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# Matrix:

A rectangular array or a formation of a collection of real numbers, say 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 etc. and then
1 2
enclosed by brackets [ ] are known as Matrix. For example [
].
3 4
In a matrix, the entries presented in horizontal way are called rows & all the entries presented in vertical way
are called columns. For example in above matrix there are two rows one which contain 1, 2 and other 3, 4.
There are two columns containing element 1,3 and 2,4.
Order of a Matrix:
The number of rows and columns in a matrix specifies its order. If a matrix M has m rows and n columns,
then M is said to be of order m-by-n. For example in above matrix order of matrix is 2-by-2.
Equal Matrices:
Two matrices are said to be equal if and only if

## They have same order

Their corresponding entries are equal

For example:
7 0
4+3 0
A=[
] & B= [
] are equal.
3 2
3
2

EX#1.1
Q.1: Find the order of the matrix.
2 3
A=[
].
5 6
Order of A = 2-by-2
C=[2 4]
Order of C = 1-by-2

E=[ ]

Order of E = 3-by-2

2 0
B=[
]
3 5
Order of B = 2-by-2
4
D = [ 0]
6
Order of D = 3-by-1
F = [2]
Order of F = 1-by-1

## Q.2: Which of the following matrices are equal?

A = [3];

B= [3 5];

31
2
F=[ ];
G=[
];
6
3+3
2+2 22
J=[
]
2+4 2+0
In above matrices following are equal:

C= [5-2];
4 0
H=[
];
6 2

D=[5 3];

4 0
E=[
];
6 2

I=[3 3+2];

A=C,
B=I,
E=H,
F=G
H=J,
E=J
Q.3: Find the value of a, b, c and d which satisfy the matrix equation.
0 7
+ + 2
[
]=[
]
3 2
1 4 6
From the definition of equality of matrices:
a + c = 0 .. (1)
;
a + 2b = -7 .. (3)
c 1 = 3 ...(2)
;
4d 6 = 2d (4)

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

= 3+1
c=4
So,
a+4=0
a = -4
Put value of a in (3)
-4 + 2b = -7
2b = -7 + 4
b=

;
;
;

from (4):

4d 2d = 6
2d = 6
d = 6/2 = 3

3
2

## Result: The values of a, b, c and d are -4, -3/2, 4 and 3 respectively.

(END OF EX # 1.1)

Types of matrices:
1. Row Matrix:
A matrix is called a row matrix, if it has only one row. For example: M = [5 3].
2. Column Matrix:
1
A matrix is called a row matrix, if it has only one column. For example: M = [ ]
2
3. Rectangular Matrix:
A matrix is called rectangular, if the number of rows of is not equal to the number of its
1 2 3
columns. For example: M = [
]
3 2 1
4. Square Matrix:
A matrix is called a square matrix, if its number of rows is equal to its number of columns. For
4 0
example: H=[
]
6 2
5. Null or Zero Matrix:
0 0
A matrix is called a null or zero matrix, if each of its entries is 0. For example: N =[
]
0 0
6. Negative Matrix:
Let A be a matrix. Then its negative, -A is obtained by changing the signs of all the entries of A
4 0
4 0
For example negative of Z =[
] is -Z=[
]
6 2
6 2
7. Symmetric Matrix:
1 2
A square matrix A is symmetric, if At = A. For example: Z =[
]
2 1
8. Skew-symmetric Matrix:
0 6
A square matrix A is said to be skew-symmetric, if At = A. For example: A = [
]
6 0
9. Diagonal Matrix:
A square matrix A is called a diagonal matrix if at least any one of the entries of its diagonal is
5 0
not zero and non-diagonal entries are zero. For example: M = [
]
0 6
10. Scalar Matrix:
A diagonal matrix is called a scalar matrix, if all the diagonal entries are same. For example: M
2 0
=[
]
0 2

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

## 11. Identity Matrix:

A scalar matrix is called identity (unit) matrix, if all diagonal entries are 1. It is denoted by I. For
1 0
example: I = [
]
0 1
EX # 1.2
Q.1: From the following matrices, identify unit matrices, row matrices, column matrices and null
matrices.
0 0
]
0 0
B = [2 3 4]
4
C = [ 0]
6
1 0
D=[
]
0 1
E=[0]
5
F = [ 6]
7
A=[

