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NORTH SOUTH UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
MARKETING RESEARCH (MKT470)
RESEARCH ON: TRUTH IN ADVERTISEMENTS: SOCIAL
MEDIA USAGE AND THE BELIEVABILITY AMONG
YOUNG CONSUMERS

SUBMITTED BY
Nowshin Ahsan
Rifah Tasnia
Tanvir Ahmed
Wasif Mustayeen Chowdhury

#121 0251 030


#121 0250 030
#121 0041 030
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SUBMITTED TO
Syed Kamrul Islam
Senior Lecturer
School of Business
Date: 12-8-14

Syed Kamrul Islam


Senior Lecturer
School of Business Administration
North South University
Dhaka

Subject: Submission of Research Report on Truth in Advertisement: Media Usage


and Believability among Young Consumers.

Dear Sir,
We are very pleased to submit you our research report on Truth in Advertisement:
Media Usage and Believability among Young Consumers. The theoretical knowledge
is of no worth if it is not applied in reality. So it has been a great pleasure for us to
have the opportunity to apply our academic knowledge in practical field. The report is
prepared on the basis of the theoretical and practical learning from the Marketing
Research (MKT470) course of summer 2014 conducted by you.
We tried our level best to put careful effort for the preparation of this report. As
students it is usual that inadequacy or error may arise and it may lack professionalism
in some cases. For any unintentional inadequacy in the report, your sympathetic
consideration would be highly appreciated. In addition, we will enthusiastically
welcome any clarification and suggestion about any view and conception
disseminated in the report. We truly appreciate your patience and support.
We sincerely expect that you would be kind enough to accept our report for evaluation
and oblige thereby.

Acknowledgement
First & foremost, we are grateful for this opportunity & would like to express our
profound gratitude & appreciation to Syed Kamrul Islam sir, Senior Lecturer of North
South University, Dhaka for generous support during our Marketing Research
(MKT470) course of summer 2014.
We would also like to express our heartiest gratitude to SKI sir for his tremendous
help & encouragement with our study. We are highly indebted to him for his valuable
advice & intellectual guidance throughout the period of our study. His comments &
suggestions were very stimulating & developed our ideas to accomplish this report.
We would like to acknowledge the contribution of all our surveys for their help by
providing information for this study. The study would not have been possible without
their support & co-operation.

TABLE OF CONTENT
TOPIC

PAGE NO.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
TELECOMMUNICATION

01
02

INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH
TELECOM WAR IN BANGLADESH
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
SCOPES & LIMITATIONS
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
HYPOTHESIS
PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS
AGE
GENDER
OCCUPATION
EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT
INCOME
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
ONE SAMPLE T-TEST
PAIRED SAMPLE T-TEST
INDIVIDUAL SAMPLE TEST

03
04
05
06
07
08
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
14
15
16

(1)
INDIVIDUAL SAMPLE TEST

18

(2)
CROSSTAB & CHI SQUARE
ONE WAY ANOVA
CORRELATION ANALYSIS
LINEAR REGRESSION
FINDINGS
RECOMMENDATIONS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

20
22
24
25
27
28
29

Introduction

Our research topic is Truth in advertisement of telecom companies on social media


The report we are working on focuses on the level of truth portrayed by telecom

advertisements on social media. It is a known fact that social media is becoming an


very important source of promotion, because as each day pass by more people are
logging into social mediums and are thus exposed to vast promotions from various
brands of various products. Various telecom companies have opened pages (on
Facebook) or accounts (in Twitter) for raising brand awareness or promoting of their
products on social media. It is also known that markets try to make their promotions
and advertisements as lucrative as possible so that they can retain their customer base
for a long period of time. But the main questions that arises are: Are the promotions
1005 genuine? That does the viewers really believe the promotions of the telecom
companies on social media? Are they really portraying the truth? Do the expectation
and performance level match after complying with the offers?

Quite often we see that in mass promotions and also nowadays also spotted on social
media promotions that the *CONDITIONS APPLY portion is mentioned on the
promotions but many customers fail to notice this statement because it is stated
generally at the bottom and also in very small fonts that makes customers fail to
notice this. This phenomenon as created a buzz all over the world and people comply
with offers without noticing this statement, and later ends up dissatisfied. This
phenomenon has raised questions on the believability factors of promotions as well.

