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1.

6 Bonding
Specificatio
n
Students will be
assessed on
their ability to:

Ionic
bonding
a. recall and
interpret
evidence
for the
existence of
ions, limited
to physical
properties
of ionic
compounds
, electron
density
maps and
the
migration of
ions, eg
electrolysis
of aqueous
copper
chromate(V
I)
b. describe
the
formation of
ions in
terms of
electron
loss or gain
c. draw
electron
configuratio
n diagrams
of cations

Ionic Bonding Exam Questions


Q1.
The bonding in magnesium oxide, MgO, is
A

ionic.

B
meta
llic and ionic.
C
ionic
and covalent.
D
meta
llic and
covalent.
(Total for
question = 1
mark)
Q2.
Which of these equations represents the electron affinity of
chlorine?
A Cl2(g) + 2e- 2Cl-(g)
B Cl2(g) - 2e- 2Cl-(g)
C Cl2(g) + e- Cl-(g)
D Cl(g) + e-

Cl-(g)
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q3.
Which of these electron density maps best represents the bonding
in the compound
lithium iodide, LiI?

(Total for question = 1 mark)


Q4.
Which of the following does not have exactly 10 electrons?
A An ion of fluorine, F
B A molecule of methane, CH4

C
D

A molecule of nitrogen, N2
An ion of sodium, Na+
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q5.
A drop of concentrated nickel(II) sulfate solution, which is green, is placed on moist
filter paper on a microscope slide and the ends of the slide are connected to a 24 V DC
power supply. After ten minutes,
A

a blue colour has moved towards the negative terminal and a yellow colour
towards the positive terminal.

a blue colour has moved towards the positive terminal and a yellow colour
towards the negative terminal.

a green colour has moved towards the negative terminal but there is no other
visible change.

a green colour has moved towards the positive terminal but there is no other
visible change.
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q6.
Which of the following represents the process occurring when the enthalpy change of
atomization of bromine is measured?
A Br2(l) Br(g)
B Br2(g) Br(g)
C Br2(l) Br+(g) + Br(g)
D Br2(g) Br+(g) + Br(g)
(Total for question = 1 mark)
Q7.
Which of the following statements is evidence for the existence of ions in ionic compounds?
A Ionic compounds, in the solid state, conduct electricity.
B When any ionic compound in solution is electrolysed, the migration of ions
can be seen.
C In electron density maps for ionic compounds, there is no single line
representing electron density that surrounds both cations and anions.
D In electron density maps for ionic compounds, there are some single lines
representing electron density that surround both cations and anions.
(Total for question = 1 mark)
Q8.
Going down Group 1 from lithium to rubidium
A

the radius of the atom decreases.

the radius of the ion decreases.

the first ionization energy decreases.

the polarizing power of the ion increases.

(Total for question = 1 mark)


Q9.
Magnesium chloride, MgCl2, has two lattice energy values quoted in the data booklet. The first is
the experimental value, obtained from the Born-Haber cycle, 2526 kJ mol 1; the second is the
theoretical value, 2326 kJ mol1. Why are the two values different?
A

The cation polarizes the anion leading to some covalent bonding.

The anion polarizes the cation leading to some covalent bonding.

Magnesium chloride is a covalent substance.

The results from the Born-Haber cycle are too inaccurate to be reliable.
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q10.
The first ionization energies, in kJ mol-1, of four elements with consecutive atomic
numbers are shown below.
A 1680
B 2080
C 496
D 738
(a) Which element could be an inert gas?
(1)
A

(b) Which element could be X in a covalent compound with formula HX?


(1)
A

(c) Which element could be Y in an ionic compound with formula YH 2?


(1)
A

D
(Total for question = 3 marks)

Q11.
Which equation represents the reaction for which the enthalpy change is the lattice
energy of sodium fluoride, NaF?
A Na(s) + F2(g) NaF(s)
B Na(g) + F(g) NaF(s)
C Na+(g) + F(g) NaF(s)
D Na(g) + F2(g) NaF(s)
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q12.
Which of these statements is incorrect?
A The atomic radius of metals increases down a Group.
B The trend in the melting temperature of successive elements across Period 2 is
similar to that in Period 3.

C A metallic structure is held together by attractions between metal atoms and


delocalized electrons.
D Na+ and O2- ions are isoelectronic.
(Total for question = 1 mark)
Q13.
Which of the following graphs
shows the variation in the
ionic radius of the Group 2
elements?
(Total for question = 1
mark)

Q14.
The ionic radii in nm of some ions are given below.