Null Matrix
Row Matrix
Column Matrix
Identity Matrix
Null Matrix
Column Matrix

## Q.2: From the following Matrices, identify

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

a) Square Matrix

b) Rectangular Matrix

e) Identity Matrix

f) Null Matrix

8 2
[
12 0
3
[ 0]
1
6 4
[
]
3 2
1 0
[
]
0 1
1 2
[ 3 4]
5 6
1
[ 0]
0
1 2
[1 2
0 0
0 0
[ 0 0]
0 0

7
]
4

c) Row Matrix

## Ans: Rectangular Matrix

Ans: Column Matrix (Also comes under the category of Rectangular Matrix)
Ans: Square Matrix
Ans: Identity Matrix
Ans: Rectangular Matrix
Ans: Column & Rectangular Matrix

3
0]
1

## Ans: Square Matrix

Ans: Null Matrix

Q.3: From the following matrices, identify diagonal, scalar and unit (identity) matrices.
A=[

d) Column Matrix

0 4
]
4 0

## Ans: Scalar Matrix

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

2
B=[
0

0
] Ans: Diagonal Matrix
1

1
C=[
0

0
]
1

3 0
D=[
]
0 0

53
E=[
0

0
]
1+1

## Ans: Scalar Matrix

EX#1.3
Q.1: Which of the following matrices are conformable for addition?

Solution:
Since matrices A & E and matrices B & D and matrices C & F have same order. So they
Q.2: Find additive inverse of the following matrices:

Solution:
2
Additive inverse of A = - A = [
2
1
Additive inverse of B = - B = [2
3

4
2
]= [
1
2

0
1
2

4
]
1

1
1
3 ] = [ 2
1
3

4
4
Additive inverse of C = - C = [ ] = [ ]
2
2

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

0
1
2

1
3]
1

1
Additive inverse of D = - D = [3
2
1
Additive inverse of E = - E = [
0
Additive inverse of F = - F = [ 3
1
Q.3: If A = [

0
1
2] = [ 3
1
2

0
1
]= [
1
0

0
2]
1

0
]
1

1
3
]= [
1
2

1
]
2

] , B = [ ] , = [ ] and D = [

] then find:

(i). A + [

1 2
1 1
]=[
]+ [
]

2 1
1 1
1 + 1 2 + 1
=[
]
2+1 1+1
0 3
=[
]
3 2

1
2
(ii). B + [ ] = [ ] + [ ]

3
1
12
=[
]
1 + 3

=[ ]

(iii).
C + [-2 1 3] = [1+(-2) -1+1 2+3]
= [-1 0 5]

1 2 3
0 1 0
(iv).
D+[
]=[
]+ [
]

1 0 2
2 0 1
1+0 2+1 3+0
=[
]
1 + 2 0 + 0 2 + 1

=[
]

(v). 2A = 2[

1
2

2
2
]=[
1
4

4
]
2

1
1
]=[ ]
1
1

(vi).

(-1)B = (-1) [

(vii).

(-2)C = (-2) [ ] =[ ]

(viii).

1
3D = 3 [
1

(ix).

3C = 3 [ ] = [ ]

2
0

3
3
]= [
2
3

6
0

9
]
6

## Q.4: Perform the indicated operations and simplify the following:

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

Solution:
(i):

1+0
= ([
0+3
= ([
=[

1
3

0+2
1
]) + [
1+0
1

2
1
]) + [
1
1

1+1
3+1

2
=[
4

1
]
0

1
]
0

2+1
]
1+0

3
]
1

(ii):
1
=[
1

1
01
] + ([
0
31

=[

1
1

=[

1 + (1)
1+2

0
=[
3

1
1
] + ([
0
2

21
])
00
1
])
0

1+1
]
0+0

2
]
0

(iii): [2 3 1] + ( [1 0 2] - [2 2 2] )
= [2 3 1] + ([1 2 0 2 2 2])
= [2 3 1] + [1 2 0]
= [2 + (1) 3 + (2) 1 + 0]
= [1 1 1]

(iv): [

] + [

1+1
= [1 + 2
0+3
2
= [1
3

(v): [

3
1
4

2+1
1 + 2
1+3

3+1
1 + 2]
2+3

4
1]
5

] + [

1+1
= [2 + (2)
3+0
2
= [0
3

2
4
3

2+0
3+1
1+2

3 + (2)
1+0 ]
2 + (1)