We know that everyday new companies are appearing and in order to grab customer
attention quickly they may provide falsified facts and information to win customers,
which is completely unethical. Many customers have the intellect to catch is falsified
information and thus ward them off, but there are quite a number of customers who
really believe in the provided information contents and eventually grab their attention
and they comply with the offer. Thus eventually they are dissatisfied because they
comply with offer that provide falsified information. Its up to the customers to
recognize the promotions and survive in the world of the evolving social media.

TELECOM INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH

The liberalization of Bangladeshs telecommunications sector began with small steps


in 1989 with the issuance of a license to a private operator for the provision of inter
alia cellular mobile services to compete with the previous monopoly provider of
telecommunications services the Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board
(BTTB). Significant changes in the number of fixed and mobile services deployed in
Bangladesh occurred in the late 1990s and the number of services in operation have
subsequently grown exponentially in the past five years.

The incentives both from government and public sectors have helped to grow this
sector. It is now one of the biggest sector of Bangladesh. The telecom sector in
Bangladesh has seen growth in mobile penetration that has exceeded all expectations
with over 65.1millions subscribers as of September 2010 versus 4million in 2004.
(Bangladesh Telecom Sector Challenges & Opportunities, 2010). According to other
studies the number of mobile phone subscribers in Bangladesh as of February 2009
was 45.21 million (Bangladesh Telecom Regulatory Commission, n.d.) rising to 99.87
million at the end of March 2013 (Telecompaper, n.d.) and it is projected to grow
more over the years.

As a populous country, its huge market has attracted many foreign investors to invest
in this sector. The rapid growth in mobile telephony has undoubtedly had a
transformative impact on the economy in terms of aggregate investment as foreign
companies like Telenor, Axiata, Orascom etc. have invested in our economy through
Grameenphone, Robi, Banglalink etc. respectively. This also has increased restrictions
and regulations for foreign companies trying to enter the market to control
competition and economic overture.

There are 6 mobile phone operators competing in Bangladesh. These are:


1. Airtel Bangladesh Ltd. Branded as Airtel, formerly known as Warid
Telecom
2. Grameenphone/Telenor Bangladesh Ltd.: Branded as Grameenphone
3. Orascom Telecom Ltd.: Branded as Banglalink
4. Pacific Bangladesh Telephone Ltd.: Branded as Citycell
5. Axiata Bangladesh Ltd: Branded as Robi
6. Teletalk Bangladesh Ltd.: Branded as Teletalk

Due to the emphasis of developing a Digital Bangladesh greater internet penetration


is of particular relevance to the telecom companies operating in BD. As a
consequence to keep up with the competition in lieu of the materialization of the idea
of a Digital Bangladesh the telecom companies are introducing 3G networks. 3G
networks are expected to significantly enhance user experience of existing data
services, with the introduction of video and other high bandwidth services by the
carriers. There has been substantial benefits from greater connectivity, generated from
this market competition and introduction of 3G network, in terms of social cohesion.
One of the key areas where operators in the industry are focused in is rising
importance of convergence and its impact on customer spending patterns.

TELECOM WAR IN BANGLADESH

As mentioned earlier the telecom industry of Bangladesh is in growing stage and it is


going to attain maturity stage soon. And to reap the benefits from this opportunity the
telecom companies are always on their toes grab the first opportunity to provide
services different from their competitors. With an aim to being the best network
providers in Digital Bangladesh the companies are always coming up with new
service packages as well as focusing on making internet accessible to their customer
with better speed and applications. The latest materialization of this aim is the wide
spread launch of 3G network by the telecom companies of Bangladesh.

According to a recent study by Webable, a digital marketing company, the growth rate
of subscription of Faceook in BD is 5% and is projected to reach 10million by the end
of November 2014.
So the importance
of grabbing the
customers through
these social media
has caught the
attention of the
telecom companies.
So they are becoming very active on these social media sites and they are coming up
with different packages so that the customers can access these social media sites
through them and they can promote their services to their customers. This way they
not only attract more customers but also generate more sales and get one step ahead of
their competitors.

