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Course : Strategic Issues Management (1503SIM02)

elearning.lspr.edu
Master of Arts in Communication : Corporate Communication Studies

LSPR eLearning Program

Session Topic : Issue Frameworks


Course: Strategic Issues Management

By Rudi Sukandar, Ph.D

Content

Part 1

Frameworks

Part 2

Risk Management

Part 3

Issue Management

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Part1: Frameworks

Frameworks: Issue

Frameworks of issue management

Dealing with the external environment


Major public issues
Lifecycle of a strategic issue
Continuum of challenges concern, risk, problem,
issue, crisis
7 steps in issue management
Issue management process

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Frameworks: Operating

The Operating Environment


Key questions
Q:
1. What are the forces that limit firms activities?
2. Why do firms participate in public affairs and political strategy?
Should they do this?
3. How can firms deal with the limiting forces?
(Windsor, 2011, p. 408).

A:
There are no simple answers to these fundamental questions.
Every firm has its own unique operating environment.
Managers need to make many subjective decisions, especially about
issue management.
This is where professional communicators are most valuable.
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Frameworks: New Framework

A new framework created

1. Issues management (IM) is unique.


It is,
2. probably the only process unique to PR.
3. the only PR/PA function that was created on a specific
date: 15 April 1976.
4. This was the launch date of a new publication:
Corporate Public Issues and
Their Management.
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Frameworks: New Framework (lanjut)

5. The inventor of IM
as a specific
function was
Howard Chase
Vice President Public Affairs
American Can
Company

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Frameworks: Examples

Examples of major public issues

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Climate change
Traffic congestion
Population growth
Aging population
Impact of GFC
Corruption
Motor vehicle emissions
Smoking & tobacco
Terrorism

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Environmental degradation
Drugs
Alcohol
Food standards
Food & product safety
Obesity
International trade
Health & safety standards
Workplace issues

Such issues affect most,


organisations and
individuals
in society.
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Public concerns

Frameworks: Issue Life Cycle

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Frameworks: 5 Stages

Issue attention cycle by stakeholders

5 stages
1. Pre-problem
2. Alarmed discovery and euphoric enthusiasm
3. Realising the cost of significant progress
4. Gradual decline of public interest
5. Post-problem stage
This is simplistic.
Each stage,
can change status unpredictably
as influencing factors change.
(Coombs & Holladay, 2010).
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Frameworks: Coombs & Holladay

W. Timothy Coombs Ph.D


Professor, Advertising-Public Relations
at the University of Central Florida
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Sherry J. Holladay, Ph.D


Professor at the Nicholson School of
Communication at the University of
Central Florida in Orlando
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Frameworks: Continuum

Continuum of Challenges

Concern

risk

problem

issue

crisis

The continuum
A concern,
which is usually a concern about risk,
can become perceived as a problem

1.
2.
3.

How do you know when,


a concern becomes a problem?
a problem becomes an issue?
an issue becomes a crisis?

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Part2: Risk Management

Risk Management: Risk

The external environment,


can be monitored, and
concerns can be identified as potential risks.
Risk = impact x likelihood
More simply,
Risk = size of impact (usually in $ or rupiahs) x
chances of event happening.

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Risk Management: Risk (lanjut)

Environmental scanning enables risk management.


Risk
Defn: the chance of something happening that will
have,
an impact on corporate objectives;
often described as an event or set of circumstances
and
the consequences (both positive and negative)
that will flow on from this.

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Risk Management: Problems

Problems are solved. Issues need to be resolved.

To solve is to explain,
To find the answer or solution,
As when solving a crossword puzzle.
You know there is a right answer.

(We will look at Fedex example shortly)


Problem + Impact = Issue
Issues rarely have an,
immediate solution or
right answer.
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Risk Management: Differences

Differences between problems & issues


Problem plus impact = issue
No.
Problem
1 Technical or operational

Based on demonstrable
fact
Usually clear solutions

Results can be measured

Tends to be impersonal

Mostly resolved in private

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Issue
More emotional factors
Depends heavily on opinion
Solution must be negotiated

Results harder to measure, more


complex
Committed contending parties
Often argued in public
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Risk Management: Problem & Issue

Q: Is this a problem or an issue?


A:

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKUDTPbDhnA&feature=player_embedded
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Risk Management: Fedex Response

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ESU_PcqI38&feature=player_embedded
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Risk Management: Remember

An emerging issue is,


a condition or event,
either internal or external to the organisation,
which, if it continues, will significantly affect,
the functioning or
performance of the organisation or
its future interests
(Regester & Larkin, 2008, p. 44).

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Risk Management: Regester & Larkin

Michael Regester
Founding Director at Regester Larkin
Limited (1994)
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Judy Larkin
Owner Risk Principals Limited (2006)

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Part3: Issue Management

Issue Management: Issues & Crisis

Differences between issues and crisis


A crisis
Defn: Incident that has the potential to severely
disrupt operations and potentially destroy the
organisation.
Crises often arise from operational emergencies.
An organisational crisis requires a communication
solution.
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TO FIX

Issue Management: Issues & Crisis (lanjut)

No.

Issues

Crises
Surprise (although causes can
be obvious)

Awareness of issue emerging

Information usually available

Insufficient early information

Slower developing than crises

Escalating sequence of events

Future of organisation not yet at


stake

Intense pressure, requiring


immediate, fast action

Limited control

Limited control

Heightened external scrutiny

Heightened external scrutiny

Pressure building

Siege mentality

Concern about impact

Panic

Medium-long term focus

Short-term focus

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Issue Management: Steps

Steps in issue management


1.

Monitor

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Identify
Analyse
Prioritise
Plan
Implement
Evaluate

(Regester & Larkin, 2008, pp. 131-132)

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Issue Management: Steps (lanjut)

Notice:
1. How steps 1-4 correspond to
the Research and Analysis stage
of a communication plan
2. While steps 5-7,
are exactly the same as the remaining stages
in a communication plan

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Issue Management: Process

Issue management process

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References

1. Coombs, W., & Holladay, S. (2010). PR Strategy


and Application: managing influence. Chichester,
UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
2. Regester, M., & Larkin, J. (2008). Risk Issues and
Crisis Management in Public Relations (4th ed.)
London: Kogan Page.

3. Windsor, D. (2011). Theories and theoretical


roots of public affairs. In P. Harris & C. Fleisher
(Eds.), The Handbook of Public Affairs (pp. 401417). London: SAGE Publications
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Course : Strategic Issues Management (1503SIM02)

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