1
1]
1

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

(vi): ([

]+[

]) + [

1+2
= ([
0+1
3
= ([
1

2+1
1
]) + [
1+0
1

3
1
]) + [
1
1

=[

3+1
1+1

=[

4
2

1
]
0

1
]
0

3+1
]
1+0

4
]
1

## Q.5: For the Matrices A = [

following rules:

] , = [

] = [

0
1
3] = [ 0
2
1

0
2
1

0
1
3] + [2
2
1

] verify the

(i). A + C = C + A
1

2
3
1

[2
1

3
1
1] + [ 0
0
1

1 + (1)

[ 2+0
1+1
0

[2 1
2

0
2
1

2+0
3 + (2)
1 + 1

3
0
4] = [2
2
2

2
1
0

1 + 1
3+0
1 + 3] = [ 0 + 2
1+1
0+2

2
3
1

0+2
2 + 3
1 + (1)

3
1]
0

0+3
3 + 1]
2+0

3
4]
2

. . = . .
(ii). A + B = B + A
1

[2
1

2
3
1

1+1

[2 + 2
1+3
2

[4 1
4

3
1
1 ] + [2
0
3
2 + (1)
3 + (2)
1 + 1
4
2
3] = [ 4
3
4

1
2
1

1
1
2] = [2
3
3

1
2
1

1+1
3+1
1 + 2] = [ 2 + 2
3+1
0+3
1
1
0

1
1
2] + [ 2
3
1

1 + 2
2 + 3
1 + (1)

2
3
1

3
1]
0

1+3
2 + 1]
3+0

4
3]
3

. . = . .
(iii).
(iv).
1
[2
1

B + C = C + B (do yourself)
A + (B + A) = 2A + B
2 3
1 1 1
1 2
3 1] + ([2 2 2] + [2 3
1 0
3 1 3
1 1

3
1
1] ) = 2 [2
0
1

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

2
3
1

3
1
1] + [2
0
3

1
2
1

1
2]
3

1+1
1 + 2
1+3
2 3
2 4 6
1
2 + 3
2 + 1] ) = [ 4 6 2] + [ 2
3 1] + ([2 + 2
3 + 1 1 + (1) 3 + 0
1 1 0
2 2 0
3
1 2 3
2 1 4
2 + 1 4 + (1) 6 + 1
[2 3 1] + ([4 1 3] ) = [4 + 2 6 + (2) 2 + 2]
1 1 0
4 0 3
2+3
2 + 1
0+3
1+2 2+1 3+4
2 + 1 4 + (1) 6 + 1
[2 + 4 3 + 1 1 + 3] = [4 + 2 6 + (2) 2 + 2]
1 + 4 1 + 0 0 + 3
2+3
2 + 1
0+3
3 3 7
3 3 7
[6 4 4] = [6 4 4]
5 1 3
5 1 3
. . = . .
1

[2

(v). (C - B)
1
([ 0
1

+A
0
2
1

1 1

([ 0 2
13

([2
2

1
0
0

2 + 1

([2 + 2
2 + 1
1
3
[0
3
1 1

= C + (A - B)
0
1 1 1
1 2 3
3] [2 2 2]) + [2 3 1]
2
3 1 3
1 1 0
1 0 0
1 2 3
1
= [ 0 2 3] + ([2 3 1] [2
1
1 2
1 1 0
3
0 (1)
2 (2)
11
1
=[0
1

1 2
01
+
])
[
2 3
32
1 1
23
0 0
11
2 3] + ([2 2
1 2
13

1
1
1 ]) + [2
1
1

2
3
1

3
1
1] = [ 0
0
1

0
2
1

3
1]
0
2 (1)
3 (2)
1 1

1
2
1

1
2])
3

31
1 2])
03

0
0
3] + ([ 0
2
2

1+2
1 + 3
1 + 0
0+3
1 + 1 ]) = [ 0 + 0
0 + (1) 1 + 0
1 + (2)
2
1
3
2
2]=[0
3
2]
1
1 1 1

0+3
2 + 5
1 + (2)

3
5
2

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

1
2
1

2
1])
3

0+2
3 + (1)]
2 + (3)

. . = . .
(vi). 2A + B = A + (A + B)
(Do yourself)
(vii).(C-B) A = (C - A) B
(Do yourself)
(viii). (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (Do yourself)
(ix). A + (B - C) = (A - C) + B (Do yourself)
(x). 2A + 2B = 2(A + B)
1 2 3
1 1 1
1 2 3
1
2 [2 3 1] + 2 [2 2 2] = 2 ([2 3 1] + [2
1 1 0
3 1 3
1 1 0
3