Telecom companies are always creating new packages so that their customers can
access facebook or Whatsapp for free or for a low price as seen in the advertisements.
This is done to gain a competitive edge in the telecom war.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

For the research, our broad objective would be to figure out how effective are the
promotional strategies of the telecom companies in the social media sites. We tried to
scrutinize through our research that whether the telecom companies have been
successful in conducting their promotional strategies in terms of making them
believable for their customers and the subsequent believability pattern of the
customers.

In addition, some of our specific objectives are as follows:

Finding out the demographic pattern of the customers in terms of their age,

level of study, income/ allowance etc. to link with our study.


Whether the customers have access to internet in the first place.

The level of activity and time contribution of the customers on internet and

social media sites.


Their exposure to the advertisements of the telecom brand pages.
Their believability of the advertisements.
Effect of peripheral tools in the advertisements in persuasion of generating

believability among customers.


Assessing the success or failure of the advertisements of the telecom
companies among its target consumers.

SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS

Our study has two folds.

On one hand, we tried to determine the demography of the customers of the


target market of the telecom companies targeted via social media sites and the

accessibility and the usage pattern of internet by the customers.


On the other hand, we tried to find out the effectiveness of the advertisements
of the telecom companies of BD in social media sites to generate sales among
young consumers.

The limitations of our study are:

We had small sample size. Therefore our findings may not be very valid. But
our results are still valid; it is just less likely to occur than if we had enough

resources to conduct a questionnaire with a larger sample.


We had a narrow time frame to conduct the research, and so maybe we could
not produce as quality of a project as could be possible with a longer time
frame.

As in any project, there might be errors in our questionnaire or the procedures


used to implement it, which can lead us to skewed data or false info. Errors in
the finding may also come from the respondents part, where they might not
have actually told the truth, but just put a random answer just to get them done
with the survey.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methodology refers to a simple set of working methods or procedures and underlies a


particular study relative to the systematic method. We followed all fundamental steps
of a standard research process to conduct this research. This research has been
conducted in order to determine whether customers have access to internet and are
exposed to the advertisements of the telecom companies and the subsequent
believability of the advertisements.
For our primary data, in order to answer the research objectives, we considered a
sample size of 100 respondents from different universities.
We chose probability sampling method to get better and accurate results for our
research. Under probability sampling method we conducted simple random sampling
as well as snowball sampling. By using this technique in making our sample, we tried
to ensure that each element in the population have an equal chance of being included
in the sample as well as we get relevant respondents for the survey. It is done to
reduce any kind of biasness that can hamper our research.
Respondents answered a survey questionnaire which was structured by using Likert
format, multiple choice questions, and open ended questions. Data gathered for this
research have been then computed for interpretation.

Along with primary data, we have also used secondary resources that contained
published articles and literatures to support the survey results. The descriptive method
has been used for this research. The descriptive method means gathering information
about the present existing condition. The aim of using descriptive research is to verify
formulated hypotheses that refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it. It is a

quick, practical and reliable research approach. Moreover, this method allowed
enough flexibility in research with scope of analyzing important new issues and
questions which arose during the time interval of the study. In this study, the
descriptive research method was employed to identify the role and significance of
marketing research behind the products success. We chose this research method
considering the advantages that allowed us to use qualitative or quantitative data or
both.

HYPOTHESIS

Due to competition the telecom companies have introduced advanced technologies to


grab attention of customers. They have introduced 3G in the market and made its use
easily accessible to their customers. As a result customers can access the social media
sites more. Due to the up rise in the subscription of social media sites by customers
the telecom companies are ensuring their presence in these social media sites and
constantly promoting their product offers via them. Some advertisements are believed
by the customers some are not. And due to unaccountability of these advertisements
there is a chance of fraudulence through these advertisements.

Based on these insights in order to validate our research considered the following
three hypotheses (H):
H1: Consumers have access to internet as well as they are exposed to the
advertisements of the telecom companies and they believe the advertisements.

H2: Consumers have access to internet but they are not exposed to advertisements of
the telecom companies.
H3: Consumers have access to internet as well as they are exposed to the
advertisements of the telecom companies but they do not believe the advertisements.

In order to confirm any of our above mentioned hypotheses, we ran the following
tests using SPSS: Frequency, Crosstabs, Chi-Square Tests, T-test, Correlation and
Regression.

PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS

Descriptive Test Analysis

Descriptive Statistics
Minimum Maximu Mean
m

Std. Deviation

AGE
gender
occupation
Income
education
dept
Valid N
(listwise)

100
100
100
100
100
100

1
1
1
1
1
1

3
2
3
6
3
6

1.68
1.23
1.09
1.87
1.97
1.77

.548
.423
.351
1.160
.223
1.644

100

AGE
Frequency

Valid

18-20
21-23
24-26
Total

36
60
4
100

Percent

Valid Percent

36.0
60.0
4.0
100.0

36.0
60.0
4.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
36.0
96.0
100.0

Interpretation: Among the total respondents of 100, majority of them belongs to 2123 age range which is the young adults of the society. Second majority goes to the age
range of 18-20. There were respondents who fall under the age range of 24-26.
Gender
Frequency Percent

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

male
Valid female
Total

77
23
100

77.0
23.0
100.0

77.0
23.0
100.0

77.0
100.0

Interpretation: Among 100 samples 77 were male and 23 were female.

Occupation
Frequency Percent

Valid

Cumulative

Percent

Percent

student
privtate
Valid tutor
intern
Total

93

93.0

93.0

93.0

5.0

5.0

98.0

2
100

2.0
100.0

2.0
100.0

100.0

Interpretation: Among 100 samples 93 of them are student, 5 are private tutor, 2
were intern.

Education

Frequency Percent
hsc
undergrad
Valid
graduate
Total

4
95
1
100

4.0
95.0
1.0
100.0

Valid
Percent
4.0
95.0
1.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
4.0
99.0
100.0

Interpretation: Among our 100 samples 4 are HSC student, 95 are undergrad student
& 1 is graduate student.

Department
Frequency Percent
bba
economic
arch
Valid
engrr
others
Total

81
1
1
12
5
100

81.0
1.0
1.0
12.0
5.0
100.0

Valid
Percent
81.0
1.0
1.0
12.0
5.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
81.0
82.0
83.0
95.0
100.0

Interpretation: Among our 100 samples 81 are from BBA department, 1 from
Economics department, 1 from archi department, 12 from engrr department, 5 from
other department.

Income
Frequency Percent
2000-5000
5001-8000
8001-10000
Valid
10000+
6
Total

55
19
12
13
1
100

55.0
19.0
12.0
13.0
1.0
100.0

Valid
Percent
55.0
19.0
12.0
13.0
1.0
100.0

Cumulative
Percent
55.0
74.0
86.0
99.0
100.0

Interpretation: Among 100 candidates 55 of them get 2000-5000 tk, 19 candidates


get 5001-8000 tk, 12 of them get 8000-10,000 tk, 13 of them get 10,000+ tk.

Hypothesis Testing
One Sample T-test
Q: Education level of the respondents
Q: The provided information in graphical presentations play an important factor in the
believability of the promotions.
H0: Educational level of respondents does not have any influence on the believability
of the information provided in graphical presentations.
H1: Educational level of respondents have influence on the believability of the
information provided in graphical presentations.

One-Sample Statistics
N
Mean
Std.
education
graphical_presentatio
n

Std. Error

100

1.97

Deviation
.223

98

3.93

.933

Mean
.022
.094

One-Sample Test
Test Value = 1.5
df Sig. (2Mean
95% Confidence
tailed)

education
21.104 99
graphical_presentation 25.759 97

.000
.000

Difference

.470
2.429

Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
.43
.51
2.24
2.62

Interpretation: One sample T-test shows that the significance level is .000 which
is less than .05. so P<0.05. So we can say that there is a significant influence of
Educational level of respondents on the believability of the information provided in
graphical presentations. We c a n r e j e c t t h e H 0 a n d m a y n o t r e j e c t H 1

Paired Sample T-Test


Q: Age of the respondents
Q: The level of truth in the advertisements offers portrayed and the actual service
experience after subscribing to the advertised offer on a scale of 1-6.
H0: There is no difference between age groups and the level of truth into
advertisement offered
H1: There is difference between age groups and the level of truth into advertisement
offered.
A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare the level of truth with age group
of 18-20, 21-23, 24-26.
Paired Samples Statistics
Mean
N
Std.
AGE
Pair 1 truth_leve
l

Std. Error

1.68

100

Deviation
.548

3.19

100

1.022

Mean
.055
.102

3.19. The standard deviation for the age is .548 and for the truth level, also .102. The
number of participants in each condition (N) is 100..
Paired Samples Correlations
N
Correlatio

Sig.

n
Pair 1

AGE &
truth_level

100

-.215

.032

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences

df

Sig.
(2tailed)

Mea

Std.

