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ROLL NO. - 520791371

Master of Computer Application (MCA) Semester 3

MC0072 Computer Graphics
Assignment Set 1
1. Describe the following:
A) Image Processing as Picture Analysis
B) Advantages of Interactive Graphics
C) Representative Uses of Computer Graphics
Ans:The computer graphics is one of the most effective and commonly used way to
communicate the processed information to the user. It displays the information in the form
of graphic objects such as pictures, charts, graphs and diagrams instead of simple text. In
computer graphics, pictures or graphics objects are presented as a collection of discrete
picture elements called pixels. The pixel is a smallest addressable screen element. It is the
smallest piece of the display screen which we can control. The computer graphics allows
rotation, translation, scaling and performing various projection on the picture before
displaying it..

Image Processing as Picture Analysis

The computer graphics is a collection, contribution and representation of real or imaginary

objects from their computer based models.

So we can say that computer graphics

concerns the pictorial synthesis of real or imaginary objects. However, the related field
image processing or sometimes called picture analysis concerns the analysis of scenes, or
the reconstruction of models of 2D or 3D objects from their picture. This is exactly the
reverse process.
The image processing can be classified into three types:

Image enhancement

Pattern detection and recognition

Scene analysis and computer vision

The image enhancement deals with the improvement in the image quality by

eliminating noise or by increasing image contrast.

Pattern detection and recognition deal with the detection and clarification of standard
patterns and finding deviations from these patterns. The optical character recognition (OCR)
technology is a practical example of pattern detection and recognition.
Scene analysis and computer vision deals with the recognition and construction of 3D
model scene from several 2D images.
These three fields of image processing proved their importance in many areas such as
finger print detection and recognition, modeling of ships, automobiles, buildings etc.,.

B) Advantages of Interactive Graphics

The advantages of interactive graphics are as follows:-

In todays world, a high quality graphics display of personal computer provide on of the
most natural means of communication with a computer.

Interactive graphics has an ability to show moving pictures, and thus it is possible to
produce animations with it.

It provides tools for producing pictures not only of concrete, real-world objects but also
of abstract, synthetic objects, such as mathematical surfaces in 4D and of data that
have no inherent geometry, such as survey results.

The interactive graphics also provides facility called Update Dynamics. With update
dynamics it is possible to change the shape, colour or other properties of the objects
being viewed.

With interactive graphics we can also control the animation by adjusting the speed, the
portion of the total scene in view, the geometric relationship of the objects in the scene
to one another, the amount of detail shown and so on.

The interactive graphics provides tool called Motion dynamics. With this tool the user
can move and tumble objects with respect to a stationary observer, or he can make
objects stationary and the viewer moving around them. A typical example is walk
through made by builder to show flat interior and building surroundings. In lot of cases,
it is also possible to move both objects and viewer.

With the recent development of digital signal processing (DSP) and audio synthesis
chip, the interactive graphics can now provide audio feedback along with the graphical
feedbacks to make the simulated environment even more realistic.

Totally, interactive graphics permits extensive, high-bandwidth user-computer interaction. It

significantly enhances the ability to understand information, to perceive trends and to
visualize real or imaginary objects either moving or stationary in a realistic environment. It
also makes possible to get high quality and more precise results and products with lower
analysis and design cost.
C) Representative Uses of Computer Graphics
The Computer graphics uses are wide spread. It is used in various areas such as industry,
business, government organizations, education, and entertainment and most recently the home.

User Interfaces: User friendliness is one of the main factors underlying the success
and popularity of any system. It is well known established fact that graphical interfaces
provide and attractive and easy interaction between users and computers. The built-in
graphics provide the user interfaces use visual control items such as buttons, menus,
icons, scroll bar etc, which allows user to interact with computer only by mouse-click.
Typing is necessary only to input text to be stored and manipulated.

Office automation and Desktop Publishing: The desktop publishing on personal

computers all the use of graphics for the creation and dissemination of information.
Many organizations does the in-house creation and printing of documents.


desktop publishing allows user to create documents which contains text, tables, graphs
and other forms of drawn or scanned images or pictures. This is one such approach
towards the office automation.

Plotting of graphics and chart: In industry, businesses, government and educational

organizations, computer graphics is mostly used to create 2D and 3D graphs of
mathematical, physical and economic functions in form of histograms, bars and piecharts. These graphs and charts are very useful for decision making.

Computer-aided Drafting and Design.: The computer aided drafting uses graphics
to design components and systems electrical, mechanical, electromechanically and
electronic devices such as automobile bodies, structures of building, airplane, ships,
very largescale integrated (VLSI) chips, optical systems and computer networks.

Art and Commerce; There is a lot of development in the tools provided by computer
graphics. This allows user to create artistic pictures which express messages and
attract attentions. Such pictures are very useful in advertising.

Simulation and Animation:

Use of graphics in simulation makes mathematical

models and mechanical systems more realistic and easy to study. The interactive
graphics supported by animation software proved their use in production of animated
movies and cartoon films.