1
2
1

1
2])
3

1
2]
3

4 6
2 2 2
1 + 1 2 + (1)
6 2] + [4 4 4] = 2 ([2 + 2 3 + (2)
2 2 0
6 2 6
1+3
1 + 1
2 1 4
2 + 2 4 + (2) 6 + 2
[4 + 4 6 + (4) 2 + 4] = 2 ([4 1 3])
4 0 3
2+6
2 + 2
0+6
4 2 8
4 2 8
[ 8 2 6] = [ 8 2 6]
8 0 6
8 0 6
. . = . .

[4

Q.6: If A = [

] = [

3+1
1 + 2])
0+3

] find:

(i). 3A - 2B
2
0 7
] 2[
]
4
3 8
3 6
0 14
=[
][
]
9 12
6 16
30
6 14
=[
]
9 (6) 12 16
3 20
=[
]
15 4
t
t
(ii). 2A - 3B
= 3[

1
3

1 3
At = [
]
2 4
0 3
Bt = [
]
7 8
= 2[
=[

1
2

2
4

3
0
] 3[
4
7
6
0
][
8
21

=[

20
4 21

=[

2
25

Q.7: If [

9
]
24

6 (9)
]
8 24

15
]
16

] [

4
6

3
]
8

]= [

8
3
][
2
24

43
6 24

7
3
]= [
18
12

10
]
1

8 3
7
]= [
2 (12)
18

10
]
1

## From equality of matrices:

8 3b = 10
-3b = 10 8
-3b = 2
b = 2/-3 = -2/3

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

2a + 12 = 1

2a = 1-12
;

2a = -11
;

a= -11/2

Q.8: If A = [

] = [

## ] then verify that:

(i). (A + B)t = At + Bt
L.H.S:
1
A+B=[
0

2
1
]+[
1
2

1+1
=[
0+2
=[

2
2

1
]
0

2+1
]
1+0

3
]
1

(A + B)t = [

2
3

2
]
1

R.H.S:
1
At = [
2

0
]
1

1
Bt = [
1

2
]
0

At + Bt = [

1
2

1+1
=[
2+1
=[

2
3

0
1
]+[
1
1

2
]
0

0+2
]
1+0

2
]
1

## Hence Proved: L.H.S = R.H.S

(ii). (A - B)t = At - Bt
L.H.S:
1
A+B=[
0

2
1
][
1
2

11
=[
02
=[

0
2

(A + B)t = [

0
1

1
]
0

21
]
10

1
]
1
2
]
1

R.H.S:
1
At = [
2

0
]
1

1
Bt = [
1

2
]
0

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

At + Bt = [

1
2

11
=[
21
=[

0
1

0
1
][
1
1

2
]
0

02
]
10

2
]
1

## Hence Proved: L.H.S = R.H.S

(iii).

A+ At is symmetric.
1 0
At = [
]
2 1
1+1 2+0
1 2
1 0
A+ At = [
]+[
]= [
]
0+2 1+1
0 1
2 1
2 2
=[
]
2 2
Now,

(A+ At)t =[
] = (A+ At)

Hence proved that A+ At is symmetric.
(iv).
A- At is skew-symmetric.
1
0
At = [
]
2 1
1 2
1 0
11 20
A+ At = [
][
]= [
]
0 1
02 11
2 1
0 2
=[
]
2 0
Now,

(A+ At)t =[
] = - (A+ At)

Hence proved that A+ At is skew- symmetric.
(v). B+ Bt is symmetric.
1 2
Bt = [
]
1 0
1+1 1+2
1 1
1 2
B+ Bt = [
]+[
]= [
]
2+1 0+0
2 0
1 0
2 3
=[
]
3 0
Now,

(B+ Bt)t =[
] = (B+ Bt)t

Hence proved that B+ Bt is symmetric.
(vi).
B - Bt is skew-symmetric.
1 2
Bt = [
]
1 0
1 1
1 2
11 12
B- Bt = [
][
]= [
]
2 0
1 0
21 00
0 1
=[
]
1 0
Now,

(B+ Bt)t =[
] = - (B+ Bt)t

Hence proved that B+ Bt is skew-symmetric.

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com

MOIN LATIF
University of Engineering & Technology, (UET) Lahore.
Email ID: Engr.moin@hotmail.com