Std.

95%

Deviatio

Error

Confidence

Mean

Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper

AGE Pair 1

truth_leve
l

1.51

1.259

.126 -1.760 -1.260 11.99

99

.000

There was a significant difference in the scores for IV level 1 (M= 1.68 , SD=.548)
and truth level (M= 3.19, SD= 1.022) conditions; t(99) = -11.991, p = 0.000
The Sig. (2-Tailed) value in our example is 0.000. This value is less than .05. Because
of this, we can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the
mean for the age and truth level. Since our Paired Samples Statistics box revealed
that the Mean number of age was greater than the Mean for truth level.

So, we may reject the H0 and we may not reject the H1.

Individual Sample Test (1)

Q: Gender of the respondents


Q: How frequently do you log into social media sites on a scale of 1-5?
H0: There is no difference in male and female respondents regarding the frequency of
log into social media sites.

H1: There is significant difference in male and female respondents regarding the
frequency of log into social media sites.
An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the frequency of logging
into social media sites in male and female respondents.
Group Statistics
gender
Frequency

Mean

Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

male

77

3.78

1.392

.159

female

23

3.91

1.411

.294

In the Group Statistics box, the mean for male is 3.78. The mean for female is 3.91.
The standard deviation for male is 1.392 and for female is 1.411. The number of
participants in each condition (N) is 100.

Independent Samples Test


Levene's
t-test for Equality of Means
Test for
Equality
of
Variance
s
F

Sig
.

df

Sig.

Mean

Std.

95%

(2-

Differen

Error

Confidence

tailed

ce

Differen

Interval of

ce

the

Difference
Lowe Uppe
r

Equal
varianc
es
assume

-.4

023 881

03

98

.688

-.134

.332 -.792

.525

.691

-.134

.334 -.812

.544

Frequenc d
Equal
y
varianc
es not

-.4 35.76

assume

00

There was no significant difference in the scores for male respondents(M= 3.78 , SD=
1.392) and female respondents (M= 3.91, SD= 1.411) conditions; t(98)= 0.403, p =
0.688

The Sig. (2-Tailed) value in our example is 0.688. This value is greater than 0.05.
Because of this, we can conclude that there is no statistically significant difference
between the mean number of logging into social sites for the male and female groups.
Since our Group Statistics box revealed that the Mean for the female group was
greater than the Mean for the male group. We can conclude that male were not able to
differentiate significantly than female in logging into social sites. So, we may not
reject the H0.

Individual Sample Test (2)

Q: Gender of the respondents


Q: Extent of believability of the advertisements

H0: There is no difference in male and female respondents between the extent of
believability the advertisements.
H1: There is statistically significant difference between male and female respondents
in the extent of believability the advertisements.

An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the extent of believability


of the advertisements in male and female respondents.

gender
Believabilit male

Group Statistics
N
Mean
77

3.13

Std.
Deviation
1.174

Std. Error
Mean
.134

female
23
2.70
1.105
.230
y
In the Group Statistics box, the mean for male is 3.13. The mean for female is 2.70.
The standard deviation for male is 1.174 and for female is 1.105. The number of
participants in each condition (N) is 100.

Independent Samples Test

Levene's

t-test for Equality of Means

Test for
Equality
of
Variance
s
F

Sig

df

Sig.

Mean

Std.

95%

(2-

Differen

Error

Confidence

taile

ce

Differen

Interval of

ce

the

d)

Difference
Low Uppe
er

Equal
varianc
es
assume

.
009

.
92
4

1.57
7

98 .118

.434

.275 -.112 .981

.434

.266 -.105 .974

Believabili d
Equal
ty
varianc
es not
assume

1.63 38.07
0

.111

There was no significant difference in the scores for male respondents(M= 3.13 , SD=
1.392) and female respondents (M= 2.70, SD= 1.105) conditions; t(98)= 1.577, p = .
118

The Sig. (2-Tailed) value in our example is 0.118. This value is greater than 0.05.
Because of this, we can conclude that there is no statistically significant difference
between the mean number of believability of advertisements for the male and female
groups. Since our Group Statistics box revealed that the Mean for the female group
was greater than the Mean for the male group. We can conclude that male were not

able to differentiate significantly than females believability of the advertisements. So,


we may not reject the H0.