(a) Which of the following compounds has the most exothermic lattice energy? They all
have the same crystal structure.
(1)
A

LiF

LiCl

CaO

CaS

(b) Which of the following compounds will show the greatest difference between the
experimental (Born-Haber) lattice energy and that calculated from a purely ionic
model?
(1)
A

LiF

Li2O

CaO

CaS

Total for question = 2 marks)

Q15.
Element R is in Group 1 of the Periodic Table and element T is in Group 6. R and T
are not the symbols for the elements.
(a) The compound of R and T will have the formula
(1)
A

RT

RT6

RT2

(b) The compound of R and T will have bonding which is predominantly

R6T

(1)
A

ionic.

covalent.

dative covalent.

metallic.

(c) In terms of its electrical conductivity, the compound of R and T will


(1)
A

conduct when solid and liquid.

conduct when solid but not when liquid.

conduct when liquid but not when solid.

not conduct when solid or liquid.


(Total for question = 3 marks)

Q16.
Going across the Periodic Table from sodium to aluminium,
A

the melting temperature increases.

the radius of the atom increases.

the radius of the metal ion increases.

the bonding in the element changes from metallic to covalent.


(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q17.
Which of these ions has the greatest ability to polarize an anion?
A Ba2+

B Ca2+

C Cs+

D K+
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q18.
Which of the following has the smallest ionic radius?
A F
B Na+
C Mg2+

O2
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q19.
The graph below represents
the successive ionization
energies of an element X
plotted
against the number of the
electron removed. X is not the
symbol for the element.
(a) From this graph it is
possible to deduce the
group in the Periodic Table
to which X
belongs. X is in
(1)
A

Group 1

Group 3

Group 5

(b) From the graph it is possible to deduce that the most stable ion of X will be

Group 7

(1)
A

3+

(Total for question = 2 marks)


Q20.
Theoretical lattice energies can be calculated from electrostatic theory. Which of the
following affects the magnitude of the theoretical lattice energy of an alkali metal halide,
M+X ?
A The first electron affinity of X.
B The first ionization energy of M.
C The enthalpy of atomization of M.
D The radius of the X ion.
(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q21.
Which of the graphs shows (from left to right) the trend in the ionic radius of the
isoelectronic ions N3, O2, F, Na+, Mg2+, Al3+?

(Total for question = 1 mark)

Q22.
The Born-Haber cycle for the formation of sodium chloride from sodium and chlorine
may be represented by a series of steps labelled A to F as shown.

(a) (i) Complete the table below by adding the letters A to F next to the corresponding
energy changes.
(3)

(ii) Calculate the first electron affinity of chlorine, in kJ mol 1, from the data given.
(2)

(b) Lattice energies can be calculated from electrostatic theory (theoretical values) as
well as by Born-Haber cycles (experimental values).

(i) Comment on the fact that there is close agreement between the values for
sodium chloride, NaCl.

(1)
*(ii) Explain, in terms of chemical bonding, why the experimental value for
silver iodide, AgI, is more exothermic than the value calculated theoretically
for the same compound.
(2)

*(c) Suggest why the first ionization energies of the Group 1 elements decrease down the
group.
(2)

(Total for question = 10 marks)


Q23.
(a) Briefly describe an experiment,
with a diagram of the apparatus
you would use which shows that
there are oppositely charged ions
in copper(II)
chromate(VI), CuCrO4. Describe
what you would expect to see.
4
Diagram

(b) The ions in an ionic lattice are held together by an overall force of attraction.
(i) Describe the forces of attraction in an ionic lattice.
(1)
(ii) Suggest two forces of repulsion which exist in an ionic lattice.
(2)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................
(c) Part of the Born-Haber cycle for magnesium oxide, MgO, is shown below.

(i) Complete the empty box with the appropriate formulae and state symbols.
(2)
(ii) Identify the enthalpy changes represented by the letters A and C.
(2)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(iii) Give the expression for the enthalpy change F in terms of the other enthalpy
changes to A and E.
(1)

F=
(d) The lattice composed of the ions Mg2+ and O2 is stronger than a lattice composed of
the ions Mg+ and O .
(i) Explain, in terms of the charges on the ions and the size of the cations, why this
is so.

