
for every
cm.
5.
"
the four
56
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
6% grade
which
when
the level
'
Draw
horizontally.
ft. measured
yd. long
254
has
6% grade.
The
11.
In
will
sides of
map
drawn
to the scale of 1 to
40 mi.
long
hundredth
and
of
an
20 mi.
inch.
wide ?
of
Give
rectangularshaped
county
the
answer
to the nearest
TRIGONOMETRY
A
12.
at A B
to
Find
the
angle
at
NOTE.
stone
is 70"
means
surveyor'schain
measured
by
used
FIG.
256.
by
and
distance
The
by
are
wishes to
represented in Fig.255.
tree A
railroad surveyor
the
if BC
and
of
steel
(Fig. 257).
of
means
surveyors
STEEL
13.
transit
FIG.
Lake
the
and
determine
15.
In
ured
meas
at
or
is
endpointsof
the
SURVEYOR'S
shore.
steel
report to class
Fig. 259,
Michigan.
lake
angle
257.
If available examine
In
are
chain
FIG.
CHAIN
by surveyors
14.
AC
The
to mark
yd.
if the
swamp
100 yd.
BC
across
measures
lines
TAPE
*
He
the swamp
the distance from
measure
finds it to be 110
across
and
349
is represented. Find
ING
CHAINPINS
the distance
a
258.
tape.
Reproduce
Fig. 260"
on
or
of S
the
from
swimming
A B
by
means
to
measurements
course
of
across
scale
scale and
buildings.
a
small lake
drawing.
350
GENERAL
BC
16.
40
"
dimensions:
and
of
area
triangleA
its
determine
=
20
yd.;
area.
calls for
"
.4.6
scale
squared paper
the
MATHEMATICS
the
altitude,
an
student
will draw
*17.
from
one
In
order
to
stations A
to BC
measure
and
long (1 chain
followingangles
chains
The
50";
scale and
to
66
Z.BCD=
*18.
Two
Z.CDA
find
then
the
distance
in Lake
Michigan
then
intersect
streets
from
at
along
angle
an
the
Draw
132"
figure
in feet.
to B
ing
pump
the shore.
Z. A CD
125".
two
measured:
46"; ZCZ""
distance
the
between
measured
ft.)was
were
and
of
80".
The
corner
lines ?
Construct
HINT.
draw
diagonal
altitudes
two
*19.
transit is
is found
the
Line
The
AB
396.
The
the
to
compasses.
triangles and
two
construct
Then
their
16, above.
surveying wishes
stack
height of a smokein Fig. 261.
The
and
62":
be
is 48 ft.
long
on
the
then
is found
angle x
perpendicularswith
form
Ex
placedat B,
transit rests
of the
were
in
two
to
as
in
shown
as
and
so
of the lot ?
area
the
as
class
to determine
ij
is the
What
to
and
angle
at
A,
l"e 32".
is measured
tripod 3^ ft.
chimney.
Angle
measured
angleKAH
of
elevation.
in
in
Ex.
19
Fig.262
The
are
angles x and
called angles of
shows
find .the
what
angle
is meant
of
which
elevation.
by
an
elevation, the
TRIGONOMETRY
transit
is
of
transit
the
placed
smokestack.
at
is first
The
in
farther end
is then
^
raised until
through
KAH,
is the
turns,
which
the
telescopeA
angle of elevation of
"0JLtal
\{
Une
K
FIG.
the
A,
irom
pouit
262.
observation.
or
ANGLE
OK
ELEVATION
EXERCISES
By
of
means
solve
the
the
82 ft. long on
protractor
is 20"
sun
the
building
heightof
building.
2.
Find
3.
the
angle
ft. high casts
spire80
A
roof
4.
the
An
4 ft. above
light to
the
the
be
What
plane
a
shadow
120
ft.
when
sun
church
long.
What
angle does
certain steamer
observer
on
finds
water
6". What
is the
is known
the
shore
the
angle
to
whose
of
be 30 ft. above
instrument
elevation
from
the
slopemake
with
distance
is
this
of
observer
to
steamer
5.
of the
lighton
water.
of elevation
slopes1
of
and
shadow
drawings, compasses,
following exercises
1. When
casts
scale
angle
does
if it rises 150
mountain
ft. in
horizontal
distance
of
horizontal
one
tenth
mile ?
is
The
20")?
cable of
352
GENERAL
On
flagpole.At a pointA on
the buildingthe angle of elevation of
level grour/470 ft. from
the top of the^lagpoleis 42". At the same
point,A, the angle
of elevation of the top of the buildingis 32". Find the height
of the flagpole.
How
high is the building?
7.
the
top
of
MATHEMATICS
building is
Angle of depression. A
EXERCISES
If
1.
the
water, and
above
from
the
the
angle
lighthouse (Fig.263)
of
is the
40", what
is
M.
of
height
depression of
be
to
if R C
known
boat
passes
tower
which
on
beam
the
horizontal
Find
horizontal line
is
level.
220 ft.above
sea
searchlight
the
the
angle through which
be depressed from
of lightmust
is
seen
40ft.?
A
2.
from
boat
boat,as
ft.
distance
H
of the
."
the
is 220
,i
the
directlyon
boat
",
it may
that
so
when
B
FlG
263
ANGLE
OF
DEPRESSION
"
shine
it is 300
ft. from
the
base
of
the tower.
3.
far is the
How
boat
the base
from
of
the tower
if the
is 51" ? 30
? Xote that the height of the
depression"
lighthouseis known, and that the distance of a boat out at sea
depends on the size of the angle; that is, the distance is a
function
of the angle. In other words, the lighthouse keeper
angle
needs
"
of
only
distance
of
to know
a
boat
the
at
sea.
angle of depressionto
determine
the
354
GENEKAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
2. WTith
ruler and
the
bearingsof
the
Read
1.
lines in
arrow
protractordraw
Fig. 265.
lines
having the
lowing
fol
bearings:
(a) 26"
(b) 39"
(c) 40"
east of south.
of north.
east
of north.
west
in abbreviated
3. Write
N
the
form
bearingsof
,V
*f
V
W
E
"
W
"
"
W"
"E
s
FIG.
399.
from
(Fig.266)
with
of
Bearing
reference
to
W
h^
265
bearing of
point
point 0
point. The
W"^
the
OB
EXERCISES
ing
Fig. 266 read the bear
In
1.
of
from
(a)A
(b)0
(c)B
2.
and
from
A.
from
O.
Point
9.8 mi.
(d) 0
(e) C
(f) 0
O.
does
north
AB
northsouth
What
from
3.
the
A?
of A
Sketch
and show
from
O.
from
C.
east
of B.
A to B.
make
line
is
B.
is 6.4 mi.
angle
from
Find
What
with
the
through B?
bearing of B
from
B?
the
figurefor Ex. 2
why the anglesappearingas
are
equal.
TRIGONOMETRY
355
The
known
to
8 mi.
be
apart.
Find
the distance
from
each
fort to
the vessel.
400.
The
limitations
of scale
drawings.
By
this time
the
student
401.
Similar
right triangles. A
the
student
method
of
righttriangleswill help
new
and
more
angles. This
drawings,is
for future
accurate
method
may
shorter in most
mathematical
few
be
work.
to
on
similar
understand
determining lines
the
and
independentof scale
and laysthe foundation
used
cases,
exercises
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
1. With
having
the
angle
an
Fig. 267.
2
protractor construct
37".
of
the lines a,
Measure
Find
represent1 unit.
cm.
ratios
"
"
and
rightangledtriangle
figure as
suggested
Let
c.
result
your
of the class.
places.
Did
with
other
all members
bers
mem
of the class
207
";.
the
use
same
of the
two
why
in
l"
Compare
2.
the
b, and
decimal
to two
"
Letter
for
same
size ?
ratios
of their
Show
"
should
be the
number
same
Prove
3.
triangleshave
of one
Could
which
HINT.
side
right
acute
angle
draw
you
two
right trianglewith
that in every
means
5.
balloon
to the
Owing
makes
37"
(Fig.269) is
wind
the
This
angle drawn
by
triangleis
angle A =37"
"
as
Prove.
righttrianglethe
long as
the
hypotenuse.
How
to every
high
is the balloon
?
B
tri
Prove.
1.
O.GO.
200
Solving,
in
is held
similar
Therefore
fastened
the horizontal.
angle with
Solution.
cable
sponding
corre
proportions.
(Use Fig.268.)
equal approximately0.60,or
not
fact that
The
equal. Write
are
does
if two
acute
an
sides
4.
classmates.
an
equal to
as
90;
a
120
\37
ft.
b
Note
that
the
solution
(only two
equations) and
the
does
result
not
now
is
exceedingly simple
that
the
depend
accuracy
upon
the
FIG.
269
of
accuracy
of
Fig. 269.
TRIGONOMETRY
402.
Sine
sine of the
of
an
angleA.
definition
be written
may
357
sin A
Thus,
"
"
c
'
sin 37"
"
would
we
O.GO
(approx.).Do
same
you
think
value
for
if in Ex.
had
we
made
the
angle 47" ?
FHJ.
C
270
EXERCISES
1. Find
HINT.
and
in
Ex.
find the
c, and
1, Art. 401,
value
of
decimal
to two
the
construct
given in
Art. 402.
measure
triangle,
places.
2.
Find
the
sine of each
403.
the
of the
Compare
result
with
the results
classmates.
of
sine
The
Table
graphicpaper
good table, but it would
for every problem. Such
for
calculated
in
you
be
a
the
too
much
trouble
very
of
do 'this
to
the
carefully
table
in
Art. 410.
EXERCISE
Turn
have
the
to
been
by comparing your
and
.see
how
efficient yo\i
the table.
404.
Cosine
article will
of
an
introduce
another
exercises
given
ratio.
trigonometric
angle. The
in
this
358
MATHEMATICS
GEJSEKAh
INTRODUCTORY
Construct
1.
rightangledtrianglewith
43".
.to
two
the
other
of
b and
ratio
ought
to
(Fig.270) is called
Find
c.
angle .1 (see
the quotient
those
of
class.
the
all results
that
places.The
Measure
places. Compare
members
Show
2.
EXERCISES
to
agree
decimal
two
angle A
(approx.).This
side
adjacent
"
for
abbreviation
The
to
"
cosine
means
that
in
the
angle
43"
"
is
cos."
an}
Thus,
43"
cos
0.73
rightangledtrianglethe
as
j7^
is about
long
the
as
hypotenuse.
of
the cosine
3.
Find
4.
Compare
the
the
of cosines
table
in Art. 410.
405.
of
Tangent
an
third
the tangent
Historically
occasion
learn
to
with
ratio
about
more
In
with
Show
2.
by
righttriangles.
first.
We
shall have
EXERCISES
other
that
it.
is the value
Fig.270, what
introduce
now
similar
came
INTRODUCTORY
1.
shall
angle. We
of
Compare
of the class.
members
obtained
result
your
for
in Ex.
1 should
b
agree.
The
ratio
angleA
The
is
abbreviation
for
mean
In
y9^ (approx.)of
"
we
A.
angle.
the
ing
speak
opposite
adjacent.
45"
1.
TRIGONOMETRY
359
EXERCISES
1. Find
2.
the
tangent
of
Compare
1 with
the table of
tangents
in Art. 410.
406.
a
"
"
and
a

are
called
ratios. We
trigonometric
shall
now
407.
Summary
outline
helping him
will
to
The
of definitions.
be
found
convenient
remember
A=
sm
side
"
side
=
"
"
408.
"C
Trigonometric ratios
adjacent
"
"
hypotenuse
side
opposite
side
adjacent
Fig.271):
opposite
"
i'
3. tan
in
lii/potennse
b
A
student
"
'2. cos
the
to
1.
271
ing
follow
clear
examples of
function
buildinga table
table of ratios given,it is easy to see
or
by a
that the value of the ratio changes as the angle changes:
ratio depends for its value upon
that is, a trigonometric
idea.
Either
by your
study of the
own
crude efforts
the
at
360
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
size of the
the
more
one
therefore
NOTE.
Trigonometric ratios
Papyrus (c.1700 B.C. ?),which,
HISTORICAL
the
in
Ahmes
may
itself be
time
of
other
some
collection
has
may
been
even
stated,
before
written
In
Moses.
ratio that
one
of
copy
may
suggested
are
as
with
makes
the
cosine
our
of
use
and
tangent.
first to make
The
Hipparchus,
trigonometry was
studied
He
where
of
at
Alexandria,
he did his
The
Hindus
from
about
from
about
A.D.
A.D.
and
in the
Greek, who
later
He
principalwork.
within
to
year
noteworthyprogress
any
development
lived
about
of
able to calculate
was
150
of
n.r.
Rhodes,
the
length
six minutes.
contributed
the
500, and
800
to
to
the
1000
A.D.
Miiller,14361476),a German,
Regiomontanus (or Johann
its direct astronomical
connection
and made
the subjectfrom
independent science.
In the sixteenth century the subjectdeveloped slowly,but
in the
seventeenth
to
it made
century
very
decided
advance, due
freed
it
an
the
invention
409.
The
of
Table
student
of
should
become
now
the
followingpage.
approximate, but are
on
1" to 89".
familiar with
ratios
accurate
are
in most
enough
for
the
cases
all
table
only
ordinary
work.
410.
The
use
of
beginningon page
in the use
practice
362
trigonometry
are
intended
of the table.
table.
to
The
problems
362
GENEliAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
1. A
balloon
(Fig.272) is
anchored
the
to
ground
at
Solution.
Then
tangent of 57".
"
balloon.
height of
146
But
by
table,Art. 410,
the
57"
tan
1.54.
"
Hence
1.51.
Fir
Solving for
NOTK.
results
a.
The
figure does
need
not
272
ft.
to
independentlyof
obtained
are
224.84
"
146/
be drawn
it. The
for
accurately,
our
is brief and
solution
The
3.