CROSSTAB & CHI SQUARE TESTS


Q: Gender of the respondents
Q: Access to internet
H0: There is no difference between male and female in having internet access.
H1: There is significant difference between male and female in having internet access

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid
Missing
N
Percent
N
Percent
gender *
Internet_Access

100

100.0%

0.0%

Total
N
Percent
100

gender * Internet_Access Crosstabulation


Internet_Access
yes
no
sometimes
Count
75
1
1
% within gender
97.4%
1.3%
1.3%
% within
male
78.1%
50.0%
50.0%
Internet_Access
% of Total
75.0%
1.0%
1.0%
gender
Count
21
1
1
% within gender
91.3%
4.3%
4.3%
female % within
21.9%
50.0%
50.0%
Internet_Access
% of Total
21.0%
1.0%
1.0%
Total
Count
96
2
2
% within gender
96.0%
2.0%
2.0%

100.0%

Total
77
100.0%
77.0%
77.0%
23
100.0%
23.0%
23.0%
100
100.0%

% within
Internet_Access
% of Total

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

96.0%

2.0%

2.0%

100.0%

This table allows us to understand that almost both males and females have internet
access.

Chi-Square Tests
Value
df

Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)

Pearson Chi-

1.715a
2
.424
Square
Likelihood Ratio
1.448
2
.485
N of Valid Cases
100
a. 4 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is .46.

In this table we can see in "Pearson Chi-Square" row that, x= 1.715 and p = .424.
This tells us that there is no statistically significant association between Gender and
internet access; that is, both Males and Females got internet access. So we may not
reject the null hypothesis.

It can be easier to visualize data than read tables. The clustered bar chart option
allows a relevant graph to be produced that highlights the group categories and the
frequency of counts in these groups.
.

One Way Anova Test

Q: Age of the respondents


Q: level of trust when the ad message is endorsed by a celebrity.
H0: There is no difference in the level of trust when the ad message is endorsed by a
celebrity between people of different ages.

H1: There is significant difference in the level of trust when the ad message is
endorsed by a celebrity between people of different ages.

Descriptives
Endorsement
N Mean

Std.

Std.

95% Confidence

Deviation

Error

Interval for Mean


Lower
Upper
Bound

18-

Minimum Maximum

Bound

36

3.06

1.068

.178

2.69

3.42

60

2.78

1.136

.147

2.49

3.08

4
26
Total 100

3.00

1.414

.707

.75

5.25

2.89

1.118

.112

2.67

3.11

20
2123
24-

In this Descriptive Statistics box, the mean for the age group 18-20 is 3.06. The mean
for the age group 21-23 is 2.78 and the mean for the age group 24-26 is 3.00. The
standard deviation for the age group of 18-20 is 1.1068, the standard deviation for the
age group of 21-23 is 1.136 and the standard deviation for the age group of 24-26 is
1.414. The number of participants in each condition (N) is 100.

Test of Homogeneity of Variances


Levene
Statistic
.195

df1

df2
2

Sig.
97

.823

ANOVA
Endorsement

Sum of

df

Mean

Squares
Between
Groups
Within Groups
Total

Sig.

Square

1.718

.859

122.072
123.790

97
99

1.258

.682

.508

The Sig. value in our example is .508. This value is more than .05. Because of this,
we can conclude that there was a no significant effect of age on trust on celebrity
endorsement at the p>.05 level for the three conditions [F(2, 97) =.682, p =.508]. So,
we may not reject the null hypothesis.

Post Hoc Tests:

Multiple Comparisons
Dependent Variable: endorsement
Tukey HSD
(I)
(J)
AGE

18-20
21-23
24-26

AGE

Mean Difference (I-

Std.

J)

Error

21-23

.272

24-26

.056

18-20
24-26
18-20
21-23

-.272
-.217
-.056
.217

Sig.

