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Compare and contrast melody and tonality in Miles Davis, Brahms

and Holborne.
Miles Davis is a style of jazz called bepop that started in the 1940s, while
Brahams is a romantic piece of music full over flavoursome harmonies.
Holborne is the oldest composer and was writing in the Elizabethan times,
especially instrumental music. Each composers music has very different
styles from the other, both in tonality and melody.
In Miles Daviss Four, the trumpet takes the melody but during the Head,
from bars H1 to H16, the alto saxophone also plays the tune except an
octave lower. The first melody introduced in the Head is based on a three
note conjunct movement heard in H1. This is repeated 4 times in a row,
Bars H1 to H3 and is then repeated in bars H H4 to H7 but this time a fifth
lower, making a sequence. In Bar H9, a new melody is introduced that is
more chromatic with larger leaps and more frequent, making the melody
more disjunct like in bar H9 there is a leap of a fifth followed by a triad.
The Head has quite a narrow range of a 9th from a low Eb to a high F while
the choruses have a much large range due to the improvisational nature
of the melodies. In bar 3.6 a ledger line high F can be heard, which is
therefore a screaming note, and one of many in the 3rd chorus. The
melodies in the choruses have very distinct features telling them apart.
Chorus 3 is the most disjunct of the choruses with regular leaps like in
bars 3.21-24 there is a leap of a 7th. Chorus 4 on the other hand is
characterized by a repeating quaver on D, which then changes to a Db in
bar 4.3. The melody features various ornamentals, for instance in bar 3.32
there is half valving, which lowers the pitch of the note ever so slightly
and in chorus 2, there are a multiple glissandos. Another feature of
Daviss melody is its fragmented nature, like in bar 1.3 there are two
quavers followed by a bars rest with the melody beginning on the second
beat in bar 1.5.
Brahmss melody line is made up of a limited number of motifs that can
be heard throughout the piece. The first melodic line, bars 1-12, can be
called theme A, and is characterized by a rising arpeggio motif in an
ascending sequence. It begins in bar 2 in the 1st violin but then is heard in
the piano in bar 5, making it imitation. The next melodic motif starts in bar
13 and shall be called theme B. Theme B features a motif that is
gravitated round G and has a very small tessitura. The third and final
motif begins in bar 23, but it is not an entirely original ostinato as it is an
augmented version of theme B, moving conjunctly. Brahm develops his
melody through fragmentation, for example in bar 96, the melody motif is
shortened into a three note cell. By bar 99 however, the three-note cell
has become 2 notes moving in a stepwise movement downwards. The
interval of a minor 2nd is a feature to the overall melody, and can be heard
in bars 190 to 192 most prominently. Like Miles Davis, Brahms includes
chromaticisms into his piece like in bars 166 to 169, where all 5 parts are
ascending up in chromatic order. The trio has a separate motif, which is

made up of mainly thirds, like in bars 242-244 in the 1st violin, the 2nd and
the viola.
Holbornes Pavan has the range of a 9th, while his Galliard is a 7th. The
restricted ranges are a feature of Elizabethan music as the instruments
werent nearly as developed as the instruments Brahms and Davis had. In
both piece, the melody is heard in all five parts, for example in bars 1 to 4
of the Pavane, each viol begins on the first beat with the melody. The
Pavanes opening, bars 1-2 is characterized by a dotted descending figure
with the first viol moving from the tonic, D, the dominant, A. Both
melodies in the Gallarid and the Pavane move conjunctively, for example,
bars 3 to 6 in the Pavane, but leaps are also present. In bars 35-37 of the
Pavane there is a leap of a fifth in the first Viol, which is then followed by
an equalising conjunct movement that moves back up to the original
notes. There is the occasional chromaticism in his pieces, for instance in
the Pavane C naturals can be heard in bars 46 and 48. The Galliards
melody is decorated with ornaments when repeated, for example in bar 3
a trill would have been added. The first strain in the Galliard is
characterized by a dotted falling motif, that is also imitated, like in bars 1
to 2 the first violin is imitated by violin 3 a minim later.