The
length of
line of the
supposing the
4.
pole 20
area, and
ft. in
of elevation of the
HINT.
stringto
its shadow
be
straight.
in
vertically
is 16.78
horizontal
ft. Find
the
angle
sun.
the value
Find
kite
length stands
length of
the
kite is
the
of
elevation
kite
of the tangent
"
Then
look
in the
table
to
"
b
not
see
what
It may
angle
has
be necessary
calculated
complete table
for minutes.
of
tangent corresponding to
for you
Ask
to
approximate, since
your
trigonometricratios.
instructor
to show
the
value
the
you
table
a
more
of
is
TRIGONOMETRY
A tree
5.
with
is broken
the ground
angle of
ground from
the length of
an
6.
edge
A
7.
to
55"
the
pool
and
ladder
has
upper
part makes
the
distance
the
and
subtended
by
and
At
the
point in
pole
against a
the
house
is 25".
reaches
and
distance
the
foot
of
the
the house.
two
The
its
pool.
house
the
the surface.
of the
area
ft. from
table,say
9.
the
on
at
pole standing vertically
Measure
8.
parts form
to
is from
ladder
and
ground,
of the
ladder
the
its two
the tree.
point 19.6
with
the trunk
the radius
Find
circular
center, and
the
of
step on
certain
tangular
rec
the
accurate
an
stairway
rises
protractorand
of
ratio.
trigonometric
across
pointsA and C, a
to A C.
perpendicular
two
line EC
accurate
an
lake
FIG.
273
(Fig.
273)
surveyor
He
measured
off 71 ft. on
^,Z"
Find A C.
Washington Monument
far apart are
ft. high. How
11. The
is 555
observers
two
west
who
from
observe
of the monument
anglesof
HINT.
Fjo
Then
value
274
? (SeeFig.274.)
respectively
If.
its
pointsdue
of A C
tan
20"
GENERAL
364
A
*12.
of the
of
summit
tree
Find
the
on
oppositebank
the
the
FIG.
275
Construct
HINT.
the
secutive
con
milestones
13" and
the
are
two
the base
is
hill
(Fig.275) there
observed
that the
the
From
*13.
river observes
river.
of the
width
is 32".
elevation
angle of
of
top
of
he
56" ; when
bank
standing on the
man
of elevation
angle
MATHEMATICS
TC
from
to be
CMZ.
_L
Let
CMl
Then
x.
tan
77",
(Why?)
(1)
tan
82".
(Why?)
(2)
tan
82"
and
h
Subtracting(1) from
the
Consult
railroad
*14.
through
table
on
field
tan 77".
36, substitute,and
page
having
farmer's
(2),
hundredfoot
as
shown
in
for /;.
solve
right of
Fig. 276.
way
cuts
If the field is
of square
rightof
way
if the
land
an
and
is
the
occupied by the
assessed damage
appraised at
$200
acre.
FIG.
.15.
a
the
ship
has sailed
distance
of
startingpoint?
due
2.05 mi.
How
276
west
southHow
far is the
far is it west
of the
ship
south
of
startingpoint?
of
angle
the
summit
the
Sketch
*17.
mountain
depression of
from
boat
distant
of
the
ft. above
4260
is 41".
boat
mountain
solve
figure and
level the
sea
far is the
How
the
rightangledtriangle
when
ABC
the top of
From
16.
ft.
(a)
30", a
30
(b)
(c)
(d)
42",
60 ft.
64", f,
22
ft.
35", I
85
ft.
(f) a
(g) .1
(h) B
411.
trigonometric formula
can
be
shown
It
productof any
of the
the nine
that the
92.5",c
100
15.2",c
50
ft.
40",
80
ft.
82",
100
for the
of
area
area
of
ft.
ft.
triangle.
triangleequalshalf the
by
multiplied
sides
two
(e)
included
ab sin A
~2~
In
Solution.
the
construct
Fig. 277
CD.
altitude
Then
(the area)
But
sin A
(seethe
Substitutingthe
of
"sine").(2)
(3)
(1),
of 7t in
value
definition
(Why?)
h=bsinA.
Whence
(1)
(Why?)
y.
be sin A
i
_
"
"
EXERCISES
1. A
their
covers
the
angle
tries
*
to
of two
two
find
sides
sides.
the
area
that
the
and
and
the
streets
of the
area
that
With
corner.
the
between
Prove
2.
triangularlot
his
that
discovers
sides from
two
on
boy
of
sine of
and
lot.
a
it extends
completely
60 ft. and
80 ft.
field
protractorhe
finds
it to be 58".
He
then
result should
he
get ?
What
measures
366
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
SUMMARY
This
412.
and
words
steel tape,
of
has
chapter
angle
taught
scale
phrases :
of elevation,
line, bearing of
the
lowing
meaning of the foldrawing, surveyor'schain,
of
angle
of
point,sine
depression,bearing
angle, cosine of an
angle, tangent of an angle, trigonometric ratios or nometric
trigofunctions, solving a triangle.
a
Scale
413.
drawings
used
were
an
as
of
means
indirect
measurement.
414.
of
scale
angles, lines,
of the
mind
and
in
and
of the
the
it is not
useful
in
areas,
relation
checking
However,
is
drawing
parts that
brief
making
getting
of
accuracy
as
in
and
estimates
clear
make
picture
the
up
in
figure,
algebraic solution.
an
accurate
the
as
algebraic
sol ution.
If
415.
equal
to
right triangleshave
two
sides
corresponding
of
are
1" to 89"
angles from
Trigonometric
417.
of
method
other, the
of
of
ratios
one
their
equal.
table of
and .correct
ratios
to
furnish
trigonometricratios
three
us
decimal
with
places.
powerful
solving triangles.
The
418.
of the
chapter contains
The
416.
angle
acute
an
angle
acute
an
of
area
trianglemay
be
expressed by
the
be sin A
,
,.
formula
T=
419.
The
two
sides and
two
sides.
"
"
area
the
of
sine
parallelogram equals
of the
angle
included
the
product
between
of
these
XV
CHAPTER
AND
THEORY
which
methods
the
graphic method
shown
; solution
LINEAR
SIMULTANEOUS
VERBAL
OF
by the
PROBLEMS
graphic
method.
desirable to
problems it is sometimes
This chapter aims
teach three
to
pupilmay apply to such problems. The
unknowns.
two
use
LISTS
unknowns
Two
solving verbal
In
OF
; CLASSIFIED
EQUATIONS
420.
APPLICATION
is
cussion
the dis
in
of the
lowing
fol
problem:
In
baseball
the
between
game
Chicago
15
Cubs
and
York
the
New
Giants, the
made
Cubs
hits
more
Giants.
hits
than
How
the
many
each
did
10
four
team
make?
"x
If
let
we
the
by
y the
the
the
graph
of the
made
condition
there
number
number
Fir.. 278
the Cubs
Obviously
the
of
number
expresses
that
sent
repre
number
hits made
and
made
by
set
as
are
the
any
number
the
eqxiationx
other
?/ +
by
one
team.
4 in
the
equation x
in the problem.
of possiblecombinations
forth
of hits made
by
Giants, then
team
may
This
is
Fig. 278.
367*
be
four
more
clearlyshown
y +
such
than
in the
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
3b'S
EXERCISES
made
of
the
From
1.
the
by
hits
6; 8;
line will
the
on
point (withintegralcoordinates)
possiblecombination of hits such that x
y + 4.
that every
Show
2.
givea
definite
solution
involves
two
of the
hits made
of
number
both
by
given but
fact. Another
one
it
fact
problem
the
that
convinced
is impossible,because
stated
as
have
we
doubt
no
been
have
in
included
is
student
problem
and
unknowns
should
which
the
this time
By
NOTE.
"
20
teams
18.
was
If
the
write
we
tion
equa
=18, expressing
fact,and study
'this second
10
it
by
of the
means
Fig. 279, we
is
that there
see
than
more
that
such
number
total
of
hits
is 18.
made
3. Find
from
the
Fig.279
the
of hits made
by
in
ble
possi
one
combination
the
graph,
because
we
have
separately.The
the two
if the Cubs
Giants
4 ; 6 ; 9 ; 12 ; 15.
made
the
on
point (with integralcoordinates)
18.
possiblesolution for the equationx + y
=
pair of
this
we
two
numbers
must
shown
not
been
unknowns
one
scale,as
the
have
We
XOTE.
279
FIG.
number
.that every
Show
4.
graph
been
able
consideringthe
equations
in the
which
will
different
This
means
satisfyboth
definite
facts about
two
express
ball game.
obtain
to
the
same
solution,
relations
that
between
equations,and
sheet
find
must
we
to
the
to
same
do
'61it
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
is said to be solved
solution
unknowns
when
determined.
are
In
the correct
the
values
of the
graphic method
the
tion.
point of intersection furnish the soluof the graphic method
The followingis a summary
linear equations:
solvinga pair of simultaneous
of the
coordinates
of
1.
Graph
'2.
Find
loth
the
equationsto
point of
the
scale.
same
of the
intersection
two
Hnrs
obtained
in 1.
3. Estimate
the
possible
accuratelyas
as
xraluc
the
find
1.
Solve
check
each
following systems by
the
graphic method
v2x
3y
23,
5y3*
')
W
3*
^5z4*/
values
l.
423.
of Ex.
there
it to the exclusion
+
of the
in
points of
finding the
intersection
correct
in the
is
by
an
no
one
is satisfied
representedby
the
equation
singleequation in
infinite
pairof
each
=
4.
equation.
by
as
Such
example, the
tion
equa
pairs of values
point on the graph
many
distinct
an
two
(unlimited)number
values which
satisfy
are
in determinate
have
you
equations. A
is satisfied
of values, but
'
1 ?
Indeterminate
unknowns
3x=13,
5y6x=S.
problems
difficulties did
What
2.
19,
2y
2^=27,
and
y=s7'
M*
the
equation
is called
as
of
an
LINEAR
SIMULTANEOUS
371
EQUATIONS
EXERCISES
Find
1.
three
solutions
of the
for each
minate
following indeter
equations:
7.
(c) y
(d) 2
6.
(a) x
(b)m
424.
Contradictoryequations.
3n
5.
"
4 ?/
(e) 5
"
(f) 3z
3.
2.
4 "/ 1=
0.
happensthat
It sometimes
Find
numbers
two
such
is 12 arid such
by
is equalto 14.
20
"Z
10
20
281.
FIG.
If
we
let
THE
GRAPH
denote
OF
one
PAIR
CONTRADICTORY
OF
number
and
y the
first condition,
x
From
the second
condition,
study the
graphs of (1) and (2)
axes
(Fig.281).
In
order
to
'2.c
problem
with
'2
"
"
other, then
from
the
12.
(1)
14.
(2)
fxirther
reference
EQUATIONS
to
will
we
the
same
construct
the
coordinate
372
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
What
1.
the
relation
in
graph
Are
2.
of the
of
system
the
the
equations which
the
which
numbers
two
problem given on
between
relation
between
lines of
two
there,then, any
conditions
Fig.281
exist
to
seems
will
preceding page
contradictory
expresses
unknowns
satisfythe
called
is
system of
or
inconsistent,
contradictory,
equations.The graph consists
of two
(at least)parallellines. The definition suggests
that
in
not
verbal
problem
of the
one
given
conditions
is
true.
425.
Identical
pole 10
part increased
If
let
we
of the
and
problem
ft.
long into
by
3 times
two
the
that
parts so
3 times
and
3 y
the
second
the
no
solutions is illustrated
?/ denote
are
of many
has
conditions
10,
(l)
30.
(2)
EXERCISES
1.
the
Graph
scale.
same
2.
the
the
Divide
result
the
with
10
equations x + y
Interpretthe graph.
relation
and
between
and
30
by
3 y
and
30
to
compare
10.
which
(2), above,
the unknowns,
the
called identical,
are
or
dependent,
equivalent
equations.Like
equation,they have an infinite number
express
an
indeterminate
of solutions
but
LINEAR
SIMULTANEOUS
distinct
no
problem
426.
to
two
expressedin
been
has
graphs coincide.
identical equations,one
Their
solution.
leads
Outline
different
two
that
seen
unknowns
may
be
1. Determinant
and
have
in two
intersect.)
and have
2. Contradictory
are
If
condition
their
distinct solution.
equations
(Tlie lines
{The
distinct solution.
no
of
number
linear system of
verbal
ways.
have
We
solutions.
of
373
EQUATIONS
lines
parallel.}
3. Identical and
lines
have
number
infinite
an
of solutions. ( The
coincident.}
are
EXERCISES
1.
outline
by drawing graphs
of each
system
the
preceding
Could
2.
without
427.
two
8 y
you
; 2
10.
have
graphing
them
classified the
?
Algebraic methods
four
3 y
3.
in
systems
Ex.
Explain.
of
unknowns.
to
428.
of
graphs it
in two
process
To
Elimination.
solve
will be necessary
unknowns
to
one
to
system without
reduce
equation in
is called elimination.
one
the two
the
use
equations
unknown.
This
MATHEMATICS
GENEKAL
374
429.
Elimination
problemswhich
by addition or
by addition
follow
Multiplying (1) by
in both
numerically the same
Solution.
Adding,
Solving for
for
.c
in
Solve
3 y
4 +
6.
2.
4 + 2
6,
86
2.
t;.,
Substituting"1
8 y
for // in
(1),3
23 y
+
3
"
"
(2)
7.
f 15 y
Why
(1)
(2) by
addition.
l,
Solution.
Subtracting,
coefficients of
("j)
(4)
by
f 5 y
a
the
3;r4y
make
18
elimination
(1)
=20
(1),
is called
to
as
so
y,
method
6,
or
Check.
This
of elimination
equations,
+
2ar3y
Substituting4
two
subtraction.
Solve
//
The
subtraction.
or
21
so
as
to
make
the
(3)
(4)
23
4 =1.
a:
=3.
a
Hefeee
and
This method
c
="
is called elimination
1.
"
"
1,
1.
by subtraction. Why ?