Process Control:

By the use of computer it is now possible to control various

processes in the industry from a remote control room. In such cases, process systems
and processing parameters are shown on the computer with graphic symbols and

This makes it easy for operator to monitor and control various

processing parameters at a time.


Cartography: Computer graphics is also used to represent geographic maps, weather

maps, oceanographic charts, contour maps, population density maps and so on.

3. Explain the following with respect to Graphics Hardware:

A) Graphics Workstation

B) Video Controller

C) Color Tables

Graphics Workstation
Graphics Workstation is the Graphics Kernel Systems (GKS) term for a graphical

device that can display graphical output or accept graphical input or both. We can show the
graphics station through a block diagram. The block diagram consists of CPU, display
processor, memory, display services, recorder, plotter, keyboard, joystick, light pen mouse,
scanner etc. The main hardware components of a graphics workstation are CPU and

Display Processor. The display processor is also called a graphics controller or a display

It makes CPU from graphical chores.

Other than that, there is also a

separate display processor memory area is provided in graphics workstation. Graphics

workstations have a provision to interface video cameras and television sets. The size of
the display device, colors supported by it, whether it is a raster or line drawing device are
the main properties of the graphics workstation.

It is always supported with graphics

Graphics software acts as a very powerful tool to create scenes, images,

pictures and also animated pictures.

B) Video Controller
Video controller receives the intensity information of each pixel from
frame buffer and displays them on the screen.
The internal organization of video controller consists of raster-scan
generator, x and y address registers and pixel value register. The raster-scan generator
produces deflection signals that generate the raster scan. The generator also controls the
x and y address registers which in turn define the memory location to the accessed next.
Frame buffer locations and the corresponding screen positions, are referenced in Cartesian
coordinates. For many graphics monitors, the coordinate origin is defined at the lower left
screen corner. The screen surface is then represented as the first quadrant of a twodimensional system, with positive x values increasing to the right and positive y values
increasing from bottom to top. (In some personal computers the y values are inverted).
Scan lines are then labeled from y, at the top of the screen to 0 at the bottom. Along each
scan line, screen pixel positions are labeled from 0 to x max. During each fetch the pixel
value is read an d is used to control the intensity of the CRT beam.
C) Color Tables
In color displays, 24-bits per pixel are commonly used, where 8-bits represent 256
levels for each color. Here it is necessary to read 24-bits for each pixel from frame buffer.
This is very time consuming. To avoid this, video controller uses look up table (LUT) to
store many entries of pixel values in RGB format. With this facility, now it is necessary only
to read index to the look up table from the frame buffer for each pixel. This index specifies

the one of the entries in the look-up table. The specified entry in the look up table is then
used to control the intensity or color of the CRT.
Usually, look-up table has 256 entries. Therefore, the index to the look-up table has 8-bits
and hence for each pixel, the frame buffer has to store 8-bits per pixel instead of 24 bits.
There are several advantages in storing color codes in a look-up table. Use of a color table
can provide a reasonable number of simultaneous colors without requiring large frame
buffers. For most applications, 256 or 512 different colors are sufficient for a single picture.
Also, table entries can be changed at any time, allowing a user to be able to experiment
easily with different color combinations in a design, scene or graph without changing the
attribute settings, for the graphics data structure. In visualization and image processing
applications, color tables are convenient means for setting color thresholds so that all pixel
values above or below a specified threshold can be set to the same color. For these
reasons, some systems provide both capabilities for color-code storage, so that a user can
select either to use color tables or to store color codes directly in the frame buffer.
4. Describe the following:
A) Basic Concepts in Line Drawing
B) Digital Differential Analyzer Algorithm
C) Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm
A) Basic concepts in Line Drawing
There are some general requirements for algorithms for line drawing.


requirements specify the desired characteristics of line.

1. The line should appear as a straight line and it should start and end accurately.
2. The line should be displayed with constant brightness along its length independent of
of its length and orientation.
3. The line should be drawn rapidly.
The vertical of the line is dependent on the orientation of the line.

Digital Differential Analyzer

The differential analyzer was a mechanical analog computer designed to solve

differential equations by integration, using wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the
integration. It was one of the first advanced computing devices to be used operationally.

A Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA), also sometimes called a Digital Integrating

Computer[1], is a digital implementation of a Differential Analyzer. The integrators in a DDA
are implemented as accumulators, with the numeric result converted back to a pulse rate
by the overflow of the accumulator.
The primary advantages of a DDA over the conventional analog Differential Analyzer
are greater precision of the results and the lack of drift/noise/slip/lash in the calculations.
The precision is only limited by register size and the resulting accumulated
rounding/truncation errors of repeated addition. Digital electronics inherently lacks the

temperature sensitive drift and noise level issues of analog electronics and the slippage
and "lash" issues of mechanical analog systems
c. Midpoint Line Drawing Algorithm: