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/ASTEWATER

REATMENT
WASTEWATER MICROBIOLOGY
Role of Microorganisms
Classification of Microorganisms
Some Microbes of Interest in Wastewater Treatment
Bacterial Biochemistry , I `
Decomposition of Waste
Population Dynamics
CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC VW\STEWATER
Physical Characteristics of Domestic Wastewater ,
Chemical Characteristics of Domestic Wastewater
Characteristics of Industrial Wastewater
ON~SITE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS
Without Water Carriage
With Water Carriage I
MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Pretreatment of Industrial Wastes
UNIT OPERATIONS OF PRETREATMENT
Bar Racks '
Grit Chambers
Comminutors
Equalization
PRIMARY 'TREATMENT
UNIT PROCESSES UF SECONDARY TREATi\'lliN'l`
Overview

5-I WASTEWATER MICROBIOLOGY


Role of Microorganisms
The stabilization of organic matter is accomplished biologically using a variety of
microorganisms. The rttieroorganisms convert the colloidal and dissolved
carbonaceous organic matter into various gases and into protoplasm. Because
protoplasm
has ;t specihc gravity slightly greater than that of water, it can be removed from
the
treated liquid by gravity settling.
lNTR()DUCTl()N TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEEKINLJ
h roto lasm produced from the
It is important to note that unless t e p p
matter is removed from the solution, complete treatment will not be acer
because the protoplasm, which itself is organic, will be measured as BOD in
efiiuent, lf the protoplasm is not removed, the only treatment that will be
` ' t 'al conversion of a portion of the organic
is that associated with the bac eri
originally present to v
arious gaseous end products.
Classiiication of Microorganisms
` d 'nto five broad Groups based on
By kingdoms. Microorganisms are organize i D
structural and functional differences. The groups are called kingdoms The nve
king.
doms are animals, plants, prozisra, fungi, and bacfe ria_ Representative
examples and

` ` ` e 5- l _
characteristics of differentiation are shown in Figur
"""` EXAMPLES
By energy and carbon source. The relationship between the source of carbon and
the Source of energy for the microorganism is important. Carbon is the basic
building
glock for cell synthesis. A source of energy must be obtained from outside the
cell to
enable synthesis to proceed. Our goal in Wastewater treatment is to convert both
the
;arbon and the energy in the wastewater in the cells of microorganisms, which
we
can remove from the water by settling. Therefore, we wish to encourage the
growth
gf organisms that use organic material for both their carbon and energy source.
lf the microorganism uses organic material as a supply of carbon. it is called
heterorrophic. Autotrop/is require only_CO3 to supply their carbon needs.
Organisms that rely only on the sun for energy are called phototroplzs.
Clzemotrophs extract energy from organic or inorganic oxidation/reduction reactions. Organozrophs use organic materials, while lit/iofrophs oxidize inorganic
com~
pounds.;
By their relationship to oxygen. Bacteria also are classitied by their ability or inability to utilize oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor3 in oxidation/reduction
reactions. Obligate aerobes are microorganisms that Hlust have oxygen as the
terminal
electron acceptor. When wastewater contains oxygen and can support obligate
aerobes, it is called aerobic.
Obligate anaerobes are microorganisms that cannot survive in the presence of

oxygen. They cannot use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. Wastewater


that is
devoid of oxygen is called anaerobic. Faculmlive rzriaembes can use oxygen as
the
terminal electron acceptor and, under certain conditions, they can also grow in
the
absence of oxygen.
Under anoxic conditions, a group of facultative anaerobes called de/zitrijiers
utilizes nitrites (NOQ ) and nitrates (NO ) as the terminal electron acceptor.
Nitrate
nitrogen is converted to nitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen. This process is
called
anoxic denitrificatiofi. `
By their preferred temperature regime. Each species of bacteria reproduces best
within a limited range of temperatures. Four temperature ranges are used to
classify
ll. E. Bailey and D. F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Fundaizzertralr, New Yorltt
McGraw-Hill, p. 222,
1977.
3An organic substrate is not directly oxidized to carbon dioxide and water in a
single chemical step
because there is no energy-conserving mechanism that could trap so much
energyi Thus. biological
oxidation occurs in small steps. Oxidation requires the transfer of an electron
from the substance being
oxidized to some acceptor molecule that will subsequently bc reduced ln most
biological Systctlls. each
step in the oxidation process involves the removal of two elections and the
simultaneous loss of two
protons (H+ )_ The combination ofthe two losses is equivalent to the molecule
having lost two hydrogen
atoms. The reaction is often referred to as de/zydmgerzatiom The electrons and
protons are not released

into the cell, but are transferred to an acceptor molecule. The acceptor molecule
will not accept the
protons until it has accepted the electrons and thus it is referred to as an
electron acceptor. Since thc
net result of accepting an electron and proton is the same as accepting a
hydrogen atom, such acceptors
are also called hydrogen acceptors. (C. P. L. Grady and H. C. Lim. Bmlogicul
lllirrawriteri Trmzzzzienf,
`l`/ifvirv(uniA/1/1/u~<1r1'<1fz.\'. New York: Marcel Dekker. l)S().)

bacteria. Those that grow best at temperatures below 20C are called
psychrop/tiles
Mesophiles grow best at temperatures between 25 and 4OC. Between 45 and
6006*
the thennophiles grow best. Above 60C, stenorhermop/tiles grow best. The
gfgwtfg
, gf .___
?`
v _rw r
ran e of acttlzazive zlzermo./tiles extends from the thermo hilic ran e into r
g P P g the
mesophilic range. These ranges are qualitative and somewhat subjective. You will
note the gaps between 20 and 25C and between 40 and 45C. Dont make the
rules just arent that hard and fast. Bacteria will grow over a range of
temperaturg
and will survive at a very large range of temperatures. For example, Escherichig
coli, classified as mesophiles, will grow at temperatures between 20 and 50C
will reproduce, albeit very slowly, at temperatures down to 0C, If frozen rapidly,
they and many other microorganisms can be stored for years with no significant
death rate,
Some Microbes of Interest in Wastewater

'Ireatment
Bacteria. The highest population of microorganisms in a wastewater treatment
plant will belong to the bacteria. They are single~celled organisms which use
soluble food. Conditions in the treatment plant are adjusted so that
chemoheterotrophs
predominate. No particular species is selected as the best."
Fungi. Fungi are multicellular, nonphotosynthetic, heterotrophic organisms. Fungi
are obligate aerobes that reproduce by a variety of methods including fission,
budding, and spore fomiation. Their cells require only half as much nitrogen as
bacteria
so that in a nitrogen-dencient wastewater, they predominate over the bacteriaf
Algae. This group of microorganisms are photoautotrophs and may be either unicellular or multicellular Because of the chlorophyll contained in most species,
they
produce oxygen through photosynthesis. In the presence of sunlight, the
photosynthetic production of oxygen is greater than the amount used in respiration. At
night
they use up oxygen in respiration. If the daylight hours exceed the night hours by
a
reasonable amount, there is a net production of oxygen.
Protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled organisms that can reproduce by binary ]?s
siorz (dividing in two). Most are aerobic chemoheterotrophs, and they often
consume
bacteria. They are desirable in wastewater effluents because they act as
polishers in
consuming the bacteria.
Rotifers and crustaceans. Both rotifers and crustaceans are animals-~-aerobic,
rnulticellular chemoheterotrophs The rotifer derives its name from the apparent
1L>,i..~L xi ir if I 1

mistake of saying that an organism that grows well at 20.5C is a mesophile


T115 '%<
rotating motion of two sets of cilia on its head. The cilia provide mobility and a
mechanism for catching food. Rotifers consume bacteria and small particles of
or
ganic matter.
Crustaceans, a group that includes shrimp, lobsters, and barnacles, are charac~
terized by their shell structure. They are a source of food for fish and are not
found
in wastewater treatment systems to any extent except in underloaded lagoons
Their
presence is indicative of a high level of dissolved oxygen and a very low level of
organic matter.
Bacterial Biochemistry
Metabolism. The general term that describes all of the chemical activities perf
formed by a cell is metabolism. This in turn is divided into two parts: catabolism
and
anabolism. Catabolism includes all the biochemical processes by which a
substrate
is degraded to end products with the release of energy.5 In wastewater
treatment,
the substrate is oxidized. The oxidation process releases energy that is
transferred to
an energy carrier which stores it for future use by the bacterium (Figure 5-2).
Some
chemical compounds released by catabolism are used by the bacterial cell for its
life
functions.
Anabolism includes all the biochemical processes by which the bacterium synthesizes new chemical compounds needed by the cells to live and reproduce.
The
synthesis process is driven by the energy that was stored in the energy carrier.
Decomposition of Waste

The type of electron acceptor available for catabolism determines the type of
de~
composition (that is, aerobic, anoxic, or anaerobic) used by a mixed culture of
microorganisms. Each type of decomposition has peculiar characteristics which
affect
its use in waste treatment.

Aerobic decomposition. From our discussion of bacterial metabolism you will recall that molecular oxygen (OZ) must be present as the terminal electron
acceptor
for decomposition to proceed by aerobic oxidation. As in natural water bodies,
the
oxygen is measured as DO. When oxygen is present, it is the only terminal
electron
acceptor used. Hence, the chemical end products of decomposition are primarily
carbon dioxide, water, and new cell material (Table 5-l). Odiferous gaseous end
products are kept to a minimum. In healthy natural water systems, aerobic
decomposition
is the principal means of self-purification.
A wider spectrum of organic material can be oxidized aerobically than by any
other type of decomposition. This fact, coupled with the fact that the final end
products are oxidized to a very low energy level, results in a more stable end product (that is, one that can be disposed of without damage to the environment and
without creating a nuisance condition) than can be achieved by the other
oxidation
systems.
Because of the large amount of energy released in aerobic oxidation, most aerobic organisrns are capable of high growth rates. Consequently, there is a
relatively

large production of new cells in comparison with the other oxidation systems.
This
means that more biological sludge is generated in aerobic oxidation than in the
other
oxidation systems.
Aerobic decomposition is the method of choice for large quantities of dilute
wastewater (BOD; less than 500 mg/L) because decomposition is rapid, efficient,
and has a low odor potential. For high-strength wastewater (BOD5 is greater than
1,000 mg/L), aerobic decomposition is not suitable because of the difficulty in
sup~
plying enough oxygen and because of the large amount of biological sludge produced. In small communities and ini special industrial applications where aerated
lagoons (see Section 5-7) are used, wastewaters with BOD5 up to 3,000 mg/L
may
be treated satisfactorily by aerobic decomposition.
Anoxic decomposition. Some microorganisms can use nitrate (NO ) as the terminal electron acceptor in the absence of molecular oxygen. Oxidation by this route
is
called denitrification.
The end products from denitrilication are nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, water,
and new cell material. The amount of energy made available to the cell during
denitrifrcation is about the same as that made available during aerobic
decomposition. As
a consequence, the rate of production of new cells, although not as high as in
aerobic
decomposition, is relatively high.
Denitrification is of importance in wastewater treatment where nitrogen must
be removed to protect the receiving body. ln this case, a special treatment step
is
added to the conventional process for removal of carbonaceous material.
Denitrifif

cation will be discussed in detail later.


One other important aspect of denitrification is in relation to final clarification
ofthe treated wastewater. If the environment of the final clariiier becomes anoxic,
the formation of nitrogen gas will cause large globs of sludge to foat to the
surface
and escape from the treatment plant into the receiving water. Thus, it is
necessary to
ensure that zinoxic conditions do not develop in the Final clarifier.

nerobic decomposition. In order to achieve anaerobic decomposition, molecu>xygen and nitrate must not be present as terminal electron acceptors. Sulfate
2' ), carbon dioxide, and organic compounds that can be reduced serve as termielectron acceptors. The reduction of sulfate results in the production of hydrogen
ide (HZS) and a group of equally odiferous organic sulfur compounds called merfans.
The anaerobic decomposition (fermentation) of organic matter generally is
sidered to be a two-step process ln the first step, complex organic compounds
are
dented to low-molecular-weight fatty acids (volatile acids). ln the second step,
organic acids are converted to methane. Carbon dioxide serves as the electron
:ptor_
Anaerobic decomposition yields carbon dioxide, methane, and water as the
or end products. Additional end products include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide,
mercaptans. As a consequence of these last three compounds, anaerobic decom.tion is characterized by an unbelievably horrid stench!
Because only small amounts of energy are released duii ng anaerobic oxidation,
amount of cell production is low. Thus, sludge production is low. We make use

his fact in wastewater treatment by using anaerobic decomposition to stabilize


lges produced during aerobic and anoxic decomposition.
Direct anaerobic decomposition of wastewater generally is not feasible for diwaste.6 The optimum growth temperature for the anaerobic bacteria is at the
er end of the mesophilic range. Thus, to get reasonable biodegradation, we must
'ate the temperature of the culture. For dilute wastewater, this is not practical.
For
centrated wastes (BGD5 greater than LOO0 mgds), anaerobic digestion is quite
ropriate_
)ulation Dynamics
:terial growth requirements. In the discussion of the behavior of bacterial culs which follows, there is the inherent assumption that all the requirements for
wth are initially present. Since these requirements are fairly extensive and strint, it is worth taking a moment to recapitulate them, The following list summarizes
major requirements that must be satisfied:
\ terminal electron acceptor
Wacronutrients
1. Carbon to build cells
J. Nitrogen to build cells
:. Phosphorus for ATP (energy carrier) and DNA
3. Micronutrients
a. Trace metals
b. Vitamins are required by some bacteria
4. Appropriate environment
a. Moisture
b. Temperature
c. pH
Growth in pure cultures. As an illustration, let us examine a hypothetical situation
in which l,4OO bacteria of a single species are introduced into a synthetic liquid

medium. Initially nothing appears to happen. The bacteria must adjust to their
new
environment and begin to synthesize new protoplasrn. On a plot of bacterial
growth
versus time (Figure 58), this phase of growth is called the lag phase.
At the end ofthe lag phase the bacteria begin to divide_ Since all ofthe organisms do not divide at the same time, there is a gradual increase in population.
This
phase is labeled accelerated growl/1 on the growth plot.
At the end of the accelerated growth phase, the population of organisms is
large enough and the differences in generation time are small enough that the
cells
appear to divide at a regular rate Since reproduction is by binary fission (each
cell
divides producing two new cells) the increase in population follows in geometric
progression; l -> 2 -> 4 -> 8 A 16 ee 32, and so forth_The populationofbacteda
INTRODUCTIUN TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
(P) after the nth generation is given by the following expression:
P I Po(2)" (5~ i)
where P0 is the initial population at the end of the accelerated growth phase. If
we
take the log of both sides of Equation 5-l, we obtain the following:
logP = log P0 + n log2 (5-2)
This means that if we plot bacterial population on a logarithmic scale, this phase
of
growth would plot as a straight line of slope n and intercept P0 at I0 equal to the
end
of the accelerated growth phase. Thus, this phase of growth is called the log
growth
Jr exponential growth phase.
The log growth phase tapers off as the substrate becomes exhausted or as toxic

>yproducts build up_ Thus, at some point the population becomes constant
either as
1 result of cessation of fission or a balance in death and reproduction rates. This
is
lepicted by the stationary phase on the growth curve_
Following the stationary phase, the bacteria begin to die faster than they repro~
luce. This death phase is due to a variety of causes that are basically an
extension
if those which lead to the stationary phase.
lrowth in mixed cultures. In wastewater treatment, as in nature, pure cultures
f microorganisms do not exist. Rather, a mixture of species compete and survive
/ithin the limits set by the environment. Population dynamics is the term used to
escribe the time~varying success ofthe various species in competition. It is exe
ressed quantitatively in terms of relative mass of microorganisms.7
The prime factor goveming the dynamics of the various microbial populations
the competition for food. The second most important factor is the predator-prey
zlationship. . i
The relative success of a pair of species competing for the same substrate is a
tnction ofthe ability of the species to metabolize the substrate. The more
successful
aecies will be the one that tnetabolizes the substrate more completely. In so
doing, it
ill obtain more energy for synthesis and consequently will achieve a greater
mass.
Because of their relatively smaller size and, thus, larger surface area per unit
ass, which allows a more rapid uptake of substrate, bacteria will predominate
over
ngi. For the same reason, the fungi predominate over the protozoa.
When the supply of soluble organic substrate becomes exhausted, the bacterial
pulation is less successful in reproduction and the predator populations increase.
a closed system with an initial inoculum of mixed microorganisms and substrate,

2 populations will cycle as the bacteria give way to higher level organisms which
turn die for lack of food and are then decomposed by a different set of bacteria
igure 5~4). In an open system, such as a wastewater treatment plant or a river,
FIGURE 5-4
Pbpulation dynamics in a closed system. (Source: Curds, A Theoretical Study of
Factors infuencing the Mitr
bial
Population Dynamics ofthe Activated Sludge Process-I." Water Resources, vol. 7,
p. 1269, l973_)
with a continuous infow of new substrate, the predominant populations will
change
through the length of the plant (Figure 5-5). This condition is known as dy/zaniif
equilibrium. It is a highly sensitive state, and changes in infuent characteristics
must
be regulated closely to maintain the proper balance of the various populations.
The Monod equation. For the large numbers and mixed cultures of mieroorgan~
isrns found in waste treatment systems, it is convenient to measure biomass
rather
a wi lim we

JJU lwltiuut/\,\|ui v eu ~a.\U,..~,t,. .____._,t.


than numbers of organisms? in the loggrowth phase, the rate expression for
increase is
dX
4ZX_
dr 'L (5 3)
dX .
where E? 1 growth rate of the biomass, mg/L - t

it 1 growth rate constant, Fl


X 1 concentration of biomass, mgfs
Because of the difficulty of direct measurement of ,tt in mixed cultures,
Monodq developed a model equation that assumes that the rate of food utiliza~
tion, and therefore the rate of biomass production, is limited by the rate of
enzyme
reactions involving the food compound that is in shortest supply relative to its
need.
The Monod equation is
_ ii _
*L K, + 5 (5 4)
...l
where um 1 maximum growth rate constant, t
S 1 concentration of limiting food in solution, mg/L
K, 1 half saturation constant, mg/L
1 concentration of limiting food when /L 1 O.5;at,,,
The growth rate of biomass follows a hyperbolic function as shown in Figure 5-6.
Two limiting cases are of interest in the application of Equation 5~4 to wastewater treatment systems. In those cases where there is an excess of the limiting
food, then S >> K, and the growth rate constant, pt, is approximately equal to
pnm.
Equation 5-3 then becomes tirstorder in biomass. At the other extreme, when S
<<
K,, the system is food-limited and the growth rate becomes zero-order with
respect
to biomass, that is, it is independent of the biomass.
Equation 5~4 assumes only growth of microorganismsand does not take into
account natural die-off. It is generally assumed that the death or decay of the
micro~

bial mass is a tirst-order expression in biomass and hence Equations 5-3 and 5-4
are
expanded to ,
dX _ ,u,,,SX
E ' rim X (56)
where kd 1 endogenous decay rate constant, t`l.
Frequently this is done by measuring suspended solids or volatile suspended
solids (those that burn at
550 i 5OC). When the wastewater contains only soluble organic matter, the
volatile suspended solids
test is reasonably representative. The presence of organic particles (which is
often the case in municipal
wastewater) confuses the issue completely.
QI. Monod, "The Growth of Bacterial Cultures," Ari/ina! Review nfM
FIGURE 5-6
Monod growth rate constant as a function of limiting food concentration.
If all ofthe food in the system were converted to biomass, the rate of food
utilization (HTS/dz) would equal the rate of biomass production. Because of the
inefhciency ofthe conversion process, the rate of food utilization will be greater than
the
rate of biomass'utilization, so
as dx
-- I i* (5-6)
. dr Y dt
where Y 1 decimal fraction of food mass converted to biomass
Z , _?__m_
`eld coefhcent mg/L biomass
Y mgfic food utilized
Combining Equafions 5-3, 5-4, and 5-6,
dS 1 ,USX

M5
"airiii W)
Equations 5-5 and 5-7 are a fundamental part of the development of the design
equations for wastewater treatment processes.
5-2 CHARACTERISTICS OF DOMESTIC
WASTEWATER . I
Physical Characteristics of Domestic
Wastewater
Fresh. aerobic, domestic wastewater has been said to have the odor of kerosene
or
freshly tumed earth. Aged, septic sewage is considerably more offensive to the
olfactory nerves_ The characteristic rotten-egg odor of hydrogen sullide and the
mercaptans is indicative of septic sewage. Fresh sewage is typically gray in color.
Septic
sewage is black.

352 iurnooucriorr TO ENVIRONMENTAL Euoiusenimo


Wastewater temperatures normally range between l0 and 20C. ln general,
the temperature of the wastewater will be higher than that of the water supply.
This
is because of the addition of warm water from households and heating within the
plumbing system ofthe structure.
One cubic meter of wastewater weighs approximately l,000,000 grams. lt will
contain about 500 grams of solids. One-half of the solids will be dissolved solids
such as calcium, sodium, and soluble organic compounds. The remaining 250
grams
will be insoluble. The insoluble fraction consists of about l25 grains of material
that
will settle out of the liquid fraction in 30 minutes under quiescent conditions. The

remaining l25 grams will remain in suspension for a very long time. The result is
that wastewater is highly turbid. '
Chemical Characteristics of Domestic
Wastewater
Because the number of chemical compounds found in wastewater is almost
limitless,
we normally restrict our consideration to a few general classes of compounds.
These
classes often are better known by the name of the test used to measure them
than by
what is included in the class. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test,
which
we discussed in Chapter 4, is a case in point. Another closely related test is the
chemical oxygen demand (COD) test. C
The COD test is used to determine the oxygen equivalent of the organic matter
that can be oxidized by a strong chemical oxidizing agent (potassium
dichromate)
in an acid medium. The COD of a waste, in general, will be greater than the
BOD5
because more compounds can be oxidized chemically than can be oxidized
biologically, and because BOD5 does not equal ultimate BOD.
The COD test can be conducted in about three hours. lf it can be correlated with
BOD5, it can be used to aid in the operation and control of the wastewater
treatment
plant (WWTP).
Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) is a measure of the total organic and ammonia
nitrogen in the wastewater. TKN gives a measure of the availability of nitrogen
for
building cells, as well as the potential nitro genous oxygen demand that will have
to
be satisfied. )

Phosphorus may appear in many forms in 'wastewater Among the forms


found are the orthophosphates, polyphosphates, and organic phosphate. For our
purpose, we will lump all of these together under the heading Total Phosphorus
(as P). `
Three typical compositions of untreated domestic wastewater are summarized
in Table 5-2. The pH for all of these wastes will be in the range of 6_5 to 8.5, with
a
majority being slightly on the alkaline side of 7.0.
composition of untreated domestic wastewater
Weak Medium Strong
t (all mg/L except settleable solids)
(as CaCo3)" 50 100 200
Oz) 100 200 300
30 50 100
(as OZ) 250 500 L000
solids (SS) 100 200 350
solids, mL/L 5 10 20
Total dissolved solids (TDS) 200 500 1,000
Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (as N) 20 40 80
Total organic carbon (TOC) (as C) 75 150 300
phosphorus (as P) 5 10 20
"To be added to amount in domestic water supply, Chloride is exclusive of
contribution from water-softener backv/ash_
Characteristics of Industrial Wastewater
Industrial processes generate a wide variety of wastewater pollutants. The
charac
teristics and levels of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry The
Environmental Protection Agency has grouped the pollutants into three
categories:

conventional pollutants, nonconventional pollutants, and priority pollutants. The


conventional and nonconventional pollutants are listed in Table 5-3. The priority
pollutants are listed in Table 1-3.
Because of the wide variety of industries and levels of pollutants, we can only
present a snapshot view of the characteristics. A sampling of a few industries for
two
conventional pollutants is shown in Table 54.
A similar sampling for nonconventional pollutants is shown in Table 5 5
TABLE 5-3
EPAs conventional and nonconventional pollutant categories
Conventional . Noncanventional
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)
Total suspended solids (TSS)
Oil and grease
Oil (animal, vegetable)
Oil (mineral)
pH
Ammonia (as N)
Chromium V1 (hexavalent)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
COD/BOD7
Fluoride
Manganese
Nitrate (as N)
Organic nitrogen (as N)
Pesticide active ingredients (FAI)
Phenols, total
Phosphorus, total (as P)
Total organic carbon (TO

Without Water Carriage


The pit privy. Although most modem environmental engineering texts would skip
this subject, the mere existence of l0,000 of these or their modern equivalent in
the
United States is just too much for us to ignore. Furthermore, the facts ofthe
matter are
thatjunior engineers are the most likely candidates for designing, erecting,
operating,
dismantling, and closing the beasts. '
Figure 5~7 provides most of the information you will ever want to know about
the construction of an outhouse. The slab is usually poured over Hat ground on
top
of rooting paper. The riser hole is formed using l2~gauge galvanized iron. Once
the
slab has set, it is lifted into place over the pit. The concrete is a l:2:3 mix, that is,
one part lortI;md cement, two parts sand, and three parts gravel less than 25
mm in
diameter.
'l`hc |>rinciple ofoperation of the pit privy is that the liquid materials percolate
into the soil tlwough the cribbing and the solids dry out." A pit ofthe dimensions
shown in l"l}\lll`L5 S -7 should last a family of four about ten years Rainwater is
to
be prcvuntutl from entering the pit_ A cup of kerosene at weekly intervals
discour~
ages n|<>s<|ni|o hut-t-<ling, and odors can he reduced by the use of a cup of
hydrated

QQ
igfateftight vault. A special truck (fondly called a honey wagon) is used to
pump ,
icipient anaerobic decomposition, vault toilets are much more odiferous than the
3

ld pit privies. Many masking agents (perfumes) and disinfectants are available to
mitigate the stench. Unfortunately, most of them have unpleasant odors
themselveS_
/aste, will perform near-miracles in odor reduction. y
The chemical toilet. The airplane toilet, the coach-bus toilet, and the selfcontained
oilets of recreation vehicles are all versions of the chemical toilet. The essence of
he system is a strong disinfectant chemical used to carry the waste to a holding
ank and render it inoffensive until it can be pumped from the holding tank. While
hese vehicular systems are quite effective, the chemical must be selected with
an
:ye toward its impact on the treatment system which ultimately must receive it.
The
:hemical toilet has not found wide acceptance in permanent installations. This is
due
.o the cost of the chemical and to the impracticality of maintenance.
With Water Carriage
Septic tanks and tile fields. A typical septic tank and tile field arrangement for a
residential dwelling is illustrated in Figure 5-8. The septic tank and tile field are a
unit. Neither part will function as intended without the other.
The main function of the septic tank is to remove large particles and grease
which would otherwise clog the tile held. Heavy solids settle to the bottom where
they undergo anaerobic decomposition. Grease iioats to the surface and is
trapped.
It is only slightly decomposed.
Since the septic tank is not heated, little reduction in BOD5 occurs. Rather, the
solid organic material which settles out is liquefied. It then passes to the tile
field.
Since not all of the solid material can be liquefied, the tank must be pumped at
periodic intervals. The time interval between pumping depends on the amount of use
and

the objects which find their way to the tank. Toilet paper is easily degraded; however, plastic-lined disposable diapers cannot be degraded within a reasonable
time.
A family of four with young children can expect to have their septic tank pumped
every two years. A household of two may not have to have its septic tank
pumped in
five or ten years of use. Grease accumulation is often the major factor in
determining
the frequency of cleaning.
ln the past, the volume of the septic tank has been a function of the number of
bedrooms in the dwelling. Current practice suggests that a 24-hour hydraulic
detention time at design tiow be used. ln any case, the tank should not be less than
4.0 m3
in volume.
ln the tile field, the waste Hows out of the joints between the tiles and through
the gravel layer. The gravel serves to trap some of the solids that escaped from
the
septic tank. lt also provides a storage area for holding the liquid while it seeps
into
the soil. Bacteria on the gravel degrade some of the trapped particulate matter.
Bacteria in the soil aerobically degrade the liquefied organic material. The treated
water
percolates into the groundwater system.
ut the vault at regular intervals. Because of the liquefying action of the bacteria
and .
felectricity is at hand, an ozone generator, set to vent into the gas space above
the

FIGURE 5-8
Schematic layout of a septic tank and tile tield.
A septic tank and tile field can be used only when soil conditions are favorable.

One method used to determine whether or not a tile system may be installed is
the
soil percolation test, better known as the perc test (or sometimes perk). In simple
terms, the test is performed by digging a hole of prescribed size, filling it with
water,
and measuring the rate at which the water percolates into the soil. An
alternative,
and preferred, method for determining the suitability of the soil is to dig a trench
in the area proposed for the tile field and visually inspect it_ The inspector looks
for unsuitable soil (clay, for example) and the presence of mottled (discolored)
soil.
Mottled soil indicates that the groundwater table has, at some point in time,
risen to
a level which would interfere with the operation of the tile field and, perhaps
more
important, bring the groundwater into direct Contact with sewage. The
information
in Table 5-6 is then used to determine the size ofthe tile field.
Further limitations on the use of a septic-tank tile~f1eld system usually include
the following;
1. The tile field must be located more than 30111 from any well, surface water,
footing
drain, or storm drain.
2. The tile held must be located in least 71 in from any property line.

ABLE 5-6
Maximum acceptable application rates for tile fields
Percolation rate Maximum acceptable
l-~ application rate
Soil texture and structure mm/h min/mm (m3 of vol/ml area)

Coarse and medium sand 2 150 <0.40 0.04


Fine and loamy sand 75~150 0.404180 0.03
Sandy loam 50-75 0.80~1.20 0.02
Loam and sandy clay 35~50 1 .20-1.71 0.01
Loams <35 >1.7l Not pemiitted
Clays, silts, muck, peat, mari <<35 >> 1.71 Not permitted
3. The minimum distance between the bottom of the absorption trench and the
groundwater table or any impermeable layer must not be less than 1.25 rn. i
4. The earth cover placed over the absorption tile muSI not be less than 0.3 m
noi;
more than 0.6 rn deep.
5. A clean aggregate graded between 12 and 36 mm must be placed around the
tile
pipe. It must be a minimum of 50 mm above the pipe and 150 mm below the
pipe, with a total depth of not less than 300 mm.
Most states limit septic tank/tile held installation to facilities producing less
than 40 m3/d of wastewater. This limits their use to single family residences,
small
apartments, freeway rest areas, parks, and isolated commercial establishments.
Example 5-1. John and Mary Jones are considering the purchase of a plot of land
on
which to build a retirement home. Based on their water bills for the past live
years,
their average daily water consumption is about 0.4 m3. What size septic tank
and tile
field should they expect to put on the lot if it perks at 1.00 min/mm?
Solution. lf the septic tank must provide a detention time of 24 h, then its volume
should be
V =0.<1m3/d ><1d :0.4m3
However, the minimum recommended volume is 4.0 m3 _ Good septic tank
design prac-

tice calls for length to width (1/W) ratios greater than 2 to 1 and a minimum
liquid depth
of about 1.2 rn. Using these criteria and a 4.0 ni3 volume, the liquid surface area
would
be
40 . ,
A, I T3 a 3.33m
If we choose a width of 1.15 rn and a length of 3 m, we will have a well-sized
tank of
4.14 m3 and a l/w ratio of 2.61 to l.
From Table 5-6 we find that a perk rate of 1.00 min/mm will allow an application
rate of 0.02 m3/m2 of trench. The bottom area of trench should then be about
_/yeli' r;\ ~ Ni

Barriered-landscape water-renovation system (BLWRS). In the' summer 4


1969, Dr. A. Earl Erickson demonstrated the eficacy of utilizing a BLWRS (pn
fiigunced blowers," like iiowers) to denitiify water containing l00 mg/L of nitrat
Vgubgequently, he and his associates demonstrated that the BLWRS could be
used
iienovate both dairy cow and swine feedlot wastewater (Table 5-7). The system i
of course, equally applicable to domestic wastewater.
The BLWRS consists of a mound of soil underlain by an impervious wat
barrier (Figures 5-9a and 5-911). As the renovated water passes beyond the edge
the barrier, it may be collected in drains or be allowed to recharge the aquifer. T
mound is constructed of a fine sand. The dimensions of the BLWRS depend on t'
soil texture and expected wastewater application rates (Table 5~8). A 0.15 rn lay
of topsoil is used to cover the sand. A water-hardy grass (quack grass or volunte
weed cover) must be established on the surface and banks to maintain the soi
permeability and stability. A carbon source is installed to penetrate the anoxic Zo

that forms along the barrier. The carbon source is a mixture of one part corn and
l
parts peat.

TABLE 5-7
BLWRS wastewater renovation efficiencies
Average iniiuent Average effluent
concentration concentration Efficiency
(mg/L) (mg/L) (%)
Swine waste
BOD5 l,l3l l8.9 98.3
P 18 0.02 99.9
SS 3.000 NIL ~l00.0
TKN 937 l87_4 80.0
Dairy waste
BOD5 1,637.0 l8.9 98.8
P 38.5 0.23 99.4
SS 4,400.0 NIL ~ l00.0
TKN 917.0 27.5 97.0
Average application rate of 15 mm/d for 503 d.
"Average application rate of 8.8 mm/d for -150 cl
Source' See Erickson, et al _ footnote ll.
"A. E. Erickson, B. G. Ellis, J. M. Tiedje, A. R_ V\/olcolt, C. M. Hansen, F. R. Peabody.
E. C. M
and J. W. Thomas, S011 l`10ljU7CLlIi()l1)@)!' Denirrzfcafiun and Phosphate
Reduction of Feed./ot ll
(Environmental Protection Agency Report No. EPA-660/2-74-057), Washington,
DC: U.S, Govern:
Printing Cl`licc_ 1974,

secondary treatment is to remove the soluble BOD5 that escapes the primary
process
and to provide added removal of suspended solids. Secondary treatment is
typically
achieved by using biological processes. These provide the same biological
reactions
that would occur in the receiving water if it had adequate capacity to assimilate
the wastewater. The secondary treatment processes are designed to speed up
these
natural processes so that the breakdown ofthe degradable organic pollutants can
66 achieved in relatively short time periods. Although secondary treatment may
rt
Qmove more than 85 percent of the BOD5 and suspended solids. it does not
remo\
fgighiticant amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, or heavy metals, nor does it
complete!
eslremove pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
__
A In cases where secondary levels of treatment are not adequate, additional
trea
processes are applied to the secondary eftluent to provide advanced wastewati
Qiffeatment (AWT). These processes may involve chemical treatment and
filtration ~
wastewatermuch like adding a typical water treatment plant to the tail er
iff; _ .
a secondary plant~or they may involve applying the secondary effluent to tl
land in carefully designed irrigation systems where the pollutants are removed
by
af? ,
t50ilcrop system. Some of these processes can remove as much as 99 percent
of tl

VVBOD5. phosphorus, suspended solids and bacteria, and 95 percent ofthe


nitroge
They can produce a sparkling clean, colorless. odorless effluent
indistinguishable
appearance from a highquality drinking water. Although these processes and
lar
treatment systems are often applied to secondary effluent for advanced
treatiner
they have also been used in place of conventional secondary treatment
processes.
Most of the impurities removed from the wastewater do not simply vanis
t Some organics are broken down into harmless carbon dioitide and water. Most
~ the impurities are removed from the wastewater as a solid, that is. sludge.
Becau
most ofthe impurities removed from the wastewater are present in the sludge.
slud
~ handling and disposal must be carried out carefully to achieve satisfactory
pollutii
control,
Pretreatment of Industrial Wastes
In municipalities, industrial wastewaters can pose serious hazards because
wastevx
ter collection and treatment systems have not been designed to treat them. The
wasl
can damage sewers and interfere with the operation of treatment plants. They m
pass through the WWTP?untreated or they may concentrate in the sludge,
renderi
it a hazardous waste.
The Clean Water Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) t
authority to establish and enforce pretreatment standards for discharge of
industr
wastewaters into municipal treatment systems. Specific objectives of the pretre
ment program are:

0 To prevent the introduction to the WWTPS of pollutants that will interff


with the operation of a WWTP, including interference with its use or dispo
Y of municipal sludge.
To prevent the introduction to WVVTPs of pollutants that will pass throu
the treatment works or otherwise be incompatible with such works.
To improve opportunities to recycle and reclaim municipal and industi
wastewaters and sludge.
EPA has established prohibited discharge standards" (40 CFR 403.53 t
apply to all nondomestic discharges to the WWTP and "categorical pretreatm
standards" that are applicable to specilic industries (40 CFR 405-471). Congr
assigned the primary responsibility for enforcing these standards to local WW'l`l
Velocity controlled. This type of grit chamber, also known as a horizonfaljiow
grit chamber, can be analyzed by means of the classical laws of sedimentation
for
discrete, nonfocculating particles (Type l sedimentation).
Stokes law (See Section 3-6) may be used for the analysis and design of
horizontal-fow grit chambers if the horizontal liquid velocity is maintained at
about
0.3 rn/s. Liquid velocity control is achieved by placing a specially designed Weir
at
the end of the channel. A minimum of two channels must be employed so that
one
can be out of service without shutting down the treatment plant. Cleaning may
be
either by mechanical devices or by hand. Mechanical cleaning is favored for
plants
having average fows over 0.04 m3/s. Theoretical detention times are set at
about
one minute for average fows. Washing facilities are normally provided to remove
organic material from the grit.
. Y Y ~ _-`_._V Mr

Example 5-2. Will a grit particle with a radius of 0.10 mm and a specitic gravity
of
2.65 be collected in a horizontal grit chamber that is 13.5 m in length if the
average
grit-chamber fow is 0. l5 m3/s, the width ofthe chamber is 0.56 rn, and the
horizontal
velocity is 0.25 m/s? The wastewater temperature 22C
Solution. Before we can calculate the terminal settling velocity of the particle, we
must gather some information from Table A-l in Appendix A. At a wastewater
tem
perature of 22C, we find the water density to be 997.774 kg/m3_ We will use
1,000
kg/m3 as a sufficiently close approximation. Since the particle radius is given to
only
two significant figures, this approximation is reasonable. From the same table,
we hnd
the viscosity to be 0.995 mPa - s. As noted in the footnote, we must multiply this
by
l0`3 to obtain the viscosity in units of Pa ~ s. Using a particle diameter of O. 20
><
l0`3 m, we can calculate the terminal settling velocity using Equation 3~98.
U Z s(/15 ~ />)d2
I l8,u.
U I 2.80(2,650 - ioomtogzo >< iojf (in/S2><i<g/m3>(mQ
X l8(0.000995)(l<g ~ m/m3 - s2)(s)
U, = 3.61 >< l0`2 m/s or about 36 mm/s
Note that the product of the specitic gravity of the particle (2.65) and the density
of
water is the density ofthe particle (ps). The Reynolds number for this settling
velocity
(3.61 >< l0'Z mls) and particle size is 7.54. This is within the laminar range and
Stokes
law is valid.

With a fow of0. l5 m3/s and a horizontal velocity of0.25 in/s, the cross~sectional
area of How may be estimated to be
0. I5 _
A I wi- = _ > ~
C O25 0 6( m
The depth of fow is then estimated by dividing the cross-sectional area by the
width of the channel.
0.60
/ I ea* 2 _)7
z O56 I( m
7\AS"l`l~WAl`ER TREATMENT
If the grit particle in question enters the grit chamber at the liquid surface.
take h/U, seconds to reach the bottom.
1.07 W
Z ~t_.- 1 _)_ ~
0,0361 6
Since the chamber is 135 m in length and the horizontal velocity is 0.2
the liquid remains in the chamber.
5 S
Thus, the particle will be captured in the grit chamber.
Aerated grit chambers. The spiral roll of the aerated grit chamber liquid dr
the grit into a hopper which is located under the air diffuser assembly (Figure 5
The shearing action of the air bubbles is supposed to strip the inert grit of mu
the organic material that adheres to its surface.
Aerated grit chamber performance is a function of the roll velocity and dt
tion time. The roll velocity is controlled hy adjusting the air feed rate. Nominz
fow values are in the range of 0.15 to 0445 cubic meters per minute of air per
ter of tank length (ml/min - m), Liquid detention times are usually set to be a

three minutes at maximum fow. Length-to-width ratios range from 2.511 to 5: l


depths on the order of 2 to 5 m.
Grit accumulation in the chamber varies greatly, depending on whether
sewer system is a combined type or a separate type, and on the efficiency ol
chamber. For combined systems, 90 m3 of grit per million cubic meters of sev
300 iminuuo-ci.\,.` .c._,_, V
(m3/106 m3) is not uncommon. In separate systems you might expect
something less
than 30 m3/106 m3. Normally the grit is buried in a sanitary landfill. _
Comminutors
Devices that are used to macerate wastewater solid (rags, paper, plastic, and
other
materials) by revolving cutting bars are called Comminutors (Figure 5-l3). These
devices are placed downstream of the grit chambers to protect the cutting bars
from
abrasion. They are used as a replacement for the downstream bar rack but must
be
installed with a hand-cleaned rack in parallel in case they fail.
Equalization
Flow equalization is not a treatment process per se, but a technique that can be
used
to improve the effectiveness of both secondary and advanced wastewater
treatment
a-;... 1 ,rg gf ~-13; v 3* if
miiita.
V

processes. Wastewater does not fow into a municipal wastewater treatment


planl
a constant rate (see Figure l~4); the liow rate varies from hour to hour, refecting
i

living habits of the area served. In most towns, the pattern of daily activities sets
i
pattern of sewage fow and strength. Above-average sewage fows and strength
oct
in mid-moming. The constantly changing amount and strength of wastewater toi
treated makes efficient process operation difficult. Also, many treatment units ni
be designed for the maximum fow conditions encountered, which actually resi
in their being oversized for average conditions. The purpose of fiow equalizatioi
to dampen these variations so that the wastewater can be treated at a nearly
consi
liow rate. Flow equalization can significantly improve the performance of an cxisd
plant and increase its useful capacity. In new plants, iiow equalization can redi
the size and cost of the treatment units. i
Flow equalization is usually achieved by constructing large basins that col;
and store the wastewater fow and from which the wastewater is pumped to the
tri
ment plant at a constant rate. These basins are normally located near the head
of the treatment works, preferably downstream of pretreatment facilities such as
screens, comminutors, and grit chambers. Adequate aeration and mixing must
provided to prevent odors and solids deposition. The required volume of an eqi
ization basin is estimated from a mass balance of the How into the treatment pi
with the average fow the plant is designed to treat. The theoretical basis is the
sq
as that used to size reservoirs (see Section 2-4). N
l
_f __ __ ___,_,_ ______ l
T
Example 5-3. Design an equalization basin for the following cyclic tiow pattern. l
vide a 25 percent excess capacity for equipment, unexpected How variations,
and st
accumulation. Eva

is the first fow rate greater than the average after the sequence of nighttime low
tlowg,
then the last row ofthe computation should result in a storage value of zero.
The first step then is to calculate the average fow. In this case it is
0.05657 m3/s. Next, the fows are arranged in order beginning with the time and
fow that first exceeds the average. ln this case it is at 0900 h with a fow of .
0631
m3/s. The tabular arrangement is shown on the following page. An explanation
ofthe
calculations for each column follows.
The third column converts the fows to volumes using the time interval between
fow measurements: A
if ; (0,063l ml/S><i h)(3600s/li) = 227,16 tn3
The fourth column is the average volume that leaves the equalization basin.
V = (005657 in;/s)(l h)(3600 s/h) 1 203.655 m3
The fifth column is the difference between the infow volume and the outfow
volume. V
as = vu, vw, 1 227.16 m3 ~ 203.655 m3 f 23.505 m3
The sixth column is the cumulative sum of the difference between the infow and
outllow. For the second time interval, it is
stmge i iris < 37.55 m3 + 23.51 m3 1 61.06 m3
Note that the last value for the cumulative storage is 0. l 2 m3. It is not zero
because of
round-off truncation in the computations. At this point the equalization basin is
empty
and ready to begin the next day`s cycle.
The required volume for the equalization basin is the maximum cumulative stor~
age. With the requirement for 25 percent excess, the volume would then be
Storage volume I (86374 m3)(l.25) I l, 079.68 or L080 m3
The mass of BOD5 into the equalization basin is the product of the infow (Q),

the concentration of BOD5 (So), and the integration time (Ar):


A/[BOD~in :
The mass of BOD; out of the equalization basin is the product of the average
outliovv (Qavg), the average concentration (Savg) in the basin, and the
integration time
(Al):
MBOD-out : (Qa\'g)(Savg)(-Af)
The average concentration is determined as
S g (Vi)(So) + (Vs)(5pre\')
* ]\'i1 " _"_
v,+vg
where V, : volume of infow during time interval At. m3
Si, 1- average BOD5 concentration during time interval At, g/m3
V; >f volume of wastewater in the basin at the end ofthe previous time interval, m`
Sl ,,_.\, concentration of BOD; in the basin at the end of the previous time inIcrval
_ (previous.S`J,,g), g/ml
Noting that 1 mg/L 1 l g/m3. the first row (the 090011 time) computations are
1wBOD.,,, = (00631 m3/s)(l40 g/m3)(l h)(3,600 s/h)(lO`3 kg/g)
= 31.8 kg
S ; (22716 m3)(l40 g/niiglig
~ W 227.16 m3 + 0
1 140 mg/L
MBODM = (o.o5657 m3/s)(l40 g/m3><1 h><3,6o0 s/h)(l0`3 kg/g)
= 28.5 ke
Note that the zero values in the computation of Savg are valid only at startup of
an'

empty basin. Also note that in this case MBODM, and /VIBOUM dilfer only
because of
the difference in liow rates. For the second row (1000-h), the computations are
MBOf,.,, 1 (0.0670ml/s)(150 g/mlyti h><R,6t>o sm>(1o kg/g>
1 36.2 kg
S Z (241.2O`rn5)(l0 g/ml) m3)(V140 g/mf)
avg 241.20 ml + 23_5l in;
I 149.11 mg/L
MBOD.0u( 2 (ODS657 ml/s)(149.ll g/tniltl h)l'3,6OO s/h)(l()"5 kg/g)
; 30.37 kg
Note that VS is the volume of V1/3S{CW3[Cl' in the basin at the end ofthe
previous
time interval. Therefore, it equals the accumulated dS. The concentration of
BOD5
fSp,,,) is the average concentration at the end of previous interval (Sdyg) and
not the
nliuent concentration for the previous interval (SO ).
For the third row (1100 h), the concentration of BOD; is
S g (24552 m3)(l55 g/ni3) + (61.06 m3)(l49.ll g/m3)
avg ` `
245521113 + 61.06 rn3
= 153.83 mg/L
PRIMARY TREATMENT
he screening completed and the grit removed, the wastewater still contains
tganic suspended solids, some of which can be removed from the sewage by
' in a sedimentation tank. These tanks can be round or rectangular. The mass
ed solids is called raw sludge. The sludge is removed from the sedimentation
/ mechanical scrapers and pumps (Figure 5-14). Floating materials, such as
and oil, rise to the surface ofthe sedimentation tank, where they are collected
rface skimming system and removed from the tank for further processing.

rimary sedimentation basins ( [)l'll1'l(1l'y tau/fs) are characterized by Type II


int settling. The Stokes equation cannot be used because the iiocculating parre continually changing in size, shape, and, when water is entrapped in the
ecitic gravity. There is no adequate mathematical relationship that can be
describe Type ll settling. Laboratory tests with settling columns are used to
> design data (see Chap. 3).
ectangular tanks with common-wall construction are frequently chosen beiey are advantageous for sites with space constraints. Typically, these tanks
Hopper
FIGURE 5-14
Primary settl ing tank.
range from 15 to 100 in in length and 3 to 24 in in width. Common lengthtowidth
ratios for the design of new facilities range from 3:1 to 511. Existing plants have
length~to-width ratios ranging from 1.531 to 15: 1. The width is often controlled
by
the availability of sludge collection equipment. Side water depths range from 2
to
5 m. Typically the depth is about 3.5 m.
Circular tanks have diameters from 3 to 90 m. Side water depths range from
2.4 to 5 rn.
As in water treatment clarifier design, overllow rate is the controlling parameter for the design of primary settling tanks. At average How, overfow rates
typically
range from 25 to 60 3/ml ~ d (or 25 to 60 m/d). When waste-activated sludge is
retumed to the primary tank, a lower range of overfow rates is chosen (25 to 35
m/d).
Under peak fow conditions, overfow rates may be in the range of 80 to 120 m/d.
Hydraulic detention time in the sedimentation basin ranges from 1.5 to
2.5 hours under average fow conditions. A 2.0-hour detention time is typical.

The Great Lakes-Upper Mississippi River Board of State Sanitary Engineers


(GLUMRB) recommends that weir loading (hydraulic How over the effluent weir)
rates not exceed 120 m3/d of fow per m of weir length (rn3/d - rn) for plants with
average fows less than 0.04 m3/s. For larger fows, the recommended rate is
190
m3/d < rn. If the side water depths exceed 3.5 m, the Weir loading rates have
little
effect on performance.
Two different approaches have been used to place the weirs. Some designers
believe in the long approach and place the weirs to cover 33 to 50 percent
of374 inraooucttow TO Enviaowmawrat ENGINEERING
the length of the tank. Those ofthe short school assume the weir length is less
important and place it across the width of the end of the tank as show-n in Figure
5~l4. The spacing may vary from 2.5 to 6 rn between weirs.
As mentioned previously, approximately 50 to 60 percent of the raw sewage
suspended solids and as much as 30 to 35 percent of the raw sewage BGD5 may
be,
removed in the primary tank.
Example 5-4. Evaluate the following primary tank design with respect to
detention
time, overfiow rate, and weir loading.
Design dam: Effective Length Weir
Flow = 0.150m3/s g
lniluent SS = 280 mg/L 1; 1 1 Y ` 0 T A1 5~~
Sludge concentration I 6.0% \ Hs
_ g ~>| H? \ `**l
Efhciency - 60% [mst Sludge Omg(
Length I 40.0 m (effective) Zone L*-*W me
Width = 10.0 m
Liquid depth 2 2.0 m

Weir length I 750m


The detention time is simply the volume of the tank divided by the How;
iv 40.0 >< 10.0 >< 2_0
[i@;gTi"
2 5333.33 sor 1.5 h
This is a reasonable detention time.
The overfow rate is the fow divided by the surface areai
0.150
U0 = -+40.0 X 10.0
= 3,75 >< 10 m/s >< 86,400 s/d 1 32 m/d
This is an acceptable overfow rate.
The Weir loading is calculated in the same fashion:
0.150
We Z in
= O.0O2Ol`l13/S`1T1 >< 86,400 s/d = l72.S or 173 m3/d - m
'l`lf\i<~ in Qnrql-\lQ mir I/\nAn"
ingredients needed for conventional aerobic secondary biologic treatment are
the
availability of many microorganisms, good Contact between these organisms
and the
-organic material, the availability of oxygen, and the maintenance of other
favorable
environmental conditions (for example, favorable temperature and sufficient
time
for the organisms to work). A variety of approaches have been used in the past
to
meet these basic needs. The most common approaches are (l) trickling filters, (2)
'activated sludge, and (3) oxidation ponds (or lagoons).
` A process that does not fit precisely into either the trickling filter or the ac-

tivated sludge category but does employ principles common to both is the
rotating
biological contactor (RBC).
Trickling Filters
A trickling filter consists of a bed of coarse material, such as stones, slats, or
plastic
materials (media), over which wastewater is applied Trickling filters have been a
popular biologic treatment process. The most widely used design for many
years
was simply a bed of stones from l to 3 m deep through which the wastewater
passed.
The wastewater is typically distributed over the surface ofthe rocks by a rotating
arm
(Figure 5-15). Rock filter diameters may range up to 60 in.

As the wastewater trickles through the bed, a microbial growth establishes itlfon the surface ofthe stone or packing in a fixed film. The wastewater passes
over
3 stationary microbial population, providing contact between the microorganisms
d the organics.
Trickling filters are not primarily a filtering or straining process as the name
iplies. The rocks in a rock filter are 25 to 100 mm in diameter, and hence have
tenings too large to strain out solids_ They are a means of providing large
amounts
surface area where the microorganisms cling and grow in a slime on the rocks as
ey feed on the organic matter
Excess growths of microorganisms wash from the rock media and would cause
,desirably high levels of suspended solids in the plant effluent if not removed.
ius, the fow from the tilter is passed through a sedimentation basin to allow
these
lids to settle out, This sedimentation basin is referred to as a secondary clargieg

fna! clarzjier to differentiate it from the sedimentation basin used for primary
ttling
Although rock trickling filters have performed well for years, they have certain
nitations. Under high organic loadings, the slime growths can be so proline that
ey plug the void spaces between the rocks, causing fooding and failure of the
stem. Also, the volume of void spaces is limited in a rock filter, which restricts
2 circulation of air and the amount of oxygen available for the microbes. This
nitation, in turn, restricts the amount of wastewater that can be processed.
To overcome these limitations, other materials have become popular for filling
3 triclrling nlter. These materials include modules of corrugated plastic sheets
(Fige 5~ l6) and plastic rings, These media offer larger surface areas for slime
growths
'pically 90 square meters of surface area per cubic meter of bulk volume, as
com
red to 40 to 60 square meters per cubic meter for 75 mm rocks) and greatly
increase
id ratios for increased air fow. The materials are also much lighter than rock (by
iactor of about 30), so that the trickling lilters can be much taller without facing
uctural problems. Vl/hile rock in filters is usually not more than 3 m deep,
syntheticN inclmii ng recirculation.
media depths may reach l2 m, thus reducing the overall space requirements for
the
tricl<ling-filter portion of the treatment plant.
Tricl-cling filters are classified according to the applied hydraulic and organic
load. The hydraulic load may be expressed as cubic meters of Wastewater
applied
per day per square meter of bulk filter surface area (m3/d - m3) or, preferably, as
the
depth of water applied per unit of time (mm/s or m/d). Organic loading is
expressed
as kilograms of BOD5 per day per cubic meter of bulk filter volume (kg/d - m3),

Common hydraulic and organic loadings for the the various filter classihcations
are
summarized in Table 5-9.
An important element in trickling filter design is the provision for 1tu1Tl of a
portion of the efiiuent to iiow through the filter. This practice is called
recirculation.
The ratio of the returned Flow to the incoming fow is called the recirculation
ratio
(r). Recirculation is practiced in stone tilters for the following reasons:
L To increase contact efficiency by bringing the waste into contact more than
once
with active biological material.
2. To dampen variations in loadings over a 24-hour period. The strength of the rccirculated tiow lags behind that ofthe incoming wastewater. Thus, recirculation
dilutes strong iniluent and supplements Weak infuent
3. To raise the DC) oi the iniiuent.
4. To improve distribution over the surface, thus reducing the tendency lo clog
and
also reduce filter iiies.
5. To prevent the biological slimcs l`rom drying out and dying during llli,\\lli|\\t
po
riods when fows may be too low to keep the iilter wet continuously.

Waste
Sludge
ZURE 5-17
o-stage tricklingfilter plant. (Courtesy of Dow Chemical Company.)
circulation may or may not improve treatment efhciency. The more dilute the
:oming wastewater, the less likely it is that recirculation will improve efficiency.
Recirculation is practiced for plastic media to provide the desired wetting rate

keep the microorganisms alive. Generally, increasing the hydraulic loading above
: minimum wetting rate does not increase BOD; removal. The minimum wetting
e normally falls in the range of 25 to 60 m/d.
Two-stage trickling filters (Figure 5-l7) provide a means ofimproving the permance of filters. The second stage acts as a polishing step for the effluent from
1 primary stage by providing additional contact time between the waste and the
croorganisms. Both stages may use the same media or each stage may have dif'ent media as shown in Figure 5-l7. The designer will select the types of media
d their arrangement based on the desired treatment efficiencies and an
economic
alysis of the alternatives.
:sign formulas. Numerous investigators have attempted to correlate operating
ta with the bulk design parameters of trickling hlters. Rather than attempt a
com:hensive review of these formulations, we have selected the National Research
suncil (NRC) equations and Schulzes equation" as illustrations. A
thoroughreview of several of the more iinpox tant equations is given in the Water
Environment
Federation's publication on wastewater treatment plant design.
During World War II, the NRC made an extensive study of the operation of
trickling filters serving military installations. From this study, empirical equations
were developed to predict the efhciency of the filters based on the BOD load, the
volume of the filter media, and the recirculation. For a single-stage hlter or the
iirst
stage of a two~stage hlter, the efficiency is
1
El Z " _ 0,5 (58)
1+ 4_i2<QQ?>
W
where E1 1 fraction of BOD5 removal for first stage at ZOOC, including recircula-

tion and sedimentation


Q = wastewater How rate, m3/s
Cin 1 infuent BOD5, rngfc
V = volume of filter media, m5
F 1 recirculation factor
The recirculation factor is
`l+R
~ - ~~~ <5-<>>
f_
(l +O.lR)2
where R 1 recirculation ratio = Q,/Q
Q, = recirculation fow rate, m3/s
Q = Wastewater fow rate, m3/s
The recirculation factor represents the average number of passes of the raw
wastewater BOD through the filter. The factor O. lR is to account for the empirical
observation that the biodegradability of the organic matter decreases as the
number
of passes increases. For the second stage filter, the efficiency is
E2 = ~- 1 0_5 (5-10)
1 i ii
l 4 E l sf F
where E3 = fraction of BOD5 removal for second stage filter at 2OC, including
f recirculation and sedimentation, %
E, = fraction of BOD5 removed in first stage
Ce = effluent BOD5 from first stage, mg/L
The effect of temperature on the efficiency may be estimated from the followa
ing equation: .
ET = E20 0<T'20> (5-ll)
where a value of 1.035 is used for 9.

Some care should be used in applying the NRC equations Military wastewater
during this period (World War ll) had a higher strength than domestic wastewater
today. The filter media was rock. Clarifiers associated with the triclding filters
were
shallower and carried higher hydraulic loads than current practice would permit.
The
second stage filter is assumed to be preceded by an intermediate settling tank
( see
Figure 5~ l7)_
Example 5-S. Using the NRC equations, determine the BOD5 of the effluent from
a single-stage, low~rate trickling filter that has a filter volume of 1,443 m3, a
hy~
draulic loading of l,9OO m3/d, and a recirculation factor of 2.78. The inliuent
BOD5 is
150 mg/L.
Solution. To use the NRC equation, the hydraulic loading must first be converted
to
the correct units.
Q I (1,900 mi/d) l-` 2 0.022 mi/s
86,400 s/d
The efficiency of a single-stage filter is
1+4_l2 (0.02-)(1>0)
(l,443)(2178)
The concentration of BOD5 in the efiuent is then
Ce = (l - 0.8943)(l50) = 15.8 mg/L
Schulze proposed that the time of wastewater CODIHCI with the biological
mass in the filter is directly proportional to the depth of the filter and inversely
proportional to the hydraulic loading rate:
CD
where I = contact time, d

C = mean active film per unit volume


D = Iilter depth, m
Q
A
zz = empirical constant based on filter media
= hydraulic loading, mi/d
= filter area over which wastewater is applied, mi

The mean active film per unit volume may be approximated by


l
ClW
where m is an empirical constant that is an indicator of biological slime dis
It is normally assumed that the distribution is uniform and that m : 0.
is 1.0. _
Schulze combined his relationship with Velzs9 first-order equation
removal
2 _ ex g KD
So P . <Q/A>~
where K is an empirical rate constant with the units of
(ni/d)"
m
The temperature correction for K may be computed with Equation _
is substituted for ET and KZ() is substituted for Eg).
Example 5-6. Determine the BOD; of the efluent from a low-rate tricltlii
has a diameter of 35.0 rn and a depth of l_5 ni if the hydraulic loading is
and the inlluent BOD5 is 150.0 mg/L. Assume the rate constant is 2.3 (n
n = 0.67. _ ~

Solution. We begin by computing the area of the lilter.


1r(35.0)2
A 1 ,_,_.
4
` = 962.11 ml
This area is then used to compute the loading rate.
Q _ 1,900 m3/d
A ` 962.llm2
= 1.97 m3/d - ml -Now we can compute the efiuent BOD using Equation 5-14.
S, = (l50)exp
= 16.3 mg/L .
tivated Sludge i H
: activated sludge process is a biological wastewater treatment technique in
which
ixture of Wastewater and biological sludge (microorganisms) is agitated and aer_
l. The biological solids are subsequently separated from the treated wastewater
returned to the aeration process as needed.
The activated sludge process derives its name from the biological mass founeff
rn air is continuously injected into the wastewater. ln this process, microorgan
s are mixed thoroughly with the organics under conditions that stimulate their
Nth through use ofthe organics as food. As the microorganisms grow and arg
ed by the agitation ofthe air, the individual organisms clump together (foccu) to form an active mass of microbes (biologic tloc) called activated sludge.
In practice, wastewater Hows continuously into an aeration tank (Figure 5-18)
:re air is injected to mix the activated sludge with the wastewater and to Sup;
the oxygen needed for the organisms to break down the organics The mixture
ctivated sludge and wastewater in the aeration tank is called mixed liquor The

ed liquor fows from the aeration tank to a secondary clarifier where the
activated
lge is settled out_ Most of the settled sludge is returned to the aeration tank (and
:e is called return sludge) to maintain the high population of microbes that per; rapid breakdown of the organics. Because more activated sludge is produced
1 is desirable in the process, some ofthe return sludge is diverted or wasted to
the
lge handling system for treatment and disposal. ln conventional activated sludge
ems, the wastewater is typically aerated for six to eight hours in long, rectanguieration basins. About 8 rnl of air is provided for each m3 of wastewater treated.
icient air is provided to keep the sludge in suspension (Figure 5-l9). The air
Qected near the bottom of the aeration tank through a system of diffusers (Fig5-20). The volume of sludge returned to the aeration basin is typically 20 to 30
:ent of the wastewater fow.
The activated sludge process is controlled by wasting a portion of the miirganisms each day in order to maintain the proper amount of microorganisms to
n .` _
fficiently degrade the BOD5. Wasting means that a portion of the
microorganisms
is discarded from the process. The discarded microorganisms are called waste
activated sludge (WAS). A balance is then achieved between growth of new
organisms
and their removal by wasting. If too much sludge is wasted, the concentration of
microorganisms in the mixed liquor will become too low for effective treatment. If
too little sludge is wasted, a large concentration of microorganisms will
accumulate
and, ultimately, overfow the secondary tank and fow into the receiving stream.
The mean cell residence time 96, also called solids retention time (SRT) or
sludge age, is denned as the average amount of time that microorganisms are
kept

in the system.
Many modifications of the conventional activated sludge process have been
developed to address specitic treatment problems. A brief description of these is
given in Table 5- lO. We have selected the completely mixed and conventional
plugliow processes for further discussion.
Completely mixed activated sludge process. The design formulas for the conipletely mixed activated sludge process are a mass-balance application of the
equa~
tions used to describe the kinetics of microbial growth. A mass-balance diagram
for
the completely mixed system (CSTR) is shown in Figure 521. The mass-balance
equations are written for thc system boundary shown by the dashed line. Two
mass
balances are required to define the design of the reactor: one for biomass and
one for
food (soluble BOl`);)_

process modification
Description
Conventional plugtiow
Complete~mix
Tapered aeration
Stepfeed aeration
Modified aeration
Contact stabilization
Extended aeration
High-rate aeration
Settled wastewater and recycled activated sludge enter the h
of the aeration tank and are mixed by diffusedair or mechar

aeration. Air application is generally uniform throughout tan


During the aeration period, adsorption, iiocculation, and oxit
of organic matter occur, Activated sludge solids are separate
secondary settling tank.
Process is an application ofthe How regime of a continuousstirred-tank reactor. Settled wastewater and recycled activat
are introduced typically at several points in the aeration tanl
organic load on the aeration tank and the oxygen demand ar
throughout the tank length.
Tapered aeration is a modification ofthe conventional plugprocess. Varying aeration rates are applied over the tank len
depending on the oxygen demand. Greater amounts of air a
to the head end of the aeration tank, and the amounts dimin
mixed liquor approaches the effluent end. Tapered aeration
achieved by using different spacing of the air diffusers over
length,
Step feed is a modification of the conventional plug-dow pi
in which the settled wastewater is introduced at several poi
the aeration tank to equalize the F/M ratio, thus lowering p
oxygen demand. Generally three or more parallel channels
Flexibility of operation is one of the important features of t
Modified aeration is similar to the conventional plug-How |
except that shorter aeration times and higher F/M ratios ar
BOD removal efficiency is lower than other activated slud
processes.
Contact stabilization uses two separate tanks or compartm<
treatment of the wastewater and stabilization ofthe activat
The stabilized activated sludge is mixed with the intluent <

or settled) wastewater in a contact tank. The mixed liquor


in a secondary settling tank and return sludge is aerated se
in a reaeration basin to stabilize the organic matter. Aerati
requirements are typically 50 percent less than conventior
Extended aeration process is similar to the conventional p
process except that it operates in the endogenous respirati<
ofthe growth curve, which requires a low organic loading
aeration time. Process is used extensively for prefabricate
plants for small communities. '
High-rate aeration is a process modification in which higi
concentrations are combined with high volumetric loadin;
combination allows high F/M ratios and long mean celir
times with relatively short hydraulic detention times. Adi
mixing is very important.
TABLE 5-10
(continued )
:`
are an
,1
Nga
Process or
process modification
Kraus process
High-purity oxygen
Oxidation ditch
Sequencing batch reactor
Deep-shaft reactor
Single-stage nitrification

Separate stage nitrification

mia -Q
"ef wg -~
ws; ~
Description i
. Q.,
'
Kraus process is a variation of the step aeration process used 10 gem
Wastewater with low nitrogen levels. Digester supematant is added .
a nutrient source to a portion of the retum sludge in a separate aeratigif
tank designed to nitrify. The resulting mixed liquor is then added to
the main plugfow aeration system.
High-purity oxygen is used instead of air in the activated sludge
process. Oxygen is difused into covered aeration tanks and is
recirculated. A portion of the gas is wasted to reduce the concentratioifgi
of carbon dioxide. pH adjustment may also be required. The amount
oxygen added is about four times greater than the amount that can '
added by conventional aeration systems.
The oxidation ditch consists of a ring- or oval~shaped channel and
is equipped with mechanical aeration devices. Screened wastewater
enters the ditch, is aerated, and circulates at about 0.25 to 0.35 mfs,
Oxidation ditches typically operate in an extended aeration mode with
long detention and solids retention times. Secondary sedimentation
tanks are used for most applications,
The sequencing batch reactor is a fill-and-draw type reactor system

we

'
involving a single complete-mix reactor in which all steps of the
activated sludge process occur. Mixed liquor remains in the reactor
during all cycles, thereby eliminating the need for separate secondary i
,wo
-as
ffm?
M5
sedimentation tanks. .V
The deep vertical-shaft reactor is a form of the activated sludge '
process. A vertical shaft about l2O to 150 m deep replaces the primary Y
clarifiers and aeration basin. The shaft is lined with a steel shell and
and air are forced down the center ofthe shaft and allowed to rise i
upward through the annulus.
In single-stage nitrification, both BOD and ammonia reduction occur
in a single biological stage. Reactor conhgurations can be either a
series of complete-mix reactors or plug fow.
In separate stage nitrification, a separate reactor is used for
nitrihcation, operating on a feed waste from a preceding biological
treatment unit. The advantage of this system is that operation can be
optimized to conform to the nitritication needs.
"Source: Metcalf & Eddy, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and
Reuse, New York: McGra\v~Hill, l99l.
Under steady-state conditions, the mass balance for biomass may be Written as:
Biomass in Biomass _ Biomass in Biomass
.+-+
iniluent accumulated effluent wasted
(5-15)
The biomass in the inliuent is the product of the concentration of microorgan-

isms in the inliuent (XO) and the How rate of wastewater (Q). The concentration
of
microorganisms in the inlluent (Xu) is measured as suspended solids (mg/L). The
biomass that accumulates in the aeration tank is the product of the voluinc of
the
IGURE 5-21
Completely mixed biological reactor with solids recycle.
tank (V) and the Monod expression for growth of microbial mass (Equation 5-5)
SX
if Elia/<X 'sa
()KX+S (1 (l
The biomass in the efiuent is the product of How rate of treated wastewa
leaving the plant (Q - QW) and the concentration of microorganisms that does 1
settle in the secondary clarifier (Xe). The fow rate of wastewater leaving the pl.
does not equal the How rate into the plant because some of the microorganisms
m
be wasted. The fow rate of wasting (QW) is deducted from the fow exiting the
plz
The biomass that is wasted is the product of concentration of microorganismf
the WAS fow (X,) and the WAS fow rate (Qr). The narrative mass-balance equat
may be rewritten as 5
PLIIISX A _ _ _
QX0 + (V) KX Jr S /MX (Q Qw)Xe + QwXf (5
The variable are summarized as follows:
Q = wastewater How rate into the aeration tank, m3/d
1 microorganism concentration (volatile suspended solids or VSS)2
tering aeration tank, mgf.
V 1 volume of aeration tank, m3
/t,,, = maximum growth rate constant, d
Xa

ml
2Suspended solids means that the material will he retained on a Glter, unlike
dissolved solids su(
NaCl. The amount ofthe suspended solids that volatilizes at 500 t 50C is taken
to be a measure ofai
biomass concentration. The presence of nonliving organic particles in the inljuent
wastewater will c
some error (usually small) in the use of volatile suspended solids as ll measure of
biomass.
S '= soluble BOD; in aeration tank and effluent, mg/L
X = microorganism concentration (mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids
or MLVSS)21 in the aeration tank, mg/L
K, = half velocity constant
I soluble BOD5 concentration at one-half the maximum growth rate,
mg/L
kd = decay rate of microorganisms, d`1
QW I How rate of liquid containing microorganisms to be Wasted, m3/d
XE I microorganism concentration (VSS) in effluent from secondary Sep
tling tank, mg/L
X, = microorganism concentration (VSS) in sludge being wasted, mg/L
At steady-state, the mass~balance equation for food (soluble BOD5) may be
written
Food in + Food _ Food in + Food in
infuent consumed _ effluent WAS (5-18)
The food in the infuent is the product ofthe concentration of soluble BOD5 in
the intluent (SO) and the fow rate of wastewater (Q). The food that is consumed
in
the aeration tank is the product of the volume of the tank (V) and the expression
for
rate of food utilization (Equation 5-7)
/.L,nSX

V aero gl
The food in the effluent is the product of fow rate of treated wastewater leaving
the plant (Q e QW) and the concentration of soluble BOD5 in the effluent (S). The
concentration of soluble BOD5 in the effluent (S) is the same as that in the
aeration
tank because we have assumed that the aeration tank is completely mixed.
Since
the BOD5 is soluble, the secondary settling tank will not change the
concentration.
Thus, the effluent concentration from the secondary settling tank is the same as
the
infuent concentration.
The food in the waste activated sludge fow is the product of the concentration
of soluble BOD; in the infuent (S) and the WAS fow rate (Q,). The nanative massbalance equation for steady-state conditions may be rewritten as
_ MISX _ _ _
QSO (V) WE _ (Q QWDS 'P' QWS (320)
where Y 1 yield coefficient (see Equation 5-6).

The intiuent and effluent biomass concentrations are negligible compared to tl


in the reactor_
The infuent food (S 0) is immediately diluted to the reactor concentration in 1
cordance with the definition of a CSTR.
1
2.
3, All reactions occur in the CSTR.
from the First assumption we may eliminate the following tenns from Equati
5-l7t QX0, and (Q - Qw)Xe because XO, and Xe, are negligible compared to X, Eqi
tion 5-17 may be simplified to
,tt,,,SX

(V) -T - kdX = +Q,,,.X, (5-1


K,+S
For convenience, we may rearrange Equation 5-21 in terms ofthe Monod eq
tion
/-'L/115 : QfXr + kd (5_
Kg, + S VX
Equation 5-20 may also be rearranged in terms of the Monod equation
MIYIS Q Y
_____ Z __ ) ~ 5,
<K,+S> v'X(S{ S) (
Noting that the left side of Equations 5-22 and 5-23 are the same, we set the rig
hand side of these equations equal and rearrange to give:
QM/Xl" Q Y
_T ; _E _ 2 5_
VX V X(5a S) /Q1 (
Two parts of this equation have physical significance in the design of a comple
mixed activated sludge system. The inverse of Q/V is the hydraulic detention z
(6) ofthe reactor: '
5 - Q <5Q
The inverse ofthe left side of Equation 5-24 dehnes the mean cell-reside
time (QC): _
vx
4- = at 5
QWX,~ <
The mean cell-residence time expressed in Equation 5-26 must be modihed il
effiuent biomass concentration is not negligible. Equation 5-27 accounts for efi

49 1 ___._.___; _ ~
<a+@~omm> UW
From Equation 5-22, it can be seen that once 65 is selected, the concentratifiii
of soluble BOD5 in the effluent (S) is nxed: S A
K5(l + kd/(96)
S = _--_-7 _ '
mmmeeww , 63%
Typical values of the microbial growth constants are given in Table 5-l
that the concentration of soluble BOD5 leaving the system (S) is affected onlyvby
the mean cell~residence time and not by the amount of BOD5 entering the
aeratioii
tank or by the hydraulic detention time. lt is also important to reemphasize
that`
is the soluble BOD; and not the total BOD; Some fraction of the suspended solid
that do not settle in the secondary settling tank also contributes to the BOD5
load
the receiving body. To achieve a desired effluent quality both the soluble and
insol
uble fractions of BGD5 must be considered. Thus, to use Equation 5~28 to
achiei/E
a desired effluent quality (S) by solving for 49, some estimate of the BGD5 of the
suspended solids must be made first. This value is then subtracted from the total

;1ug_f1ovv system is difficult to develop from basic mass-balance equations.

~ , .'== i.
simplifying assumptions, Lawrence and McCarty/22 have developed a u
i uation. The assumptions are:
egg

The concentration of microorganisms in the intluent to the aeration tank is ap


imately the same as that in the effluent from the aeration tank. This assurr
-applies if 95/6 is greater than 5.
':.=`~f =
rate of soluble BOD 5 utilization as the waste passes through the aeratio
is given by '
M /lm S X av g
fu 1 1 -"
*T where Xavg is the average concentration of microoorganisms in the aeratioi
The design equation is
1 Y;Lm(SU 1 5) A
9. T <50 1 S) + qi + a>1<,in<si/S) T 'd
where a 1 recycle ratio, Q,/Q
ln 1 logarithm to base e
L, Si 1 infuent concentration to aeration tank after dilution with
fow, mg/L
Tl+a
Other terms are the same as those defined previously.
Example 5-7. The town of Gatesville has been directed to upgrade its primarj
to a secondary pl`ant that can meet an efluent standard of 30.0 mgf, B4
30.0 mg/L suspended solids (SS). They have selected a completely mixed
sludge system
Assuming that the BOD5 of the SS may be estimated as equal to 63 r
the SS concentration, estimate the required volume of the aeration tank. The `
data are available from the existing primary plant.
Existing plant effluent characteristics
Flow 1 0.150 m3/s
BOD5 1 84.0 mg/L

Assume the following values for the growth constants; KX 1 l00 mg


,um 1 2.5 d"; kd 1 0.050 d"; Y 1 0.50 mg VSS/mg BOD5 removed.
6
gr A low rate of wasting causes a tow F/M ratio, which yields organisms that are
This results in more complete degradation ofthe waste.
A long 65 (low F/M) is not always used, however, because ofcertain trade-offs
0 a larger and more costly aeration tanl<_ lt
at must be considered. A long C means g
means a higher requirement for oxygen and, thus, higher power costs.
Problems
` ` " ` ` b tered if6 is too
th oor sludge settleability in the final clariher may e encoun C
Pt
gpg, However, because the waste is more completely degraded to final end
products
3
if
*ii
less of the waste is converted into microbial cells when the microorganisms are
iiarved at a low F/M, there is less sludge to handle.
I,@;l= . . .
ef Because both the F/M ratio and the cell-detention time are controlled by
3
Q
2
X
d A l `<fh F/M eorres onds to a short 9,
fastinU of organisms, they are interrelate _ ug p
D

l U 6* Ff\/I values ty tcally range from Osl to


a low F/M corresponds to a ong L- t p
mg/mg~d for the various modilications of the activated sludge process.
ows
Tank A ls settled onte eath day and h tlt the liquid is remox ed with care not to
2* disturb the sludge that settles to the bottom, This liquid is replaced with fresh
settled
Example 5'8. Two "till and draw" batch-operated sludge tanks are operated

Sludge return. The purpose of sludge return is to maintain a sufficient concentration of activated sludge in the reactor basin. One method used to control the rate
of
sludge return to the reactor basin is based on the empirical measurement known
as
the sludge voiume index (SVI).
SVI is determined from a standard laboratory testi The procedure involves
measuring the MLSS and sludge settleability A one-liter sample of mixed liquor
is obtained from the aeration tank at the discharge end. The sludge settleability
is
measured by hlling a standard one-liter graduated cylinder to the 1.0 liter mark,
allowing undisturbed settling for 30 minutes, and then reading the volume
occupied
by the settled sludge. The MLSS is determined by Hltering, drying, and weighing
a second portion of the mixed liquor. The SVl, which is dedned as the volume in
rnilliliters occupied by l g of activated sludge after the aerated liquor has settled
30
min, is calculated as follows:
sv
svi 1 >< 1,000 mg/g (5-34)
where SVl 1 sludge volume index, ml,/g
SV = volume of settled solids in one~liter graduated cylinder after 30 min

settling, mL/L
MLSS = mixed liquor suspended solids, mg/L
PW" ''M9Wf Tuff. Jw

3-22
f;;ypotlietical relationship between settled sludge volume from SVI test and resludge How, (Source: M. J. Hammer, Water and Wastewater Technology,
Vgision, New York: Wiley, l9`/7. Reprinted by permission.)
s.
Conceptually, SVI can be related to the quantity and solids concentrz
:the secondary settling tank as we have depicted in Figure 5-22. In the followi
eibussion and mathematical relationships, the secondary tank is assumed to r
4/-.
iidentically to the graduated cylinder used in the SVI test. This assumption is t
gdinary to say the least. In fact, Vesilind has shown that for MLSS concentra
less than 5,000 mg/L, the settling rates are I0 to 20 percent greater than rr
' expected in a final claritierm Nonetheless, environmental engineers have de'
a large body of empirical data based on it.
The SVI can be used as an indication of the settling characteri:
the sludge, thereby impacting on return rates and MLSS. Typical values
for activated sludge plants operating with an MLSS concentration of 2
I 3,500 mg/L range from 80 to 150 mL/g. As the sludge concentration is incrc
the 3,000 to 5,000 mg/L range, there is a higher solids loading on the settlin
and as a consequence, a lower SVI or larger settling basin is required to ai
loss of solids caused by washout or hydraulic displacement.
The SVI is a key factor in the system design. Indirectly, it limits the
basin l\/ILSS concentration and, in turn, the MLVSS that can be achieved, be
controls the settling tank underfow concentration. Thus, for a given SVI an

sludge rate, the maximum l\/ILSS and MLVSS are fixed Within narrow limi
Most activated sludge plants are designed to permit variable sludge rett
I0 to 100 percent of the raw waste How. This range of return sludge tlow g
operator reasonable fexibility to adjust the MLSS to the desired concentr;
general, the return sludge ratio should be limited to or below I00 percent
particularly true if the SVI is higher than 150 mL/g and there is no provi
additional lloor area in the hnal clarihcation step.
Without operating data, the Joint Task Force suggests that MLSS be li
5,000 mg/I. (lower at temperatures of less than 20C), even though the SVIf
very low. Design values over 5,000 mg/'L generally will lead to inordina

FIGURE 5-23
Design MLSS versus SVI and return sludge ratio, (Source: loint Task Force of
the Water Environment Federation and the American Society of Civil Engineers,
Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Vol. I, Manual of Practice
No, 8, Chapters l-ll, Alexandria( VA( l99l_ Reprinted by permission.)
detention times that are more subject to washout unless surge control is
planned.
Design MLSS values should not be any higher than needed, since the final
settling
basin operations become critical at high MLSS levels.
The mixed liquor concentration as a function ofthe SVI and the return sludge
ratio (Q,/Q) is shown in Figure 5-23. The return sludge pumping rate may be determined froni a mass balance around the settling tank in Figure 5-21. Assuming
that the amount of sludge in the secondary settling tank remains constant
(steadystate conditions) and that the effluent suspended solids (Xe) are negligible, the
mass
balance is
accumulation = infow e outfow (5-35)

0 = (Q + Qf)(X') r (QfX,f + QWXD (5436)


where Q I wastewater fow rate, m3/d
Q, = return sludge liow rate, m3/d
X' I mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), g/m3
X; 1 maximum return sludge concentration, g/m3
QW = sludge wasting fow rate, ml/d
Solving for the return sludge fow rate:
ix' e Q.,x,i
Qi- 1 &QT'jjYr' (537)
/,_
Frequently, the ussuinption that the effluent suspended solids are negligible is
not
\f;ilid_ It the ellliieiit suspended solids are significant, the mass balance may then
be
expressed as `
U (C) l Q,->lX'l r (Q, X1 i' (ji\.\',i l (Q e Q.,~l/Ya) (5 38)

Solving for the return sludge [low rate:


._ QX' - QNX; - <Q - Qi->Xi -V
Q, - X; _ X, o 39>
Note that X; and X' include both the volatile and inert fractions. Thus, they differ
from X, and X by a constant factor. With the volume of the tank and the mean
cell'rresidence time, the sludge Wasting How rate can be determined with Equation
5-26
if the maximum return sludge concentration (Xl) can be determined. The
maximum
return sludge concentration is related to the SVI as follows:
U L/L 6
X; I 1,000 mg/g(l,000m > 2 10 mg/L (540)

SVI ' SVI D


Figure 5-23 has been constructed on the basis of rapid sludge removal and uses
the
concentration achieved in the 30-minute settling test as the settling basin
underliow
concentration. Practice has shown this to be a relatively valid approach.
The maximum achievable undertiow concentration is also a function oftemperature, Temperature affects zone settling velocity, as well as the SVI. In cold
weather,
the SVI increases because of poor settling. The Joint Task Forces recommended
mixed-liquor design concentration as a function of the minimum design reactorbasin
temperature for several SVI values is shown in Figure 5-24. (The SVI is taken at
the
temperature of the reactor basin contents.)
Example 5-10. In the continuing saga of the Gatesville plant expansion, we now
wish
to consider the question of the return sludge design. Based on the aeration tank
design
(Example 5-7) and an informed, reliable source, we have the following data:
Design data:
Flow 1 0.150 ml/s
MLVSS(X) 1 2,000mg/L
MLSS(X') = L43 (MLVSS)
Efiiuent suspended solids 2 30 mg/L
Wastewater temperature 2 l8.0C
Solution. We begin by computing the anticipated concentration of the MISS.
MLSS = l_43(2,000)
MLSS = 2,860 nig/L
We caii`t really predict SVI but Figure 5-24 gives us a reasonable range to
assume

a value. Alternatively, we could assume a return sludge concentration. Using Figure 5-24_ we select an SVI ot 175 based on the calculated MLSS and the reactor
basin
temperature.
Now, using Equation 5-40, we can determine the return sludge concentration.
IO6
' 175
Y,
Xf 1 5,714.29 or 5.700 nu:/l,

Sludge production. The activated sludge process removes substrate, which


exerts
an oxygen demand by convening the food into new cell material and degrading
this cell material while generating energy. This cell material ultimately becomes
Sludge, which must be disposed of. Despite the problems in doing so,
researchers
have attempted to develop enough basic information on sludge production to
permit
a reliable design basis. Heukelekian and Sawyer both reported that a net yield of
0_5 kg MLVSS/kg BOD5 removed could be expected for a completely soluble or~
ganic substrate. Most researchers agree that, depending on the inert solids in
the
System and the SRT, 0.40 to 0.60 kg MLVSS/kg BOD5 removed will normally be
Observed.
The amount of sludge that must be wasted each day is the difference between
the amount of increase in sludge mass and the suspended solids (SS) lost in the
efluenli
Mass to be wasted = increase in MLSS e SS lost in effluent (5-Jil )
The net activated sludge produced each day is determined by; 0
Y

Y Q 1 #Wi ir.g 4.2


~ i + kde, "
and
Pi 1 YOb5Q(S0 e S>(10"`3 kg/ga <s-is
where PX 1 net waste activated sludge produced each day in terms of VSS, kg/d
Yobs 2 observed yield, kg MLVSS/kg BOD5 removed
Other terms are as defined previously.
The increase in MLSS may be estimated by assuming that VSS is some fractior
of MLSS. lt is generally assumed that VSS is 60 to 80 percent of MLVSS. Thus, thc
increase in MLSS intEquation 5-43 may be estimated by dividing P, by a factor
of 0.6 to 0.8 (or multiplying by 1.25 to l_667). The mass of suspended solids los
in the effluent is the product of the How rate (Q e QW) and the suspended solid:
concentration (XR).
Example 5-ll. Estimate the mass of sludge to be wasted each day from the new
acti
vated sludge plant at Gatesville (Examples 5-7 and 5-10).
Solution. Using the data from Example 57, calculate Yum;
0.50 kg \/SS/kg BOD; removed
y N 1 ..._,,,_ .... , . _._.,..__....,,
"' 1 + |ro.o>oa ><S tn]
li 1A\L.v \/QQ/Ln IUWD- r.~\ni1\\/.>1|

The net waste activated sludge produced each day is ~


P. - (O.4O)(0.150 m3/s)(84_0 g/m3 -s ii.: g/m3)(86,400 s/d)(lO" kg/g) 5
= 377.9 kg/d of VSS
The total mass produced includes inert materials. Using the relationship betwegu
MLSS and MLVSS in Example 5-10,
Increase in MLSS = (l.43)(377.9 kg/d) 2 540.4 kg/d
The mass of solids (both volatile and inert) lost in the effluent is

(Q - Q,.>(Xf> - (O.l5O m3/s - 0.0011 m3/s)(~30 g/m3)(86,4O0 S/d><l(_)f3 kg/gy


a
1 385.9 kg/d
The mass to be wasted is then
Mass to be wasted = 540.4 A 385.9 I 154.5 kg/d
Note that this mass is calculated as dry solids. Because the sludge is mostly
water, the
actual mass will be considerably larger. This is discussed further in Section 5-1 l.
xygen demand. Oxygen is used in those reactions required to degrade the subate to produce the high-energy compounds required for cell synthesis and for
resration. For long SRT systems, the oxygen needed for cell maintenance can be of
3 same order of magnitude as substrate metabolism. A minimum residual of/0_5
to
ng/L DO is usually maintained in the reactor basin to prevent oxygen deficiencies
>m limiting the rate of substrate removal.
' An estimate of the oxygen requirements may be made from the BOD5 of the
iste and amount of activated sludge Wasted each day. If We assume all ofthe
BOD5
converted to end products, the total oxygen demand can be computed by
converting
DD5 to BOD L. Since a portion of waste is converted to new cells that are wasted,
3 BODL of the wasted cells must be subtracted from the total oxygen demand.
An
proximation ofthe oxygen demand ofthe wasted cells may be made by assuming
ll oxidation can be described by the following reaction:
C5Hil\lO2 +502 2 5CO2 + 2H2O + NH3 + energy (5-4-4)
CC S
ie ratio of gram molecular weights is
5(32)
-_ = L42

ll3
tus the oxygen demand of the waste activated sludge may be estimated as
12 (PX).
The mass of oxygen required may be estimated as:
Q(Sf, - S)(l0`3 l</0)
Mm: - --47__2i - l.42(P,f) <5-45)

Where Q = wastewater fow rate into the aeration tank, m3/d


S0 = iniiuent soluble BOD5, mg/L
S 1 effluent soluble BOD5, mg/L
f = conversion factor for converting BOD5 to ultimate BODL
PX I waste activated sludge produced (see Equation 5-43)
The volume of air to be supplied must take into account the percent of air
that
is oxygen and the transfer efficiency of the dissolution of oxygen into the
waste2

M
,L ,
e
gt.
1
s*
W 816 [_
Example 542. Estimate the volume of air to be supplied (m3/d) forthe new
activated
sludge plant at Gatesville (Examples 57 and 5l())_ Assume that BOD; is
68 percent
ofthe ultimate BOD and that the oxygen transfer efticiency is ZS percent.

Solution. Using the data from Examples 5-7 and 5-ll


(O.l50 m3/s)(84.O g/m3 - ll.l g/ni5)(86,4OO s/d)(lO"'3 kg/g)
MU! 1 g __.t`~%`~..g -..._. 7-.. set- .E
- l.42(377.9 kg/d of \/SS)
1 l,389.4 f 536.6 I 852.8 kg/d of oxygen
From Table A~5 in Appendix A, air has a density of l.l85 kg/ni at standard
conditions. By mass, air contains about 23.2 percent oxygen. At 100
percent transfer
efficiency, the volume of air required is
852.8 kv/d
Z3 Z 3' A 3
(~ l85 kg/m3)(0_232) lOl 99 or ,l0()ni /d
At 8 percent transfer efnciency
3,101.99 m3/d
0.08 = 38,774.9 or 38,000 mi/d
Process design considerations. The SRT (i.e., 66) selected for design is a
function ofthe degree of treatment required. A high SRT (or older sludge age)
results
in a higher quantity of solids being carried in the system and a higher
degree of
treatment being obtained. A long SRT also results in the production of less
waste
sludge.
SRT values for design of carbonaceous BOD5 removal as a function of the
minimum temperature at which the reactor basin will be operated are
depicted in
Figure 5-25. The SRT values given are those for normal domestic
wastewater. lt is
expected that the soluble BOD5 in the efiuent from the aeration system
will be 4 to

8 mg/L.
If industrial wastes are discharged tothe municipal system, several
additional
concerns must be addressed. Municipal wastewater generally contains
sullicient nif
trogen and phosphorus to support biological growth. The pmsoiitzo of
large volumes
of industrial wastewater that is deficient in either of these nutrients will
result in
poor removal efficiencies. Addition of supplemental nitrogen and
nliosnhorns may
uired. The ratio of nitrogen to BUD; should be l:32. The ratio of phosphorus
D5 should be l:l50.
Xlthough toxic metals and organics may be at low enough levels that they
do
erfere with the operation ofthe plant, two other untoward effects may
result if
"e not excluded in a pretreatment program. Volatile organics may be
stripped
nlution into the atmosphere in the aeration tank. Thus, the WWTP may
become
:e of air pollution. The toxic metals may precipitate into the waste sludges.
Jtherwise nonhazardous sludges may be rendered hazardous.
)il and grease that pass through the primary treatment system will form
grease
n the surface of the aeration tank, The microorganisms cannot degrade
this
il because it is not in the water where they can physically come in contact
Special consideration should be given to the surface skimming equipment
in
Jndary clariher to handle the grease balls.
lary clarifier design considerations. Although the secondary settling tank
5-26) is an integral part of both the trickling filter and the activated sludge

, environmental engineers have focused particular attention on the


secondary
' used after the activated sludge process. A secondary clarifier is important
s ofthe high solids loading and fuffy nature ofthe activated sludge
biological
so. it is highly desirable that sludge recycle be well thickened.
:condary settling tanks for activated sludge are generally characterized as
Type Ill settling. Some authors would argue that Types l and ll also occur.
ie following guidance has been excerpted from the Joint Task Force of the
ollution Control Federation and the American Society of Civil Engineers.
T
Return Sludge Line System
FIGURE 5-Z6
Rendering and cross~sectional diagram of secondary settling tank
tfouitesy of FMC Corporation.)
The design factors discussed here are the result of the experiences of
investigators,
plant superintendents, and equipment manufacturers. The criteria
primarily apply
to circular (or square) center-fed basins, which comprise the majority of
activated
sludge secondary settling units designed in the last 25 years.
An overfiow rate between 20 and 34 m/d for the average How in a
conventional
process can be expected to result in good separation of liquid and SS. The
design
engineer also must check the peak hydraulic rates that will be imposed on
the settling
basin.
Suggested secondary settling tank side water depths (SWD) and solids
loading
rates are shown in Table 5~ l2 and Figure 527, respectively.

The GLUMRB has set maximum recommended weir loadings for secondary
settling basins at 125 to 250 nr;/d per in of weir length (in-l/d - rn). This
criterion is
based on effluent quality of operating units. lt appears that the settling
basin design
may have had much to do with this limitation. Also, IHOSI ofthe
observations apply
to rectangular settling basins.
One of the continuing difficulties with the design of secondary settling
tanks is
the prediction of effiuent suspended solids concentrations as a function of
common
design and operating parameters. Little theoretical work has been
conducted, and
empirical conelations have been less than satisfactorylg

Sludge problems. A bulking sludge is one that has poor settling


characteristics and
poor compactability There are two principai types of sludge bulking. The
hrst is
caused by the growth of tilamentous organisms, and the second is caused
by wit
ter trapped in the bacterial foc, thus reducing the density of thc
aggloinerate and
resulting in poor settling.
Filamentous bacteria have been blamed for much ot the bulking problem
in
activated sludge. Although hlamentous organisms are effective in
removing organic
matter, they have poor liocforming and settling Cl\2\I`L\C[Cl`lSllCS.
Bulking may also he
cttused by a number of other factors, including long, slow-moving
collectiowsystein

transport; low available ammonia nitrogen when the organic load is high;
low pH,
which could favor acid-t`ztvoring fungi; and the lack of m;1cronutrients_
which stint
ulates predomination ofthe tilnmentous ztctinomycetes over the normal
fioc-i`ornting
bacteria. The luck of nitrogen also invors slime-producing bncterin, which
httvc tt
lo\v specific gravity, even though they are not iilamentous. The
multicellulnr tungi cannot compete with thc liztctcriii normally but can contpctc under
Sl)Ct,`lllt`
tmvironmental conditions, such us low pll, low nitrogen, low oxygen, and
ltigxh
bohydrates. As the pH decreases below 6.0, the fungi are less affected
than
bacteria and tend to predominate. As the nitrogen concentrations drop
below 3
'DS I N ratio of 20: l , the fungi, which have a lower protein level than the
bacteria,
able to produce normal protoplasm, while the bacteria produce nitrogendehciem
toplasm_ `
g A sludge that iloats to the surface after apparently good settling is called
3
f'18_Sll1dge. Rising sludge results from denitnfication, that is, reduction of
nitrates
i nitritesto nitrogen gas in the sludge blanket (layer). Much of this gas
remains
pped in the sludge blanket, causing globs of sludge to rise to the surface
and Heat
:r the weirs into the receiving stream.
Rising-sludge problems can be overcome by increasing the rate of retum
dge l:l0W (Qf), by increasing the speed of the sludge-collecting
mechanism, by

zreasing the mean cell residence time, and, if possible, by decreasing the
fow
m the aeration tank to the offending tank.
ridation Ponds
3aU1`1llt ponds have been used to treat wastewater for many years,
particularly as
tstewater treatment systems for small communities. Many terms have
been used
describe the different types of systems employed in wastewater
treatment. For
3U\Pl, in recent years, oxidation pond has been widely used as a
collective term
'all types of ponds. Uriginally, an oxidation pond was a pond that received
partially
ated wastewater, whereas a pond that received raw wastewater was
known as a
it-'age lagoon Waszc smbiligarion pond has been used as an all-inclusive
term that
'ers to a pond or lagoon used to treat organic waste by biological and
physical
Jcesses. These processes would commonly be referred to as selfpurification if
:y took place in a stream_ To avoid confusion, the classification to be
employed in
,s discussion will be as follows;3
Aelobic ponds: Shallow ponds, less than l m in depth, where dissolved oxygen lS maintained throughout the entire depth, mainly by the action of
photosynthesis.
Facultative ponds: Ponds l to 2.5 m deep, which have an anaerobic lower
zone,
a facultative middle zone, and an aerobic upper zone maintained by
photosynthesis and surface reaeration_

Arraerobic ponds: Deep ponds that receive high organic loadings such that
anaerobic conditions prevail throughout the entire pond depth.

_ Maturalion or tertiary ponds: Ponds used for polishing effluents from


othtzr brological processes. Dissolved oxygen is fumished through pliotosynthcsis
and
surface reaeration. This type of pond is also known as a polls/1in_r; [mm/_
5_ Aerated lagoons: Ponds oxygenated through the action of surface or
diffused air
aeration.
;\erobic ponds. The aerobic pond is a shallow pond in which light
penetrates to
ihe bottom, thereby maintaining active algal photosynthesis throughout
the entire
System. During the daylight hours, large amounts of oxygen are supplied
by the
'photosynthesis process; during the hours of darkness, wind mixing of the
shallow
water mass generally provides a high degree of surface reaeration.
Stabilization of
the organic material entering an aerobic pond is accomplished mainly
through the
'action of aerobic bacteria.
iAnaerobic ponds. The magnitude of the organic loading and the
availability of dissolved oxygen determine whether the biological activity in atreatment
pond will occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A pond may be maintained in
an anaerobic
condition by applying a BOD5 load that exceeds oxygen production from
photosyn-

thesis. Photosynthesis can be reduced by decreasing the surface area and


increasing
the depth. Anaerobic ponds become turbid from the presence of reduced
metal sultides. This restricts light penetration to the point that algal growth
becomes negligible. Anaerobic treatment of complex wastes involves two distinct stages.
ln the first
stage (known as acid fermentation), complex organic materials are broken
down
mainly to short-chain acids and alcohols. In the second stage (known as
methane
fermentation), these materials are converted to gases, primarily methane
and carbon
dioxide. The proper design of anaerobic ponds must result in
environmental conditions favorable to methane fermentation.
Anaerobic ponds are used primarily as a pretreatment process and are
particularly suited for the treatment of high-temperature, high-strength
wastewaters.
However, they have been used successfully to treat municipal
wastewaters as
well.
-Facultative ponds. Of the five general classes of lagoons and ponds,
facultative
ponds are by far the most common type selected as wastewater treatment
systems
for small communities. Approximately 25 percent of the municipal
wastewater treatment plants in this country are ponds and about 90 percent of these ponds
are located
in communities of 5,000 people or fewer. Facultative ponds are popular for
such

treatment situations because long retention times facilitate the


management of large
fuctuations in wastewater fow and strength with no significant effect on
eftiuent
quality Also capital, operating, and maintenance costs are less than those
of other
biological systems that provide equivalent treatment.
A schematic representation of a facultative pond operation is given in Figure 5-28. Raw wastewater enters at the center of the pond. Suspended
solids
contained in the wastewater settle to the pond bottom, where an
anaerobic layer
develops. l\/licroorganisms occupying this region do not require molecular
oxygen
as an electron acceptor in energy metabolism, but rather use some other
chemical species. Both acid fermentation and methane fermentation occur in
the bottom
E S-28
iatic diagram of facultative pond relationships.
The facultative zone exists just above the anaerobic zone. This means that
Iiolecular oxygen will not be available in the region at all times. Generally,
the zone
.s aerobic during the daylight hours and anaerobic during the hours of
darkness.
Above the facultative zone, there exists an aerobic zone that has
molecular
Jxygen present at all times. The oxygen is supplied from two sources. A
limited
amount is supplied from diffusion across the pond surface. However, the
majority is
;upplied through the action of algal photosynthesis.
Two rules of thumb commonly used in Michigan in evaluating the design of
facultative lagoons are as follows:

l. The BOD5 loading rate should not exceed 22 kg/ha - d on the smallest
lagoon
cell. ~
Z. The detention time in the lagoon (considering the total volume of all
cells but
excluding the bottom 0.6 min the volume calculation) should be six
months.
The first criterion is to prevent the pond from becoming anaerobic. The
second
:riterion is to provide enough storage to hold the wastewater during winter
months
when the receiving stream may be frozen or during the summer when the
fow in the
;tream might be too low to absorb even a small amount of BOD.

Solution. To compute the BUD loading, we must nrst compute the mass of
BOD;
entering each day.
BOD5 mass 1 (122 mg/L)(l,9O0 m3)(l,0OO L/m3)(l >< 10"6 mg/kg) =
231.8 kg/d
Then, we must convert the area into hectares. Using only one cell,
4 Area = (l15,000 mZ)(l >< 10 ha/m2)
= 11.5 ha each
Now we can compute the loading.
` 231.8 kv/d
BOD; loading 1 ~~i3ff;~ = 20.2 kg/ha - d
This loading rate is acceptable.
The detention time is simply the working volume between the minimum
and
maximum operating levels divided by the average daily fow.
D mmm I ti ls (ll5,()()O m3)(3 lagoons)(l.5 4 0,6 ni)

e 1 I1 1 -~_i~l---_-\--Al,9UO IH]/d
LT 165 .4 days
This is less than the desired 180 days,
We have ignored the slope ofthe lagoon walls in this calculation, For large
lagoons, this is probably acceptable. ln small lagoons, the slope should be
considered.
Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCS)
The RBC process consists of a series of closely spaced discs (3 to 3.5 m in
diameter) mounted on a horizontal shaft and rotated, while about one-half of
their surface
area is immersed in wastewater (Figure 5 -29). The discs are typically
constructed of
lightweight plastic. The speed of rotation ofthe discs is adjustable.
When the process is placed in operation, the microbes i11 the wastewater
begin
to adhere to the rotating surfaces and grow there until the entire surface
area of the
discs is covered with a 1- to 3-mm layer of biological slime. As the discs
rotate, they
carry a film of wastewater into the air; this wastewater trickles down the
surface of
the discs, absorbing oxygen. As the discs complete their rotation, the film
of water
mixes with the reservoir of wastewater, adding to the oxygen in the
reservoir and
mixing the treated and partially treated wastewater. As the attached
microbes pass
through the reservoir, they absorb other organics for breakdown. The
excess growth
of microbes is sheared from the discs as they move through the reservoir.
These

dislodged organisms are kept in suspension by the moving discs. Thus, the
discs
serve several purposes:
1. They provide media forthe buildup of attached inicrohial growth.
2. They bring the growth into contact with the Wtlstcwztlttti

The attached growths are similar in concept to a trickling filter, except the
nicrobes are passed through the wastewater rather than the wastewater
passing over
he microbes, Some of the advantages of both the trickling filter and
activated sludge
>rocesses are realized.
As the treated wastewater fows from the reservoir below the discs, it
carries
he suspended growths out to a downstream settling basin for removal. The
process
:an achieve secondary effluent quality or better. By placing several sets of
discs in
;eries, it is possible to achieve even higher degrees of treatment, including
biological V
:onversion of ammonia to nitrates. I
Wi
DISINEECTION
Ei iixiie last treatment step in a secondary plant is the addition of a
disinfectant to the
3 -gated Wastewater. The addition of chlorine gas or some other form of
chlorine is
rocess most commonly used for wastewater disinfection in the United
States
5p
ffijlorine is injected into the wastewater by automated feeding systems.
Wastewater

fows into a basin, where it is held for about 15 minutes to allow the
chlorine to
with the pathogens.
There is concern that wastewater disinfection ma do more harm than
Good.
'ly U_S_ Environmental Protection Agency rules calling for disinfection to
achieve
fecal coliforrns er 100 mL of wastewater have been modified to a re
uirenient
fdisinfection onl during the summer season when eo le ma come into
contact
yUPPy
contaminated water. There were three reasons for this change. The first
was that
use of chlorine and, perhaps, ozone causes the formation of organic
compounds
are carcinogenic. The second was the findin that the disinfection rocess
was
effective in killing the predators to cysts and viruses than it was in killing
the
%f52lf10gHS themselves_ The net result was that the pathogens*
survived longer in the
ii l v' nment because there were fewer predators The third reason was
that
f-it . =
Qpatura en iro
is toxic to nsh_
259 ADVANCED WASTEWATER
Ellthough secondary treatment processes, when coupled with disinfection,
inay reiinove over 85 percent of the BOD and suspended solids and nearly all
pathogens,
*only minor removal of some pollutants, such as nitrogen, phosphorus,
soluble COD,

isand heavy metals, is achieved. In some circumstances, these pollutants


may be of
concern. In these cases, processes capable of removing pollutants not
adefguately removed by secondary treatment are used in what is called
tertiary wastetreatment, or advanced wastewater treatment (AWT). The following
sections
available AWT processes. In addition to solving tough pollution problems,
processes improve the effluent quality to the point that it is adequate for
many
feuse purposes, and may convert what was originally a wastewater into a
valuable
tgresource too good to throw away.
,
ew ,ew : .~
/5_1 , W
wife

?Filtration
__Secondary treatment processes, such as the activated-sludge process,
are highly etfiCient for removal of biodegradable colloidal and soluble organics.
However, the
efiuent contains a much higher BOD5 than one would expect from
theory.
typical BOD is approximately 20 to 50 mgfL. This is principally because
the
M7

econdary clarifers are not perfectly efficient at settling out the


microorganisms from

he biological treatment processes. These organisms contribute both to the


suspended
Lolids and to the BOD5 because the process of biological decay of dead
cells exerts
in oxygen demand.
By using a filtration process similar to that used in water treatment plants,
it is
iossible to remove the residual suspended solids, including the unsettled
microorganisms. Removing the microorganisms also reduces the residual BOD5.
Convenional sand filters identical to those used in water treatment can 'be used,
but they
iften clog quickly, thus requiring frequent backvvashing. To lengthen filter
runs and
'educe backwashing, it is desirable to have the larger Glter grain sizes at
the top
if the filter. This arrangement allows some of the larger particles of
biological fioc
0 be trapped at the surface without plugging the hlter. Multimedia filters
accom>lish this by using low-density coal for the large grain sizes, mediumdensity sand
'or intermediate sizes, and high-density garnet for the smallest size hlter
grains.
fhus, during backwashing, the greater density offsets the smaller diameter
so that
he coal remains on top, the sand remains in the middle, and the garnet
remains on the
iottom.
Typically, plain filtration can reduce activated sludge effluent suspended
solids
'rom 25 to 10 mg/L_ Plain nltration is not as effective on trickling filter
effluents

>ecause trickling filter effluents contain more dispersed growth. However,


the use
>f coagulation and sedimentation followed by filtration can yield
suspended solids
:oncentrations that are virtually zero. Typically, filtration can achieve 80
percent
uspended solids reduction for activated sludge effluent and 70 percent
reduction
or triclding filter effluent.
farbon Adsorption
Even after secondary treatment, coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration,
soluble
'rganic materials that are resistant to biological breakdown will persist in
the effiuVnt. The persistent materials are often referred to as refractory organics.
Refractory
rganics can be detected in the effiuent as soluble COD. Secondary
effluent COD
'alues are often 30 to 60 mg/L.
The most practical available method for removing refractory organics is by
rdsorbing them on activated carbon. Adsorption is the accumulation of
materials
,t an interface. The interface, in the case of wastewater and activated
carbon, is
he liquid/solid boundary layer. Organic materials accumulate at the
interface beause of physical binding of the molecules to the solid surface. Carbon is
activated
y heating in the absence of oxygen. The activation process results in the
forma~
lon of many pores within each carbon particle. Since adsorption is a
surface pheomenon, the greater the surface area of the carbon, the greater its
capacity to hold

rganic material. The vast areas of the walls within these pores account for
most
of the total surface area of the carbon, which makes it so effective in
removing
organics.
After the adsorption capacity of the carbon has been exhausted, it can be
regtored by heating it in a fumace at a temperature sufhciently high to drive
off the
adsorbed organics. Keeping oxygen at very low levels in the furnace
prevents car~
bon from burning. The organics are passed through an afterbumer to
prevent air
pollution. In small plants where the cost of an on~site regeneration
furnace can~
not be justihed, the spent carbon is shipped to a central regeneration
facility for
processing,
Phosphorus Removal
All the polyphosphates (molecularly dehydrated phosphates) gradually
hydrolyze in
aqueous solution and revert to the ortho form (POff) from which they were
derived.
Phosphorus is typically found as mono-hydrogen phosphate (HPO') in
wastewater.
The removal of phosphorus to prevent or reduce eutrophication is typically
accomplished by chemical precipitation using one of three compounds.
The precipitation reactions for each are shown below.
Using ferric chloride:
Feel; + Hi>or : FePOil + ii* + 3ci <546>
Using alum:
Al;(SC).i)3 + 2HPOf 1 2AlPO4l + ZH* + 3SO' (547)

Using lime:
5Ca(OH);`+ 3HPOff 2 Ca5(P()4)3OHt + 3H;O + 6OH' (5-48)
You should note that ferric chloride and alum reduce the pH while lime
increases
it. The effective range of pH for alum and ferric chloride is between 5.5
and 7.0. If
there is not enough naturally occurring alkalinity to buffer the system to
this range,
then lime must be added to counteract the formation of H+.
The precipitation of phosphorus requires a reaction basinand a settling
tank
to remove the precipitate. When ferric chloride and alum are used, the
chemicals
may be added directly to the aeration tank in the activated sludge system.
Thus, the
aeration tank serves as a reaction basin. The precipitate is then removed
in the secondary clarifier. This is not possible with lime since the high pl-I required to
form
the precipitate is detrimental to the activated sludge organisms. In some
wastewater
treatment plants, the FeCl3 (or alum) is added before the wastewater
enters the primary sedimentation tank. This improves the efficiency of the primary tank,
but may
deprive the biological processes of needed nutrients.
Solution. From Equation 546, we see that one mole of ferric chloride is
required fgf
each mole of phosphorus to be removed. The pertinent gram molecular
weights are 35
follows:
FeCl3 = 162,21 g
P 2 30.97 g

With a PO4-P of4.00 mg/L, the theoretical amount of ferric chloride would
be
` 62.21
4.00 >< ; 1 20.95 or2l_0mg/L
30.97
Because of side reactions, solubility product limitations. and day-to~day
variations,
the actual amount of chemical to be added must be determined by jar
tests on the
wastewater. You can expect that the actual ferric chloride dose will he 1_5
to 3 times
the theoretically calculated amount. Likewise, the actual alum dose will be
1.25 to 2.5
times the theoretical amount.
Nitrogen Control
Nitrogen in any soluble form (NH3, NHI, NOQ, and NOQ. but not N; gas) is
a nu~
trient and may need to be removed from wastewater to help control algal
growth in
the receiving body. In addition, nitrogen in the form of ammonia exerts an
oxygen
demand and can be toxic to Fish. Removal of nitrogen can be
accomplished either biologically or chemically. The biological process is called
nifrzjication/dezzizrgdcariort
The chemical process is called ammonia stripping.
Nitrification/denitrification. The natural nitrification process can be forced
to
occur in the activated-sludge system by maintaining a cell detention time
(HC) of
I5 days in moderate climates and over 20 days in cold climates. The
nitrification
step is expressed in chemical terms as follows:
NH; + 202 i NO + H20 + ZHT (5-49)

Of course, bacteria must be present to cause the reaction to occur, This


step satisfies
the oxygen demand ofthe ammonium ion. If the nitrogen level is not of
concern
for the receiving body, the wastewater can be discharged after settling. If
nitrogen
is of concern, the nitrification step must be followed by anoxic
denitrihcation by
bacteria: '
2NO + organic matter -+ N3 + CO3 + H30 (5-50)
As indicated by the chemical reaction, organic matter is required for
denitrilication.
Organic matter serves as an energy source for the bacteria. The organic
matter may
be obtained from within or outside the cell. In multistage nitrogenremoval
systems,
because the concentration of BOD; inthe fow to the denitrihcation process
is usually
quite low, a supplemental organic carbon source is required for rapid
denitrification
(BGD5 concentration is low because the wastewater previously has underg
bonaceous BOD removal and the nitritication process.) The organic matter
either raw, settled sewage or a synthetic material such as methanol
(CH3Ol
settled sewage may adversely affect the effluent quality by increasing the
B4
ammonia content.
Ammonia stripping. Nitrogen in the form of ammonia can be removed ch
from water by raising the pH to convert the ammonium ion into ammonia,
w
then be stripped from the water by passing large quantities of air through
tl
The process has no effect on nitrate, so the activated sludge process
must

ated at a short cell-detention time to prevent tiitriticntion The ammonia


stri;
action is
NH; + one 1 NH; + iilo
The hydroxide is usually supplied by adding lime. The lime also reacts wit
the air and water to form a calcium carbonate scale. which IUUSI be remo'
odically. Low temperatures cause problems with icing and reduced strippin
The reduced stripping ability is caused by the increased solubility of am
cold water.
5-10 LAND TREATMENT
This discussion on land treatment follows two EPA publications; Envin
Control Alternatives: Municipal l/Wzstewater and Land Treatment of Af
Wastewater Ejyfnents, Design Factors 1.3
An alternative to the previously discussed AWT processes for produci
tremely high-quality effluent is offered by an approach called land treatmt
treatment is the application of effluents, usually following secondary treat
the land by one of the several available conventional irrigation methods.
proach uses wastewater, and often the nutrients it contains, as a resource
ra
considering it as a disposal problem. Treatment is provided by natural pro
the effluent moves through the natural filter provided by soil and plants. P
wastewater is lost by evapotranspiration, while the remainder returns to tl
logic cycle through overland How or the groundwater system, Most of tht
water eventually returns, directly or indirectly, to the surface water systerr
Land treatment of wastewaters can provide moisture and nutrients i
for crop growth, In semiarid areas, insufficient moisture for peak crop gr
limited water supplies make this water especially valuable. The primary
(nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are reduced only slightly in con
secondary treatment processes, so that most of these elements are still t

4.
by losses through soil erosion may be replaced by the application of
wastewater.
Land application is the oldest method used for treatment and disposal of
wastes;
Cities have used this method for more than 400 years. Several major
cities, including
Berlin, Melbourne, and Paris, have used sewage farms for at least 60
years for
waste treatment and disposal. Approximately 600 communities in the
United States
reuse municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent in surface irrigation.
Land treatment systems use one of the three basic approaches:
1. Slow rate
2. Overland Flow
3. Rapid infiltration
Each method, shown schematically in Figure 5-30, can produce renovated
water of different quality, can be adapted to different site conditions, and can
satisfy
different overall objectives.
Slow Rate
Irrigation, the predominant land application method in use today, involves
the
application of effluent to the land for treatment and for meeting the
growth needs
of plants. The applied effluent is treated by physical, chemical, and
biological
means as it seeps into the soil. Efduent can be applied to crops or
vegetation
(including forestland) either by sprinkling or by surface techniques, for
purposes
such as:

1. Avoidance of surface discharge of nutrients


2. Economic return from use of water and nutrients to produce marketable
crops
3. Water conservation by exchange when lawns, parks, or golf courses are
irrigated
4. Preservation and enlargement of greenbelts and open space
Where water for irrigation is valuable, crops can be irrigated at
consumptive
use rates (3.5 to l0 mm/d, depending on the crop), and the economic
return from the
sale of the crop can be balanced against the increased cost of the land
and distribution
system. On the other hand, where water for irrigation is of little value,
hydraulic
loadings can be maximized (provided that renovated water quality criteria
are met),
thereby minimizing system costs. Under high-rate irrigation (10 to l5
mm/d), watertolerant grasses with high nutrient uptake become the crop of choice.
How is essentially a biologica trea me p
ver the upper reaches of sloped terraces and allowed to fow across the v
g_
rface to runoff collection ditches. Renovation is accomplished by physical
, and biological means as the wastewater fows in a thin sheet down the
l t nt rocess in which wastewater is
/ impervious slope. _ V
l rid How can be used as a secondary treatment process where dischafg
er a
lied effluent low in BOD is acceptable or as an advanced wastewater treat;
cess. The latter objective will allow higher rates of application (l8 mm/dbf
d' <1 on the degree of advanced wastewater treatment required. Whgre
epen ing g

2 discharge is prohibited, runoff can be recycled or applied to the land in


1 or inhltration-percolation systems.
[nfiltration _
'ation-percolation systems, effluent is applied to the soil at higher rates by
ig in basins or by sprinkling. Treatment occurs as the water passes through
matrix. System objectives can include:
if Q

indwater recharge
d hd wal or the use of underdrains for {_}
,ral treatment followed by pumpe wit ra
very
iral treatment where re
recharges a surface watercourse
novated water moves vertically and laterally in the soil
'here groundwater quality is being degraded by salinity intrusion,
groundwa` ` ' = ` ' d te
arue can reverse the hydraulic gradient and protect the existing groun wa
r. .ff
D
existing groundwater quality is not compatible with expected renovated
qual/here existing water rights control the discharge location, a return of
renovated'
' ' d ` or
3 surface water can be designed, using pumped withdrawal, under rains,
drainage. At Phoenix, Arizona, for example, the native groundwater quality
b ' hdrawn b umping, with discharge into

and the renovated water is to e wit y p


;ation canal. _
SLUDGE TREATMENT
process of purifying the wastewater, another problem is created; sludge.
The
the degree of wastewater treatment, the larger the residue of sludge that
must
`l
dl d. The exce tions to this rule are where land applications or polishing aCP
are used. Satisfactory treatment and disposal of the sludge can be the
single
omplex and costly operation in a municip
al \VLlS[C\VZ1{Cl` [I`C2\UI1Cll[ SySTl'l\.36
ri

ff Sludge is made of materials settled from the raw Wastewztter and of


solids gen
grated in the wastewater treatment processes.
The quantities of sludge involved are significant. lior primary treatment,
they
iatay be 0.25 to 0.35 percent by volume of wastewater treated. When
treatment is
pgfaded to activated sludge, the quantities increase to l.5 to 2.0 percent
of this
`3}0lurne of water treated. Use of chemicals for phosphorus removal can
add another
L0 percent. The sludges Withdrawn from the treatment processes are still
largely
Svater, as much as 97 percent. Sludge treatment processes, then, are
concerned with
fgparating the large amounts of water from the solid residues. The
separated water

returned to the Wastewater plant for processing.


The basic processes for sludge treatment are as follows;
\
1, Thicr/ceriing: Separating as much water as possible by gravity or
llotation.
rf _ Stabilization: Converting the organic solids to more refractory (inert)
forms so

that they can be handled or used as soil conditioners without causing a


nuisance
or health hazard through processes referred to as "digestion" (These are
biochem'tif ical oxidation processes.)
bb
Conditioning: Treating the sludge with chemicals or heat so that the
water can
be readily separated.
Dewatering: Separating water by subjecting the sludge to vacuum,
pressure, or
F
drying.
Reduction: Converting the solids to a stable form by wet oxidation or
incineration.
(These are chemical oxidation processes; they decrease the volume of
sludge,
hence the term reduction.)
Although a large number of alternative combinations of equipment and
processes are used for treating sludges, the basic alternatives are fairly
limited. The
ultimate depository of the materials contained in the sludge must either
be land, air,

or water. Current policies discourage practices such as ocean dumping of


sludge.
Air pollution considerations necessitate air pollution control facilities as
part of the
sludge incineration process.
The following sections discuss the processes commonly used. The basic alternative routes by which these processes may be employed are shown in
Figure 5-31.
Sources and Characteristics of Various Sludges
Before we begin the discussion ofthe various treatment processes, it is
worthwhile
to recapitulate the sources and nature of the sludges that must be treated.
i
Grit. The sand, broken glass, nuts, bolts, and other dense material that is
collected
in the giit chamber is not true sludge in the sense that it is not fuid.
However, it
still requires disposal. Because grit can be drained of water easily and is
relatively
stable in terms of biological activity (it is not biodegradable), it is generally
trucked
directlv to a landfill without further treatment.
mary or raw sludge. Sludge from the bottom ofthe primary clarihers
contains
11 3 to 8 percent solids (l percent solids 2 l g solids/l00 mL sludge
volume),
ich is approximately 70 percent organic. This sludge rapidly becomes
anaerobic
l is highly odiferous.
zondary sludge. This sludge consists of microorganisms and inert
materials that
e been wasted from the secondary treatment processes. Thus, the solids
are about

percent organic. When the supply of air is removed, this sludge also
becomes
erobic, creating noxious conditions if not treated before disposal. The
solids con. depends on the source. Wasted activated sludge is typically 0.5 to 2
percent
ds, while trickling filter sludge contains 2 to 5 percent solids. In some
cases,
mdary sludges contain large quantities of chemical precipitates because
the aern tank is used as the reaction basin for the addition of chemicals to
remove phosrus.
tiary sludges. The characteristics of sludges from the tertiary treatment
pro;es depend on the nature of the process. For example, phosphorus
removal res in a chemical sludge that is difhcult to handle andtreat. When
phosphorus
oval occurs in the activated sludge process, the chemical sludge is
combined
1 the biological sludge, making the latter more difhcult to treat. Nitrogen
removal
lenitrification results in a biological sludge with properties very similar to
those
'aste activated sludge.
ids Computations
ime-mass relationships. Since most WWTP sludges are primarily water, the
me ofthe sludge is primarily a function ofthe water content. Thus, if we
know
aercent solids and the specific gravity ofthe solids we can estimatethe
volume
ie sludge. The solid matter in wastewater sludge is composed of hxed
(mineral)

50lidS and volatile (organic) solids. The volume of the total mass of solids
may be
'expressed as
M_
Vsolids : _L (5-32)
SSP
where M, = mass of solids, kg
S, = specitic gravity of solids
p 2 density of water 1 1,000 kg/m3
Since the total mass is composed of fixed and volatile fractions, Equation
5-52 may
be rewritten as:
A/Ii = & + 3 (5-53)
Sm Sfp Sup
where Mf = mass of lixed solids, kg
MU I mass of volatile solids, kg
Sf = specific gravity of fixed solids
SU = specific gravity of volatile solids
The specihc gravity of tltc solids may be tzxptessetl in terms oi the specific
gravities
ofthe fixed and solid l`i';ittio|is by solving liqtizition 5 5) for 51,3
0 s -su
f (5~54)
st : M, _+~_V Mfgv -ir M5Sf`
The specific gravity of sludge (SKI) may be estimated by recognizing that,
in a
similar fashion to the fractions of solids, the sludge is composed of solids
and water

so that
&L Z .i. (555)
Sup S;/I Awp
where M51 = mass of sludge, kg
MW = mass of water, kg
SS, 2 specific gravity of sludge
SW = specific gravity of water ~
lt is customary to report solids concentrations as percent solids, where the
fraction
of solids (P,) is computed as
M_
Pt 2 W; -56
t Mot. + Mt.. (5 )
and the fraction of water (PW) is computed as
MW
PW I; M__,I+..M._
8H
Thus, it is more convenient to solve Equation 54-52 in terms of percent
solids. lf we
divide each term in Equation 555 by (M, 9 MW) and recognize that M_,, 1
M5 +11/IW,
;Mass balance. Barring black holes" and the uae, we an unueisuinu into
me pnysQical, chemical, and biological processes of wastewater treatment neither
create nor
ii destroy matter. This fact allows us to employ Equation l-3 in anew
context.

7 Z Min 'T Mont


df

where Min and /tim refer to the mass of dissolved chemicals. solids. or
gas entering
and leaving a process or group of processes. lt` we assume steady-state
conditions,
then dS/dt = O and Equation 5-61 reduces to the following:
Min Z Moot (5'6/2)
Several interrelated processes are examined together in the Flowsheet
shown
5* in Figure 5-32. When labeled with mass fows, the iiowsheet may be
called a quantitative fow diagram (QFD). The solids mass balance can be an important
aid to a
designer in predicting long-term average solids loadings on sludge
treatment com` ponents. This allows the designer to establish such factors as operating
costs and
quantities of sludge for ultimate disposal. However, it does not establish
the solids
loadiri that each e ui ment item must be ca able of rocessin _ A articular
com8 Cl P P P g P
ponent should be sized to handle the XTIOSI rigorous loading conditions it
is expected
to encounter. This loading is usuall not determined b a l ing stead -state
modD Y Y PP Y D Y
` els because of storage and plant scheduling considerations. Thus, the
rate of solids
reaching any particular piece of equipment does not usually rise and fall in
direct
proportion to the rate of solids arriving at the plant headworl<s_
The mass balance calculation is carried out in a step-by-step procedure:
l.. Draw the fowsheet (as in Figure 5-32).

2. Identify all streams. For example, Stream A contains raw sewage solids
plus
chemical solids generated by dosing the sewage with chemicals. Let the
mass
fow rata of solids in Stream A be equal to A kg pci' day.

For each processing unit, identify the relationship of entering and leaving
streams
to one another in terms of mass. For example, for the primary
sedimentation tank,
let the ratio of solids in the tank underiiow (E) to entering solids (A + M) be
equal
to 115. 715 is actually an indicator of solids separation efficiency. The
general form
in which such relationships are expressed is:
mass of solids in stream i
1~=_..
7' mass of solids entering the unit
(5-63)
For example,
_Y P - _ - J
"P K + HW/ Y E
The processing units performance is specified when a value is assigned to
17,
Combine the mass balance relationships so as to reduce them to one
equation
describing a specific stream in terms of given or known quantities, or ones
which
can be calculated from a knowledge of the process behavior.