SIMULTANEOUS
430.
simultaneous
two
by the
unknowns
as
of elimination
Outline
solve
To
follows
LINEAR
by addition
subtraction.
or
linear
equationsinvolvingtwo
addition or subtraction,proceed
of
method
375
EQUATIONS
it contains.
which
of the
either equationcontainingboth
unknown
found
unknowns
and
in step 3 in
solve
for
the
unknown.
second
5. Check
the solution
the
equations
in
by substituting
found.
values
both
of
the
given
EXERCISES
Solve
addition
3
'
check
and
followingsystems by
the
subtraction
or
+ 2 y
ox
3 '//
=
"
"
14,
2z
3y=8.
4z3?/
l,
!'
2a; +
4//=10.
7a +
9y=lo,
5ar9y
2y=16:
"
21.
2i/
o.
+
=
8.
=
"
in '"
$(,.+11,
35.
3x
'
?/
0.
11.
"
"j
23,
3y
:2y
llx7y=6,
+ y
// =
2ar +
'
''
"
5*
of
''
"
method
7,
"
the
28.
10
54
376
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
GEOMETRIC
EXERCISES
heightof
combined
ALGEBRAIC
FOR
SOLUTION
The
14.
rectangularfield
The
15.
is
length
perimeter of
10 yd. more
What
the width.
(Use
Find
difference is 70".
Find
ri)"and
and
and
the
43".
of the
angles
difference
angles
acute
Find
the
of
acute
of the
picture.
all of the
y, and
side
same
"
of
angles.
transversal
are
parallelogram
\
Find
represented
m,
n,
parallelogram.
between
the
right triangleis
angles.
1
picture frame
(Fig.283) has an area of
is 4 in. longer than
frame
21.
282
y.
+ 4
ig
The
FIG.
and
and
by
20.
60"
by
cut
are
/o
(2m
the
diameter.
adjacentangles of
Two
19.
and
circle
angles on the
parallellines are (5 x
cutting two
yd.
interior
The
18.
of the field.
2y2
d.~)
Fig. 282.
in
shown
the
The
transversal
as
the dimensions
75 ft. Find
lines
parallel
Two
17.
a
formula
the
it is wide.
twice
than
of
by
and
the circumference
Find
its dimensions
are
the diameter
exceeds
longerthan
circumference
The
16.
is 25 rd.
of
perimeter
and
tower
in.
44
2g3
wide
sq. in.
it is wide.
The
pictureinside
Find
the
the
dimensions
378
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
Solve
the
3ff +
46
followingproblems by
ll,
the method
2ar5?/?
'
3m
17,
'
oab
7s
3.
3y
l,
"llz5y
2n
130,
'
3x
2"";
2*
3y
2.
"'3z5y
21.
of substitution:
8,
42.
30.
y_
'
*'
9* +
7"=12,
7ar3y=8,
//
_
8"
15*2r=21
2y
l34.
NUMBERRELATION*
check
9.
followingproblems by the
by one of the other methods
Find
two
Find
two
numbers
PROBLEMS
Solve the
and
whose
method
substitution,
is 150 and
sum
of
whose
difference
is 10.
10.
to twice
is added
one
Find
11.
times
the other
the
such
numbers
two
difference is 15 such
whose
The
12.
quotientof
two
8 times
3 times
the
the first
is 2 and
numbers
that when
is 295.
sum
that
the second
the second
Find
numbers
first
plus
plus 7
their
times
is 54.
sum
the numbers.
13.
The
value of
numerator
and
fraction is
^.
The
certain
the
7 to the denominator,
Find
is 4. If 2 is added
fraction
value
of the
to the
resulting
the fraction.
of the two
is 8.
twoplacenumber
If 18 be subtracted
from
the number, the resultingnumber
order.
will be expressedby the original
Find
digitsin reverse
14.
sum
digitsin
the number.
Solution.
in tens'
Let
place.
represents the originalnumber.
Then
10 t +
From
t +
8.
the
digit
LINEAR
SIMULTANEOUS
From
second
the
condition,
10 1 +
Simplifying (2),
Solving (1) and
for
the
Therefore
units'
the
If
If the
has
of
2.
2 t
10.
5.
3.
(2)
t.
(3)
54
is three
twoplacenumber
be
subtracted
expressedby
the
from
the
times
number, the
digitsin
the
reverse
be
49.
by
the
fourth
one
of
number.
of methods
Summary
the
of
divided
Find
ference
by 13, and this difdigits,the quotient is 5.
be decreased
number
433.
the number.
quotientis
the
10
"
twodigitnumber
divided
by the sum
16.
is 53.
number
Find
order.
If
18
(1),
digitof
digit.
difference is
in
number
tens'
The
15.
(3),
Substituting5
379
EQUATIONS
This
of elimination.
of
chapter
solvinga system
1. The
2.
3.
graphicmethod.
Elimination
by addition or subtraction.
Elimination
by substitution.
EXERCISES
Some
method
of your
classmates
may
called elimination
algebraand
by comparison.
classmates
report to your
1. A
followingproblemsby
has
grocer
pound
and
of the
30cent
another
coffee to make
two
worth
coffee must
a
mixture
Turn
to
fourth
standard
this method.
on
PROBLEMS
MIXTURE
Solve the
be interested to learn
kinds
of
any
method
coffee,one
worth
worth
240
with
per
many
300 per
pounds
pound?
380
A
2.
makes
grocer
nuts
to sell at 28
nuts
must
milk
How
4.
butter
butter
fat ?
"What
5.
milk
much
25.5%
of the
much
1.3%
Find
requiredto
are
in
fat.
Let
HINT.
and
mutton
furnish
and
bread
and
If
up
8.
of
22%
test
the
or
The
one
out
diet
table
protein and
daily diet.
and
pure
pure
adult
test
20%
85%
pure
be added
oz.
contains
that 10
so
oz.
requiresabout
75 g.
Mutton
(leg)contains 19.8%
(average)contains 9.2% protein
each
grains
of bread
of
requiredamount
day.
of
and
mutton
proteinand
fat
required of
grains
0.198
0.092
75,
(1)
0.121
0.013
100.
(2)
y turns
standard
the
gal.that
15
of copper
an
testing
cream
respectively.
Then
Solve
fat.
many
for
for
Bread
how
ration
standard
of
fat and
gold 80%
^ oz.
dailydiet
standard
of
and
gal.that
gold 75%
silver must
contain
alloymay
new
The
7.
testing
cream
silver weighing 50
and
copper
How
of
oz.
make
to
of
ounces
give 10
to
of copper.
be mixed
of
numl)er
alloy of
An
oz.
30
butter
testing3.7%
fat must
be mixed
G.
to make
mixed
be
of
grade
fat and
butter
32cent
each
testing5%
fat must
and
nuts
fat ?
butter
must
make
20cent
quantitiesof
What
pound.
of
mixture
to
much
butter
25%
"
he take
How
3.
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
(2) simultaneously.
know
negative,we
out
of the two
on
the
foods
following
fats in the
various
that it is not
possibleto
make
mentioned.
page
foods
gives
often
the
used
amounts
in
the
SIMULTANEOUS
Find
three
standard
each
pairs of
(a)
434.
Mutton
and
and
Bread
and
the number
rice.
of grams
make
required of
(f)
Bread
and
rice.
(g)
Beans
and
cabbage.
cabbage.
(h)
Bread
and
beans.
(i )
(j)
Beef
and
bread.
Beef
and
rice.
Pork
and
eggs.
bread.
Pork
and
beans.
Systems
list of
student
will
that
following list :
(b) Eggs
(c)
(d)
(e)
381
EQUATIONS
combinations
food
determine
diet and
in the
LINEAR
of equations
containingfractions.
problems offers
merely needs
no
to remember
difficulties.
new
to
The
remove
lowing
folThe
the fractions
in each
the
the
of
x,
the constant
term.
:6'
3
x
"
The
first
equation may
12
(1)
(2)
be written
(3)
or
Similarly,
(2) reduces
to
+
"
y=i:
y
\^
Why?
382
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
Reduce
435.
the standard
to
Linear
form,
of
systems
and
solve
the
type
+
work
c\
y
.
Two
and
In
pipes can
the second
second
the
runs
Solution.
2
Let
fill ^
3
runs
cistern if the
fill
can
of the
the number
to
2 hr.
runs
the
3 hr. and
cistern.
of hours
pipe alone
first
first runs
if the
hr.,but
hr.,they
x
of
it will take
fill the
the
first
cistern,
and
the
number
second
Then
the
of; hours
pipe alone
part of the
to
cistern
it
will
fill the
the
take
the
cistern.
first
pipe can
fillin 1 hr.
and
the
y
can
part of the
fill in
cistern
llir.
the
second
pipe
SIMULTANEOUS
From
the
first condition.
;
From
383
EQUATIONS
LINEAR
the second
r^r
(1)
7!
lo
(2)
condition,
+
Multiplying(1) by
(2) by 2,
3 and
6
27
_
and
27
=
that
this
is
linear
Solving,
like the
quits,B
and
can
tank
and
the other
and
the other
alone
(5)
"
in
one
unknown.)
G,
5.
called
work
problems.
PROBLEMS
fence in 4 da.
work
finish the
build
can
28
"
preceding are
WORK
1. A
equation
Problems
(4)
"
15
Subtracting,
(Note
in 3 da.
In
If A
works
6 da. and
how
many
days
can
be filled
3 hr.
pipes one of which runs
two
7 hr.,or by the same
pipes if one runs 5 hr.
6 hr. How
long will it take each pipe alone to
can
by
two
receive
mechanic
and
"7.30. What
an
are
the
wages
per
hour
for
each?
384
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
4.
check
and
fractions,
1
47_15
7; "
"
//i
26
11
19
i.
'M
(y
i/
'Jii
x
"
of the
_5
H
*
getting rid
15
,
'
'
436.
13_3
"
list of
Review
The
following
chapters.In actual
by using either one
verbal
problems.
it is easier to translate
sometimes
algebraic
languageif two
of
member
helpfulif some
into
unknowns
be
the
are
use
the
problem
used.
known,
un
one
It will
the two
in contrast.
methods
PROBLEMS
MOTION
1. A
to
can
crew
upstream
row
and
the rate
Let
Solution.
and
Then, if
we
express
Find
30 min.
in 1 hr. and
of the current
in 40 min.
8 mi. downstream
of the
the rate
in miles
the rate
of the
the
of the current.
xy
in miles
rates
per hour
in still water,
="
the
12 mi.
in still water.
crew
rate
and
crew
per
hour,
(2)
S.
(TO
Adding,
Hence
and
20.
10, the
2, the
rate
rate
of the
of the
crew
current.
in still water,
386
GENERAL
weights balance
Two
6.
the
10 in. from
"
inT^em
the
3 in.
the s"soml.
from
subtracted
iron
An
6 ft.
bar
pounds
when
is increased
weight
fulcrum, the
in each
balance
weight.
Find
the
other
the
is maintained
the fulcrum
nearer
by
is maintained.
balance
is 12 in. and
one
The
fulcrum.
weight isriKived
8.
of
weights balance
3"Two
first
the
the other
is 14 in. and
one
If the
fulcrum.
the number
Find
first
when
2 Ib. and
is 10
MATHEMATICS
if the
if 3 Ib. is
and
weights.
Ib. is used
loug^^^ighing 20
by
two
Ib. How
boys, one at each end, to carry a Io9jioi^oO
many
pounds must each boy carry if the load hangs~2~ttrfeaio_the
rightend ? (Considerthe weight of the entire bar as hanging
of the bar.)
at the middle
9. A
The
bridge supports
the two
11.
the
in
30foot
loads
two
front
axle of
axle. Find
rear
the load
700
3600
bridge weighs
Ib. at 3 ft. from
Three
have to carry
men
of the
placedcrosswise
beneath
end
rear
in order
Find
that each
answered,
man
"
the
Where
RECREATION
If to the
the age
being
sum
oak beam
one
loads
third
The
Ib.
end, and
borne
by
Find
of
iron
ing
long weighiron
an
lifts at
man
bar
bar
be
placed
of the load ?
PROBLEMS
asked
the
of their ages
younger."
ends
the
must
one
15 ft.
the third
beam, and
will carry
man
upon
will be double
an
lift at the
men
the
of the beam.
of the
the
over
of ice
axle.
Ib. Two
12.
2 ft.
extends
20 cakes
supports.
250
the
with
is loaded
3 ft. behind
1500
long
bed
and
material
The
10.
12 ft.
bed
wagon
the age
of each.
age
of
18 be
his two
if 6 be taken
will be
sons,
from
equal to
the
the age
SIMULTANEOUS
13.
In
the
guessing game
10 years
LINEAR
age, divide
to your
and
quotient,
tell
leader says,
the
by
sum
"
If you
will add
age, add
your
me
387
EQUATIONS
6 to the
How
age."
your
did he find it ?
14. A
won
to
baseball
28.
How
bring its
15.
16.
Two
has
team
many
worked
won
of which
games,
it win
must
games
of games
average
girlhas
played 40
in succession
it has
in order
to 0.750 ?
up
one
12
bicycleriders
along
the outside
ride
togetheraround
circular
track,
edge, where
the other
R, and
If 10
rises b
one
size
rises
dropped
are
inches,write
size
one
18 in.
An
formula
how
the
to a
the
which
Divide
shall be
20.
$240.
$183
into
equal to y3^of
Each
The
of your
of
two
elder
money,
and
the second
can
are
the water
times
larger
size.
has
radius
to 17 in.
necessary
is R
the
and
be used
could
parts,so
brothers
of
of
cate
Indi
because
reduced
to calculate
per mile ?
two
brother
equal marbles
is reduced
originalradius
is the formula
of
many
fullyinflated
leakage. If
radius r, what
how
of the second
one
leakageof air,this
more
many
15
bucket
bucket, and
same
showing
.tire when
automobile
Owing
inches, and
a,
into
dropped
are
into the
of
of
the water
water, and
another
marbles
said
that
of the first
part
part.
wanted
to the
to
buy
lot valued
a
"
younger,
purchase the
l"t"
You
lend
"But," said
at
me
the
GENERAL
088
younger
lot."
purchase the
A
21.
it
MATHEMATICS
of your
did
money
that if there
had
each
have
been
22.
46
won
more
by each
Euclid
his
to
donkey
said
I would
twice
and
nl' the
25.
at the
26.
of
(1914)
standing
the
first and
of
number
year
second
losing
and
won
games
market
If you
laden
to
were
B.C.
"
with
wheat.
give
me
you ; if I
as
assigned by
was
mule
The
one
were
to
equal.'What
was
and
mule
measure,
give you
the
one
burden
MISCELLANEOUS
PROBLEMS
bar 30 in.
a
support.
A
man
rate
of
he pay
A
6%
on
the
second, the
of each
6%
acid.
problems.
the
mixed
is
out
same
is
He
$3410.
241.
of the
first
43%
from
pure.
like this
some
in two
acid
with
Problems
Find
income
On
what
amount
tax
if 61.
mixture
frOm
has
are
and
exemption
tax
chemist
pure,
f2000
has
the second
42%
car?
team
three centuries
would: be
burdens
paying income
does
many
one
following problem
much
as
end
the
How
our
"
of each ?
to
'
donkey,
our
24.
the
going
carry
measure,
that
pupilsabout
were
the
to
The
been
team.
It is said
23.
first. Find
the
than
more
lost
had
for
They
more,
team
less than
winning
games,
League
it lost.
than
games
153
played
American
Champion
ran
paying
boy
one
'.'
After
have
would
and
money,
discovered
they
much
How
of
group
me
of the
are
Find
are
chemist
strengths.If
"the
first,
mixed
with
41.
why
given
mixture
as
it is not
of
of
16 1.
is
the
purity
practical
practical.
SIMULTANEOUS
After
27.
of each
is to
$2.41.
receive
who
what
At
.?"
be
Find
nitiy make
6%
The
HINT.
the
made
new
who
$2.20
is to
of
wage
man
be offered
bonds
5%
oneyear
until
them
maturity,
his investment?
profitmade
0.06
the
buyer, by holding
the
who
man
value, which
par
the
over
on
that
wages
i",where
tux
facts
one
b, also
and
ra
the
the
raise
to
formula
by
and
$2.30,.
receive
that
the
by
to y
determined
market
100
from
389
EQUATIONS
corporation decided
formerly received
28.
on
to
are
$2
made
strike
laborer
and
ra
LINEAR
must
is
$5,
the
from
come
the
and
bonds.
two
sources
interest
of the
excess
If
the
the
is
maturity value
price paid, then
x.
SUMMARY
lowing
chapter has taught the meaning of the foland
words
phrases : simultaneous
equations, linear
tory
equations,contradicsystems of equations,indeterminate
equations,identical equations, elimination.
437.
This
438.
This
solving a
1. Solution
2. Solution
3. Solution
439.
The
by graph.
by addition or
by substitution.
student
has
involving fractions,and
been
the
two
unknowns:
subtraction.
taught how
systems
of the
to
type
solve
f
440.
The
introduced:
followingtypes
of
following methods
of verbal
problems
systems
=
c.
have
been
problems,
geometricproblems,numberrelation
mixture
problems, work problems, motion problems, beam
problems, and recreation problems.
CHAPTER
ALGEBRAIC
AND
GEOMETRIC
ROOTS
441.
XVI
AND
Introductory work;
exercises
OF
POWERS
The
root.
square
to
introductory
are
INTERPRETATION
the work
following
chapter.
of the
EXERCISES
number
1. What
169?
2.
x2?
itself
multipliedby
equals 9?
16?
each
of
121?
if?
How
answers
many
there
are
to
Ex.
1?
is called
the
part
(Why?)
3.
of the two
One
of
root
square
the
equal factors
number.
of
What
number
is the
4
of 64?
of 625?
ofar2?
of 4^?
of
root
square
4y2
of 49 ?
J?
o"^J
9
9y*
4. The
positivesquare
) called
sign (V
the
root
radical
of
number
sign,and
is indicated
by
sign
alone
(V
) 01" the radical sign preceded by the plus sign
the positive
neath
under(+ V
) means
square root of the number
the sign. The
number
underneath
the radical sign is
called the radicand.
The negativesquare root is indicated
by
the radical sign preceded by the minus
sign (" V
)" With
the preceding definitions in mind
lowing:
give the value of the fol
9
5.
Vl44;
Vj;
\25iy2
statement
Express the following
number
equals the
square
by
of another
390
means
number
of
x.
formula:
OF
INTERPRETATION
If
6.
If
t"
Fill
squares
FIG.
442.
square
been
of
is the
what
ar2,
391
POWERS
AND
value
of
y?
of y ?
y in the
correspondingvalues of
the followingvalues ofic:
"
1 ;
"
formula
2 ;
(3;
~7~ 7)~"j
8.
the
for each
Q.
~~
is the value
Calculate
x'
formula
1 in the
2, what
7.
ROOTS
"*"""
"3*5
in
the
and
square
285.
DEVICE
"
values
proper
Graph
of y
roots.
The
roots
FOR
for
FINDING
x*\
in
in
use
the
following table
the
next
SQUARES
device
values
of the
Values
for
article.
SQUARE
AND
ROOTS
finding squares
preceding table
for
of
were
and
have
laid off
392
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
shall
we
now
see.
EXERCISES
Determine
1.
by
the
graph in Fig.285
9; 2,0;22; 3; 2. How
root
square
do
answers'
many
the square
obtain
you
of each
root
of 1 "'":
root
for the
number
shown?
By
2.
of the
means
graph
in
Check
The
given.
by means
of the
Fig. 285
square
is, there
( H 3) ('+ 3
are
graph
would
that
accuratelythan
more
has
the
give
the
which
i\l : for
roots.
equalseither
the
you
graph
of the
The
in
as
2 ;
"
root
of
also
does
in
curve
graph
j*2 or
square
symmetry
Fig. 285
explain it.
is not
indicated
The
Quadratic surd.
number
square
for
answers
Thus,
can
two
of 4
root
two
). Note
if you
see
444.
*"
roots
positivenumber
positive number.
and
make
you
that
be
443.
shows
2;
graph.
would
and
squares
for Ex.
should
squares
How
4.
results
your
of
1.7.
Fig. 285
perfectsquare
example,v3, v20,
is called
of
root
square
a
quadratic
V.r.
"
445.
and
Quadratic
.?'2 2 .ry +
"
trinomial.
y2 are
trinomials.
ijuadratic
Trinomials
of the second
The
word
"
like a2 f 2 ab + b2
degree,and are
quadratic comes
"
called
from
394
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
ILLUSTRATIVE
the square
Find
1.
of 16
root
If this trinomial
Solution.
EXERCISES
is
of
perfectsquare
25
40ay +
x~
y2
binomial, it
some
rectanglecorrespondingto
the area
ab is 4 x, and
each
ing
correspondbe 40 xy + 25 y'2.The
to 2 ab + b2 must
problem therefore consists in determining
the width
of the stripwhich
we
are
adding
sides and which
two
on
correspondsto the
the
5 y
be
may
the
the
doubling
result 8
we
are
Two
boys
length
take
problem might
follows
It is obvious
least 60
60.
by
is constructed.
lines
unbroken
the
is
120
square
it
(b)
because
out
plot
square
sq. ft.
of
5
such
the
form
as
that
We
ft.
we
can
make
shall suppose
See
the
(Fig.288).
square
This
sq. ft. We
already constructed
uses
can
it
that
60
with
up
pIGi
288
add
by adding
to
two
sides
and
still
square.
The
120
(c)
side ?
some
keep
stake
to
double
we
(a)
to
287
boys'thinking about
The
Solution.
of
ab
FIG.
that
more
.of 4225
area
by
(4 x) the
asked
were
an
is the
What
this
x.
shows
Fig. 287
term.
xy
Hence
ing
for determin
divisor
as
with
ground
at
or
already found
term
next
is
2.
serves
the
4 x,
and
ab
b is 5 y. Now
case
by dividing 40
obtained
of
sum
8#
In this
formula.
b of the
ft.
Why
120
combined
Hence
we
are
adding
strip added
approximate?
is contained
five times
in 625
(with a remainder).
is
INTERPRETATION
If
(d)
stripwill be
(forone
(e)
(f)
the
make
we
125
strip5
the
exactlyfive
must
root
of 4225
Find
square
2ac
the
2bc
c2
The
total
65
length will
be
125
ft.).
in 625.
times
be constructed
square
3.
the other
395
POWERS
AND
60 ft. and
is contained
Hence
ROOTS
OF
so
as
be 65'
to
by 65';
is 65.
of
root
the
polynomial
a2 +
2 ab +
b2
(seeFig.289).
add
is 2
+ 2 b +
Multiplying and
The
zero.
(completedivisor).(Why ?)
subtracting,the
Va2
The
of the
side
work
2 ab +
be
may
Largest square,
bz +
divisor,2
trial
First
complete divisor,2
'+
divisor,2
"i
follows
+ l" 2 ah
trial
Second
complete divisor,2
b + c,
2 be +
2 ab +
Second
Find
a2 + 2 ah +
First
4.
ac
2 I +
289
or
c2
b +
c.
ac
2 be 4 c2 [a +
ac
2 be +
c2
ac
2 be +
c2
b2 +
b +
b*
b2
2 b
a
is
FIG.
is
arranged as
a2
remainder
root
of
177,2^1.
(a) that
the square
of a number
the
of one
digitconsists of one or two digits,
of a number
the
of two
digitsconsists of three or four digits,
square
and so
of a number
of three digitsconsists of five or six digits,
square
of digitsin the integralpart of the square
on
; (b) that the number
of a number
is twice
as
large or one less than twice as large as the
This
number
of digitsin the integralpart of the given number.
of digits
suggests the followingdevice for determining the number
Solution.
To
determine
must
remember
396
MATHEMATICS
GENEKAL
in the
jioint,mark
decimal
the
as
same
the
Then
each.
the
of
integralpart
number
the
toward
of
digitsin
of groups.
Beginning
left groups
the
Thus,
number.
the
off
number
of
root
square
digits
two
be
will
root
square
since
of
is made
177,241
at
the
of
up
the square
of 177,241
of two
root
digits(17'72'41'),
groups
thus able to estimate
three digitsin its integralpart. We
contains
are
three
the
largestsquare
in Ex.
proceed as
The
3.
first digitis
(thatis,the
400
as
work
be
may
17 72'41
follows
arranged as
1400
then
4) and
:
20 + 1
16 00 00
I1
11 64
Second
Second
Therefore
*447.
used
stepswere
study them
00
421.
ing
follow
involved
Steps
72 41
in
should
carefully.
largest
square in the number.
root alreadyfound for a trial
the
1. Estimate
2. Double
the
3. Divide
the
divisor.
by the trial
firstterm of the remainder
the next term
as
ilirt'xor,
of the root.
placingthe quotient
the term justfound to the trial divisor to form a
4. Annex
completedivisor and continue the process until the other fcn/i*
f"fthe root are found.
EXERCISES
Find
the square
1. ""'2+
2ab
2. 16z*
2"xy
14 yz +
3.
"4.
49
if
x*+2x8
9.
10.
b2.
4"4+4"8
9//'.
6.
x4
z\
7.
4 ax*
12
following polynomials:
"3.
3x2 + 2r
x6 +
9 +
of the
roots
// +
+ l.
+
+
3x2
6 ".2
4 aV
?/ +"
4 ""\r +
if
if.
4 "8 +
8.
2 aV
6
2x3
9a2 + 4 0+4.
a6.
1.
"\
INTERPRETATION
ROOTS
OF
16
** +
11.
8.
'.9,
6 a*
+ 6a
61,504.
42'
17.
57,121.
2_8a3
18.
2.
""2
#2
NOTE.
Write
proceed as
in
576.
14.
9025.
19.
3.
15.
51,529.
20.
3.1416.
of roots
Table
it is convenient
are
to
and
a
use
of very useful
the student is now
form, and
how
easilylearn
and
roots
the
on
449.
The
Art.
446.
and
There
powers.
in textbook
leaflet
or
positionwhere he c,an
simple table of
very
them.
use
great
in
is submitted
powers
quently prove
work
to
tables
4,
and
situations
practical
table of roots
number
In
powers.
2.00WOO
Ex.
13.
448.
397
POWERS
16.
12.
AND
on
398.
page
convenience
the
to
It will fre
student
in his
studythe
ing
follow
followingpages.
of
theorem
exercise
Pythagoras.
shall
carefullywe
geometrictheorem
If
we
discover
will be useful
which
wellknown
in later work.
EXERCISE
Construct
rightangle3
Using the
On
each
each
and
side
draw
The
the
the other
preceding
familiar
two
the
sum
on
the
of the
sides.
exercise
theorem
Counting
the square
with
divide
,.
of
illustrates
Fro.
Pythagoras:
the sum
righttriangle
of the squares
theright
angle is^ualto the .squaw
/// it
ln "i
and
square
find how
hypotenusecompares
on
includingthe
4 units
squares,
squares
the 'sides
longrespectively
(seeAAJ'"( ',Fig.290).
unit,find the lengthof J /"'.
same
square
these
right triangle,making
on
on.
290
tlie'"
398
GENERAL
TABLE
MATHEMATICS
OF
ROOTS
AND
POWKKS
This
ROOTS
OF
INTERPRETATION
is
theorem
of the
one
before
Centuries
AND
POWERS
famous
most
Christ
theorems
399
of
the
Egyptians used a
in
rope divided by knots so that its three lengthswere
This rope was
used in land surveying
the ratio 3:4:5.
of their temples. In fact,
and
also in the orientation
read of professional rope fasteners
we
(surveyors?).
Furthermore, the proof of the theorem itself has always
When
shall
we
appealedto the interest of mathematicians.
in our
advanced
have
it will be
study of mathematics
for the student to find many
possible
proofsof this theorem
understand.
earliest general proof is
that he can
The
credited to Pythagoras,who lived about 500 B.C.
The student has probablyfound this theorem to be the
geometry.
"
basis for
of the most
one
rules of arithmetic.
useful
arithmetic
proofgiven in
"
classes
The
is
usuallythat given in
the exercise above.
However, a generalproof demands
that we
the theorem
independent of the accuracy
prove
of the figure(thatis, independentof the measurements
and
constructions
shall presentlygive
involved). We
such a proof. The
exercises
which
follow are
intended
the material
to review
to establish this proof.
necessary
EXERCISES
1. In
CD"
Fig.291
A A EC
Re view the
AB.
is a
at C, with
righttriangle,
rightangled
A ABC.
proofwhich shows that AADC^
b
2.
and
Prove
that
that in
b2
Fig.291
cm.
b;
3.
Review
that ABDC^
4. Prove
the
proof which
shows
A ABC.
that
in
A\
Fig. 291
5.
Show
by using Exs.
2 and
41
4 that a2 +
tf
"?.
400
EKAL
( i ION
450.
of
Theorem
student
1~5, aboye.
Exs.
proved by
theorem
the
that
shall, however,
set
the
up
of
the
the
to
sides
to
the
the
is
equal
the
on
squares
In
means
is
/'""'.
that
prove
hypotenuse
of
sum
Pythagoras
prooi'
right triangleA
the
on
the
l",
rightangledat C,
square
doubt
We
for reference.
(liven
No
proved.
Pythagoras
sees
now
MATHEMATK
that
prove
c2
of
terms
this
Fig. 292
a2 \l"~.
Proof
REASONS
STATEMENTS
In
Fig. 292
draw
letter the
and
CI)"AJi
figure as
shown.
rr,
Then
Because
(1)
a
and
(2)
if in
line is drawn
of
the
the
right triangle
from
the
rightangle perpendicularto
hypotenuse,either side about
right angle is a mean
portional
probetween
the whole
potenu
hyand
the
segment
hypotenuse adjacent to
In
=
and
(1)
I
me
and
(3)
nc.
By adding
in
(2)
the
two
vertex
Because
are
in
the
me'ans
the
extremes.
when
four
of the
it.
quantities
proportionthe product of
equals the product of
equations
(3),
a
a2 +
But
b
me
ne.
(4)
+ n). (5)
ft2="e(jn
"
"
c.
((5)
Addition
axiom.
By factoringout
The
whole
is
equal to the
n
// =
,.
(7)
Bv
c.
substitution.
sum
402
NOTE.
Pythagoras (c.569
great philosophersof Greece, is said
HISTORICAL
of the
of
into
geometry
colony in
the
of citizens
of
the
B.C.),
500
u.c.c.
"
to hate
liberal education."
changed
After
second
the
study
ings,
wander
some
the famous
It is said that
him.
of
the form
he founded
of
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
the
to
went
women
hear
him
in direct
violation
a
'
three
After
into
second
the
the
of
years
in
the
first class
class, to whom
listener
confided
were
be
could
the
main
initiated
discoveries
school.
obedience.
and
or
triangle,
pentagram (starshapedregular
of
used
and was
to them
a
was
as
a symbol
sign recognition,
pentagon),
It is related that a Pythagorean while travelingfell ill and,
of health.
unable
although carefullynursed by a kindhearted
innkeeper,was
Before
to survive.
dying, however, he inscribed the pentagram star
and begged his host to hang it up outside.
This the host
on
a board
after a considerable
did ; and
length of time another Pythagorean,
passing by, noticed the sign and, after hearing the innkeeper'sstory,
him
rewarded
of the brotherhood
:
was
handsomely. One motto
and
not
"A
to
oboli."
a
a
figure
figure
step forwards;
gain three
of society advocated
views
The
were
by the brotherhood
opposite
of the democratic
to those
party of Pythagoras'stime, and hence
tripleinterwoven
The
of
most
brotherhood
the
Pythagoreans
in
501
B.C
school, and
led
succeeded
to
the
in
For
but
dominating affairs,
murder
Pythagoras
aristocrats.
were
of
himself
many
prominent
short
a
a
time
the
popular revolt
members
of the
killed
shortlyafterwards.
no
longer existed as a political
party,the
exist a long time
as
a
philosophicaland
was
EXERCISES
The
1.
6 and
respectively.What
2.
How
of
16foot
is
which
90
is the
of the
length
hypotenuse ?
tent
rope
pole
to
be
from
run
20
point
the
ft. from
pole ?
diamond
ft. What
is
is the
of
length
side
square
of
throw
_b IG.
"
from
Find
4.
side
s
is
5.
and
into
the
for
formula
diagonal
determine
to
of
the
whose
square
diagonal
when
the
the
also
equation
into
that
Vc2
that
theorem
Pythagorean
Vc2
62
"
words.
a2 and
"
the
translate
equation
words.
ladder
8.
wall
The
if the
is the
Using
22
and
the
of
the
formula
above
the
foot
ft. and
the
from
is 35
base.
of
standing
on
Ex.
level
the broken
remaining
11.
ladder
the
right triangle
before
of
15ft.
of
when
20.
tree
Find
foot
window
is level ?
ground
hypotenuse
9.
far
is 21 ft.
altitude
10.
20ft.
How
ground.
of the
the
t'f"
"
15.
from
Prove
7. A
formula
Prove
"
second
this
translate
6.
the
Use
s.
"
to
10 ; when
the
"
home
are
Pythagoras.)
must
baseball
3.
of
long
of the
the foot
of
altitude
and
the theorem
(Use
top
base
end
on
ground
the
the
ground
stump.
broken
was
24
18 ft. from
How
tall
ft. from
the stump,
was
the tree
breaking ?
Construct
on
following pairs
squared
of
numbers
paper
for
right triangle,using
the
base
and
altitude
404
GENERAL
: 1
respectively
and
5 ; 1 and
4 and
HINT.
Use
V2
1 ; 1 and
5 ; 2 and
each
for
; 2 and
5 ; 3 and
Calculate
12.
MATHEMATICS
2 ; 2 and
5 ; 12 and
obtained
you
part of Ex.
3 ; 4 and
4 ;
1.
11
the
of
the
method
of
length
hypotenuse.
451.
The
constructing with
findingthe
11
is illustrated
Construct
by
and
the
of
number
The
of
root
square
a
method
by
method
followingexercise
the square
compasses.
the
furnishes
compasses
and
root
square
of ruler and
means
Pythagoras
ruler
Exercises
number.
of
of
theorem
of 42.
root
of the exercise
followingstudy (analysis)
the problem.
will help us to understand
The
that
Suppose
that is,let us
Now
a
tf
then
and
a
=
42.
be
It is clear
Then
AB
is the
can
be of
(Why?)
that
the
V6.
the
that
Let
long is l"'l We
the equation
how
would
imagine
that
figureand
have
we
figure constructed ;
Fig. 294 is the required
requiredlength V42.
various
lengthsprovided
us
suppose
which
from
b would
have
to
problem merely
Some
that
know
members
o(" +
the
tr
"
value
6 ;
42
of
can
be
found.
equal A7/6.
becomes
of
that CB
the
one
class
of
may
learning how to
already know
analysis.
struct
con
how
do
this, but
we
shall
INTERPRETATION
We
then
(a)
Construct
V2
follows
analysisas
our
reverse
above.
indicated
as
405
POWERS
AND
ROOTS
OF
(b) Construct
second
Why?
EXERCISE
with compasses
Construct
following: V6
the
452.
Mean
VTT
line segment
A/27
Vl43; V214
shall
We
now
that
(Art.374) furnishes
roots.
constructing
square
construction
of
method
VJJ ;
our
us
V2.
for finding
method
see
each of
equivalentto
proportional construction
roots.
square
mean
with
portional
proan
easy
EXERCISES
the construction
Review
1.
between
proportional
the
Construct
2.
4 and
between
segments
and b
of
root
and
6.
is the
For
two
square
The
of the
root
square
of
mean
12,
"
.
Why?
x2
for
mean
the
finding
and
//.
tional
proporsquare
{_
K"
of 12, for
root
that the
propor
for
example,
proportionalx (Fig.297)
Whence
method
productof
example,
find the
factors
mean
296
line
root of 12.
squared paper
tional of two
FJG.
furnishes
number.
the square
Find
On
equalsthe
construction
(Fig.296).
ft
precedingexercises suggest
The
16.
proportionalTbetween
a mean
and
mean
proof
..
that
findinga
proportional
mean
9 ; 4 and
the
Review
3.
line segments
two
for
(Art.374)
2
FIG.
297.
METHOD
TIONAL
12^_
Why?
Vl2.
Whv?
ING
MEAN
SQUARE
THE
A
NUMBER
PROPOROF
FIND
ROOT
OF
406
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISE
the
Construct
76.
the
Compare
under
numbers
Large
the
results with
approximate the
results ought to
453.
of 21 ; 6 ; 5 ; 18 ; 42 ; 84 ; 66 ;
root
square
of
table
decimal
second
radical
the
Art.
Your
449.
place.
signs. When
the
number
of V5056.
The
V5056
the
when
"
number
easily,as
more
7) (22
"
evident
once
of factors
equal groups
7)
is not
V84
"
if
;
84
we
resolve
thus
84.
perfectsquare,
to find
the student
often enable
will
much
V(22
is at
root
square
into two
the number
Even
the radical
will be shown
its square
ing
factorroot
later.
EXERCISES
Find
following indicated
the
square
roots
1.
V576.
3.
V484.
5.
V3600.
2.
V1296.
4.
V1089.
6.
Vl936.
of
product. The
454.
The
show
that
factors,each of
the square
cises
precedingexerthe square
root of the product of several
be found by taking
which is a square, may
in the following
of each factor separately,
as
square
root
root
examples:
1.
V9
25=V9V25
3
5=15.
INTERPRETATION
This
is true
of two
two
the
be written
Vl6 V^
of
square
the
product
(3 5) (3 5). Hence, by the
can
"
groups
is
a;2?/3
25
Vp
square
root
of 9
"
25.
a*f.
as
"
"
16
"
407
POWERS
AND
equal factors
square root, (3 5) is the
Vl6 xY
2.
because
ROOTS
of
groups
definition of
OF
The
This
the
be
principle
may
followingmanner.
of V11858.
"
used
simplifyradical
to
Suppose
Vft.
"
in
wish
we
surds
Then
_
V11858
By
V%
Then
77(1.414)
V11858
Hence
It will be
helpfulto
V2
"
11
77 V2.
1.414.
108.878.
108.878.
observe
the
11
"
77
following:
the radicand
enables us to simplify
to
(1) The principle
a pointwhere
we
can
easilyfind the root by the table or
by several geometricconstructions.
(2) A quadraticsurd is in its simplestform when the
number
under
the radical sign does not contain a perfect
factor.
square
In
contains
removed
by writingits
factor which
is
square
square,
root
the
radical
this factor
may
sign
be
sign.
108
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
EXERCISES
the
Change
under
square
455.
Value
followingso as
the radical sign:
leave
to
of
memorizing square
1~9, Art. 454, suggest
Exercises
of
roots
square
made
to do
service in
In
numbers.
few
roots
the
of certain
is
students
of
roots
numbers.
the
in which
manner
findingthe
are
large
many
which
which
numbers, like 2, 3, 5,
small
fact,many
factor
no
again and
efficiency.
again
occur
their
EXERCISES
From
and
V2=1.414,A/3=1.732,
that
2.236.
correct
know
we
decimal
to two
each
of the following
places:
1.
V75.
4.
V72.
7.
V50
2.
V80.
5.
V98.
8.
3.
V48.
6.
V363.
9.
V45\/.
V75V6.
V32
V72
Vl8.
456.
The
root of
square
by squaringits
fraction.
and
numerator
fraction is squared
its denominator
separately
and
".
Hence,
to
bob
extract
root
the
root
square
and
of its numerator
For
example, VT\
of
fraction,we
denominator
J, since % %
"
V
find
the square
separately.
410
GENERAL
The
2.
root
of
MATHEMATICS
of the
root
square
its numerator
fractionequalsthe square
by the square root of its
netv
divided
denominator.
3.
If desired,express
The
leave
no
the result in
decimal form.
simplest
Thus, yj
expressionso
sign is called
V3
\J\
as
to
alizing
ration
^aa
EXERCISES
1.
Find
the value
of the
to the
approximatelyaccurate
(a) J.
(c) 1
(b) f
2.
Rationalize
3.
What
(j),inclusive,if
to
458.
Addition
arithmetic
combined
in
into
(d) 1
of
value
a
and
V45
two
square
roots.
Ex.
2 from
Sometimes
if the
simplified
V5
(e)
the
surds
are
V5
5V5, or5(2.236)
11.180.
V5 justas
the
and simplify:
following,
of surds.
be
By adding 2 \/5 +
need only to look up
(g) TV
Thus,
term.
+
2 ?
subtraction
V20
roots
expressionsin
the
problem may
one
(f)f
of the
3 and
(e) f
second
denominators
is the
decimal
(findvalues
:
place)
followingsquare
we
add
\/5,whereas
2_4 plus3
V20
+ V45
"
4, we
calls for
OF
INTERPRETATION
ROOTS
AND
411
POWERS
the
demand.
EXERCISES
1.
Vl08
V75
Vl2.
"
8.
2.
2V98VT8.
3.
V288
4. 5
V432
9.
Vl8
V3
Vl28.
10.
Vl47.
n.
Vf +
Vf1+^
3
5.
V27
12.
6.
V20
Vl25
13.
^/T
14.
4
459.
two
V28
V2
Vo5
process.
Thus,
of
are
for
to
These
In elementarymathematics
briefly.
involve
verbal problems which
this
involved do not offer anyprinciples
thing
few
Further, the
new
Vll2.
will be treated
there
when
V
f+
processes
form
Vl80.
us.
divide
fraction
V2
"
by V5,
"
and
we
may
proceed as
write
we
this in the
do
ordinarily
involves
finding the value of a fraction which
quadraticsurds.
The
rule in multiplication
is equally familiar.
The
be read
equation Vab=\/aVb
just as well from
may
is
Thus, V2V5
rightto left,and we have VaV5=VaJ.
VlO.
the same
as
precisely
n2
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
1. Find
the
product
of the
following:
(a) V3 V27.
(d) V(5Wl2a;8~.
(b) vW*8.
(e)
VVH_
(c) V3V5.
(f)
VVf Vf Vl
(g) (V2
Solution.
We
of the other
and
Va
Vs)(V2
multiply each
simplifythe
V2
VQ
V"
2 +

Ve
result
of
one
as
follows
polynomial by
term
Vio

VTo
a +
Vis
Vis
Vlo
Vs
each
Vs
Ve
+
(h) (2Vr
Vs).
V5
Va
term
Vs
Vs)(Vs).
+ V5)(2V3).
(i) (4V22V3
3 V2 + VTo)(Vs).
(j) (Vs
S Vs).
(k) (3V2 + 4 Vs)(2V2
VI + Vs)(V3 + VI
Vs).
(i) (Vs
+
Divide, and
2.
simplestform
(a) 1 by VS.
(c) V6 by Vs.
(b) 24 by Vs.
(d) 2 Vl2
460.
Fractional
and
roots
as
result in
the
express
without
far
we
and
means
is to be used
"
as
"
x,
but
factor
Xs
one
VlS by Vs.
of
means
have
evidentlyit
extending the meaning of
Thus, a?
that
Thus
powers.
exponent,
an
another
exponents
not
could
used
not
the word
indicating
a
be
fraction
so
"exponent."
evidentlycannot
half of
used
time.
mean
INTERPRETATION
It is very
formal
the
condition
one
be
of fractional
definition
that
to
assume
Since
the
we
of #,
or
factors
of
write
y?
may
since
Similarly,
\
that
3/
is,Xs
Again, x*
This
Xs
Xs
"
x^
"
x*
"
exponent
under
takes
x'5
"
that a?* is
see
of
one
square
root
V#.
x5
"
Xs
z,
xt.
Xs
is the
cube
of
root
This
is the
x2.
that
the
fractional
which
integralexponents
govern
makes
fractional exponent
a
which
of
way
the denominator
is sufficient to show
the laws
that Xs
means
3/
that is,x*
meaning
just another
we
x,
"
x.
discussion
on
that the
"
of "2
root
order
in
necessary
cube
shall
we
giving a
lay down
integral
exponents shall
ponent
permit the fractional ex
shall
we
that ^
agree
we
of
be governed
shall hold.
equal
two
should
for
meaning
laws
exponent
exponents,
the laws
and
generallytrue,
413
POWERS
therefore, instead
laws;
same
AND
important
the
by
ROOTS
OF
and
indicatingroots
the
indicates
root, and
powers
the
that is,
cates
indi
numerator
the power.
8^
Thus,
the
result,or
In
either
to
means
to
means
may
appear
and
the
as
Note
decimal
cube
root
familiar with
powers.
preciselythe
dealingwith
The
same
surds
of
root
and
square
of the result.
is 4.
of
that
commonfraction
exponent
fraction.
become
root
result
the final,
case
449, is 4.641.
to
8 and
square
Art.
From
take
that the
student
of
needs
only
writingroots
followingbrief list of problems presents
in the preceding list
those
ideas as
;
the
only the
new
form
method
is different.
414
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISES
in
1. Write
simplestform
32)* ( 27)1
V2.
Vl28
(f) (^*+8*(f)4+(50)*.
(g) (81)*2

(24)*
+ V28
(a) z*z*.
(b) 10* 10* 10*.
"
fractions
would
be if
NOTE.
in
the
to
we
had
1008"5
means
look
at
thousandth
getting a
clear
the
or
is to be
raised
understanding
of the
are
"5=a5=
a".
o55o6
l.
l.
zero
a"
1,
as
of
root
the
numbers
1000.
Another
to the
375th
of very
great importance
the
how
laws
to find
which
of any
root
govern
is shown
:
by the following
Law.)
power
and
power
logarithms and
chapterson
common
result.
eighth
ideas
exponents.
a"
large
In these
Zero
the
finding the
These
taken.
integralexponents
Thus
10
how
estimate
of
10^,
Hence
"
"
and
way
it is that
root
slide rule.
461.
"
exponents
as
Translate
3.
the
(63)*.
Multiply:
2.
way
number
divided
(exceptzero) is 1.
(560)"= 1; (6a:)0=l;
10"
1.
462.
Negative
3
s
"
"
multiplythe
and
numerator
denominator
obtain
we
x~a
"
"
looAo^jL,
v'mf
"
~~"
10,000.
if you
See
a
X6
by xa,
Tin,
J^
or
"
X6
x~a
of
as

"
X6
x~
if we
Similarly,
Q
=
"
is,
law
same
"
the
obeys
then
integralexponents,
that
If x~s
exponents.
in
state
can
simple language
the
meaning
of
negative exponent.
EXERCISES
Simplify :
1.
10
2.
10^
1000625x
103125 x
lo"
(56)"x 10*.
3.
(39)(169)"*.
6.
16
4.
1000
(100)"*
7.
1000
5.
2X
8.
144~*
"
2*
(xm)n;
24.
9.
2.
in
(+625)*;(125)*.
13.
(x2)3;(x3)4;(x0)2.
"
xz
"
(IO2)2;(IO2)8;(IO2)4.
15.
(1000625)4;
(10"125)2;
(10"125)8.
the
formula
(xm}n
xmn
rule.
17.
NOTE.
^x8; ^x5.
v/x^;
The
3 in
vx"
means
"find
yc
x2.
14.
translate
yb
24.
12.
x2
xn.
"
"
XmHXn.
"
"
11.
(z2)3
xm
IO3.
i
HINT,
16.
10 103675.
the
cube
root."
into
an
braic
alge
416
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
18.
Since
19.
what
(xm)n xmn,
^
is
m
the
Translate
Find
20.
the value
(a) VlO^.
463.
of
short
of
x"
into
algebraicrule.
an
(d) x/lO58750.
(b) A/10"'75,(c) v/H)3"250.
Cube
other
Vic"
formula
in
cuts
shall
We
binomial.
findingpowers
now
see
be
may
how
certain
illustrated and
explained.
INTRODUCTORY
Find
1.
x
the
and
f y
of
cube
EXERCISES
by
fy
multiplying the
result
2.
find (a
By multiplication
3.
Find
with
cubes
and
the
cube
the
of
(x
results
"
first
by
findingthe
of
y.
")3.
y); of (a
of
square
Exs.
"
"). Compare
these
2.
4.
It will
if you
shown
as
show
be
helpfulto
will make
in
Fig. 298,
your
set of
in
mates
class
blocks,
order
to
that
How
5.
as
many
blocks
Find
the
many
as
needed
are
you
can
mentally:
1"5
show
that
(g) (2x +
(e) (a427/)8.
y)s.(h) (2x3y)s.
(f) (2x

the cube
of
binomial
is
equal
square of
418
GENERAL
NOTE.
HISTORICAL
mathematician
the
and
"
binomial
for
in
book
and
Newton
(16421727). He
laws
numerous
about
his
Among
tions
negative fracgreat English
the
by
written
the law
gravitation,
"
of
positive and
Isaac
the rainbow.
Arithmetic
of
use
theorem
of
explanationof
Universal
first
physicist,Sir
and
the
discovered
The
is found
exponents
as
MATHEMATICS
an
algebra)and
(really
of
lenses and
books
numerous
"
physics;
prisms,
are
"
Principia (one of
all
times).
matics,"
(see Ball's A Short History of Mathe"A History of Elementary Mathematics,"
pp. 328362, and Cajori's
inspiring. As a boy
pp. 238240) is very interestingand
of his father's
he was
expected to be learning how to take care
of his time studying and trying mechanical
farm, but he spent much
experiments. Thus, we read of his constructinga clock run
His mother
which
kept very fair time.
by water
noticing this
resolved to send him to Cambridge. Here followed a brilliant
sensibly
and
teacher.
of thirtyfive
As a professorit
career
years as student
then only from
his practiceto lecture publicly
once
a week, and
was
hour at a time.
In the week
half an hour to an
followinghe gave
The
four
"
biographyof Xewton
hours
of consultation
who
students
to
wished
discuss
to
the
repeated a
previous lecture. It is said that he never
where
the
the
at
that
and
course
one
course
began
point
preceding
of
his
second
this
The
result
had
ended.
course
study during
period
understand
all
who
have
to
that
minds
dazed
has
master
attempted
of
Newton
accomplished. Perhaps you will later agree with some
the followingtributes to him :
results
of the
and
Nature
God
said,
There,
Tafcingmathematics
I don't
seem
he
lived,what
Newton
to
know
have
Let
king
among
from
the
had
what
been
only
I may
me.
"
NEWTON
! dost
the
bid in
and
"
kings
beginning
was
much
to
seem
the
ocean
of
light.
was
"
POPE
shine,
divine.
"
of the world
the better
great
night
all
thou
boy playing on
finding a smoother
as
and then
myself in now
than
ordinary, whilst the
before
done
lay
be !
Newton
Priest of Nature
!
Newton
laws
Nature's
"
SOCTHEY
to the time
half.
"
when
LEIBNITZ
OF
INTERPRETATION
464.
Cube
is the
If
the
equation y
is
x
inversely,
of .r, or,
419
POWERS
AND
The
roots.
cube
ROOTS
the
that
asserts
cube
of y.
root
tion
equa
isgraphed
shall
we
tain
ob
curve
analogous
the
to
for
curve
and
squares
roots
square
which
be
may
used
find
to
x
ceed
pro
to
find
corresponding
for
values
and
that
in order
we
may
plot sufficient
pointsfor the
y
FIG.
curve.
GRAPH
299.
OF
Xs
EXERCISES
1.
when
"
values
following table.
table
of y in the
+ 1 ?
when
equationy
"
"
1 ?
"=
when
y? when
x
2 ?
2 ?
Calculate
2.
the
when
equals 0
value
is the
What
until you
have
as
in Ex.
If the
curve
1 and
is not
enough points to
spaces
obvious, expand
draw
the
curve.
of
the
420
GENERAL
this table
From
One
we
obtain
may
the
Fig. 299.
in
curve
vertically
represents 1 unit, and 5 small
horizontally
represent 1 unit.
this curve
read off, approximately,
the
can
we
small square
squares
From
cube
cube
the
or
2.2 is
about
of 13
root
accurate
root
to be
seen
the cube
MATHEMATICS
is
be
to
seen
accurate
(see
decimal
places).More
to
by drawing the curve
to two
be obtained
can
2.4
little over
largescale.
465.
Cube
method
for
roots
of arithmetical
findingcube
(a + 6)3could
for
used, because
based
roots
be
cube
on
devised.
arithmetical
An
numbers.
formula
algebraic
an
But
this method
well
is
higher roots
of logarithms.This
more
are
quickly found by means
will be taught in the next
method
time
chapter. In the meanfor all practical
the
the student may
use
purposes
seldom
table in Art.
as
we
analogousrules
could devise
for fourth
these too
more
are
readilyfound
Indicatinghigher
roots.
and
and
powers,
so
curves
but
on,
by logarithms.
By
means
to indicate other
sign is made
the radical
as
449.
Furthermore,
466.
roots
of
an
roots
index
than
figure
square
roots.
Thus
the cube
is written
The
3 in
V8
v
2.
root
The
of 8
or
one
of its three
equal factors
8 is the index
Vl6
2.
of the root.
EXERCISES
the
Simplify
1.
following (remove
of
perfect power
the
^32; \/64;^64
Add
2.
and
indicated
degree
subtract
(a) A/16
which
is
index):
indicated:
as
^54
the
by
A/16
factor
any
^250 +
v
SUMMARY
lowing
chapter lias taught the meaning of the folwords
and
of a number,
root
phrases: square
quadratic surd, radical sign, radicand, quadratic trinomial
467.
This
square,
The
468.
device
469.
V4
be
of the
graph
for
findingsquares
positivenumber
or
formula
471.
To
and
472.
roots
used
was
as
roots.
two
square
roots
thus,
find
sum
or
difference
a2 "
A)2
"
geometrically.
root
of
the square
roots
of
square
of its terms
numbers
them
of
by
a
ft2.
2 db +
square
the
connect
of two
the
nomial:
tri
the two
sign of
trinomial
perfect square
the
consists
perfectsquare
remaining term.
of the
sum
of the
squares
each
The
x2
square
has
illustrated
was
Extract
terms
formula
the
by
(a
This
and
of the
square
found
equation
2.
The
470.
may
index.
422
GENERAL
The
473.
of
root
The
474.
and
roots
MATHEMATICS
includes
chapter
cube
of
find
We
476.
the
square
the
denominator;
often
may
be
root
of
the square
root
of the numerator
that
is, A
simplified
by applying
fraction
the
by
the denominator
'Rationalizing
culation
the
simplifies
of
series
for
rule
the
"
When
478.
the
adding
number
the
terms
similar
occurs
be
may
This
terms.
"
=
the
as
radical
in
combined
by the
usually simplifies
479.
The
theorem
of
Pythagoras was
480.
The
theorem
of
Pythagoras furnishes
The
481.
482.
of
and
483.
a" is defined
484.
to
be
number
equal to
positiveexponent;
of
furnishes
of indicating
method
$2?. The
means
denominator
numerator
the root.
1.
as
with
the
the
method
number.
is another
thus, x%
powers;
the power,
indicates
of
proved.
proportional construction
findingthe square root.
fractional exponent
and
roots
root
square
mean
method
another
difficult than
more
calculation.
constructingthe
as
is
same
terms,
cal
/~
is, yj
that
of
root
square
"
"
by dividing
rn
square
principlevW"=VaVi.
the
477.
table
roots.
Quadratic surds
475.
simple
negativeexponent
reciprocalof the same
a
that
is, a~5
"
"
is defined
number
so
with
OF
INTERPRETATION
of
cube
The
485.
ROOTS
423
POWERS
AND
be
binomial
found
by
the
may
formula:
following
(a
a3
6)3
a26
3
+
Cube
486.
found
be
roots
the
by
table,
graph,
may
easily
or
and
logarithms
by
the
slide
rule
more
methods
will
be
shown
in
the
next
two
chapters).