(2)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(ii) Suggest how the lattice energy of Mg 2+O2 would differ from that of Mg+O.
(1)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(Total for question = 15 marks)
Q24.
This question is about the properties of ions and ionic compounds.
(a) Solid calcium carbonate, CaCO3, has a giant ionic structure.
(i) Draw a diagram (using dots or crosses) for a calcium ion. Show ALL the
electrons and the charge on the ion.
(2)

(ii) Complete the electronic configuration for a calcium ion.


(1)
1s2..............................................................................................................................................
(iii) Would you expect a calcium ion to be bigger, smaller or the same size as a
calcium atom? Give TWO reasons to explain your answer.
(2)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(iv) Explain why ionic compounds have relatively high melting temperatures.
(2)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(b) Changes in the concentration of ions in a solution can be estimated by measuring the
electrical conductivity of the solution.
(i) Explain why solutions of ions are able to conduct electricity.
(1)

..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(ii) Suggest why aqueous solutions of calcium chloride, CaCl 2(aq), and barium
chloride, BaCl2(aq), of the same molar concentration, have different electrical
conductivities.
(1)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(iii) 1 kg of a solution contains 0.100 mol of calcium ions, Ca 2+.
What is the concentration of the calcium ions by mass in
parts per million (ppm)?
[Assume the relative atomic mass of calcium is 40.]
(2)

.....................................ppm
*(c) Some buildings are made from limestone, which is mainly calcium carbonate. Gases
in the atmosphere such as sulfur dioxide, SO 2, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2, can be
responsible for damaging these buildings.
Describe how these gases come to be present in the atmosphere and explain how
they can damage a limestone building.
(3)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(d) The lattice energy of calcium chloride, CaCl2, is -2258 kJ mol-1 based on an
experimental Born-Haber cycle and -2223 kJ mol -1 based on theoretical calculations.
Would you expect its bonding to match the ionic model? Justify your answer.

(1)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(Total for question = 15 marks)
Q25.
This question is about lithium iodide, an ionic salt.
(a) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the lithium and iodide ions. Show all the
electrons in the lithium ion but only outer shell electrons in the iodide ion.
(2)

(b) On the Born-Haber cycle below, fill in the missing formulae (including state
symbols) and the missing enthalpy change.
(3)

(c) Calculate the electron


affinity of iodine, Eaff1[I(g)], using the data below.

(2)

(d) The experimental lattice energy for lithium iodide is 759 kJ mol 1. The
theoretical lattice energy is different from this value.
Will the experimental lattice energy be more negative or less negative than the
theoretical lattice energy? Justify your answer.
(3)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................

(e) State and explain how electron affinity values change as you go down Group 7
from chlorine to iodine.
(2)
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(Total for question = 12 marks)
Q26.
(a) (i) Complete the electronic configuration of the magnesium atom.
(1)
1s .....................................................................................................................................................
2

(ii) Complete the electronic configuration of the chlorine atom.


(1)
1s .....................................................................................................................................................
2

.(b) (i) Write the equation, including state symbols, for the reaction of magnesium with
chlorine.
(2)

(ii) Name the type of bonding present in magnesium chloride.


(1)
..............................................................................................................................................
(iii) Draw a diagram (using dots or crosses) to show the bonding in magnesium
chloride. Include ALL the electrons in each species and the charge present.
(3)

(c) State the type of bonding that exists in solid magnesium.


(1)
Type ...............................................................................................................................................
*(d) Explain fully why the melting temperature of magnesium is higher than that of
sodium.
(3)
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
(Total for question = 12 marks)

Q1.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q2.
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Q3.
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Q4.
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Q5.
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Q6.
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Q7.
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Q8.
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Q9.
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Q10.
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Q11.
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Q12.
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Q13.
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Q14.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q15.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q16.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q17.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q18.
No Examiner's Report available for this question

Q19.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q20.
No Examiner's Report available for this question
Q21.
No Examiner's Report available for this question

Q22.
In (a)(i), it was pleasing to see the energy changes on the Born-Haber cycle identifi ed correctly.
Part (a)(ii)
proved to be more demanding, with many candidates being unable to derive a correct
expression for the
fi rst electron affi nity of chlorine. Frequently, a candidate's working led to an answer of +360 kJ
mol-1, which
was then amended to a fi nal answer of -360 kJ mol -1 without any comment.
The best answers started with an expression of the form "D = ......", with subsequent
rearrangement of the
expression to find the unknown, F, as shown below:-