.237 .485
.
.995
591
.237 .485
.579 .926
.591 .995
.579 .926

95% Confidence Interval


Lower
Upper
Bound
-.29

Bound
.84

-1.35

1.46

-.84
-1.60
-1.46
-1.16

.29
1.16
1.35
1.60

Looking at the Sig. column in our example, we can see that most of the values are
greater than .05. However, there are two values that are 0.995. These values
correspond with the comparison between the age group 18-20 and the age group 2426. For this reason, we can conclude that the age group of 18-20 and 24-26 are
significantly different in terms of truth level celebrity endorsement in ads However,
the other condition comparisons are not significantly different from one another. This

means that the age group of 21-23 and 24-26 are not significantly different. It also
means that the age group of 21-23 and 18-20 are not significantly different.
A one-way between subjects ANOVA was conducted to compare the age group with
the trust in ad message when the ad is endorsed by a celebrity , our age groups are 1820, 21-23 and 24-26. There was a significant effect age group on words remembered
at the p>.05 level for the three conditions [F(2, 97) = .682, p = .508]. Post hoc
comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean score for the age group
18-20 (M = 3.06, SD = 1.608) was significantly different than the no sugar condition
(M = 2.78, SD = 1.136). However, the a little sugar condition (M = 3.00, SD = 1.414)
did not significantly differ from the age group of 18-20 and the age group of 21-23
conditions.

Correlation Analysis
Correlation helps us figure out the association between any two variables. In order
to analyze our collected data, we tried to assume hypothesis for correlation using
the following questions:
Q: Frequency of the advertisements from the subscribed pages or groups
Q: The extent you believe the advertisements
H0: The frequency of the advertisements from the subscribed pages or groups does
not have effect on the believability of respondents on the advertisements
H1: The frequency of the advertisements from the subscribed pages or groups have
effect on the believability of respondents on the advertisements
Correlations
subscribed_pages
Pearson Correlation
1
subscribed_pages
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
100
Pearson Correlation
.254*
Believability
Sig. (2-tailed)
.011
N
100
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Believability
.254*
.011
100
1
100

we can see that the Pearson correlation coefficient, r, is 0.254, and P =0.011 that this
is statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Interpretation:
A Pearson product-moment correlation was run to determine the relationship between
the frequency of the advertisements from subscribed pages and the believability of
the respondents on the advertisements. There was a medium but still strong, positive
correlation between the frequency of the advertisements from subscribed pages and
the believability of the respondents on the advertisements which was statistically
significant (r=o.254,n =100,p<0.05). So we can say that we may reject the null
hypothesis.

LINEAR REGRESSION
Linear regression is the next step up after correlation. It is used when we want
to predict the value of a variable based on the value of another variable. The
variable we want to predict is called the dependent variable (or sometimes, the
outcome variable). The variable we are using to predict the other variable's value is
called the independent variable (or sometimes, the predictor variable).
Q: Gender of the respondents
Q: the level of trust when the ad message is endorsed by a celebrity.
H0: Gender of the respondents does not have any impact on the trust level when the
ad message is endorsed by a celebrity.
H1: Gender of the respondents have impact on the trust level when the ad message is
endorsed by a celebrity.
Descriptive Statistics
Mean
Std.
endorsement
gender

2.89
1.23

Deviation
1.118
.423

N
100
100

Correlations
endorsement
endorsement
1.000

Pearson

gender
endorsement
gender
endorsement
gender

Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed)
N

-.053
.
.301
100
100

gender
-.053
1.000
.301
.
100
100

Variables Entered/Removeda
Model
Variables
Variables
Method
Entered
Removed
b
1
gender
. Enter
a. Dependent Variable: endorsement
b. All requested variables entered.

Model

Model Summary
R Square Adjusted R

R
a

1
.053
.003
a. Predictors: (Constant), gender

Model

Sum of

Std. Error of

Square
the Estimate
-.007
1.122

ANOVAa
df

Squares
Regression
.344
1
Residual
123.446
Total
123.790
a. Dependent Variable: endorsement
b. Predictors: (Constant), gender

1
98
99

Coefficientsa

Mean
Square
.344
1.260

F
.273

Sig.
.602b

Model

Unstandardized

Standardized

Coefficients
B
Std.

Coefficients
Beta

Error
(Constant)
3.062
.347
1
gender
-.139
.267
a. Dependent Variable: endorsement

8.830
-.053 -.523

Sig.

95.0% Confidence
Interval for B
Lower
Upper

.000
.602

Bound
2.374
-.669

Bound
3.750
.390

Interpretation:
A linear regression test was computed to analyze the relationship between the Gender
and endorsement. In the first table, we have the model summary. Here R= .053, which
represents simple correlation. It indicates a moderate degree of correlation. The R
Square value indicates how much of the dependent variable can be explained by the
independent variable.
In the next table ANOVA, the regression variable predicts the outcome variable
significantly
well. This is because the P = 0.602, which is more than 0.05 and therefore there is no
statistically significant relationship between the two variables .Finally the Coefficients
table provides us with information on each predictor variable. We can see that the
constant and the variable contribute significantly to the model (bylooking at the Sig.
column).

FINDINGS

(1) From an individual sample test it was determined that gender does not have any
influence on logging into social media sites. An argument of men logging into social
media sites or vice versa will prove invalid, thus this states that anyone can log into
social media sites, regardless of their gender.
(2) From another individual sample test it was concluded that gender does not have
any influence on the extent of believability of promotions. Its not that when an
advertisement is shown to a man and a woman, one will believe and the other wont.

Both men and women goes through the same mental process when they view a
promotion. They interpreted the promotions according to their own mentality.
(3) From a one sample t test we can conclude that educational level of respondents
have an effect on the believability of the information provided in graphical
presentations. People who are more educated tends to comprehend graphical
presentations much better and interpreted them better than people who are enrolled in
lower education levels.
(4) From a paired sample t test, it is concluded, there is difference between age groups
and the level of truth into advertisement offered. As people grow their mentality
develops and has a much better comprehension of the world around. Thus they can
also comprehend and understand advertisements better and thus can analyze the
contents and judge whether the advertisements are true or not.
(5) From the chi square test we have concluded that access of internet is not defined
by the gender of the respondents. In the present day each and every one has access to
the internet regardless the gender.
(6) There is no significant effect of age on trust on celebrity endorsement, people of
all age has fixed perception of a celebrity and what he does, so thus age has no effect.
(7) From a correlation analysis it was concluded that the frequency of the
advertisements from the subscribed pages has effect on the believability of
respondents on the advertisements. The more a person is exposed to promotions the
more he/she believes in the promotions.
(8) From the linear regression test it was found that gender has an effect on brand
endorsement by celebrities. Male and female both tend to perceive promotions
differently when celebrities do endorsements.

RECOMMENDATIONS

(1) Telecom company marketers should come up campaigns that promotes customers
to use the internet via cell phones, in this way they can introduce more internet-based
packages and apply promotions for them accordingly.

(2) For widespread awareness and promotions of packages marketers should promote
their products on social media as more people are logging into the internet everyday.

(3) Marketers should be more ethical in their promotions, so that they dont deceive
their cutomers because in the modern era of marketing companies need to bulid strong
profitable relations with customers in order to succed in the modern era, if customers
are deceived than customers will be dissatisfied they will move on to their
competitors brand and loose share.

(4) Advertisements should be made in such a way that people of almost age groups
can understand. As we now that in the current generation, people of almost all age
groups own a cell phone. So in order for them to comply with the offers they need to
understand the promotions.

(5) We have found out from tests that customers tend to believe adds more when they
are frequently shown, so social media sites shold post more advertisements in a fixed
period of time.

(6)The promotions should be made in such a way that people from all education level
can understand. Promotions should use simle, precise and clear information and
language where necessary.

CONCLUSION

Through our research, we have been able to find out that gender does not have any
influence on logging into social media sites rather educational level of respondents
have an effect on the believability of the information provided in graphical
presentations i.e. advertisements of the telecom companies. We also found out that
difference in age group has an effect on believing the advertisements and also the
frequency of the advertisements from has effect on the believability of respondents on
the advertisements. Ultimately most of the people do not see the advertisements and
those who see do not believe them and thus dont comply with the offers.
So we would like to recommend that telecom marketers should come up and
encourage internet usage on cellphones and through that untapped sector promote
their brand vigorously. They should go for more ethical promotions or else they will
lose customers. Alongside that the advertisements should be understood by customers
of all ages. Promotions should be clear and easily understood.

References
Islam, I. (2010, November). Bangladesh Telecom Sector Challenges & Opportunities
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"Bangladesh nearing 100 mln mobile subs". Telecompaper. 2013-05-02. Retrieved


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