(the
last
two
CHAPTER
*
LOGARITHMS
APPLIED
AND
ROOTS
XVII
TO
MULTIPLICATION,
AND
POWERS,
VERBAL
EXPONENTIAL
DIVISION,
PROBLEMS
ING
INVOLV
EQUATIONS
LOGARITHMS
487.
how
Laborsaving
extensive
calculations
placenumbers
apt
are
to
even
Chapter IV
with only
become
laborious
showed
we
four
and,
five
or
in
some
and
involvingunnecessary
steps. We
showed
how to minimize
the inaccuracyand how
of
some
the unnecessary
with
steps may be eliminated, especially
and division by
regard to the processes of multiplication
cases,
inaccurate
In
devices.
the socalled
the work
"
abbreviated
remains
these abbreviated
In
which
Art. 449
method."
But
with
many
the
cases
use
of
methods.
will be
found
given for
table of powers
of savingtime
the purpose
Scientific books include similar tables which
are
in
and
and
roots
labor.
426
GENERAL
for
possible
powers
of
below
shows
MATHEMATICS
to work
us
10
out
equal 17.782
which
We
\Vr
can
of 10 which
know
that 10"
as
these
the student
need
1, 101
From
10*
values
the
10, 102
follows
as
VlO
other
values
OF
fractional
1000, and
so
on.
(approx.).
in the table
POWERS
10"5
100.75
OF
are
easilyfound,
10z
1.0000
V8.162
1.7782
VlO
3.1623
(ioi.5)2 v'31.62
5.6234
lQi5
lOi"
lOi
i0i
=10*
100.25
10.0000
100.5
31.623
10""'5
"
i7.78o
56.234
10*
100.000
102.25
1025
i0i
jO2.75
lOi
101
iQi.25
177.82
101.5
316.23
10175
562.34
=1000.00
10"
resume
above, namely,multiplying17.782
by referringto the
table
Hence, 17.782
that
x
accurate
by
=
see
to the second
problemproposed
3.162.
17.782
3.162
to the table,we
which, by referring
(thisproduct is
lQi25
10
101
3.162 =10"5.
The
verify.
can
now
obtained.
3.162
table
later,but it contains
100, 103
10'
may
The
integraland
this point.
at
of 10"5
TABLE
We
3.162.
the
give us
of several
we
will
are
will be shown
complete,as
approximate values
powers
and
how
table is not
the
table which
We
can
10125 and
10125xlO"5
see
that
10178,
equal to 56.234
decimal place).
is
LOGARITHMS
427
EXERCISE
the
Check
accurate
490.
17.782
result obtained
than
more
=10125
decimal
two
by
Is there
actual
plication
multi
places?
; notation
the
10
to which
the power
called the
Is the
to
Logarithms
difference in results.
for the
by 3.162,and account
difference
significant
for
raised to
be
must
give 17.782) is
From
now
on
shall
we
assume
The
speak of the logarithmof a number.
3 is read
the
symbol for logarithmis log.Thus, log1000
logarithmof 1000 equals3," the base 10 being understood.
is 10
when
we
"
EXERCISE
By
log 10
491.
well
means
for
exponent.
an
two
example, in
the
thought of (a)
must
is
the
remember
to
as
be raised to
logarithmof
in Art. 489
find
log 1
logarithm
of 10
100
the
student
thinkingof
equation102
100
will do
an
the 2
the
nent
expocan
be
of the power
to which
100 ; (b) as
; that is,102
10
exponent
equal 100
to
of
ways
The
base
the
Iog10100.
EXERCISES
Read
1. 101
the
=
following in
10.
2. 102
two
100.
ways
3. 108
1000.
4. 104
10,000.
428
GENERAL
492.
Characteristic
489
Art.
MATHEMATICS
will show
; mantissa.
that each
glance at
the table of
of 10
(each logarithm
of the corresponding
numbers
to the right)may contain
an
integral
part and a fractional part. For example, in
the equation10125 17.782 the 1.25 (thatis, log17. 782)
has 1 for its integral
part and 0.25 for its decimal (fractional)
100 the entire logarithmis integral.
part. In 102
(Why?) The integralpart of a logarithmis called the
characteristic of the logarithm,and
the decimal
part is
called the mantissa of the logarithm.
The
characteristic of a logarithmof any number
can
always be determined at sight. For example:
exponent
log10
log 100
log 1000
and
so
the
third
1, because
101
2, because
102
100
3, because
103
1000
these numbers
10 ;
;
;
all
of
integral
powers
10.
However, the characteristic of the logarithmof any
other number
be obtained as well by observingwhat
may
of 10 inclose it. For example, the characteristic
powers
of log 525 is 2 because 525 lies between
the second and
103
But
on.
powers
1000
of 10
that
are
is, between
102
100
and
It is not
the mantissas
mal
(the decieasy to determine
We
have worked
part) of the logarithmsof numbers.
out
few
so
the mantissas
a
tedious'task.
them
would
these
mantissas
powers
of 10
in this way
have
(by more
would
necessary
to
be
pute
com
However,
beyond us in difficulty.
been computed for all the various
advanced
methods),and they appear
which
follows.
So that
now
when
429
LOGARITHMS
want
we
is,
any number
characteristic is and
the
in the
look
then
logarithmof
what
(by inspection)
decide
we
the
what
know
to
EXERCISES
in the table
1. Look
logarithmsof
the
(pp.430431) for
the decimal
part of
10 ; 15 ; 20 ; 38 ; 86 ; "99.
2.
What
is the decimal
3.
What
is the power
10
100
be raised to
must
produce
10,000 ?
4.
What, then, is
5.
Examine
carefullyand tellwhat
logarithms; that is,those that have
integersfor
7. Find
the
Solution.
By
and
product of
means
tells
between
where
us
0.4216
in
to
mantissas.
zero
55.
we
that
see
1016812,
55
1017404.
55
1016812x 1017404
and
have
numbers
mantissa
3d
10 ?
tells
4th
us
that the
product of
of 10 ; that
powers
48
55
is, the 3
the
the
decimal
48
exponent 3.4216
3 in the
number
48 and
of the table
48
Therefore
is
logarithmhave
that
The
the base
the table
will
When
6.
logarithmof 10,000 to
the
of
to it.
If
we
mantissa
look
in
the table
of mantissas
of the
of the
we
find
264.
that
Now
must
0.4216
since
be
the characteristic
between
4th powers
of 10 ; that is,between
1000 and 10,000. This
that the decimal point comes
after the fourth place,so that we
and
add
cipher to
264.
Hence
the number
is 2640.
is the
the
3d
means
must
430
GENERAL
TABLE
MATHEMATICS
OF
MANTISSAS
LOGARITHMS
TABLE
OF
MANTISSAS
431
432
MATHEMATICS
GENERAL
preceding work
The
be
may
brieflyarranged as
log 48
log 55
Then
logA7
the
By
493.
table,
of
Logarithm
1.6812
1.7404
3.4216
2640.
product. The
48x55
N=
Let
follows
and
discussion
amples
ex
problem of
of 10 there corresponds
the problem
two powers
multiplying
of adding their logarithms
(exponents). This may be stated
the first law thus: The logarithm
as
of the product
briefly
of the logarithms
of the factors;
of two numbers is the sum
loga flogb.
or, by formula, log(aby
It is easily
shown
that the law also holds for any number
of factors in a product; that is,logabc
loga + logb + logc,
492
in Art.
have
shown
that
to
the
and
so
on.
EXERCISES
1.
Check
by
findingthe product
2.
Find
by
numbers
(a) 10
3.
Find
plotwhose
Solution.
Hence,
the logarithmic
method
multiplication
actual
of 48 and
of
means
ing
the follow
100
1000.
(b) 51
by using logarithmsthe
base
The
is 38 ft. and
formula
in this case,
Then
table,
area
whose
for the
log A
the
55.
log 19
log 17
By
of
"
of
(c) 83
a
of any
17.
1.2788
1.2304
2.5092
323.
2.
triangulargarden
altitude is 17 ft.
area
19
40.
triangleis
434
GENERAL
495.
order
In
of
Logarithm
by logarithmsis
methods
(a)
method
of
dividingone
the
1000, by
"
"
1UU
1U
in
as
method
useful in division
as
make
Here,
quotient. The
to
(b)
MATHEMATICS
2=
103=
number
by
but
review
us
two
our
another.
division.
actual
the exponents.
1000, by subtracting
we
multiplication,
by either method,
operationof actual
computing
multiplication.
in
as
clear, let
of
obtain
second
the
division to
the
result
same
method
reduces
simple problem
of
the
tracting
sub
exponents.
EXERCISES
Find
1.
discussed
the
the
followingquotientsby
methods
two
just
100,000
1,000,000
'
1000
Divide
2.
10,000
100
by
So"*ion
Divide
3.
We
like
10
of
a
may
manner
equal to
equal to
10
law
the
student
562.34
should
by
obtain
the
check
31.62
the
by
by using the
quotientof
dividend.
the
logarithmof
as
division.
numbers
two
any
of the
of
of the power
of
the definition
be
expressedas
of two numbers
quotient
minus
the logarithmof
the
formula, logIT)"l"9a
in
power
in mind
the dividend
actual
exponent
Keeping
divisor ; or,
this result
by subtractingthe exponent
logarithmit
by using
The
XOTE.
31.623
1"9^
is
the
435
LOGAEITHMS
EXERCISES
1. Given
log 2
Find
0.3010, log 3
value
the
of
following
figuresby using logarithms:
significant
2.
the
59
381
85
fractions
to
three
II3
"a" "43"
752
~^~
71
350
To
HINT.
find
the
logarfthm of
of the
of the
logarithms of
496.
division of
of the decimal
one
and
the factors
of the
Position
or
and
48
253
~"
~
pointone
from
of the
the
sum
10 amounts
the
cation
multipli
moving
multiplication
to
rightin
division,and
the
since
the multiplication
to
by 100 amounts
moving the decimal point two places to the rightor left,
and
the position
so
on,
of the decimal point in a number
the characteristic onli/.
whose logarithmwe are seekingaffects
The truth of the foregoingstatement
best by
be seen
can
of the table in Art. 489.
In this table,for example,
means
or
division
of
in
subtract
sum
denominator.
by
placeto
this
point. Since
decimal
number
each
! Oo.25=1.7782,
If
we
multiplyboth
1012B=
number
or
log1.7782
sides of this
17.782,
or
1 02.25
and
so
on.
The
177.82,
student
or
0.25.
equation by 10, we
log17.782
this last
log 177.82
will observe
that
get
1.25.
equation by 10,
2.25,
changing,and
figuresremains
the
436
GENERAL
same
the
rightafter
each
sides of
divide both
loo.*
0.1778,
0.01778,
0.001778,
lOo.ffi3
place to
one
like manner,
1.778
if
we
and
by 10,
obtain
100.252
point moves
In
multiplication.
the equation 10025
the division,we
continue
and
decimal
the
though
even
MATHEMATICS
log0.1778
or
0.25
log 0.01778
or
or
log 0.001778
1;
0.25
0.25
2,
3,
on.
so
"
agree with
To
that
only the
this statement
1
is
9.2510
instead
easilysee
that
\Ve
shall later
of 0.251
has
statements
1. We
or
the
dash
above
books
1.25.
may
be
the
means
form
prefer the
The
value
same
advantageof
another
precedingdiscussion
The
fortn
negative. Some
9.25"10
see
the
student
as
the form
summarized
can
0.25"1.
9.25
in
"
1 0.
two
agree
such
to
that
express
the
its mantissa
the number
is
greater or
in
can
less than
or
negativenessof
positiveness
of the characteristic.
the number
is shown
by means
entirely
2. Two
numbers
succession of digits,
containingthe same
that ?X differing
only in the positionof the decimal
unity. In
either
case
the
LOGARITHMS
logarithmsthat differonly
will have
characteristic.
This
table
of mantissas
of
number,
the
point in
both
number.
The
10
7th
This
power.
shall
downward
of the
minus
The
10~6
6th
OF
103
io*
io4=
10,000
105
100,000
o.ooi
!
=
how
4th
than
and
to find the
three
IO7the
want
we
the
is
of
powers
or
10.
logarithm of 2142,
we
the
0.0142
1st power
far
2142
Again,
that
because
minus
10,000,000
3, because
know
we
Interpolation. So
order to be
we
1,000
io6 =1,000,000
"
498.
upward
0.1
logarithmof 0.0142,
the logarithm is "2,
2d
plus
as
range
extended
1040.0001
and
the
to
10J=10
minus
more
CHARACTERISTICS
0.000001
example, if
3d
of
much
is
number
any
10
and
io2=ioo
10"
the
determine
may
be
serves
unity.
logarithmof
can
1020.01.'
know
decimal
following'table
power
as
table
the
to
1050.00001
10
the
of
will.
at
TABLE
For
The
student
is about
need.
ever
less than
characteristics.
the
to
value
table of mantissas
same
attention
no
pay
greater and
of
Table
the
in
need
we
for numbers
497.
437
have
if
we
lies between
we
want
the
characteristic of
lies
between
the
of 10.
shown
the
student
numbers
only. In
logarithmsof threedigit
of numbers
able to'find the logarithms
of more
and to find the numbers
corresponding
digits,
438
GENERAL
logarithmswhich
various
to
MATHEMATICS
for
it is necessary
the
We
obtain
may
how
learn
to
us
we
shall
to
in
calculation,
further
make
consider
proceed to
of
use
two
typicalexamples.
logarithmof
the
Find
1.
of the
decimal
of 2316.
"
No.,"
logarithm is
down
find 23.
The
We
the
2.
To
Now
of the tabular
difference
Therefore
The
2.3655
2.3636
0.0019
the
0.0010
way
the
to
from
231
and
so
on.
232,
2.3636
log 231.6
2.3647.
Thus,
0.0019.
obtainingthe logarithm of a
is called interpolation.
The
student
method
by findingthe logarithmsof
number
should
practicethis
numbers.
fourdigit
Find
2.
the number
Solution.