In the second example above, one out of the two available marks has not been awarded due to a
transposition error. These occurred quite frequently. Consequential marking allowed the award
of one mark
for the subsequent value of the fi rst electron affi nity for chlorine.
In (b)(i), answers often contained a comment on the mathematical difference between the
experimental
and theoretical lattice energies rather than to the fact that the values were in close agreement
and,
therefore, that the bonding in sodium chloride is almost completely ionic. Part (b)(ii) revealed

that some
candidates did not understand the link between there being a signifi cant difference in the lattice
energies
and the nature of the bonding in a compound.
Part (c) was extremely well-answered, with all the relevant factors being included, as illustrated
in the
response below:-

Q23.
(a)
The majority of candidates described a method involving electrolysis.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This response scored three marks out of four. Both a negative and a positive electrode
are shown (although the fact that the longer terminal was shown incorrectly as being
negative and the shorter terminal was shown incorrectly as being positive was not
penalised). The yellow colour has been shown to migrate towards the positive electrode
and the blue colour is shown migrating towards the negative electrode. The only
omission is that the movement of ions has not been specifically mentioned in the
answer.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Always draw diagrams that are fully labelled, thereby relaying the maximum amount of
information.

(b)
Part (b)(i) was very well-answered. The most common error was to omit the word "ions".
Very few scored both the marks in (b)(ii). The repulsion between like-charged ions was

acknowledged, but the repulsion between electron clouds around the ions (regardless of
their charge) was frequently overlooked.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


Part (b)(i) scores the mark as both positive and negative ions are included in the
response. Part (b)(ii) scores both marks: the first mark for mention of ions of the same
charge repelling and the second mark for acknowledging that electron clouds repel.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Consider the forces of attraction and of repulsion in an ionic lattice.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


Part (b)(i) scores the mark for mention of both positive and negative ions. Part (b)(ii) did
not score. One mark is negated by the mention of "magnetic" repulsion between ions of
the same charge. The second scoring point in (b)(ii) is not addressed in this response.

(c)
The majority of answers to (c)(i) were correct. In (c)(ii), however, although the enthalpy

change of formation was well-known, the next answer often simply referred to "ionization
energy" or just "second ionization energy" instead of the sum of the first plus second
ionization energies (of magnesium). If the answer to (c)(iii) was incorrect, then normally
the signs were all the wrong way round.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This is a correct response, clearly laid out.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


In (c)(i), both the two species and the two state symbols are correct. In (c)(ii), 'formation'
scores a mark, but 'second ionization energy' is incorrect. The answer should have
stated that this enthalpy change is the sum of the first two ionization energies. Part (c)
(iii) is correct.

Results Plus: Examiner Tip


Practise questions such as (c)(iii) so that you can work your way round a Born-Haber
cycle.

(d) (i)
Unfortunately, many candidates did not read the question carefully and mention the effect
on the ionic bonding of changing the charge on both the cation and anion. The fact that the
Mg2+ cation is smaller than a Mg+ cation was appreciated by the majority of candidates.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This answer scored both marks. Any comparison between the size of the O and the O2
ions was ignored, as the question only required a comparison between the size of the
Mg2+ and the Mg+ cations.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Always read the question carefully so as to ascertain exactly what you are required to
consider in your answer.

(d) (ii)
This was generally well-answered, except when candidates did not realise that this was
requiring a comparison of the magnitude of the lattice energies rather than just stating that
"the Mg2+O2- lattice is stronger".

Q24.
(a) (i-ii)
Although for many this question was an easy start to the structured questions, a significant
minority dropped at least one mark.
Surprisingly, this occurred in part (i) as well as part (ii), with an incorrect number of electron
shells being the most common way to fail to score.
It's worth reminding candidates that transfer of key skills from GCSE, such as 'dot and cross'
diagrams, is a feature of AS and they should not just focus their revision on new concepts, such
as s, p and d orbitals.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This is a clear, well presented answer to part (i), scoring both marks.
However, it looks like the candidate has attempted (incorrectly) to
give the electronic configuration for a calcium atom in part (ii).
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Pay careful attention to anything written in bold on the paper. It's done
deliberately to help guide you towards answering the question. In this case it
shows the question requires the electron configuration of the ion, not the atom.
(a) (iii-iv)
It was quite rare to award two marks in part (iii) and this item did help discriminate at the higher
grades.
Whilst the vast majority recognised the ion was smaller, justifi cations were not always clear. For
instance, many described simply loss of electrons, rather than loss of an electron shell, which

was not quite creditworthy. In addition, the idea of increasing effective nuclear charge, whilst
acceptable in this context, did lead to a number of responses that suggested some candidates
believed the actual nuclear charge was increasing, rather than the increase of its net effect on
the remaining electrons. The best answers using this approach made it clear the number of
protons remained the same, but now outweighed the number of electrons.
Part (iv) showed that most candidates understood the clear link between the strength of the
many ionic bonds in a lattice and related this clearly to the input of energy needed to break up
the structure. A few failed to score in this question either because they answered in terms of
intermolecular forces or metallic bonds.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