Example S-I7. Using Figure 532 and assuming that A, 115, 171, ny, Typ,
and 17 are
known or can be determined from a knowledge ol' water chemistry and an
understand

The example just worked was relatively simple. A more complex system
illustrated in Figure 533. Mass balance equations for this system are
summarized
in Table 544. For this llowsheet the following information HIUSI be
specified: i
A_
X_
175 770- TI/~ 77/\/ Tl/ei 231141 UT
770
$224
lntiuent solids
Effluent solids, that is, overall suspended/5%
solids removal must be specified
straightforward assumptions about the degreepfg
of solids removal, addition, or destruction
describes the net solids destruction reductioqiii;
or the net solids synthesis in the biologicalfff
system, and must be estimated from yield(
data. A positive 171; signines net solids def
1E`&

'ti "Q
aces
' 1-(ei
struction. A negative 170 signifies net

growth. ln this example, 8 percent of


solids entering the biological process are asf
sunied destroyed, that is, converted to gas or,
liquified
Note that alternative processing schemes can be evaluated simply by
nizinipu- 't 1
lating appropriate variables. For example:
Filtrtition can be eliminated by setting 17/Q to zero.
l`liicl<ening can be eliminated by setting 775 to zero.
Digestion can be eliminated by setting T); to Zero.
Dewatering can be eliminated by setting Up to Zero.
g wi

tQ!0p of the liquid Uiofarionl or are allowed to settle to the bottom (gravizy
I/If()/(Clif/ly).
a owsheet tor a tomplex WWTP (Source: U.S_ Environmental Protection
Agency, Irvce.'.
:gn Manual Sludge Treatment and Disposal.)
A system without primary sedimentation can be simulated by setting 175
equal
exactly zero since division by 175 produces indeterminate solutions when
eomputtng E
A set of different mass balance equations must be derived it fow paths
between
tocessnxg units are altered. For example, the equations ot`Tahle 5- l 4 do
not describe
perations in which the dilute stream from the thickener (Stream G) is
returned to
secondary reactor instead of the primary sedimentation tank.
Thiekening

Thickening is usually accomplished in one of two ways; the solids are


foated to the
F
#f
;_GURE 5-33
s' -
to approximately zero, for example, l >< l0'8. 175 cannotvbe set equal to
YA
Ti

FIGURE 5-34
5 Air notation thickener.
mechanism for further processing. The process typically increases the soli
tent of activated sludge from 0.541 percent to 3~6 percent. Flotation is
est
effective on activated sludge, which is difficult to thicken by gravity.
Gravity thickening. Gravity thickening is a simple and inexpensive proci
has been used widely on primary sludgcs for many years. lt is essentially
mentation process similar to that which occurs in all settling tanks. Sludg
into a tank that is very similar in appearance to the circular clariliers used
in 1
and secondary sedimentation (Figure 5-35); the solids are allowed to settle
to
tom where a heavy-duty mechanism scrapes them to a hopper from which
t
withdrawn for further processing. The type of sludge being thickened has a
rr
fect on performance. The best results are obtained with purely primary
slud
the proportion of activated sludge increases, the thickness of settled sludg
decreases. Purely primary sludges can be thickened from l~3 percent to

cent solids. The current trend is toward using gravity thickening for
primary
Ri-irlcve

FIGURE 5-34
5 Air notation thickener.
mechanism for further processing. The process typically increases the soli
tent of activated sludge from 0.541 percent to 3~6 percent. Flotation is
est
effective on activated sludge, which is difficult to thicken by gravity.
Gravity thickening. Gravity thickening is a simple and inexpensive proci
has been used widely on primary sludgcs for many years. lt is essentially
mentation process similar to that which occurs in all settling tanks. Sludg
into a tank that is very similar in appearance to the circular clariliers used
in 1
and secondary sedimentation (Figure 5-35); the solids are allowed to settle
to
tom where a heavy-duty mechanism scrapes them to a hopper from which
t
withdrawn for further processing. The type of sludge being thickened has a
rr
fect on performance. The best results are obtained with purely primary
slud
the proportion of activated sludge increases, the thickness of settled sludg
decreases. Purely primary sludges can be thickened from l~3 percent to
cent solids. The current trend is toward using gravity thickening for
primary
Ri-irlcve
and fotation thickening for activated sludges, and then blending the
thickened
sludges for further processing.

Dick has described a graphical procedure for sizing gravity thickencrs


using
a batch fux curve. Flux is the term used to describe the rate of settling of
solids. It
is defined as the mass of solids which pass through a horizontal unit area
per unit of
time (kg/d - m2). This may be expressed mathematically as follows:
/"5 1 (CHXU) (5 64)
I (C,)(zone settling velocity)
where F, = solids fux, kg/mg < d
Cx = suspended solids concentration, kg/nil
C,, = concentration of solids in underfow, that is, sludge withdrawal pipe,
kg/m3
U = underfow velocity, m/d
The sizing procedure begins with a batch settling curve such as that
shown in
Figure 5-36. Data from the batch settling curve are used to construct a
batch fux
curve (Figure 5-37). Knowing the desired underfow concentration, a line
through
the desired concentration and tangent to the batch fux curve is
constructed. The
extension of this line to the axis ofordinates yields the design fux. From
this fux
and the infow solids concentration, the surface area may be determined.
Example 5-18. A gravity thickener is to be designed to thicken the sludge
from the
primary tank described in Example 5- 16. The thickened sludge should
have an underfow solids concentration of 10.0 percent. Assume that the sludge yields a
batch settling
curve such as that shown in Figure 5~36.

Solution. First we must compute the solids fux for several arbitrarily
selected suspended solids concentrations.
SS, kg/nr' v, m/d F., kg/d ~ ntl SS, kg/nl v, m/d F,, kg/d - mz
100 0.125 12,5 20 5.30 106
80 0.175 14.0 34,0 340
60 0.30 18. 62.0 310
D0 0.44 22. 68.0 272
40 0.78 31. 76.0 228
T10 1,70 51. 33.0 166
R. 1, Dick, "'l`1iit'1\ening," .1/\~mir''_\ zu 114110/' Quality /lll]II'0\'Cl!
ll'Il[--P/1_\5f(,`[1] mu/ C/l'IlllL`l[ [m
'u_t,r's, E. F. Gloyna and W, W Fckenfizldcr, t-ds._ Austin, TX: University of
Texas Press. p. 358, 1970.
l`heorigin;|1 tlevelopincnt of this inethotl was by N. Yoshioka and others.
See Continuous Thickening
it Honiogenous lfocculated S1UI`l`1CS,(v/l(Illl(`z1/EIl_'ff1.'(I'ill`Q. 21,
Tokyo 1957 (in Japanese).
rincipal purposes of sludge stabilization are to break down the organic
solids
:mically so that they are more stable (less odorous and less putrescible)
and
iewaterable, and to reduce the mass of sludge. If the sludge is to be
dewa~
and burned, stabilization is not used. There are two basic stabilization pr0_
in use. One is carried out in closed tanks devoid of oxygen and is called
Qbic digestion, The other approach injects air into the sludge to
accomplish
?c digestion.
sic digestion. The aerobic digestion of biological sltxdges is nothing more
than
,nuation ofthe activated sludge process. When a culture of aerobic
heterotrophs

led in an environment containing a source of organic material, the


microorganernove and utilize most of this material. A fraction ofthe organic material
ed will be used forthe synthesis of new biomass. The remaining material
will
inneled into energy metabolism and oxidized to carbon dioxide, water, and
e inert material to provide energy for both synthesis and maintenance
(lifea
rt) functions. Once the external source of organic material is exhausted,
how
he microorganisms enter into endogenous respiration. where cellular
material
lized to satisfy the energy of maintenance (that is. energy for life~support
reients). If this condition is continued over an extended period of time, the
total
ty of biomass will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, that portion
remainll exist at such a low energy state that it can be considered biologically
stad suitable for disposal in the environment. This forms the basic principle of
c digestion.
aerobic digestion is accomplished by aerating the organic sludges in an
open
:sembling an activated sludge aeration tank. Like the activated sludge
aeration
he aerobic digestor must be followed by a settling tank unless the sludge
is
iisposed of on land in liquid form. Unlike the activated sludge process, the
it (supernatant) from the claritier is recycled back to the head end ofthe
plant.
i because the supernatant is high in suspended solids (lOO to 300 mg/L),
BOD5
) mg/L), TKN (to ZGO mg/L), and total P (to lOO mg/L).

3ecause the fraction of volatile matter is reduced, the specific gravity of


gested sludge solids will be higher than it was before digestion. Thus, the
settles to a more compact mass, and the clariher underllow concentration
: expected to reach 3 percent. Beyond this, its dewatering properties are
>
'obic digestion. The anaerobic treatment of complex wastes involves two
dis
iages. In the hrst stage, complex waste components. including fats,
proteins,
and polysaccharides, are hydrolyzed to their component subunits. This is
accorn~
plished by a heterogeneous group of facultative and anaerobic bacteria.
These bac
teria then subject the products of hydrolysis (triglycerides, fatty acids,
amino acids,
and sugars) to fermentation and other metabolic processes leading to the
formation
of simple organic compounds. These compounds are mainly short-chain
(volatile)
acids and alcohols. The first stage is commonly referred to as acid
fermentation. In
this stage, organic material is simply converted to organic acids, alcohols,
and new
bacterial cells, so that little stabilization of BOD or COD is realized. In the
second
stage, the end products of the first stage are converted to gases (mainly
methane and
carbon dioxide) by several different species of strictly anaerobic bacteria.
Thus, it
is here that true stabilization of the organic material occurs. This stage is
generally
referred to as methane fermentation. The two stages of anaerobic waste
treatment

are illustrated in Figure 5-38. You must understand that even though the
anaerobic
process is presented as being sequential in nature, both stages take place
sirnulta'
neously and synergistically. The primary acids produced during acid
fermentation
are propionic and acetic. The significance of these acids as precursors for
methane
formation is illustrated in Figure 5-38.

The bacteria responsible for acid fermentation are relatively tolerant to


changes
in pH and temperature and have a much higher rate of growth than the
bacteria
responsible for methane fermentation. As a result, methane fermentation
is generally
assumed to be the rate-controlling step in anaerobic waste treatment
processes.
Considering 35C as the optimum temperature for anaerobic waste
treatment,
Lawrence proposes that, in the range of 20 to 35C, the kinetics of
methane fermentation of long- and shortachain fatty acids will adequately describe the
overall kinetics
of anaerobic treatment. Thus, the kinetic equations we presented to
describe the
completely mixed activated sludge process are equally applicable to the
anaerobic
process.
There are essentially two types of anaerobic digestion processes used
today:
the standard-rate process and the high-rate process,
The standard-rate process does not employ sludge mixing, but rather the
di

gester contents are allowed to stratify into zones, as illustrated in Figure


539. Sludge
feeding and withdrawal are intermittent rather than continuous. The
digester is generally heated to increase the rate of fermentation and therefore decrease
the required
retention time. Retention time ranges between 30 and 60 days for heated
digestersi
The organic loading rate for a standardfate digester is between 0.48 and
1.6 kg total
volatile solids per m3 of digester volume per day.

The major disadvantage of the standardfrate process is the large tank voli
required because of long retention times, low loading rates, and thick
scumalz
formation. Only about one-third of the tank volume is utilized in the
digestion
cess. The remaining two~thirds of the tank volume contains the scum
layer, stabil
solids, and the supernatant. Because of this limitation, systems of this
type are ;
erally used only at treatment plants having a capacity of 0.04 m3/s or less.
The highrate system evolved as a result of continuing efforts to improve
standardrate unit. ln this process, two digesters operating in series
separate the fi
tions of fermentation and solids/liquid separation (see Figure 540). The
cont
of the hrst~stage, high-rate unit are thoroughly mixed and the sludge is
heate
increase the rate of fermentation. Because the contents are thoroughly
mixed, i
perature distribution is more uniform throughout the tank volume. Sludge
fee

and withdrawal are continuous or nearly so. The retention time required
for the i
stage unit is normally between l0 and l5 days. Organic loading rates vary
betx
l.6 and 8.0 kg total volatile solids per m3 of digester per day.
The primary functions of the second-stage digester are solids/liquid separ:
and residual gas extraction. First-stage digesters may be equipped with
fixed or i
ing covers. Second-stage digester covers are often of the foating type
(Figure 5
Second-stage units are generally not heated.
The tirstfstage digester of a high-rate system approximates a completely ir
reactor without solids recycle. Hence, the biological solids retention time
(SRT
the hydraulic retention time are equal for this system. As with the aerobic
diges
the most important operating parameters affecting VSS reduction are
solids retea
time and digestion temperature.
The BOD remaining at the end of digestion is still quite high. Likewise
suspended solids may be as high as l2,000 mg/L, while the TKN may be on
the 4
Sludge Conditioning
Chemical conditioning. Several methods of conditioning sludge to facilitate
1
geparation of the liquid and solids are available. One of the most
commonly ur
is the addition of coagulants such as ferric chloride, lime, or organic
polymers. A
from incinerated sludge has also found use as a conditioning agent. As
happens wl
coagulants are added to turbid water, chemical coagulants act to clump
the solids

gether so that they are more easily separated from the water. ln recent
years, orga
polymers have become increasingly popular for sludge conditioning.
Polymers
easy to handle, require little storage space, and are very effective. The
condition
chemicals are injected into the sludge just before the dewatering process
and
mixed with the sludge.
Heat treatment. Another conditioning approach is to heat the sludge at
high tt
peratures (175 to 230C) and pressures (1,000 to 2,000 kPa). Under these
cor
tions, much like those of a pressure cooker, water that is bound up in the
solid
released, improving the devvatering characteristics of the sludge. Heat
treatment
the advantage of producing a sludge that dewaters better than chemically
conditio
sludge. The process has the disadvantages of relatively complex operation
and mx
tenance and the creation of highly polluted cooking liquors that when
recycled to
treatment plant impose a significant added treatment burden.
Sludge Dewatering
Sludge drying beds. The most popular method of sludge dewatering in the
i
has been the use of sludge drying beds. These beds are especially popular
in sr
plants because of their simplicity of operation and maintenance. ln 1977,
two-th
of all United States Wastewater treatment plants utilized drying beds; onehalf o
the municipal sludge pioduced in the United States was dewatered by this
metl

Although the use of drying beds might be expected in the wanner, sunny
regi
they are also used in several large facilities in northern climates.
Operational procedures common to all types of drying beds involve the foll
ing steps:
l. Pump 0.20 to 0.30 m of stabilized liquid sludge onto the drying bed
surface.
2. Add chemical conditioners continuously, if conditioners are used, by
injec
into the sludge as it is pumped onto the bed.
3. When the bed is filled to the desired level, allow the sludge to dry to the
des
final solids concentration. (This concentration can vary from 18 to 60 pen
depending on several factors, including type of sludge, processing rate
nee
and degree of dryness required for lifting. Nominal drying times vary fror
to l5 d under favorable conditions, to 30 to 60 d under barely acceptable
ditions.)
4. Remove the dewatered sludge either mechanically or manually.
5. Repeat the cycle.
ludge landfill can be defined as the planned burial of wastewater solids,
including
rocessed sludge, screenings, grit, and ash, at a designated site. The solids
are placed
ito a prepared site or excavated trench and covered with a layer of soil.
The soil
over must be deeper than the depth of the plow zone (about 0.20 to 0.25
tn). For
ie most part, landlilling of screenings, grit, and ash is accomplished with
methods
milar to those used for sludge landfilling. I
Medicated Land Disposal (DLD)

>edicated land disposal means the application of heavy sludge loadings to


some
nite land area that has limited public access and has been set aside or
dedicated for
l time to the disposal of wastewater sludge. Dedicated land disposal does
not mean
i-place utilization. No crops may be grown. Dedicated sites typically
receive liquid
udges. While application of dewatered sludges is possible, it is not
common. In
ldition, disposal ofdewatered sludge in landfills is generally more costeffective.
'tilization
astewater solids may sometimes be used beneficially in ways other than
as a soil
itiient. Of the several methods worthy of note, composting and co-tiring
with mucipal solid waste are two which have received increasing amounts of
interest in
e last few years. The recovery of lime and the use of the sludge to form
activated
urbon have also been in practice to a lesser extent.
ludge Disposal Regulations
n Febmary l9, 1993, the EPA promulgated risk-based regulations that
govern the
e or disposal of sewage sludge. These regulations are codilied as 40 CFR
Part 503
td have become known as the SO3 Regulations." The regulations apply to
sewage
idge generated from the treatment of domestic sewage that is landapplied, placed
_ a surface disposal site, or incinerated in an incinerator that accepts only
sewage
idge. The regulations do not apply to sludge generated from treatment of
industrial

ocess wastes at an industrial facility, hazardous sewage sludge, sewage


sludge with
lychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations of 50 mg/L or greater, or
drinking
iter sludge.
Figure 543 summarizes the sludge quality requirements for use or
disposal.
ie regulation establishes two levels of sewage sludge quality with respect
to heavy:tal concentrations: ceiling concentration limits and pollution concentration
limits.
i be land-applied, bulk sewage sludge must meet the pollutant ceiling
concentration
nits and cumulative pollutant loading rates (CPLR) or the pollutant
concentration
nits (Table 5l7). Bulk sewage sludge applied to lawns and home gardens
must
:et the pollutant concentration limits. Sewage sludge sold or given away in
bags

Sand drying beds are the oldest, most commonly used type of drying
b@d_
Many design variations are possible, including the layout of drainage
piping, thik_
ness and type of gravel and sand layers, and construction materials. Sand
drying
beds for wastewater sludge are constructed in the same manner as water
treatment
plant sludge-drying beds. Current U.S. practice was discussed and
illustrated in
Section 3-9.
Sand drying beds can be built with or without provision for mechanical
sludge
removal, and with or without a roof. When the cost of labor is high, newly
constructed

beds are designed for mechanical sludge removal.


Vacuum filtration. A vacuum tilter consists of a cylindrical drum covered
with
a tiltering material or fabric, which rotates partially submerged in a vat of
condi~
tioned sludge (Figure 542). A vacuum is applied inside the drum to extract
Water,
leaving the solids, or hlter cake, on the filter medium. As the drum
completes its
rotational cycle, a blade scrapes the filter cal-ce from the filter and the
cycle begins
again. ln some systems, the hlter fabric passes off the drum over small
rollers to
dislodge the cake. There is a wide variety of filter fabrics, ranging from
Dacron to
stainless-steel coils, each with its own advantages. The vacuum filter can
be applied
to digested sludge to produce a sludge cake dry enough (15 to 30 percent
solids)
to handle and dispose of by burial in a landiill or by application to the land
as a
relatively dry fertilizer. lf the sludge is to be incinerated, it is not stabilized.
ln thisCase, the vacuum tilter is applied to the raw sludge to dewater it. The
sludge cak
then fed to the furnace to be incinerated.
Continuous belt filter presses (CBFP). The CBFP equipment used in treat
wastewater sludges is the same as that used for water treatment plant
sludges. l
is described and illustrated in Section 3-10.
The CBFP is successful with many normal mixed sludges. Typical dewa
ing results for digested mixed sludges with initial feed solids of 5 percent
gi\
dewatered cake of 19 percent solids at a rate of 32.8 kg/h - ml. ln general,
mos

the results with these units closely parallel those achieved with rotary
vacuum
ters. An advantage of CBFPS is that they do not have the sludge pickup
problem
sometimes occurs with rotary vacuum filters. Additionally, they have a
lower ent
consumption.
Reduction
Incineration. lf sludge use as a soil conditioner is not practical, or if it site
is
available for landtill using dewatered sludge, cities may turn to the
alternativ
sludge reduction. Incineration completely evaporates the moisture in the
sludge
combusts the organic solids to a sterile ash. To minimize the amount of
fuel used
sludge must be dewatered as completely as possible before incineratioii.
The exh
gas from an incinerator must be treated carefully to avoid air pollution.
5-12 SLUDGE DISPOSAL
Ultimate Disposal `
The WWTP process residuals (leftover sludges, either treated or untreated)
are
bane of design and operating personnel. Of the five possible disposal sites
for ri
uals, two are feasible and only one is practical. Conceivably, one could
ultimz
dispose of residues in the following places: in the air, in the ocean, in
outer spz
on the land, or in the marketplace. Disposal in the air by buming is in
reality
ultimate disposal but only temporary storage until the residue falls to the
grour

you use air pollution control devices, then the residue from these devices
mu;
disposed of. Disposal of sewage sludge at sea by barging is riow prohibited
it
United States. Outer space is not a suitable disposal site. Thus, we are
left
land disposal and utilization of the sludge to produce a product.
For ease of discussion, we have divided land disposal into three categc
land spreading, landnlling, and dedicated land disposal. We have grouped
all o
utilization ideas under one category,
Land Spreading
The practice of applying WWTP residuals for the purposes of recovering
nutri
water. or reclaiming despoiled land such as strip mine spoils is called land
sprea
ln contrast to the other land disposal techniques, land spreading is landuse inter
must meet the pollutant concentration limits or the annual sewage sludge
product
application rates that are based on the annual pollutant loading rates.
Two levels of quality for pathogen densities (class A and class B) are
defined
in the regulation. All class A pathogen reduction alternatives require that
either fecal coliform density be less than 1,000 most probable number (MPN) per
gram of
total solids, or Salmonella bacteria be less than 3 MPN per 4 grams of total
solids.
The class A treatment alternatives include treating the sludge for a
specified time
and temperature combination, heat-enhanced alkaline stabilization,
treatment in a

process to further reduce pathogens (PFRP), and use of processes that are
proven
to reduce virus plaque-forming units and helminth ova to less than 1 per 4
grams of
sludge. PlfRPs include composting, heat drying, heat treatment,
thermophilie aerobic
digestion, beta~ and gamma-ray irradiation, and pasteurization. The class
B pathogen
standard is less than 2 million fecal coliforms per gram of sludge or
treatment in a
process to signincantly reduce pathogens (PSRP). The PSRPS include
aerobic digestion, air drying, anaerobic digestion, composting, and lime
stabilization. Sludges
meeting the class A pathogen densities may be land-disposed
immediately. Time
restrictions are placed on harvesting crops, grazing of animals, and public
access to
sites on which class B sludge is applied.
Vectors are insects (or other animals) that transmit disease. The organic
na
tune of sludge often attracts vectors after the sludge is land-applied. The
503 regu~
lations provide ll alternatives to reduce vector attraction, Some of the
alternatives
are; volatile solids reduction of 38 percent of more, achieving a standard
oxygen
uptake rate of less than 1.5 mg O; per hour per gram of dry solids at 20C,
aerobic
lrteatniunl at greater than 40C with an average temperature greater than
45C for
|11 days, alkaline stabilization, sludge drying, surface incorporation, and
soil cover.
'l`lit~ 503 regulations are self-impleinenting in that permits are not
required

to n~i|niit' tronformance.

For each type of decomposition (aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic). list the
electroi
acceptor, important end products, and relative advantages and
disadvantages a
a waste treatment process.
List the growth requirements of bacteria and explain why the bacterium
need
them. `
Sketch and label the bacterial growth curve for a pure culture. Dehne or
explai
each phase labeled on the curve.
List a BOD value for strong, medium, and weak municipal waste.
List and describe five on-site alternatives for treating and/or disposing of
dt
mestic sewage.
Choose the correct on-site treatmentldisposal system based on
population_ lar
use, and soil conditions. ,
Explain the difference between pretreatment. primary treatment,
seconda=
treatment, and tertiary treatment, and show how they are related.
Sketch a graph showing the average variation of daily tlow at a municip
wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).
Define and explain the purpose of equalization,
Sketch, label, and explain the function of the parts of an activated sludge
pla
and a trickling filter plant.
Define HC, SRT, and sludge age, and explain their use in regulating the
activat
sludge process.

Explain the purpose of the F/M ratio and dehne F and l\/l in terms of BGD5
a
mixed liquor volatile suspended solids.
Explain the relationship between F/M and 66.
Explain how cell production is regulated using F/M and/or 9,
Compare two systems operating at two different F/l\/I ratios. f
Define SVI and explain its use in the design and operation of an activated
slut
plant.
Explain the difference between bulking sludge and rising sludge and what
t
cumstances cause each to occur.
List and explain the relationship of the five types of oxidation ponds to
oxyg
Explain what an RBC is and how it works.
Compare the positive and negative effects of disinfection of wastewater
et*
ents.
List the four common advanced wastewater treatment (A\\/T) processes
and
pollutants they remove.
Explain why removal of residual suspended solids effectively removes resic
BOD;
Describe refractory organics and the method used to remove them.
List three chemicals used to remove phosphorus from wastewaters.
Explain biological nitrihcation and denitrification either in words or with an
equation.
Explain ammonia stripping either in words or with an equation.
Describe the three basic approaches to land treatment of Wastewater.
State the two major purposes of sludge stabilization.

Explain the purpose of each of the sludge treatment steps and describe
the major
processes used.
Describe the locations for ultimate disposal of sludges and the treatment
steps
needed prior to ultimate disposal.
ll the aid Qflzis text, you should be able to do I/zefollowing:
Calculate the bacterial population at a time, I, given the initial population
and
the number of generations.
Determine the volume of a septic tank and the area ofa tile field to treat
wastewater from a family or institution, given the proper data.
Determine whether or not a grit particle of given diameter and density will
be
captured in a given velocity~controlled grit chamber, or detemiine the
minimum
diameter that will be captured under a given set of conditions.
Detemiine the required volume of an equalization basin to dampen a given
periodic How.
Determine the effect of equalization on mass loading of a pollutant.
Evaluate or size primary and secondary sedimentation tanks with respect
to detention time, overtiow rate, solids loading, and weir loading.
Use the appropriate trickling hlter equation to determine one or more of
the
following, given the appropriate data: treatment efficiency, filter volume,
filter
depth, hydraulic loading rate.
Estimate the soluble BOD5 in the efiuent from a completely mixed or
plug-fow

activated sludge plant; detemiine the mean cell residence time or the
hydraulic
detention time to achieve a desired degree of treatment; determine the
wasting
fiow rate to achieve a desired mean cell residence time or F/M ratio.
Calculate the F/M ratio given an infuent BOD5, fow, and detention time,
or
:alculate the volume of the aeration basin given F/M, BOD5, and fow.
Calculate SVI and utilize it to determine retum sludge concentration and/or
fiow
'ate_
Ialculate the required mass of sludge to be wasted from an activated
sludge
)rocess given the appropriate data.
falculate the theoretical mass ofoxygen required and the amount of air
required
o supply it given the appropriate data.
erform a sludge mass balance. given the separation efficiencies and
appropriate
nass fow rate.
Design a septic tank and tile held system for a highway rest area. Use the
iol~
lowing assumptions:
a. Average daily trafhc = 6,000 vehicles/d
b. % turn in = 10 percent
c. Use rate = 20.0 liters/turn in
maximum use rate I 2.5 >< average
d. Terrain = Flat
e. GWT = Average 4.2 m below grade
f. Soil percolation rate: 5 min/cm
Ginger Snap is planning to expand her Kookie Iar restaurant to a full-size

restaurant to he called the Pretzel Bowl. The existing septic tank has a volume of 4_0 rn; and the existing tile held has a trench area of 100.0 m2. If
the
anticipated wastewater production from the Pretzel Bowl is 4000 L/d, will
l\/ls.
Snap have to expand either the septic tank or the tile held or both?
Assume the
soil is a sandy loam.
If a particle having a 0.0170 em radius and density of |.95 g/em; is allowed
to
fall into quiescent water having a temperature ot`4C, what will he the
terminal
settling velocity? Assume the density of water 1 1,000 kg/m3.
A/zsiifer: 3.82 >< l0"l m/S
If the terminal settling velocity of a particle falling in quiescent water
having
a temperature of 15C is 0.0950 cm/s, what is its diameter? Assume a
particle
-lcnsity of 2.05 g/cm" and density of water equal to 1,000 kg/in _
Determine the surface area of a primary settling tank sized to handle a
maxis
mum hourly fow of0.570 m3/s at an overfow rate of 60.0 m/d. If the
effective
tank depth is 3,0 m, what is the effective theoretical detention time?
Answers: Surface area = 820.80 or 821 mf; to = 1.2 h
If an equalization basin is installed ahead of the primary tank in Problem
5_
14, the average fow to the tank is reduced to 0.400 m3/s. What is the new
overfow rate and detention time?
Envirotech Systems markets a synthetic media for use in the construction
of
triclding Hlters. Envirotech uses the following formula to determine BOD
rg,

moval efficiency:
Le l k6Dl
-4 j exn ~- ~~~' ~
L, l Q" l
where Le BOD; of effluent, mg/L
Li BOD5 of infuerit, mg/L
. _ _V ` (m/(1)05
k treatability factor, ff0 2 temperature correction factor
(l.035)7 Zo
T wastewater teniperature. C
D media depth, in
Q hydraulic loading rate, m/d
n 0.5
Using the following data for domestic wastewater, determine the
treatability
factor, lc.
Wastewater temperature = 13C
Hydraulic loading rate 1 41.1 m/d
% BOD remaining Media depth, m
100.0 0.00
80.3 1.00
64,5 2.00
41.6 4.00
l7,3 8.00

where r = recirculation ratio and all other terms are as described in Problem 5-l6_ Use this equation to determine the efficiency of a L8 m deep

synthetic media filter loaded at a hydraulic loading rate of 5.00 rn/d with
a recirculation ratio of 2.00. The wastewater temperature is l6C and the
___0`
treatability factor is l_79 @f; at 20C
Y
Determine the concentration ofthe effluent BOD5 for the two-stage
trickling
filter described belowr The wastewater temperature is l7C. Assume the
NRC
equations apply.
Design fow 1 0.0509 mi/s 5
lnlluent BOD; (after primary treatment) 1 260 mg/L
Diameter of each filter 1 24.0 m
Depth ofeach filter 1 L83 m
Recirculation fow rate for each hlter 1 0.0594 mi/s
Determine the diameter of a single-stage, rock media filter to reduce an
applied BOD5 of l25 mg/L to 25 mg/L. Use a hydraulic loading rate of
l4 in"/ni? - d, a recirculation ratio of 12.0, and a filter depth of l.83 m. Assume the NRC equations apply,
Using the assumptions given in Example 5-7, the rule of thumb values for
growth constants, and the further assumption that the infiuent BOD; was
reduced by 32.0 percent in the primary tank, estimate the liquid volume of
an
aeration tank required to treat the wastewater in Problem 5-7. Assume an
Ml_,\/SS ot 2,000 mg/L_ '
Answer: Volume = 4,032 or 4,000 m3
Repeat Problem 5-20 using the wastewater in Problem 5-8.
Using a spreadsheet program you have written, rework Example 5-7 using
the following MLVSS concentrations instead of the 2,000 mg/L used in the

example: l,000 mg/L; 1,500 mg/L; 2,500 mg/L; and 3,000 mg/L.
Using a spreadsheet program you have written_ determine the effect of
MLVSS concentration on the effluent soluble BOD5 (S) using the data in
Example 5-7. Assume the volume of the aeration tank remains constant at
970 m3_ Use the same MLVSS values used in Problem 5-22.
lf the E/M of a 0.4380 m3/s activated sludge plant is 0.200 d", the inliuent
BOD; after primary settling is I5() mg/L, and the MLVSS is 2,200 mg/L,
what
is the volume ofthe aeration tank?
.~'\r1.s`w<'1'_' Volume f L29 >< l()4 Ill; `
What sludge volume would you expect to find after settling the mixed
liquor
described in Example 5-10 for 30 minutes in a one-liter graduated cylinder
(magna cum laude).
Answer." Volume 2 500 ml,
What MLVSS and SVI must be achieved to reduce the return sludge fow
rate
of Example 5-10 from 0.150 m3/s to 0.0375 m3/s? (Note that there are
several
combinations that will be satisfactory.)
Two activated sludge aeration tanks at Turkey Run, lndiana, are operated
in
series. Each tank has the following dimensions: 7.0 in wide by 30.0 m long
by
4.3 m effective liquid depth. The plant operating parameters are as
follows:
Flow = 0.0796 m3/s
Soluble BOD5 after primary settling 1 l30 mgfa
MLVSS = 1,500 mg/L
MLSS = 1.40 (MLVSS)
Settled sludge volume after 30 min I 230.0 mL/L

Aeration tank liquid temperature = 15C


Determine the following: aeration period, F/M ratio, SVI, solids
concentration
in the return sludge, and return sludge rate,
Answers: aeration period 1 6.3 h; F/M I 033; SVI 1 110 mL/g;
X; = 9,130 mg/L; Q, I 0.0238 m3/s
The 500-bed Lotta Hart Hospital has a small activated sludge plant to treat
its
wastewater. The average daily hospital discharge is 1,200 liters per day
per
bed, and the average soluble BOD5 after primary settling is 500 mg/'L_
The
aeration tank has effective liquid dimensions of 10.0 m wide by 10.0 m
long
by 4.5 m deep. The plant operating parameters are as follows:
MLVSS = 2,000 mg/L
MLSS = 1.20 (MLVSS)
Settled sludge volume after 30 min I 200 mL/L
Determine the following: aeration period, F/M ratio, SVl, solids
concentration
in return sludge, and return sludge rate.
Using the following assumptions, determine the sludge age and cell
wastagefow rate for the Turkey Run WWTP (Problem 5-27).
Assume: SS in the effluent are negligible
Wastage is from the aeration tank
Yield coefficient = 0.40
-1
Bacterial decay rate = 0.040 d
Effluent BOD5 = 5.0 mg/1, (soluble)
Answers: 6, = ll.5

Using the following assumptions, determine the solids retention time and
the
cell wastage fow rate for the Lotta Hart Hospital WXVTP (Problem 5-28).
Assume: SS in effluent I 30,0 mg/L
Wastage is from the return sludge line
Yield coefficient 1 0.60
Bacterial decay rate 1 0.060 d"
lnert fraction of SS 1 66.67%
Allowable BOD in effluent 2 30.0 mg/L
The two secondary settling tanks at Turkey Run (Problem 5-27) are 16.0
min
diameter and 4.0 m deep at the side wall. The effluent weir is a single
launder
set on the tank wall. Evaluate the overfow rate, depth, solids loading, and
weir length of this tank for conformance to standard practice.
Answers: U0 2 l'/,l m/d < 33 rn/d. OK.
SWT) > 3_7 m recommended depth. OK.
Sl- 2 46.65 kg/ml ~ d <1 253 kg/m3 ~ tl. OK
WL 1 68.4 m3/d - m, which is acceptable,
The single secondary settling tank at the Lotta Hart Hospital WWTP (Problem 5-28) is 10.0 m in diameter and 3_4 m deep at the side wall. The
efluent
weir is a single launder set on the tank wall. Evaluate the overfow rate,
depth,
solids loading, and weir length for conformance to standard practice.
An oxidation pondhaving a surface area of 90,000 ml is loaded with a
waste
fow of 500 m3/d cdntaining l80 kg of BOD, The operating depth is from
0.8
to l.6 m. Using the Michigan miles of thumb, determine whether or not this
design is acceptable,

Answers: Loading rate 2 20.0 kg/ha- d


Detention time = l80 d
This design is acceptable.
Determine the required surface area and the loading rate for a facultative
oxidation pond to treat a waste fow of 3,800 m3/d with a BOD5 of 100.0
mg/L.
Rework Example 5-15 using alum {Al;(SO4)3 ~ ISHZO] to remove the
phosphorus.
Answer: 86_l mg/L of alum
Rework Example 5-15 using lime (CaO) to remove the phosphorus.
Prepare a monthly water balance and estimate of the storage volume
required
(gin m3) for a spray irrigation system being designed for Wheatvillei iowa,

The design population is l,000 and the design wastewater generation rate
ig
280.0 Lpcd. Based on a nitrogen balance, the allowable application rate is
27.74 mm/mo. The area available is 40.0 ha. The percolation rate during
the
spray season is l50 mm/mo. Assume that the runoff is contained and
reap~
plied. Assume spray season" is when temperature is above 0C. In fact,
spraying can continue to about 44C but once spraying has stopped, it
may
not recommence until temperatures exceed +4C. The following
clirnatological data (from Kansas City) may be used. This is a direct application ofthe
hydrologic balance equation, Equation 2-2 may be rewritten as:
(

Q =P+WW~ETYG=R
dz
where % 1 change in storage, mm/mo
P 1 precipitation, mm/mo
WW 1 wastewater application rate, mm/mo
ET = evapotranspiration, mru/mo
G I groundwater infiltration, mm/mo
R 1 runoff,n1ni/mo
Clirnatological data from Kansas City, Missouri
Average Evapotranspiration Precipitation
Month temperature (C) (mm) (mm)
JAN -O. 2 23
FEB 2. l 28
MAR 6.3 43
APR 13.2 79
MAY l 8. 7 l l 2
JUN 24.4 155
JUL 27.5 203
AUG 26.6 l98
SEP 21.8 l52
OCT l5.7 l 14
NOV 7_0 64
DEC 2.1 25
Prepare a monthly water balance and estimate the storage volume (in ml)
for
Flushing Meadows. The design population for Flushing Meadows is 8,880
The average wastewater generation rate is 485.0 Lpcd. The area available
is
l25.0 ha. The percolation rate is 200 mm/mo during the spray season. As-

sume that runoff is to be contained and reapplied. Assume also that the
following climatological data apply. Assume spray season" is when
temperature
is above OC. In fact, spraying can continue to about -4"C but once
spraying
has stopped it may not recommence until temperatures exceed +4C.
Prepare a monthly water balance and estimate the storage volume (in ml)
for
Flushing Meadows. The design population for Flushing Meadows is 8,880
The average wastewater generation rate is 485.0 Lpcd. The area available
is
l25.0 ha. The percolation rate is 200 mm/mo during the spray season. Assume that runoff is to be contained and reapplied. Assume also that the
following climatological data apply. Assume spray season" is when
temperature
is above OC. In fact, spraying can continue to about -4"C but once
spraying
has stopped it may not recommence until temperatures exceed +4C.
A 185.6240 Mg/d
1,115 (),9()(); 1;j I 0250; UN = 0.00;1]p = 0.150
UH 0.190
A ll.S`H/(3f_S`.` B
= 21.112 or 21.1 Mg/<11
E I 190.011 or 190. Mg/d
J = 47.503 or 4715 Mg/d
K I 142.509 or 143. Mg/d
L = 144.147 or144_1\/Ig/d
Rework Problem 5-41 assuming that the digestion solids are not dewatered
prior to ultimate disposal, that is, K 1 L.

The Flowsheet for the Doubtfu1 WWTP is shown in Figure P-543. Assuming
that the appropriate values of 77 given in Figure 5-33 may be used when
needed
and that A I 7.250 Mg/d, X = 1.288 Mg/d, and N = 0.000 Mg/d, what is
the mass How (in kg/d) of sludge to be sent to u1timate disposal?
"" 1 Q.~fm.1-mm5-44. Using the following mass How data from the
Doubtful WWTP (Problem 5-43)
determine 175, 170, 11/V, 171, and ryx.
Mass Flows for Doubtful WWTP in M g/d:
A = 7.280 J I 4.755
B 1 7.798 K = 6.422
D = 0.390 N 1 9.428
E = 8.910 X = 0.468
F I 6.940
5-45. Determine the surface area required for the gravity thickeners
(assume that
no thickener is greater than 30.0 in in diameter) to thicken the waste
activated
sludge (WAS) at Grand Rapids, Michigan, from 10,600 mg/L to 2.50
percent
solids. The waste activated sludge tlow is 3,255 ml/ii. .fxssurne that the
settling curves of Figure 5-36 apply.
Answer: A, 1 2,379.5 or 2,380 m~ depending on graph reading.
choose four thickeners at 27.5 m diameter.
7
5 46. Determine the surface area required for the gravity thickeners of
Problerr
if7l0 m3/d of primary sludge is mixed with the WAS to form a sludge h
2.00 percent solids. The final sludge is to have a solids concentration oi
percent. The batch settling curve for mixed WAS and PS in Figure 5
assumed to apply.

3 47. The Pomdeterra wastewater treatment plant produces thickened


sludg
has a suspended solids concentration of 3_8 percent. They are investi;
a filter press that will yield a solids concentration of 24 percent. lf the;
produce 33 m3/d of sludge, what annual volume savings will they achi
they install the press?
3 48. Ottawas anaerobic digester produces 13 rn;/d of sludge with a suspt
solids concentration of7.8 percent. What volume otsludge must they di
of each year if their sand drying beds yield a solids concentration of 3
cent?
15 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
You are touring the research labs of the environmental engineers at you
versity. Two biological reactors are in a controlled temperature room that
temperature of 35C Reactor A has a strong odor. Reactor B has virtually
nt
What electron acceptors are being used in each reactor?
If the state regulatory agency requires tertiary treatment of a municipal \
water, what, if any. processes would you expect to find preceding the tt
process?
What is the purpose of recirculation and how does it differ from return slut
In which of the following cases is the cost of sludge disposal higher?
a. 06 = 3 days
b. 05 = 10 days
Would an industrial wastewater containing only NH; at a pH ot 7.00 be
dent
if pure oxygen was bubbled into it? Explain your reasoning.
-16 ADDITIONAL READING
ooks
D. Benetield and C. \V. Randall. Ui<>[1tg1'c'u/ I/I1c'4*.~'t I);-'xigri /ur
\*li\fi'1\;1Iu1' I`r't:m1<'r1I. llppct

River, NJ: Prentice Hall. V980


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(.`</if/uf/_ Net
llurpcr & Row. 1077.
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