We
lying between
that
the
in the
the
know
the
decimal
3874, which
at
minus
If
3883, but
is
1st
and
we
little less
in the
that

0.3874
number
0.3883
"
1 is the
lies between
0.244
0.3883
table
the
tells
us
significant
figure
of Art. 492
a
fraction
This
of 10.
is
1.
"
decimal
first
several
do
we
not
find
littlegreater,and
is,
log 0.245.
log 0.244.
logarithm
and
is
0 power
3892, which
find
0.3892
Since
the
just before
look
we
logarithmis
that the number
once
point comes
number.
mantissa
whose
{'^
add
we
logarithm of 231.
log 231.6
23
write
now
to
with
row
of
process
this way
in
f'6of
is
231.6
since
mantissa
table,headed
horizontal
same
ignore the
the
of the
column
acteristic
the char
we
for
of Art. 492
in the
difference
that
it is clear
lefthand
log 232
log 231
Tabular
497
table
numbers
to find the
want
Art.
the
in
of the
the mantissas
are
look
point and
Reading
we
table of
the
From
Solution.
231.6.
0.245.
of the
Now
number
0.3883
we

1 is
want,
the
T98of
the
439
LOGARITHMS
.
to the
0.245.
Therefore
from
way
the
Here
the
number
corresponding
the
from
way
0.244
to
is 0.2445.
of
process
of
problem,that
given.
desired
number
EXERCISES
1. Find
the
91200; 0.567;
(No interpolation.)
logarithms of
the
Find
2.
0.00741.
Find
the numbers
0.3054; 0.02122;
Find
4.
; 0.0878
0.8770
499.
we
showed
the
6542
(Interpolation.)
0.84571.
whose
2.3080; 1.936;
logarithmsare
(Interpolation.)
by
roots
the
Va
"*
that the
a
of
means
meaning
Va
a*
theorem
logarithms. In
of fractional
V"
exponents
; etc.
of Art.
raised
number
to
494, regarding
holds
power,
for
exponents, then
logVa
logv
so
numbers
that
logarithmof
fractional
and
following
of
assume
we
whose
discussed
a*
If
2.
Extraction
Art. 460
and
numbers
the
the
0.002143.
745; 83.2;
on.
This
loga*
loga
loga,
loga,
of another
theorem,
number
index
is
of the
equal
root.
Thus,
Now
square
logV542
1.3670
root
^~=
logarithmof 23.28
542 is approximately23.28
is the
of
J log 542
1.3670.
Therefore
.
"
the
440
GENERAL
If
the
logarithmof
be found
may
Find
MATHEMATICS
the
is
negative,the
followingexamples.
in the
as
number
:
by logarithms
(b) ^0.472.
(a) V0.472.
Solution.
1. Now
0.6739
Log 0.472
shall obtain
of this negativelogarithm,we
be confusing. Therefore, in
that would
to
keep the mantissa
positive and the
division)an integer,we write
=
which
number
and
which
has
the
student
if
order
it
characteristic
possible
(afterthe
1!).""73!"20,
can
.=
characteristic
make
to
take
to
attempt
we
fractional
readilysee
advantage referred
the added
(c) V/O472.
"
log0,172
a
root
is
equal to
to
above.
(19.6739
20)
9.8369
0.6739
We
1,
"
get
now
10.
In like manner,
and
In
(b) log V
0.472
i (29.6739
30)
9.8913
(") log v
0.472
J (39.6739
40)
9.9185
(a),above, logVo.472
By reference
1, the number
of 10
hence
V0.472
10.
This
that 0.8369
Since
687.
the minus
pointcomes
student
The
the
actuallyextracting
given in
find
table,we
the decimal
10,
means
lies between
0.687.
and
logarithmof
of the

the
to
10.
9.8369
square
is the
tissa
man
1st and
the 0 power
justbefore the 6, and
of 0.472
root
is 0.8369.
the characteristic is
check
should
that
this result
by
by
the method
Art. 446.
EXERCISES
1.
Find
by logarithms :
V9604
V153.76
^42"75;
2.
Given
value
"
the
4.25,ft
of
V0.000529
A/10648
^0.001728.
v/3.375
;
22.1,and
0.05,find by logarithms
72
\"
to three
significant
figures.
442
GENERAL
The
10.
for
second
where
head
In
For
NOTE.
thus
is the
equation x
y
"
Fill in the
*12.
Art.
1?
if
30.24
2 ? when
"
piston
of
115
of
Ib.
when
!?
equationx
the table
per
pressure
value
?/=
for the
the
in. and
is the
what
"W1J
y
followingtable
=10?/.
of mantissas,
492.
13.
obtainingthe'graph for
FIG.
that
300.
Show
the
negativenumber
logarithm.
(a)
lO2'
GRAPH
graph
:
followingprinciples
*14.
the
when
in inches
(ininches)over which
of pounds of
number
cylinder.Find
the
0 ? when
the distance
and
in the
*11.
steam
denotes
moves,
steam
v of the
pistonhead
velocity
engine is given by the formula
average
a
MATHEMATICS
for
OF
does not
(ory
"
draw
the curve,
logx) (Fig.300).
=10^
have
(Fig.300) makes
clear
real number
for its
443
LOGARITHMS
is positive
or
(b) The logarithm of a positivenumber
tive
negais greater or less than 1.
accordingas the number
(c) The greater the value of x, the greater its logarithm.
(d) As x gets smaller and smaller,its logarithm decreases
smaller
becomes
and
*15.
Find
by
and
the
smaller.
graph
of
Ex.
the
13
logarithm of 2.25;
*J6. Of what
Check
*17.
given in
*
500.
number
the
your
the table
is 0.35
logarithm?
15
and
16
0.5?
by
0.42?
the results
of Art. 492.
of 1000
to the base
10, we
could
arrive
at the
same
EXERCISE
Give
the
five
of
examples
exponentialequations where
10
is
base.
*501.
Method
of
plest
sim
(a)
If 2X
(by inspection).
=
4, then
(b)If3a;=
9, then*
(c) If 2V
(,1)Tf 3*
8, then
81, then
(e)
2.
(f)IflOj;=
(g) If 10"
"/ =
3.
4.
If 10?'
2.
100, then
1000, then
10,000, then
y
x
2.
3.
4.
444
MATHEMATK
GENERAL
Solution
II
the
Solve
equation 2X
the
Taking
\S
6 for
both
logarithms of
log 2X
or
log 2
x.
log 6,
log 6.
0"2
!2"e
sides
log 2
2 58
0.3010
G.
The
student
remember
must
that
The
"
first is
fraction
is not
"
equal
to
log2
obtained by dividingone
log
^"
involves
subtraction.
EXERCISE
Solve
the
(a) 2X
502.
following
equationsfor
(b) 3X
7.
Interest
(c) 4*
5.
10.
(d) (1.12)*
=
Some
3.
portant
im
of
problems in interest may be solved by means
exponential equations and logarithms. The
following
simple example will illustrate the principle:
In how
years will a
many
if the interest is compounded
Solution.
will
amount
will
be
will be
the
In
one
be
1.06
year
(1.06)3;and
x
so
Then,
(1.06)3'.
conditions
of the
$1
of money
sum
(1.06)2
;
annually) in
sum
about
in
three
years
years
the
if the
money
is to
problem
will
$1.06 ;
in
to
Therefore
on.
of money
12.3 yr.
itself at
6%
annually?
will amount
1.06, or
double
will
be
we
get
years
itself at
6%
the
the
amount
amount
of
itself in
representedby
for x,
double
double
in two
the
12.3
$1
years,
equation
(approx.).
(compounded
LOGARITHMS
445
EXERCISES
solution of the
1.
Explain the
2.
If the interest is
will
how
In
3.
interest
4^
4.
The
compounded annually,in
many
will
years
of P
dollars
how
many
3%? 4%
years
?
5%
treble itself at
of money
sum
1200,
compounded
"/"%,
.1 =P(1 +/")". Find
the
log 1.04
log A
A
Therefore
at
years
0.04,n
10.
0.04)"
follows
arranged as
log 1200
10
4%.
at
1200(1
be
computationmay
for
formula
problem
^
The
3%
Art. 502.
amount
Solution.
itself at
double
of money
sum
problem given in
3.0792
0.1700
3.2492
1775, number
of
dollars
the
in
amount.
NOTE.
we
As
of fact,this value
matter
are
should
problem
number
of
of the
result.
the
determine
placesgiven
in
$5000
5.
What
6.
Approximately
will
kind
of A
In
is not
of tables used.
tin' tables
exact, because
used,
in
the
The
greater
5 yr.
greater
the
3%,
compounded annually? semiannually? quarterly?
would
this
placedon
7.
years
Island
amount
interest at
What
if it had
$24
would
been
ago ?
to
at
6%' and
he
placed
the
on
to
hundred
three
Manhattan
purchased
amount
from
the Indians
at
interest
the
ago
for
Dutch
$24.
annual
10
at
the
compound
the
accuracy
the
amount
3%
years
of the
What
been
present time
interest
tifty
446
GENERAL
MATHEMATICS
8.
?
will amount
sum
to
$1600
in 10 yr. at
6%,
interest
$ 2500
in 5 yr. at
3%,
interest
10.
will amount
sum
to
11.
interest
12.
years
will
$4000
amount
to
$8500
at
6%,
What
nineteen
many
would
hundred
be
the
amount
and
today of 1 cent
placed on
ago was
twenty years
at 6%, compounded annually ? Find
sphere of gold which has this value.
cubic
foot
radius
interest
in miles
of
the
which
of
arithm
pupil is convinced of the value of logdevice in complicatedarithmetic
as
a
laborsaving
opportunities
computations.Since he will meet numerous
for applications,
the lists of problems in the chapter are
brief,the aim being to give justenough illustrations to
involved.
clear the meaning of the principles
make
No
doubt
HISTORICAL
the
NOTE.
Logarithms
were
invented
by
John
Napier
LOGARITHMS
A
Swiss
conceived
the
the
447
of Jobst
Biirgi(15521632)may
have
logarithms as early or earlier than
lish
Napier and quite independently of him, but he neglected to pubknown
all over
his results until after Napier'slogarithms were
known.
not
by
idea
name
of
Europe.
Henry Briggs (15611630),who, in Napier'stime, was professorof
interested
College,London, became
geometry in Gresham
very much
and
in Napier's work
paid him a visit. It is related that upon
observingeach other
Briggs's arrival he and Napier stood speechless,
for almost
a
quarter of an hour. At last Briggs spoke as follows :
this long journey purposelyto see your
My lord, I have undertaken
and to know
by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came
person,
of this most
excellent
first to think
help in astronomy, namely, the
logarithms,but, my lord, being by you found out, I wyonder nobody
known
it is so easy."
found it out before, when
now
After
this visit Briggs and
to have
the
seen
Napier both seem
of
usefulness
a table of logarithmsto the base
10, and Briggs devoted
of such tables. For this reason
himself to the construction
logarithms
often called Briggsianlogarithms.
to the base 10 are
Abbott
for diversion,
Napoleon had a few moments
says that when
book
of logarithms,which
he always
he often spent them
over
a
"
recreational.
found
Miller
in*his
(p.70) says
saved
Historical
"The
It would
Introduction
be difficult to estimate
and
to
Mathematical
logarithms had
explainstheir great
only once
world.
"
the
value
to
to be
the
computed
intellectual
amount
enormous
ture
Litera
of time
astronomers
which
contains
others
great deal of
excellent
historical
material.)
SUMMARY
503.
This
504.
The
ing
chapterhas taught the meaning of the followwords
and phrases: logarithm,
characteristic,
mantissa,
and exponentialequation.
interpolation,
been
of
as
logarithmshas
possibleso that
448
the
GEN
student
KKA
able
be
may
This
505.
of
value
this
the
taught
student
four
tant
impor
formulas
:
ab
log
the
appreciate
to
has
chapter
logarithmic
(a)
'S
device.
laborsaving
powerful
MATHEMATK
log
log
b*
(c)
log
(d)
log
au
log
a.
"
(b)
log
log
b.
log
"
Va
"
=
"
The
506.
depends
of
entirely
the
of
of
mantissa
the
positive;
507.
508.
problems
problem.
This
the
the
and
exponential
The
student
by
logarithm
of
means
the
mantissa.
same
number
is
either
or
always
"
of
methods
taught
solving
rithmic
loga
equations.
has
of
be
may
logarithm
having
the
result
any
the
numbers
have
has
of
two
will
characteristic
in
point
characteristic
digits
chapter
decimal
Thus,
sought.
succession
The
the
upon
number
same
of
position
been
logarithms,
taught
for
how
to
example,
solve
the
verbal
interest
450
GENERAL
of
Mantissas
we
or
from
two
logarithmsof
have seen,
as
1000
MATHEMATICS
the
are
numbers
from
for numbers
same
piecesof
1 to 10
from
100
certain
made
to
(which,
to
1000
scale
slide
on
by
nr
FIG.
each other
be
can
The
mark
so
tliat the
obtained
301.
sums
SLIDE
KUL.K
differences of the
or
logarithms
mechanically.
scale is numbered
1 to 10 at the
from
pointswhich
the
mon
logarithmsof the several numbers used. The comscale is 5 in. long and the common
rule 10 in. long,so
is put on twice,and the numberthat the series of logarithms
ing
either repeatedfor the second set or continued from 10
FIG.
to 100.
The
Slide Rule.
most
On
common
302
form
this rule,which
as shown
essentially
in Figs.302 and 303, there are two scales A and B justalike
and two
other scales,
(A on the rule and B on the slide),
C and D, justalike (Z" on
the rule and C on the slide).
The
scales A
student
and
will note
is the
same
from
1 to 2
on
2 to 4 and
451
4 to 8.
from
1 to 2
This
of the slide B,
means
or
4.
on
In
like manner,
scale B
shall obtain
C
and
unit
if
twice
add
we
product 4
differ from
1 to 2
we
the distance
to
the
add
we
scale B
on
that if
means
2,
from
scale A,
on
to
we
8.
or
by
product 2x2,
distance
1 to
from
and
the
scale A
on
in
being graduated to