In part (iii) 'stronger positive charge' without further clarification
seems to imply more protons in the nucleus, so this answer was
only awarded one mark, for loss of an electron shell.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
This answer would have been improved if the candidate had clarified why they
believed they were subject to 'greater positive charge' for example by stating that
the ion has more protons than electrons.
(b) (i)
The majority of candidates believed that delocalised electrons caused conductivity in ionic
solutions. Of those who recognised the charged particles were ions, most went on to score the
mark by emphasizing their freedom to move.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This answer didn't score as, although it recognises the
movement of charged particles is needed for a substance to
conduct, it states, incorrectly, that in the case of a solution
those particles are electrons.
(b) (ii)
The misconception regarding electrons in b (i) further hindered candidates in this item. A very
simple answer regarding the size of the ions affecting the conductivity would have sufficed. It
was acceptable for such an argument to be based on the ions alone, or in their hydrated form,
that they were different sizes, without any further justification.
However, many candidates tried to justify the difference in terms of number of electrons, as they
seemed to believe, as shown in part (i), that compounds release electrons on dissolving to allow
conduction.
(b) (iii)
This calculation seemed unfamiliar to some candidates who, despite often scoring marks on
calculations in questions 16 and 17, found this very difficult.
Although essentially a scaling exercise, many did not appreciate this and left their answer as
parts per thousand. Many others divided through by a million rather than scaling up to parts
per million. As this is a relatively straightforward task, the poor responses from some centres
suggests its relative novelty to the specification means it isn't as well practised as some other
numerical tasks.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


Although this candidate is unsure how to scale
to parts per million, they have made some effort
to show what calculations they are attempting
and label their answers accordingly. Hence
we were able to award this candidate 1 mark
for correctly determining the mass of calcium
present in the solution.

Results Plus: Examiner Tip


Try to always label any values you have calculated
so it is clear to the examiner what you are
attempting to do.
(c)
Many responses showed a good understanding of the processes involved in this question and
examiners were pleased to see generally sound chemical principles used to explain a 'real
life' problem. When candidates failed to score it was generally due to omissions rather than
incorrect chemistry. For instance, some ignored the first part of the question and didn't discuss
the source of the gases. Others gave vague generic answers for the source, such as 'pollution
from factories or industry'.
However, some excellent explanations of the formation of nitrogen oxides in car engines were
seen from more able candidates. Some responses for the third mark did not score as they
assumed the process was just physical, rather than chemical, tending to just describe erosion
and
not any preceding chemical reaction.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This answer shows understanding that a chemical reaction with
the limestone is integral to the process damaging the building,
but has not recognised the acidic nature of the two gases in
aqueous solution. To improve, the candidate should have
followed the guidance in the question and considered how the
gases came to be present in the atmosphere in the first place.
(d)
It was not expected that candidates should recall whether the bonding in calcium chloride is
considered almost completely ionic or partly covalent, but that they should use the data to help
form an opinion. Just under half the candidates managed to do this, with many of those arguing
that the difference was small enough that the substance could be considered to match the
ionic model. A minority of candidates came close to scoring by attempting to justify covalent
character in terms of polarization, but neglected to use the data to support their argument.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This candidate makes a statement that could be correct, as the
specification does not expect candidates to recall the precise
level of difference in theoretical and experimental lattice
energies. However, they did not use the data to support their
answer so just missed out on the mark.

Results Plus: Examiner Tip


Data and information in the stem of a question is
there to help candidates. Always read it carefully
to see if it could be useful in your written answer.

Q25.
(a)
Failure to read the question often cost a mark when iodine inner electrons were omitted.
Many candidates also omitted charges on the ions which should always be included.
Results Plus: Examiner Comments
At first sight this a perfect answer. The candidate has shown how the ions are formed
from the atoms concerned.
Unfortunately, the candidate has failed to read the question fully 'show all the electrons
in the lithium'.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Check you have answered the question asked.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


The electron configurations are fine but there are no charges on the ions.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Remember to include charges on ions in dot and cross diagrams.
(b) - (c)
The first part was very discriminating with an equal proportion of candidates gaining each
mark from zero to four.
States or charges were often missing from the gaseous ions.
While the element lithium was usually correct, iodine seemed unfamiliar. Many thought
iodine was a gas or liquid, and most thought it was monatomic. The symbol for atomisation
including square brackets and the symbol for the starting material were rarely correct.
In contrast with part (b) this was generally quite well done with about half the candidates
gaining full credit, for the correct answer with the correct sign. This was pleasing as the
calculation may not have been as simple as the standard calculation of lattice energy.
Common errors were failure to give the sign, doing the wrong subtraction to obtain a
positive sign or entering the incorrect data.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


The state symbols are missing from the gaseous ions.
The candidate does not understand that enthalpy change of atomisation refers to one
mole of atoms and they think the symbol includes the product rather than the starting
material for atomisation. Though they know that iodine is diatomic and that half a mole
is needed, they do not know that iodine is a solid.
The reasoning of the calculation is clear and gives the correct answer.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Be careful to learn the complete symbols for the enthalpies and energies involved in
lattice energy calculations.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


The gaseous ions and lithium solid are fine.
They have the wrong state for iodine but the correct amount of the diatomic molecule.
They have used the product symbol without a state for the atomisation enthalpy.
They have made an arithmetic error with the last sign in the calculation, but they still get
a mark for
clear and correct working.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Show all working clearly in calculations.
(d)
The first mark was achieved by less than half the entry, as some still insisted on terms like
increase or decrease. Various justifications were acceptable, whatever the first statement.
The most common correct justification was for a degree of covalency. Care was needed
to refer to distortion or polarization of iodide ions, the terms iodine 'atoms' or even
'molecules' were regrettably frequent.
Results Plus: Examiner Comments
The answer identifies there is some covalent character in the bonding, and explains this
arises due to the polarization of the anion by the cation.
Unfortunately the reference to energy is incorrect.
Notice that 2 marks are scored in spite of this error.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Your reasoning often gains more credit than the main answer to a question as it does
here.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


This is an example of a perfect answer. Notice also that it is easy to read.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Try to write as clearly as possible.

Results Plus: Examiner Comments


Though 'less negative' is incorrect, justification marks could still have been scored. If it
had been clear that the iodide ion was polarized a mark could have been given, though
the final statement is worrying, iodide ions are polarized because of their relatively large
size. A small charge makes them less polarizable.
Results Plus: Examiner Tip
Be clear in the selection and use of terms like atom, molecule and ion and only give
additional information if it is correct.
(e)
In spite of direction in past examiners' reports and the clear direction in the previous part of
the question, the phrase 'less negative' was rarely seen. Less, more increase and decrease
in electron affinity were seen with almost equal frequency.
Candidates need to remember that such descriptions are too vague for energy changes.

Imprecise expressions also cost marks in the reason for this change which could be awarded
even if the first part was inadequate.
Statements like 'It is further from the nucleus' (rather than 'the electron...') and 'there is
shielding' (rather than '...more shielding') were typical.

Q26.
In (a) (i) and (a) (ii), many candidates were able to give the correct electronic
configurations, although 1p and 2d sub-shells were occasionally seen. In (b) (i), the
formulae of the species were often correctly given, but there was some confusion
over which state symbols to use. In (b) (ii), the majority of candidates knew that the
bonding in magnesium chloride was ionic. Part (b) (iii) proved to be more
challenging, with a significant number of answers showing the bonding in magnesium
chloride as covalent rather than ionic. Candidates who did not read the question
carefully drew only the outer shell electrons on the magnesium and chloride ions,
instead of all the electrons in each species.
Quality of Written Communication was thoroughly tested in (d). Many candidates
confused the process of melting with that of ionization, with answers referring to the
removal of electrons from a magnesium atom frequently being seen. Answers which
attempted to consider the metallic bonding in magnesium and sodium often
overlooked the difference in ionic radii of the magnesium ion compared with that of
the sodium ion.

Q1. A
Q2. D
Q3. A
Q4. C
Q5. C

Q6.

Question Number

Q8.

Correct Answer
C

Reject

Mark
1

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